CN1676232A - Harmless refuse treating method and apparatus - Google Patents

Harmless refuse treating method and apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1676232A
CN1676232A CN 200510071876 CN200510071876A CN1676232A CN 1676232 A CN1676232 A CN 1676232A CN 200510071876 CN200510071876 CN 200510071876 CN 200510071876 A CN200510071876 A CN 200510071876A CN 1676232 A CN1676232 A CN 1676232A
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plate
rubbish
screen cloth
adjustable
crossbeam
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罗嘉洵
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罗嘉洵
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Abstract

The present invention relates to an innocuous refuse treatment method and its equipment. Said method includes the processes of refuse collection, conveyance, breaking refuse bag, sorting, screening, magnetic separation, burying, composting and incineration, etc. Besides, said invention also provides the concretes steps of the said every process.

Description

A kind of harmless method for treating garbage and equipment
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of waste disposal method and equipment, particularly rubbish can be carried out broken bag, sieve into the waste disposal method and the equipment of variable grain fast.
Background technology
The processing of house refuse is a worldwide problem.Especially in populous city, garbage disposal is the important step of city management, in order to reach harmless treatment rubbish, a lot of countries all pay much attention to garbage disposal, some developed countries are all constantly tests from aspects such as the letter sorting of rubbish, fragmentation, screening, drying, gasification, energy recovery, technology and equipment have been carried out deep research, the construction that has advanced destructor plant, existing at present tens of the garbage disposal factories that reclaim useful components are in running.These treatment plants are that recent two decades builds up in succession in industrially developed country, for utilizing waste resources to open up new way reasonably, economically, have started the new world in garbage disposal field.From negatively, limitation ground destroys the rubbish stage, goes on actively, rationally utilizes the brand-new stage of rubbish.
But still many at present developing countries, because aspects such as technology and funds, traditional landfill, compost, incinerating method are also adopted in garbage disposal, and there are many problems in these three kinds of methods, and below we analyze the pros and cons of three kinds of waste disposal methods earlier:
1, landfill comprises innoxious landfill, is with the rubbish mechanical compress, is transported to mountain valley or low lying areas, and the method with earth covers compares with other processing method, and innoxious landfill is not rely on other method to cooperate independent method of destroying rubbish.Innoxious landfill technology comparative maturity, operation, management realize easily.Now, a kind of main technology of garbage disposal is still made in countries in the world.The shortcoming of burying method is: (1) has been buried and can have been utilized thing; (2) the landfill place is selected more and more difficult; (3) ooze the improvement of draining, the control of exhaust emission etc. must be properly settled; Expenses such as (4) transportation, landfill, management improve constantly.Some articles think that the reasonable approach that innoxious landfill technology adopts should be through the rubbish after resource, the minimizing.Like this, technical easy realization, relatively rationally, expense is lower economically.
2, compost, compost treatment are to utilize microorganism to decompose the Biochemical processes of rubbish organic principle.In biochemical reaction process, organic matter, oxygen and bacterium interact, and separate out carbon dioxide, water and heat, generate humus simultaneously.During compost, the stone in the rubbish, metal, glass, plastics the like waste can not be decomposed by microorganism, and these discarded objects must come out in go-no-go, otherwise processed, and this is first shortcoming of compost treatment.The compost cycle is long, and floor space is big, and the sanitary condition difference is second shortcoming.Fertilizer efficiency is low, and the cost height compares sales difficulty with chemical fertilizer.Deficiency in economic performance is the 3rd shortcoming.The environment specialist thinks: compost treatment is the organic matter that can be decomposed by microorganism in the rubbish, so compost treatment is the treatment technology of organic principle in the rubbish, rather than whole final treatment technologies of rubbish.Have only with method for separating to combine, match with other processing method (landfill, burning), compost is only a kind of promising technology of garbage disposal.
3, burn, burning disposal is meant that the combustible in the rubbish carries out combustion process with oxygen in incinerator.Essence is the chemical reaction of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and oxygen.After the waste incineration, discharge heat energy, produce flue gas and solid residue simultaneously.Heat energy will reclaim, flue gas should purify, and residue will digest, and this is the requisite technical process of burning disposal.The incineration treatment technology characteristics are that treating capacity is big, and it is good to subtract capacitive, and are innoxious thorough, and energy recovery is arranged, and are a kind of technologies of garbage disposal that generally adopt countries in the world.But the limitation of incineration treatment technology is the rubbish Lower heat value certain requirement is arranged, not any rubbish can burn, and requires Lower heat value greater than 4127kJ/kg usually.The burning disposal disadvantage is: available resources is disappeared and is ruined in (1) rubbish, is a kind of processing method of wasting resource.Even reclaim the purpose that heat energy also can only be accomplished refuse disposable " regeneration ", can't realize the recycled for multiple times of resource.The a large amount of flue gases that burn to produce, taking away about 30% heat is again a kind of very big loss.(2) flue gas of Chan Shenging must purify, and the purification techniques difficulty is big, operating cost is high.Burn the 20%-30% that the residue that produces accounts for original vol, also must digestion.The burning facility one-time investment is big.The operating cost height.Even heat recovery is arranged, still profitless, most incineration plant are the loss operation.(3) burning is to destroy a kind of technology of garbage disposal of garbage utilization heat energy.Have only those can not reclaim valuables, energy recovery is the rubbish of unique channel, adopts burning disposal to be only science, reasonably.
From above-mentioned three kinds of waste disposal methods, landfill, compost, three kinds of methods of burning respectively have advantage, but also have weak point respectively.Along with the progress of society, the raising of people's living standard, component of refuse is complicated more, organic matter, the increasing of synthetic material.This present situation requires technology of garbage disposal, by single destroying method, to several different methods.Work in coordination, the common processing---integrated treatment changes.Only in this way, could realize turning waste into wealth of rubbish, for society provides resource.
We also find present open source literature and have reported some waste disposal methods and equipment through retrieval, now take passages as follows:
1, the refreshing worker of sorting technology pre-test [author] Fan Yuhong [mechanism] China Engineering Physics Research Institute Ingegneria Ambientale SRL before [autograph] treatment of urban garbage, Mianyang, Sichuan [periodical name] war industry's automation .2002,21 (6) .-55-56[digests] sorting technology is the key of garbage comprehensive treatment technology before the domestic waste.Because every kind of separating method can only sub-elect one or more waste components, integrate the group point of each single separation method advantage in the compounding separation method of one so adopt.Comprise selective crushing sorting, primary election and artificial hand selection, magnetic separation, differential speed type cracking and sorting and material automatic conveyor line.For realizing garbage preliminary sorting processing plantization and automation as much as possible, more at the equipment of preceding sorting, process route is very long, and the work characteristics of pipeline system in the man-machine coordination mode, adopts Programmable Logic Controller to realize the automatic sequential of whole production line is controlled.The bright plate conveyer of head to pipeline is then finished its automatic measuring and controlling with negative feedback mode.
2, [autograph] talks treating method for urban garbage [author] Ni Siqi [mechanism] Shanghai medicine designing institute [periodical name] design of sulphur phosphorus and powder technology .2000 (5) .-15-19[digest] prevent to pollute, protect the importance of environment more and more to be familiar with by people, handle municipal refuse as one of pollution sources well and be an important content wherein.Briefly introduce the several method of treatment of urban garbage, introduced the characteristics that burning method is handled technology, technology and the equipment of municipal refuse.
3, [autograph] treatment of urban garbage technology and application prospect [author] Wu Hongjun [mechanism] Jiangxi direction machine factory, Nanchang [periodical name] environmental protection .2000 (12) .-14-16[digest] processing of municipal refuse is a worldwide problem.This paper has discussed that municipal refuse buries, compost, three kinds of treatment technologies of burning utilize present situation and weak point, the developing direction of integrated treatment has been proposed; Criticizing the discharging garbage sorting is the key technology of integrated treatment, and has introduced the pneumatic separation equipment of rubbish, has introduced the method for external refuse classification integrated treatment; The simple and easy comprehensive treatment technique and the application prospect of suitable China's national situation have been proposed.
4; the environmental project .1997 of imagination [author] Zhu Yongan [mechanism] Circumstances Protection Science Inst. of Jinzhou City of commentary of [autograph] city house refuse treatment method and integrated conduct method [periodical name]; 15 (1) .-52-55[digests] summarize domestic waste and adopted landfill; compost; incineration treatment method exists limitation with not enough; think that integrated treatment represents current state-of-the-art treatment technology; the key technology of integrated treatment is the sorting technology of rubbish; usually adopt pneumatic separation; rubbish is divided into fractions; divide and rule; the author thinks that China should actively develop the research of comprehensive treatment technique, exploitation new technology, development new equipment.
5, [title] garbage curing composite screen breaker [application (patent) number] 87101104.2[apply for (patent right) people] Lu Zhengming [address] Room 1108, No. 577m Wujin Road, Shanghai City [summary] the present invention is the screen breaker of the combination of receipts grog sieving garbage and pulverizing, it is mainly by frame, drum sieve, the device in vertical pulverizing and clear hole is formed, above-mentioned each device all is fixed in same frame different parts, make that grog rubbish sieve is broken to carry out continuously, drum sieve adopts double-decker, the skin of dusting cover and the internal layer of middle scalping are arranged, so can economize several belt conveyors, reducing mechanism has paddle type mill or powerful formula cutter frame structure, pulverizing can obtain less than 10 millimeters granulated garbages, fraction 85~95%, on outer screen, establish hole cleaning device to avoid dusting cover plug-hole phenomenon, so this screen breaker compact conformation, rationally reliable, floor space is little, and cost is low.
5, [title] garbage sorting machine [application (patent) number] 90107411.X[apply for (patent right) people] Stone steles mountain range, Wuchang, 430070 Wuhan City, Hubei Province, Machinery ﹠ Electronics Research Inst., Hubei Prov [address] No. 14 [summaries] invent and belong to a kind of garbage sorting machine, especially the separator that can utilize thing to separate with discarded object, at least comprise the magnetic force sorting unit, rotary screen, the conveying device of wind power sorting device and transmission material, its main points are that said apparatus is arranged on the vehicle chassis, wherein, the conveyer that is an impediment to walking structurally has properly unmarshaling and characteristics such as can promptly launch again.This separator old sanitary fill of can walking safely, and therefrom sub-elect compost, metal, plastics and other discarded objects reliably, thus both reclaimed resource, remove those again and annexed the soot in a large amount of soils.
7, [title] a kind of separating and recovering apparatus for garbage before fermentation treatment [application (patent) number] 96106533.8[apply for (patent right) people] Asian Games Village HuiBin Building B-2014[of Beijing Green Environment Engineering Technology Inst. [address] 100101 Beijing makes a summary] a kind of separating and recovering apparatus for garbage before fermentation treatment, comprise refuse bag disintegrating machine, gap sieve, pneumatic separating retracting device, magnetic force separating and recovering equipment and some belt conveyors.The refuse bag disintegrating machine is positioned at rubbish feeding mouth below and is used for smashing refuse bag, and gap sieve is positioned at the disintegrating machine below also can be reciprocating, is used for sieving bulk rubbish and broken rubbish.The pneumatic separating retracting device is recycled light materials such as polybag, and the magnetic force separating and recovering equipment sub-elects ferromagnetic material, then is suitable for fermentation process through the above-mentioned broken rubbish that is left after the sorting that respectively installs.
8, [title] domestic garbage comprehensive method for processing and device [application (patent) number] 97108652.4[applies for (patent right) people] saltern, Cao Ronghua [address] 730046 Lanzhou City, Gansu Province barrier moat No. 6 [summaries] the invention discloses a kind of domestic garbage comprehensive method for processing and device.It is through magnetic separation, fragmentation, screening, selection by winnowing, branch hank earth powder material, particulate material, light material, frivolous material, other foreign material with rubbish.With flotation with other foreign material branch hank precipitation material, material, floating material suspend.With all materials by the raw material that pulverizes, building materials are made in backing, pulverizing, washing, drying, the raw material of dalle, the raw material of compression sheet material, the paper fiber is macerated the composting material.Its processing unit (plant) comprises concentration equipment, selecting type disintegrating machine, rotation separating sieve, flotation device, elongator, mulling machine, pulverizer, rinsing maching, drier and conveying device etc.
9, [title] vibrating air floating sieve [application (patent) number] 99116596.9[applies for (patent right) people] main road, Wuchang, Ezhou, Hubei Heavy Machine Group Corp., Ltd [address] 436000 Hubei Province No. 334 [summaries] the invention discloses a kind of vibrating air floating sieve, and it comprises zigzag pneumatic separating part, suspension bed sorting part, vibration screening part, heat exchanger part, expansion chamber, air exhauster and motor.It combines effect, function and the advantage of selection by winnowing, vibration choosing, the modes such as choosing that suspend and has overcome weak point separately, through the sorting of several forms, will sort out categorizedly, the separating purity height after the garbage inlet, but comprehensive reutilization, turn waste into wealth, reduce cost.Compact to design rationally assorting room is continuous, has prevented obstruction, and efficiency of separation height is energy-saving and cost-reducing.Be the environmental protection machinery of effectively handling China's municipal refuse.
10, [title] automatic garbage sorting system [application (patent) number] 01104735.6[apply for (patent right) people] Wu Tong [address] 518031 Huaqiang North Road, Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province gold lamp decoration mansion 402[make a summary] the invention discloses a kind of by computer control, the automatic garbage sorting system that rubbish is classified automatically and picked.Provide a cover to comprise that disintegrating machine, winnowing machine, magnetic separator, screening machine, aluminium select the automatic garbage sorting system of machine, electrostatic separator and bouncer.Physics or chemical property at all kinds of materials in the rubbish, under the control of computer, adopt method for separating such as fragmentation, screening, pneumatic separating, separation by shaking table, flotation, magnetic separation, electric separation that rubbish is progressively sorted respectively, to there be the material of recycle value to recycle, the rubbish that residue is told class can carry out processing such as landfill, compostization or burning.
11, [title] high-efficiency refuse sieving machine [application (patent) number] 02115743.X[applies for (patent right) people] West Road, Huaihe River, Zhengzhou City, Metal Structure Factory, Chinese Nonferrous Metal Industry No.6 Metallurgy Const [address] 450006 Henan Province No. 35 [summaries] the present invention relates to a kind of high-efficiency refuse sieving machine, the screening machine cylindrical shell is a cage-shaped cylindrical body, be provided with sieve plate between the cage bar of cage-shaped cylindrical body, each sieve plate rotates by the rotating shaft of vertically assembling on the line of symmetry separately respectively and is assemblied on the end frame at cage-shaped cylindrical body two ends, evenly be fixed with the body that hangs inwardly on each sieve plate inner plate surface, in the rotating shaft of each sieve plate, be equipped with the upset driving mechanism.Because cylindrical shell is provided with turnover sieve plate, sieve plate is provided with the serrated knife that hangs inwardly, like this in the cylindrical shell rotation process, soft material in the rubbish such as cloth, plastics etc. can be come out by the serrated knife hook, by the time cylindrical shell when turning to the finger position by the upset of upset drive mechanism sieve plate, thereby soft material is fallen out outside the tube, is refuse classification powder, piece, soft three parts, has improved sorting index and efficiency widely, has saved great deal of labor.The design of this screening machine is ingenious rationally, and is simple and practical, has certain application value.
12, [title] a kind of refuse breaking, broken bag, screening integral machine [application (patent) number] 02276002.4[applies for (patent right) people] Yibin Ruimei Environmental Engineering Co., Ltd., Sichuan [address] No. 38 3 buildings, Yibin City cave heaven street, 644000 Sichuan Province [summary] the utility model relates to a kind of refuse breaking, broken bag, the screening integral machine, it is characterized in that: the rotary screen rotary body that is supported by support roller is set, in rotary screen rotary body upper front end into rubbish warehouse is arranged, on the rotary screen rotary body circumference sieve aperture is arranged, vertically be furnished with blade in the rotary screen rotary body circumference, the rotary screen rotary body passes through motor, reductor and chain drive, off-centre is provided with the rotating screw rotating shaft in the rotary screen rotary body, the utlity model has and force the screening function, especially be fit to moist rubbish and sieve its screen rate 〉=95%; Has the broken bag function, broken bag rate 〉=90%; Have the soft broken function of selectivity, can have the function of screening dirt according to the configuration of rubbish component needs; Multi-functional machine, minimizing equipment takes up an area of and conveying equipment, has saved investment greatly; Have anti-jamming, do not stop up, do not twine function, treating capacity 30 * 100m#+[3]/hour.
13, [title] screen system [application (patent) number] 02815730.3[applies for (patent right) people] Axiom Process Ltd. [address] Newcastle UK [summary] the invention provides a kind of screen system (8) that is suitable in the vibrating screen device (1), comprising: mesh element (11) and and support frame (12) and the mesh element (11) and netting twine panel (19) and their use that are used for its novelty.Mesh element mainly comprises the netting twine panel, and the netting twine panel is provided with first and second elongated support member (22,23) of extending along the opposed end of described netting twine panel.Support frame (12) has isolated first and second frame elements (13,14), is used for engaging with mesh element support component (22,23), and the other elongate frame element (17,18) that between them, extends, be used to support the netting twine panel.Mesh element support component (22,23) is formed and is provided with firm engagement with each first and second elongate frame element (13,14), when at least one mesh element support component and the formation of each first and second frame element and setting were clamped together with box lunch, netting twine panel (19) was firmly held under the tension force of resisting other frame element (17,18).
14, [title] vibratory sieve [application (patent) number] 93243847.4[apply for (patent right) people] power plant, the Tangshan City worker-house 2-1-403[of Ren Yiqing [address] 063000 Hebei province makes a summary] the utility model discloses a kind of vibratory sieve that once can finish multistage screening.It is made up of casing, vibrating motor, sifting bed etc., four angles of sifting bed are respectively equipped with spring, spring is fixed on the support of casing, sifting bed places in the casing, the connecting plate of sifting bed is connected with the base of vibrating motor, vibrating motor place the sifting bed connecting plate above, the connecting plate of sifting bed, linking arm, sieve are helped by being welded as a rigid body, screen cloth layering and linking arm link together by bolt, seal by the rubber slab on the casing between connecting plate and the vibrating motor.
15, [title] multi-stage oscillating screen [application (patent) number] 97222885.3[apply for (patent right) people] 8 101 Room, garden, Yonghe County, new positive South Road, Nanning City, Wei Shaogui [address] 530023 Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region [inventing (design) people] Wei Shaogui [summary] the utility model provides a kind of multi-stage oscillating screen, on the sieve basket, be provided with the screen cloth of multilayer high inclination-angle, both sides below every layer of screen cloth set out hopper, vibration transmission shaft is located on the horizontal location of the center of gravity of sieve basket, and crossing the sieve basket left and right sides, the adjustable eccentric wheel of a pair of degree of eccentricity is equipped with at the two ends of power transmission shaft respectively.That this vibratory sieve has is simple in structure, light and handy, power saving, advantage that screening efficiency is high, is the desirable depiler that use in sandstone exploitation, mining and construction site.
16, [title] Rhombus ladder type vibratory sieve [application (patent) number] 01251723.2[applies for (patent right) people] will No. 18 601 Room, street far away, big Shatian, Nanning City, Luo Jiaxun [address] 530219 Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region [summary] the utility model relates to a kind of use in the mine, hydroelectric project, the moto-vibro screen of granule materials screening is carried out in fields such as environmental sanitation, it is by the folder net bracket of two blocks of prismatic side plates and three grades of inclination multi-angles, crossbeam constitutes frame, vibrating motor is fixed on the motor frame, and be installed on the frame with screw, be connected with frame with the triangle reinforcement simultaneously, frame four limits have four supporting seats to be placed on the pillar by the damping, buffering spring, this vibration screen(ing) machine body weight is light, feed separation is effective, unit interval can be improved output about 15%, power of motor can reduce consumption about 20%, and screen cloth prolongs more than one times than conventional screen service life.
17, [title] refuse classification treatment facility [application (patent) number] 02207110.5 application (patent right) people] Yang Lianping; Su Bo; Bai Yudian village, Tai Xu Jialou township, Wang Wei [address] 271021 Shandong Province committee [summary] a kind of refuse classification treatment facility, it is made of the flotation-dividing part of three groups of cascades.Rubbish rubbish warehouse in first group of parts is connected to cleans unit; Clean unit and divide into driving-belt, clean unit and be pulverizer bottom; Clean unit and be connected to fermenting case by pipeline, arrive rubbish warehouse, vibratory sieve again, vibratory sieve is cascaded to the ascending manner spiral separator, and this separator is a pulverizer bottom, and vibratory sieve is divided into conveyer belt; Pulverizer in first group of parts is connected to second group of rubbish warehouse in the parts, is connected to fermentation vat by vibratory sieve, descending manner spiral separator; The fermentation vat lower end is provided with auger conveyor, blower fan, efferent duct; Be connected to the 3rd group of pulverizer in the parts by efferent duct, pulverizer exports conveyer belt to, is connected to granulator, centrigugal swing dryer, sack filling machine.The utility model does not need manually, sorting automatically, efficient height; Do not need incinerator, pollution-free; Multipass sort, good separation effect; Reduce investment outlay simultaneously.
Recognize from above-mentioned result for retrieval, some new methods, new equipment have obtained application aspect garbage disposal, for example the carrying out that has the process equipment of refuse classification improve, what have proposes new method to rubbish magnetic separation, fragmentation, screening, selection by winnowing aspect, the design that has refuse breaking, broken bag, screening integral machine, the design that has multi-stage oscillating screen, the inventor has also applied for the patent of multi-stage oscillating screen and Rhombus ladder type vibratory sieve a few years ago, for the garbage disposal of today provides many new methods and technology.
Summary of the invention
The inventor is after the present situation of understanding the conventional garbage processing, through for many years research, and the equipment-vibrating screen classifier of sieving garbage process tested, with original patent: Rhombus ladder type vibratory sieve [patent No.] 01251723.2, be applied to garbage disposal, and some technologies that conventional garbage is handled are improved, a kind of waste disposal method and equipment have been invented, the garbage disposal investment that has successfully solved present existence is big, can not make full use of useful resources, nontoxic and poisonous flammable thing in the flammable especially thing is not separately handled, and screening installation damages easily, sieve defective, treatment process is single, rubbish can not get reasonably, a series of problems such as utilization economically.
The present invention is achieved in that
Harmless method for treating garbage comprises refuse collection, transport, broken bag, screening, magnetic separation, perhaps independent landfill, compost, the process of burning, characteristics of the present invention are, pour the rubbish that automobile transports into rubbish warehouse interior between garbage truck by platform with slope, below the outlet of rubbish warehouse, carry out broken bag, (polybag is torn), sieve into several classes by adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen by the granulated garbage size then: bulk rubbish, medium grain rubbish, granule rubbish and earth powder material, wherein bulk rubbish comprises combustible, noncombustibles, combustible comprises harmless combustible again, as mashed cloth, friperie, bat, branch, plank etc.; Harmful combustible, as plastic packaging bag, bottle, cystosepiment, useless appliance shell; Noncombustibles comprises fragment of brick, stone, glass etc.; Medium grain rubbish also has harmless object and nuisance, and harmless object comprises food, fruit, vegetables residue, leaf, paper scrap etc.; Nuisance comprises waste plastics particle, refuse battery etc.The powder material package is drawn together short grained chips such as earth, fine sand, animal waste.
Above-mentioned harmless combustible is delivered to incinerator by conveyer belt and is burned after adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen sorting, can produce hot flue gas or steam heating on the one hand.
Above-mentioned harmful combustible can be by artificial auxiliary sorting, and that can reclaim delivers to the plastic products recycle bin, dissolves the process industry product again, and that cannot reclaim delivers to custom-designed incinerator by conveyer belt and burn.
Above-mentioned noncombustibles comprises fragment of brick, stone, glass by the manual sorting, fragment of brick, further sorting of stone, and fragmentation is used to make concrete brick or building block on the building materials; Glass is transported to glass factory, and glassware is made in fusion again.
Medium grain harmless object and the merging of earth powder material such as above-mentioned food, fruit, vegetables residue, leaf, paper scrap, select metal with magnetic separation, pass out to the microbial fermentation chamber with conveyer belt again with earth powder material, particulate material, add microorganism fungus kind fermentation 3-10 days, be mixed and made into granular compound fertilizer directly as biological organic fertilizer, or with chemical fertilizer.
The nitrogen-fixing bacteria that above-described microorganism fungus kind is selected for use comprise general nitrogen-fixing bacteria, nitrogen sporangium, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, rhizosphere combination azotobacter, phosphorus decomposing, potassium solubilizing bacteria comprise phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium, phosphorus decomposing coral Lei Shi bacillus, false unicellular bacterium, colloid bacillus cereus, the perhaps mixture of above-mentioned bacterial classification, the weight that adds nitrogen-fixing bacteria accounts for the 0.1-0.5% of earth powder material and particulate material solid matter gross weight.The part by weight of each microorganism fungus kind is: nitrogen-fixing bacteria are more than 70%, and phosphorus decomposing, potassium solubilizing bacteria 10-30% can make earth powder material, particulate material reduce stink after fermentation after adding these microorganism fungus kinds, and increase fertilizer efficiency.
Innoxious refuse treatment plant of the present invention comprises rubbish warehouse, broken bag device, vibratory sieve, conveyer belt, magnetic separator, the secondary separator that is installed between garbage truck; can also comprise fermenting cellar, disintegrating machine, granulation of fertilizer machine etc.; wherein conveyer belt, magnetic separator, fermenting cellar, disintegrating machine, granulation of fertilizer machine adopt common apparatus, and be identical with the flow sheet equipment of conventional garbage treatment plant.Different equipment is between garbage truck and screening machine, separator etc., rubbish warehouse of the present invention is installed between garbage truck, the next door is provided with platform with slope between garbage truck, there is adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen rubbish warehouse below, cram packer transports rubbish behind platform with slope, in the rubbish warehouse in pouring into rubbish between garbage truck, the backboard of rubbish warehouse is than front plate hight, rubbish warehouse outlet bottom is provided with the feeder of broken bag device and adjustable-angle, the broken bag device adopts thorn claw formula structure, can use artificial broken bag, perhaps use mechanical broken bag, vibrating motor is equipped with in rubbish warehouse side, the rubbish warehouse is installed on the frame, and frame is installed on the support column by the vibration reduction and cushioning spring.Screening machine is equipped with the screen cloth of different apertures of several layers and different angles, there are several conveyer belts the screening machine below, earth powder material conveyer belt, flammable fabric belt, medium grain material conveyer belt and bulk foreign material conveyer belt are wherein arranged, the back of conveyer belt connects the secondary sorter, the secondary sorter adopts mechanical sorting and artificial separation to combine, particularly with the further sorting of the combustible in the bulk foreign material.
Above-described rubbish warehouse is to be formed by connecting by flanging plate and stiffener, baffle plate, side plate and crossbeam, be placed on the pillar by supporting seat, vibration reduction and cushioning spring again, vibrating motor is by being bolted on the stiffener, and the bottom of rubbish warehouse is equipped with adjustable feeder and adjustable plate.The rubbish warehouse is owing to be provided with vibrating motor, broken bag device, and rubbish is more even, loose, is difficult for conglomeration.
Above-described adjustable feeder is made of striker plate and crossbeam, base plate, side plate, base plate, side plate and crossbeam welding fabrication, striker plate is fixed on the side plate top, bolt is connected to adjustable plate with adjustable feeder, can allow rubbish fall on the screening machine from the rubbish warehouse equably by the distance of regulating adjustable feeder and adjustable plate, when being unlikely to and fall a lot of, the time and be stuck in the rubbish warehouse.
Above-described adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen comprises parts such as frame, screen frame, screen cloth, vibrating motor, vibration reduction and cushioning spring, vibrating motor is installed on the weighted plate by bolt, weighted plate is installed on the frame, frame is made of outer panel, edge-pressing strip, crossbeam, pillar, the frame front end has striker plate, prevents to spread out when material from falling down outside the sieve, and support is made of clamping plate and central plate, the crossbeam two ends are connected with frame, and frame is installed on the support column by supporting seat and vibration reduction and cushioning spring; The screen cloth carriage is installed in crossbeam top, and several layers screen cloth holder bar and screen cloth carriage adjustment seat are installed on the screen cloth carriage, and wherein screen cloth is divided into several sections, and epimere is the quick sub-material section of one-level, and bulk rubbish falls the back rapidly toward dirty; Next be the quick sub-material section of secondary, connect sub-material section and high speed sub-material section at a slow speed below the quick sub-material section of secondary, the below of bottom screen cloth is a base plate, for material being told powder material and medium grain material, two layers of screen cloth is installed also between ground floor screen cloth and base plate.Described vibration reduction and cushioning spring is different with existing common metal coil spring, it is made of metal external spiral spring and metal inside spin spring and rubber spring, rubber spring is positioned at metal inside spin spring outside, the inside of metal external spiral spring, the cushion effect that the vibration reduction and cushioning spring of three-decker is subjected to when making vibratory sieve start work is balanced more, alleviate the harm to frame and supporting seat, the life-span is longer.
The screen cloth carriage angle of above-described adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen can be adjusted, to adapt to the demand of different material and screening efficiency, the screen cloth carriage is installed in the crossbeam top, crossbeam is connected with a plurality of intermediate plates and cooperates with regulating block, regulating block has several, as the left side regulating block hole is arranged, the intermediate regulations piece has two holes, and the right regulating block has three holes.When the angle that needs screen cloth is big, the hole of hole below regulating block of middle intermediate plate can be connected with bolt, the hole of the right intermediate plate is connected with bolt with the nethermost hole of regulating block, the speed that rubbish falls is just fast, when needs screen cloth angle little, the hole of middle intermediate plate can be connected with bolt with hole above the regulating block, the hole with the right intermediate plate is connected with bolt with the uppermost hole of regulating block again, and the speed that rubbish falls is just slow.If screen cloth carriage and crossbeam are longer, can establish 3-5 regulating block.
The top of above-described secondary sorter is striker plate, the below of striker plate is the master plate, master plate and crossbeam assembling, base plate is arranged at the bottom, master plate side is welded with supporting seat, the vibration reduction and cushioning spring of supporting seat and three-decker is installed in the top of pillar, and vibrating motor is installed on the side plate, will be through the further sorting in sorter of bulk materials behind the screening machine.
Adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen of the present invention is except using garbage disposal, also can be applied to sandstone exploitation, road metal, mining and hydroelectric project, construction site etc. needs the technical field of screening, and this screening machine all has further raising than sieving capacity, functional reliability, the durability of the vibratory sieve that the inventor applies for a few years ago.
The present invention compared with prior art, its outstanding substantive distinguishing features and obvious improvement is:
1, harmless method for treating garbage will be carried, broken bag, letter sorting, screening, magnetic separation, landfill, compost, the process of burning combines, can multi-angle, comprehensive domestic waste is handled, and can make full use of useful resources, especially the nontoxic and poisonous flammable thing in the flammable thing is carried out sorting, in order to avoid in burning process toxic gas contaminated environment, supporting screening machine between the design employing of equipment and garbage truck, can be under vibration and control flow rate conditions in the adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen of impouring, the sieving garbage composition earth powder material of hanking, the fine grained material, thick material, bulk foreign material etc.Earth powder material, particulate material add the microorganism fungus kind fermentation, directly as biological organic fertilizer, perhaps are mixed and made into granular compound fertilizer with chemical fertilizer; Medium grain material and frivolous material are selected metal with magnetic separation earlier, deliver to incinerator again and burn; Further sortings such as bulk foreign material fragment of brick, stone, glass, fragmentation is used to make concrete brick or building block on the building materials.This method can carry out rubbish innoxious and reclaim resource settling at one go substantially.
2, harmless method for treating garbage of the present invention reduces the garbage disposal cost greatly, thereby produce the breakthrough of a historic turning, drive and realize the industrialization of garbage disposal, garbage disposal also helps environmental protection greatly than conventional landfill or without the burning of multiple class, repeatedly sorting; Equipment investment than existing letter sorting screening combination is reduced investment outlay more than 50%.Because it is some irretrievable nuisances such as waste plastics particle, refuse battery etc. substantially that the present invention needs the rubbish of landfill, so just can reduce the underground water pollution that causes because of landfill in a large number, a series of problems that floor space is big.
3, adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen improves on the basis of the trapezoidal screening machine of water chestnut, the screen cloth bracket design is that multistage " step " step by step is formed slopely the multistage screening, can be freely formed the multilayer drop, make the thick middle segmentation of material from better effects if, unit interval can be improved output about 20%, screen cloth prolongs more than one times than conventional screen service life, can also reduce manufacturing cost, improve functional reliability.
The cushion effect that is subjected to when 4, the vibration reduction and cushioning spring of three-decker makes vibratory sieve start work is balanced more; alleviate harm to frame and supporting seat; life-span is longer; the consumption that significantly reduces exciting force can be played the effect that gives mutual protection again; in case outer metal spring fracture also has the protection of metal inside spin spring and rubber spring.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the front view of waste disposal method conveying of the present invention, broken bag, letter sorting, screening equipment component;
Fig. 2 is a rubbish warehouse structural representation interior between garbage truck;
Fig. 3 is the left view of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is the feeder structural representation of adjustable-angle;
Fig. 5 is the vertical view of Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is the structural representation of adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen;
Fig. 7 is the left view of Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is the structural representation of screen cloth carriage adjuster;
Fig. 9, Figure 10, Figure 11 are the structural representations with screen cloth carriage adjuster mating parts;
Figure 12 is the structural representation of screen cloth carriage;
Figure 13 is the structural representation of secondary sorter;
Figure 14 is the vertical view of Figure 13.
The specific embodiment
As shown in Figure 1; innoxious refuse treatment plant of the present invention comprises the rubbish warehouse that is installed between garbage truck; the broken bag device; vibratory sieve; conveyer belt; magnetic separator; the secondary separator; fermenting cellar; disintegrating machine; granulation of fertilizer machine etc.; rubbish warehouse 3 is installed between the garbage truck of platform with slope 1 side 4; the top of screening machine 7; cram packer 2 transports rubbish behind platform with slope 1; rubbish is poured between garbage truck in the rubbish warehouse 3 in 4; the backboard of rubbish warehouse 3 is than front plate hight; rubbish warehouse 3 bottoms are provided with the feeder 6 of broken bag device 5 and adjustable-angle; broken bag device 5 adopts thorn claw formula structure; can use artificial broken bag; perhaps use mechanical broken bag; vibrating motor is equipped with in rubbish warehouse 3 sides; rubbish warehouse 3 is installed on the frame, and frame is installed on the support column by the vibration reduction and cushioning spring.Screening machine 7 is equipped with the screen cloth of different apertures of several layers and different angles, there are several conveyer belts screening machine 7 belows, earth powder material conveyer belt 8, flammable fabric belt 9, thick matter particulate material conveyer belt and bulk foreign material conveyer belt 10 are wherein arranged, the back of conveyer belt connects secondary sorter 11, secondary sorter 11 adopts mechanical sorting and artificial separation to combine, particularly with the further sorting of the combustible in the bulk foreign material.
Above-described conveyer belt, magnetic separator, fermenting cellar, disintegrating machine, granulation of fertilizer machine etc. adopt common apparatus, and are identical with the flow sheet equipment of conventional garbage treatment plant, no longer figure here.
As Fig. 2, shown in Figure 3, rubbish warehouse 3 is to be formed by connecting by flanging plate 12 and stiffener 13, baffle plate 14, side plate 16 and crossbeam 17, be placed on the pillar 21 by supporting seat 19, vibration reduction and cushioning spring 20 again, vibrating motor 15 is fixed on the stiffener 13 by bolt 22, and the bottom of rubbish warehouse 3 is equipped with adjustable feeder 6 and adjustable plate 18.
As Fig. 1, Fig. 4, shown in Figure 5, adjustable feeder 6 is made of striker plate 23 and crossbeam 24, base plate 26, side plate 27, base plate 26, side plate 27 and crossbeam 24 welding fabrications, striker plate 23 is fixed on side plate 27 tops, bolt 25 is connected to adjustable plate 18 with adjustable feeder 6, can allow rubbish fall on the screening machine 7 from batcher 6 equably by the distance of regulating adjustable feeder 6 and adjustable plate 18, when being unlikely to and fall a lot of, the time and be stuck in the rubbish warehouse 3.
As Fig. 6, shown in Figure 7, adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen comprises parts such as frame, screen frame, screen cloth, vibrating motor, vibration reduction and cushioning spring, vibrating motor 45 is installed on the weighted plate 46 by bolt 34, weighted plate 46 is installed on the frame, frame is made of outer panel 32, edge-pressing strip 29, crossbeam 44, pillar, the frame front end has striker plate 28, prevent to spread out outside the sieve when material from falling down, support is made of clamping plate 42 and central plate 43, crossbeam (44) two ends are connected with frame, and frame is installed on the support column 31 by supporting seat 48 and vibration reduction and cushioning spring 35; Screen cloth carriage 49 is installed in crossbeam 44 tops, and several layers screen cloth holder bar 47 and screen cloth carriage adjustment seat 37 are installed on the screen cloth carriage 49, and wherein screen cloth is divided into several sections, and epimere is the quick sub-material section 30 of one-level, and bulk rubbish falls the back rapidly toward dirty; Next be the quick sub-material section 33 of secondary, connect sub-material section 36 and high speed sub-material section 39 at a slow speed below the quick sub-material section 33 of secondary, the below of bottom screen cloth is a base plate 40, for material being told powder material and thick matter particulate material, two layers of screen cloth is installed also between ground floor screen cloth and base plate 40.
As Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8, Fig. 9, Figure 10, Figure 11, shown in Figure 12, the screen cloth carriage angle of adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen can be regulated, to adapt to the demand of different material and screening efficiency, screen cloth carriage 49 is installed in crossbeam 44 tops, crossbeam 44 is connected with a plurality of intermediate plates 37 and cooperates with regulating block, regulating block has several, the left side is the regulating block 51 in a hole, the centre is the regulating block 53 in two holes, the right is the regulating block 54 in three holes, be fixed with the intermediate plate 37 that cooperates with it on the screen cloth, when the angle that needs screen cloth is big, the hole of hole below regulating block 53 of middle intermediate plate 37 can be connected with bolt, the hole of the right intermediate plate 37 is connected with bolt with regulating block 54 nethermost holes, and the speed that rubbish falls is just fast, when needs screen cloth angle little, the hole of middle intermediate plate 37 can be connected with bolt with hole above the regulating block 53, the hole with the right intermediate plate 37 is connected with bolt with regulating block 54 uppermost holes again, and the speed that rubbish falls just slowly.
Provided the structure chart of secondary sorter 11 as Figure 13, Figure 14, the top of sorter is striker plate 56, the below of striker plate 56 is a master plate 57, master plate 57 and crossbeam 58 assemblings, base plate 63 is arranged at the bottom, and master plate 57 sides are welded with supporting seat 60, and the vibration reduction and cushioning spring 61 of supporting seat 60 and three-decker is installed in the top of pillar 62, vibrating motor 62 is installed on the side plate 57, will be through the further sorting in sorter of bulk materials behind the screening machine.
Several vibration reduction and cushioning spring 20,35,61 of the present invention is different with existing common metal coil spring, all adopt the vibration reduction and cushioning spring of three-decker, it is made of metal external spiral spring and metal inside spin spring and rubber spring, rubber spring is positioned at metal inside spin spring outside, the inside of metal external spiral spring, because character express is clear, so do not provide accompanying drawing.

Claims (9)

1. harmless method for treating garbage, comprise refuse collection, transport, broken bag, screening, magnetic separation, perhaps independent landfill, compost, the process of burning, it is characterized in that: pour the rubbish that automobile transports into rubbish warehouse interior between garbage truck by platform with slope, below the outlet of rubbish warehouse, carry out broken bag, sieve into bulk rubbish by adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen by the granulated garbage size then, medium grain rubbish, granule rubbish and earth powder material, wherein bulk rubbish and medium grain sub-elect combustible and noncombustibles, combustible is told harmless combustible and harmful combustible again, harmless combustible is after adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen sorting, delivering to incinerator by conveyer belt burns, harmful combustible is by artificial auxiliary sorting, that can reclaim delivers to the plastic products recycle bin, again dissolve the process industry product, that cannot reclaim delivers to custom-designed incinerator burning by conveyer belt; The bulk rubbish fragment of brick of noncombustibles, stone, glass pass through the manual sorting, fragment of brick, the further sorting of stone, and fragmentation is used to make concrete brick or building block on the building materials; Glass is transported to glass factory, and glassware is made in fusion again; Harmless object in the medium grain and earth powder material merge, and select metal with magnetic separation, pass out to the microbial fermentation chamber with conveyer belt again with earth powder material, granule material, add microorganism fungus kind fermentation 3-10 days, make fertilizer.
2. harmless method for treating garbage according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the harmless object in earth powder material, the granule is delivered to the microbial fermentation chamber, the microorganism fungus kind that adds is nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphorus decomposing, potassium solubilizing bacteria, the weight that adds nitrogen-fixing bacteria accounts for the 0.1-0.5% of earth powder material and particulate material solid matter gross weight, the part by weight of each microorganism fungus kind is: nitrogen-fixing bacteria are more than 70%, phosphorus decomposing, potassium solubilizing bacteria 10-30%.
3. refuse treatment plant that harmless method for treating garbage as claimed in claim 1 adopts, comprise the rubbish warehouse, the broken bag device, vibratory sieve, conveyer belt, magnetic separator, disintegrating machine, it is characterized in that: rubbish warehouse (3) is installed between the garbage truck of platform with slope 1 side (4), the top of screening machine (7), the backboard of rubbish warehouse (3) is than front plate hight, rubbish warehouse (3) bottom is provided with the feeder (6) of broken bag device (5) and adjustable-angle, broken bag device (5) adopts thorn claw formula structure, vibrating motor is equipped with in rubbish warehouse (3) side, rubbish warehouse (3) is installed on the frame, frame is installed on the support column by the vibration reduction and cushioning spring, screening machine (7) is equipped with the screen cloth of different apertures of several layers and different angles, there are some conveyer belts screening machine (7) below, earth powder material conveyer belt (8) is wherein arranged, combustible fabric belt (9), medium grain material conveyer belt and bulk foreign material conveyer belt (10), the back of conveyer belt connects secondary sorter (11).
4. refuse treatment plant according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: rubbish warehouse (3) is to be formed by connecting by flanging plate (12) and stiffener (13), baffle plate (14), side plate (16) and crossbeam (17), be placed on the pillar (21) by supporting seat (19), vibration reduction and cushioning spring (20) again, vibrating motor (15) is fixed on the stiffener (13) by bolt (22), and the bottom of rubbish warehouse (3) is equipped with adjustable feeder (6) and adjustable plate (18).
5. refuse treatment plant according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: adjustable feeder (6) is made of striker plate (23) and crossbeam (24), base plate (26), side plate (27), base plate (26), side plate (27) and crossbeam (24) welding fabrication, striker plate (23) is fixed on side plate (27) top, bolt (25) is connected to adjustable plate (18) with adjustable feeder (6), and feeder (6) is adjustable with the distance of adjustable plate (18).
6. refuse treatment plant according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen comprises frame, screen frame, screen cloth, vibrating motor, the vibration reduction and cushioning spring, vibrating motor (45) is installed on the weighted plate (46) by bolt (34), pressing plate (46) is installed on the frame, frame is by outer panel (32), edge-pressing strip (29), crossbeam (44), pillar constitutes, the frame front end has striker plate (28), support is made of clamping plate (42) and central plate (43), crossbeam (44) two ends are connected with frame, and frame is installed on the support column (31) by supporting seat 48 and vibration reduction and cushioning spring (35); Screen cloth carriage (49) is installed in crossbeam (44) top, screen cloth carriage (49) is gone up several layers screen cloth holder bar (47) and screen cloth carriage adjustment seat (37) is installed, wherein screen cloth is divided into several sections, epimere is the quick sub-material section of one-level (30), next be the quick sub-material section of secondary (33), connect sub-material section (36) and high speed sub-material section (39) at a slow speed below the quick sub-material section of secondary (33), the below of bottom screen cloth is base plate (40), between ground floor screen cloth and base plate (40) two layers of screen cloth is installed.
7. refuse treatment plant according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: the screen cloth carriage angle of adjustable multi-stage oscillating screen can be regulated, screen cloth carriage (49) is installed in crossbeam (44) top, crossbeam (44) is connected with a plurality of intermediate plates (37) and cooperates with regulating block, regulating block has several, regulating block (51) has a hole, and regulating block (53) has two holes, and regulating block (54) has three holes.
8. refuse treatment plant according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: the top of sorter is striker plate (56), the below of striker plate (56) is master plate (57), master plate (57) and crossbeam (58) assembling, base plate (63) is arranged at the bottom, master plate (57) side is welded with supporting seat (60), and the vibration reduction and cushioning spring of supporting seat (60) and three-decker is installed in the top of pillar (62), and vibrating motor (62) is installed on the side plate (57).
9. refuse treatment plant according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: vibration reduction and cushioning spring (20), (35), (61) are made of metal external spiral spring and metal inside spin spring and rubber spring, rubber spring is positioned at metal inside spin spring outside, the inside of metal external spiral spring.
CN 200510071876 2005-05-26 2005-05-26 Harmless refuse treating method and apparatus Pending CN1676232A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102172596A (en) * 2010-12-09 2011-09-07 潍坊金丝达实业有限公司 Urban and rural household garbage resource utilizing method
CN102580980A (en) * 2012-02-10 2012-07-18 中山市恒动机械制造有限公司 Pre-treatment process and device of mass flow municipal waste
CN103102185A (en) * 2012-12-24 2013-05-15 谢淅恩 Equipment for producing fertilizer by utilizing household garbage
CN103708240A (en) * 2013-12-26 2014-04-09 中国科学院生态环境研究中心鄂尔多斯固体废弃物资源化工程技术研究所 Garbage uniformizing machine with bag breaking and avoiding functions
CN105627733A (en) * 2016-02-29 2016-06-01 中冶赛迪工程技术股份有限公司 Electric-arc furnace shock-resistant baffling charging steel scrap preheating chamber-dedusting structure
CN108099019A (en) * 2017-12-23 2018-06-01 中合国际知识产权股份有限公司 Cement bale breaker
CN108679613A (en) * 2018-05-07 2018-10-19 安徽云帆科技咨询有限公司 A kind of garbage combustion device
CN110125136A (en) * 2019-04-01 2019-08-16 河南锦程过滤设备有限公司 A kind of crude waste sorting process

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102172596A (en) * 2010-12-09 2011-09-07 潍坊金丝达实业有限公司 Urban and rural household garbage resource utilizing method
CN102172596B (en) * 2010-12-09 2012-07-11 潍坊金丝达实业有限公司 Urban and rural household garbage resource utilizing method
CN102580980A (en) * 2012-02-10 2012-07-18 中山市恒动机械制造有限公司 Pre-treatment process and device of mass flow municipal waste
CN103102185A (en) * 2012-12-24 2013-05-15 谢淅恩 Equipment for producing fertilizer by utilizing household garbage
CN103102185B (en) * 2012-12-24 2014-11-12 谢淅恩 Equipment for producing fertilizer by utilizing household garbage
CN103708240A (en) * 2013-12-26 2014-04-09 中国科学院生态环境研究中心鄂尔多斯固体废弃物资源化工程技术研究所 Garbage uniformizing machine with bag breaking and avoiding functions
CN105627733A (en) * 2016-02-29 2016-06-01 中冶赛迪工程技术股份有限公司 Electric-arc furnace shock-resistant baffling charging steel scrap preheating chamber-dedusting structure
CN108099019A (en) * 2017-12-23 2018-06-01 中合国际知识产权股份有限公司 Cement bale breaker
CN108679613A (en) * 2018-05-07 2018-10-19 安徽云帆科技咨询有限公司 A kind of garbage combustion device
CN110125136A (en) * 2019-04-01 2019-08-16 河南锦程过滤设备有限公司 A kind of crude waste sorting process

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