CN1669340A - 用于提高射频标识读出器的读范围的脉冲功率法 - Google Patents

用于提高射频标识读出器的读范围的脉冲功率法 Download PDF

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CN1669340A
CN1669340A CN 03817142 CN03817142A CN1669340A CN 1669340 A CN1669340 A CN 1669340A CN 03817142 CN03817142 CN 03817142 CN 03817142 A CN03817142 A CN 03817142A CN 1669340 A CN1669340 A CN 1669340A
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radio
power
reader
method
identification
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CN 03817142
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CN100527858C (en )
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休伯特·A·帕特森
飞利浦·A·腊祖
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传感电子公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K7/00Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns
    • G06K7/10Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation
    • G06K7/10009Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation sensing by radiation using wavelengths larger than 0.1 mm, e.g. radio-waves or microwaves
    • G06K7/10198Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation sensing by radiation using wavelengths larger than 0.1 mm, e.g. radio-waves or microwaves setting parameters for the interrogator, e.g. programming parameters and operating modes
    • G06K7/10217Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation sensing by radiation using wavelengths larger than 0.1 mm, e.g. radio-waves or microwaves setting parameters for the interrogator, e.g. programming parameters and operating modes parameter settings controlling the transmission power of the interrogator
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K7/00Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns
    • G06K7/0008General problems related to the reading of electronic memory record carriers, independent of its reading method, e.g. power transfer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K7/00Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns
    • G06K7/10Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation
    • G06K7/10009Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation sensing by radiation using wavelengths larger than 0.1 mm, e.g. radio-waves or microwaves
    • G06K7/10019Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation sensing by radiation using wavelengths larger than 0.1 mm, e.g. radio-waves or microwaves resolving collision on the communication channels between simultaneously or concurrently interrogated record carriers.

Abstract

提供一种对射频标识(RFID)读出器供能的方法,以在不使连续发射功率电平为最大的情况下提高多标签读能力并且增大无源标签的读范围。在接收到RFID标签应答之前RFID读出器发送脉冲询问信号,并且然后切换到连续和脉冲供能方式。发射的连续功率保持对RFID标签的供能,从而这些标签不会由于能源损失而复位。脉冲信号允许在更远的范围内读标签,尤其当该区域中存在多个标签时。

Description

用于提高射频标识读出器的 读范围的脉冲功率法

技术领域

本发明涉及射频标识(RFID)读出器功率输出,并且更具体地涉及用于RFID读出器的脉冲和连续功率输出方法。

背景技术

在包括库存控制和物品监视的各种应用中,RFID系统的使用不断增加。在RFID系统中,RFID读出器发送RFID询问信号,RFID标记或标签接收发送的RF询问信号并且用包含标识信息以及其它技术上周知的数据的回答信号应答。RFID读出器接收RFID标记的回答信号并再现该信号中包含的有关信息。为了使得RFID读出器能检测和检索来自RFID标记的回答信号的数据,RFID标记必须位于RFID读出器的预定最大半径内。如果RFID读出器未接收回答信号,RFID读出器会持续发送RFID询问信号,其会辐射到环境中。

无源RFID标签由RFID读出器发送的询问信号供能。当接收到询问信号时,该标签用它存储的数据回答。读出器和标记之间的往返通信时间取决于要传送的数据量以及数据速率。当发送的询问信号内存在多个标签时,利用多标签算法分类自每个标签的数据,这增加了读时间,发现单个标签可能花10毫秒量级的时间,而若该区域中存在更大数量的标签则可能花高达100毫秒或更多的时间。读时间的变慢与系统如何处理先前读过的标签有关。一旦一个标签对读出器标识自已并且传送了它的数据,指示该标签“记住”它已读过并且停止对询问字段回答。接着读出器可转到下一个标签上。当射到标签上的询问字段降到低于某阈值时,标签超时或者“忘记”它被读过,该标签会被复位并且当询问字段超过该阈值时开始再次应答。位于和用于对标签供能的阈值对应的询问字段电平边缘的标签会不断复位。如果这些标签频繁地尝试再次通信,该多标签算法会变慢并且可能不能读出该读范围内的所有标签。

读出速度和范围是根据要由询问信号供能的标签数量以及该字段的功率电平减小的。为了改进这种情况可以采用有源RFID标签。有源RFID标签包含对标签供电的电池。遗憾的是,对于许多应用来说有源RFID标签过于昂贵。替代地,RFID读出器可以发送较高的功率电平以保持在读出期间对多个无源标签供能,从而提供增加的读范围。但是,对RF辐射的限定限制了RFID读出器可在其上工作的功率电平。

发明内容

本发明提供一种对RFID读出器供能的方法,以便提高多标签读出能力,并且在不使发射功率电平最大化的情况下增大无源读范围。该方法包括通过首先发送脉冲射频标识询问信号来发送射频标识询问信号,以便增大射频标识标签读范围。当收到来自一个射频标识标签的应答信号时,同时发送脉冲射频标识询问信号和连续射频标识询问信号。当未收到来自射频标识标签的进一步的应答信号后,该系统重新开始只发送脉冲射频标识询问信号。

该方法还包括,在收到应答信号后,读与该射频标识标签关联的数据,并且接着断开该射频标识标签从而它不再应答射频标识询问信号。

该方法还可以包括:在未收到来自另一射频标识标签的应答后只发送脉冲射频标识询问信号之前,接通所有射频标识标签。替代地,只接通特定的或预选定的射频标识标签。

通过下面对本发明的各实施例的详细说明会清楚本发明的目的、优点和应用。

附图说明

图1示意表示本发明的一实施例。

图2是本发明方法的流程图。

图3是图2所示方法的一替代实施例。

图4是图2所示方法的一替代实施例。

具体实施方式

美国和欧洲的规定限制RFID读出器的传输功率电平。例如,在2450兆赫上,这些规定把RFID发射限制为连续500毫瓦或者为在200毫秒内于15%的占空度下测出的4瓦。500毫瓦的连续传输只能提供10-20英寸量级的读范围。按照这些规定,为了增大读范围,可以每次按30毫秒高至4瓦而使传输成为脉冲的。对于执行多标签算法三十毫秒是不够的。在30毫秒脉冲之间的关机时间期间一些标签可能复位,从而读出器可能多次读某些标签但永远不读其它标签。

参照图1,该问题的一种解决办法是同时发射连续询问信号和脉冲询问信号。连续传输会把各标签保持成“活动的”,从而它们不会在脉冲之间复位。脉冲信号会增大读范围,同时连续信号会减小读时间。RFID读出器2发射用射线3表示的脉冲询问信号以及用曲线4表示的连续询问信号。曲线4表示RFID读出器产生的半径5内的连续功率电平阈,该阈是足以保持相对接近读出器2的各标签6接通的电平。超过半径5的远方标签8会由脉冲询问信号3供能,但可能在脉冲之间停止,典型地,每个标签包含一个在一周期内保持接通的小电容。常规RFID读出器不发射脉冲信号3,从而读范围限制在那些落入半径5之内的标签上。如果只发射脉冲信号3,附近的标签6以及较远的标签都能在脉冲之间停止,从而造成读标签过程中的延迟。如果和脉冲询问信号3一起同时发送连续询问信号4,则如后面详细解释那样,在读更远的标签8之前标签6会保持接通并且可以以一种有序方式完成通信。那些远方的标签8会通过脉冲询问信号3读取,但是由于可能停止和复位,读标签8需要花费比读保持供能的标签更长的时间。可以利用多标签算法快速读这些由连续询问信号4保持供能的标签6,从而可以改进读在脉冲询问信号3的范围之内的所有标签6和8的时间。

如技术上周知那样,RFID读出器2和RFID标签之间的通信取决于所采用的具体协议。在本文中用来说明本发明的一个例子中,RFID读出器发送编码询问信号以查找标签。接收该询问信号的标签用标签ID应答。接着该读出器用该标签ID对该具体标签定址,以使该标签发送它存储的数据。该存储的数据可以是任何各种信息,并且通常与附有该标签的物品关联。接着该读出器可以告诉该标签从现在起断开,从而它不再继续响应该询问信号。然后该读出器会选择另一个标签ID并且轮询该标签以得到它的数据,由此类推,直到读了所有标签,当不再接收标签ID时,该读出器可发送一个唤醒信号以便接通所有标签,或者替代地,分别寻址一个或多个标签以便接通它们。如果不发送接通标签的唤醒信号,它们典型地会在预选时间到期后自动接通。

上面讨论的发送连续和脉冲询问信号的方法可能造成与相邻RFID读出器以及其它系统之间的干扰,从而,仅在脉冲询问信号检查到区域中的标签后才接通连读询问信号。在本文给出的该协议的例子中,当RFID读出器检测到标签ID时,接通连读询问信号。

在图2中示出该方法,在10中RFID读出器初始发送脉冲RFID询问信号。如果在12中RFID读出器接收一个RFID标签应答,则RFID读出器在14开始发送脉冲RFID询问信号和连续RFID询问信号两者。在16读标签数据并在18断开该标签从而它不会继续应答询问信号。如果在20接收另一个标签应答,则该RFID读出器继续发送脉冲和连续信号,直至在16和18从所有标签读所有的标签数据。当在20不再接收标签应答时,RFID读出器又一次开始在10只发送脉冲询问信号,并且继续该方法。已被断开的标签最终会超时并且自动接通。替代地,如图3中所示,RFID读出器可在22发送信号以便接通所有标签,而且,如图4中所示,RFID读出器可一个对特定标签或者一组特定标签发送信号以便只接通该标签或者这些标签。例如,当一个也写数据的RFID读出器在选定的一个或一些标签上改变标签数据时,可以在不必重读给定区域内的所有标签的情况下检验这些新的签数据。

应理解,可在不背离本发明范围的情况下对本发明做出各变型和改变。例如,发送的脉冲不必如上面说明那样为30毫秒长,而是可以根据RFID半导体电流耗用,数据速率以及其它相关参数选择。重复率例如可为每33毫秒5毫秒,或为其它选定速率。还可以改变发送的功率电平并且只受政府规定的限制。

还应理解,本发明的范围的解释不受本文公开的各实施例的限制,而只是根据在参照上述公开下阅读的附后权利要求书。

Claims (6)

1.一种发送射频标识询问信号以用于增大射频标识标签读范围的方法,包括;发送脉冲射频标识询问信号;接收来自一个射频标识标签的应答信号;在收到所述应答信号后,同时发送所述脉冲射频标识询问信号和连续射频标识询问信号;以及在未从另一个射频标识标签收到应答信号之后,只发送所述脉冲射频标识询问信号。
2.如权利要求1的方法,还包括:在收到所述应答信号后,读与所述射频标识标签关联的数据;以及,断开所述射频标识标签从而所述射频标识标签不再发射应答信号。
3.如权利要求2的方法,还包括:在未收到来自另一个射频标识标签的应答信号之后,于只发送所述脉冲射频标识询问信号之前,接通所有射频标识标签。
4.如权利要求2的方法,还包括:在未收到来自另一个射频标识标签的应答信号之后,于只发送所述脉冲射频标识询问信号之前,接通预先选定的射频标识标签。
5.如权利要求1的方法,其中,发送脉冲射频标识询问信号包括发送在约200毫秒上测得的、占空度为15%、电平高达约4瓦的脉冲射频标识询问信号。
6.如权利要求的5的方法,其中,发送脉冲射频标识询问信号和连续射频标识询问信号包括发送所述脉冲射频标识询问信号和电平高达约500毫瓦的连续射频标识询问信号。
CN 03817142 2002-08-09 2003-08-11 Pulsed power method for increased read range for a radio frequency identification reader CN100527858C (en)

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