CN1622387A - Method and system for cell protection - Google Patents

Method and system for cell protection Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN1622387A
CN1622387A CNA2003101199033A CN200310119903A CN1622387A CN 1622387 A CN1622387 A CN 1622387A CN A2003101199033 A CNA2003101199033 A CN A2003101199033A CN 200310119903 A CN200310119903 A CN 200310119903A CN 1622387 A CN1622387 A CN 1622387A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
battery
battery pack
voltage
controller
electric equipment
Prior art date
Application number
CNA2003101199033A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN100492750C (en
Inventor
托德W·约翰逊
丹尼斯J·格日博夫斯基
马克A·库鲍莱
杰伊J·罗森贝克尔
卡尔F·施卡策
加里D·迈尔
戴维A·亨佩
杰弗里M·伊莱尔
凯文L·格拉斯哥
Original Assignee
密尔沃基电动工具公司
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 密尔沃基电动工具公司 filed Critical 密尔沃基电动工具公司
Priority to CNB2003101199033A priority Critical patent/CN100492750C/en
Publication of CN1622387A publication Critical patent/CN1622387A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN100492750C publication Critical patent/CN100492750C/en

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/425Structural combination with electronic components, e.g. electronic circuits integrated to the outside of the casing
    • H01M10/4257Smart batteries, e.g. electronic circuits inside the housing of the cells or batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • H01M10/0525Rocking-chair batteries, i.e. batteries with lithium insertion or intercalation in both electrodes; Lithium-ion batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/4285Testing apparatus
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/44Methods for charging or discharging
    • H01M10/441Methods for charging or discharging for several batteries or cells simultaneously or sequentially
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/48Accumulators combined with arrangements for measuring, testing or indicating condition, e.g. level or density of the electrolyte
    • H01M10/482Accumulators combined with arrangements for measuring, testing or indicating condition, e.g. level or density of the electrolyte for several batteries or cells simultaneously or sequentially
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/425Structural combination with electronic components, e.g. electronic circuits integrated to the outside of the casing
    • H01M2010/4271Battery management systems including electronic circuits, e.g. control of current or voltage to keep battery in healthy state, cell balancing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The present invention is battery protecting system and method. One of the execution methods with battery packs includes the following steps: judging the first battery pack in the first monitoring rate while judging the time the second battery pack reaches its threshold, monitoring the first battery pack in the second monitoring rate different from the first one after the second battery pack reaches its threshold. One other execution method with battery pack includes the steps of providing battery unit with voltage detection, transmitting power between the battery unit and electric equipment, controlling the operation in voltage not lower than the voltage threshold with a controller, providing the voltage of the battery unit selectively to the controller, and starting the controller after the voltage the battery unit provides is lower than the voltage threshold.

Description

The method and system that is used for battery protection

Related application

The sequence number that present patent application requires to submit on November 22nd, 2002 is 60/428,358, the sequence number of submitting on November 22nd, 2002 is 60/428,450, the sequence number of submitting on November 22nd, 2002 is 60/428,452, the sequence number of submitting on January 17th, 2003 is 60/400,692, the sequence number of submitting on January 17th, 2003 is 60/440,693 and still undelegated U.S. Provisional Patent Application; The exercise question of submitting on November 19th, 2003 is " method and system that is used for battery protection " and still undelegated U.S. Provisional Patent Application (attorney docket is 066042-9536-00); The exercise question of submitting on November 19th, 2003 is the rights and interests of " method and system that is used for battery charge " and still undelegated U.S. Provisional Patent Application (attorney docket is 066042-9538-00), and all content combinations in this manual as a reference.The exercise question of submitting on November 20th, 2003 for all the elements of " method and system that is used for battery charge " U.S. Patent application (attorney docket is 066042-9538-01) also in conjunction with in this manual as a reference.

Technical field

The present invention relates generally to a kind of method and system that is used for battery (battery) protection, more particularly, relate to a kind of method and system that is used for the battery protection of electric tool.

Background technology

Cordless power tool is driven by portable battery pack usually.These battery pack have different battery chemistries and nominal voltage, and can be used to drive countless versions instrument and electric equipment.The battery chemistries of power tool battery is NI-G (" NiCd "), nickelous cyanide (" NiMH ") or plumbic acid normally.The general durable of this chemical substance.

Summary of the invention

Some battery chemistries (for example: lithium (" Li "), lithium ion (" Li-ion ") and other chemical substance based on lithium) require to have charging scheme and charging operations accurately, and discharge can be controlled.Inadequate charging scheme and can not in check discharge scheme may produce excessive heating, situation about overcharging and/or the too much situation of discharge.These situations and heating may cause the damage that can't remedy and badly influence the capacity of battery to battery.Various factors (for example too much heat) may make the one or more batteries (cell) in the battery pack become uneven, that is, its current charged state is significantly less than other battery in the battery pack.Unbalanced battery can badly influence the performance (for example running time and/or voltage output) of battery pack and can shorten the life-span of battery pack.

The invention provides a kind of method and system that is used for battery protection.In aspect a kind of structure and some, the invention provides a kind of method of temperature and system that is used for monitoring battery.In aspect another kind of structure and some, the invention provides a kind of method and system that is used to shift the heat in the battery.In aspect another kind of structure and some, the invention provides a kind of method and system that is used for shifting the heat in the battery by phase-change material.In aspect another kind of structure and some, the invention provides a kind of unbalanced method and system of monitoring battery that is used for.In aspect another kind of structure and some, the invention provides a kind of being used for comes the method and system of the operation of control of electrical equipment according to the temperature and/or the battery imbalance of battery.In aspect another kind of structure and some, the invention provides a kind of method and system that is used for determining the current charged state and the expression of battery or shows the current charged state of battery.In aspect another kind of structure and some, the invention provides a kind of method and system that is used for interrupting discharging current according to the temperature of battery.

By consulting detailed description and drawings, those of ordinary skill in the art will become cheer and bright to key property of the present invention and major advantage.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the perspective view of battery.

Fig. 2 is the perspective view of another battery.

Fig. 3 is the perspective view of another battery.

Fig. 4 is the perspective view of the battery (for example battery shown in Fig. 3) that uses with first electric equipment such as electric tool.

Fig. 5 is the perspective view of the battery (for example battery shown in Fig. 3) that uses with second electric equipment such as electric tool.

Fig. 6 A is a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Fig. 6 B is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Fig. 6 C is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Fig. 6 D is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Fig. 7 is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Fig. 8 is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Fig. 9 is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 10 is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 11 A is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 11 B is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 11 C is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 11 D is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 11 E is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 11 F is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 12 A-C is another a kind of schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 13 A is the perspective view of the part battery that is removed of other parts, for example a kind of in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3 and show FET and fin.

Figure 13 B is the plan view of the part battery shown in Figure 13 A.

Figure 13 C is the perspective view of the part battery that is removed of other parts, for example a kind of in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3 and show FET, fin and electrical connection in the battery.

Figure 14 A-E has comprised the view of the part battery shown in Figure 13 A.

Figure 15 is the perspective view of the part battery that is removed of other parts, for example a kind of in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3 and show FET and fin.

Figure 16 is another perspective view of the part battery that is removed of other parts, for example a kind of in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3 and show FET and fin.

Figure 17 is a kind of perspectivity profile of a part of the battery of replacing structure, comprises phase-change material.

Figure 18 is the profile of the part of the another kind of battery of replacing structure, comprises phase-change material and fin.

Figure 19 is the profile of the part of the another kind of battery of replacing structure, comprises phase-change material and fin.

Figure 20 A-B is the perspectivity profile of the part battery that is removed of other parts, for example a kind of in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 21 A-C is the schematic diagram that is used in such as the battery in the electric equipment of electric tool (for example in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3 a kind of).

Figure 22 is with another schematic diagram such as the battery of the electric equipment of electric tool (for example in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3 a kind of).

Figure 23 is another schematic block diagram of the battery that uses with the electric equipment such as electric tool (for example in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3 a kind of).

Figure 24 is the end view of the battery that uses with another electric equipment such as battery charger (for example in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3 a kind of).

Figure 25 is a kind of part schematic diagram in the battery shown in Fig. 1-3.

Figure 26-the 27th illustrates along with the cell voltage of the variation of time and the curve chart of cell voltage ratio.

Figure 28 is the schematic block diagram of a kind of structure of batter-charghing system.

Figure 29 is the schematic block diagram of the another kind of structure of batter-charghing system.

Figure 30 A-B shows the operation of the batter-charghing system shown in Figure 29.

Figure 31 is the schematic block diagram of existing battery.

Figure 32 is included in the schematic block diagram of the battery in the batter-charghing system of another kind of structure.

Figure 33 is the schematic block diagram of existing battery charger.

Figure 34 is included in the schematic block diagram of the battery charger in the another kind of structure.

Figure 35 is the perspective view of battery.

Figure 36 is the vertical view of the battery shown in Figure 35.

Figure 37 is the rearview of the battery shown in Figure 35.

Figure 38 is the rear view of the terminal block of the battery shown in Figure 35.

Figure 39 is the front perspective view of the terminal block of the battery shown in Figure 35.

Figure 40 is the battery shown in Figure 35 and such as the end view of the electric device of battery charger.

Figure 41 is the battery shown in Figure 40 and such as the schematic block diagram of battery charger.

Figure 42 is the perspective view of the battery charger shown in Figure 40.

Figure 43 is another perspective view of the battery charger shown in Figure 40.

Figure 44 is the vertical view of the battery charger shown in Figure 40.

Figure 45 is the perspective view of the terminal block of the battery charger shown in Figure 40.

Figure 46 is the perspective view of the inside part of the shell of the battery charger shown in Figure 40.

Figure 47 is the enlarged perspective of the part battery charger shown in Figure 46 and the terminal block that shows battery charger.

Figure 48 A has been to use the perspective view such as the electric equipment of electric tool of the battery shown in Figure 35.

Figure 48 B is the perspective view of the support section of the electric tool shown in Figure 48 A.

Figure 49 is the right side view of the battery shown in Figure 35.

Figure 50 is the left side view of the battery shown in Figure 35.

Figure 51 is the front view of the battery shown in Figure 35.

Figure 52 is the upward view of the battery shown in Figure 35.

Figure 53 is a kind of front perspective view of replacing the battery of structure.

Figure 54 is the rear view of the battery shown in Figure 53.

Figure 55 is the vertical view of the battery shown in Figure 53.

Figure 56 is the rearview of the battery shown in Figure 53.

Figure 57 is the front perspective view of existing battery.

Figure 58 is the rear view of the battery shown in Figure 57.

Figure 59 is the vertical view of the battery shown in Figure 57.

Figure 60 is the rearview of the battery shown in Figure 57.

Figure 61 is the schematic block diagram of the battery charger shown in the existing battery shown in Figure 57 and Figure 40.

Figure 62 is the perspective view of existing battery charger.

Figure 63 is the end view of the battery charger shown in Figure 62.

Figure 64 is another view of the battery charger shown in Figure 62.

Figure 65 is the schematic block diagram of the existing battery charger shown in the existing battery shown in Figure 57 and Figure 62.

Before describing any embodiment of the present invention in detail, should be appreciated that the present invention in its application, not being described below listed or in the accompanying drawings shown in the detail of structure and the restriction of the arrangement mode of element.The present invention can have other structure and can put into practice in every way or implement.Equally, should be appreciated that used in this manual term and term are to be used for purpose of description and should not to be considered to restricted effect." comprise (including) " in this specification, " comprising (comprising) " or " having (having) " and change and to be intended to comprise the listed clauses and subclauses in back and equivalent and other clauses and subclauses.Broadly use term " assembling (mounted) ", " connecting (connected) " and " being coupled (coupled) " and comprise direct with indirect assembling, be connected and coupling.In addition, " connect (connected) " and " coupling (coupled) " be not limited to physics or mechanical the connection or coupling and can comprise direct or indirect electrical connection and coupling.

Embodiment

Battery pack or battery 50 are shown in Fig. 1-3.Battery 50 can be arranged for transmitting energy to waiting on one or more electric equipments such as electric tool 55 (shown in Fig. 4-5), battery charger 60 (as shown in figure 24) and from its received energy.As in the structure shown in the Figure 4 and 5, battery 50 can transmit energy to such as annular saw 56 with drive on the various electric tools such as rig 58.In aspect some structures and some, battery 50 can provide high discharging current to the electric equipment with high current discharge rate (for example electric tool 55).For example, battery 50 can drive multiple electric tools 55 such as comprising annular saw 56 and driving rig 58, shown in Figure 4 and 5.

In aspect some structures and some, battery 50 can have any battery chemistries, for example plumbic acid, NI-G (" NiCd "), nickelous cyanide (" NiMH "), lithium (" Li "), lithium ion (" Li-ion "), other chemical substance or other rechargeable or non-rechargeable battery chemical substance based on lithium.In the structure that illustrates, battery 50 can have lithium, lithium ion or based on the battery chemistries of the chemical substance of lithium, and the average discharge current that is equal to or greater than about 20A can be provided.For example, in the structure that illustrates, battery 50 can have the chemical substance of lithium cobalt (" Li-Co "), lithium manganese (" Li-Mn ") spinelle or Li-Mn nickel.

In aspect some structures and some, battery 50 can also have any nominal voltage.In some structures, for example, battery 50 can have the nominal voltage of about 9.6V.In other structure, for example, battery 50 can have the nominal voltage up to about 50V.In these structures, for example, battery 50 can have the nominal voltage of about 21V.In other structure, for example, battery 50 can have the nominal voltage of about 28V.

Battery 50 also comprises the shell 65 that terminal support (terminal support) 70 can be provided.Battery 50 can also comprise the one or more battery terminal (not shown in Fig. 1-5) that supported by terminal support 70, and battery terminal can be connected to such as electric equipments such as electric tool 55, battery chargers 60.

In aspect some structures and some, shell 65 can fully surround the support circuit that is electrically connected to one or more battery terminal.In some structures, this circuit can comprise microcontroller or microprocessor.In some structures, this circuit can with communicate by letter such as electric equipments such as electric tool 55 (for example annular saw 56, drive rig 58 etc.), battery chargers 60, and the information that relevant one or more battery behaviors or situation can be provided is to these equipment, the for example chemical substance of the temperature of the nominal voltage of battery 50, battery 5, battery 50 and similarly characteristic are as following discussion.

The part of battery 50 schematically illustrated and battery 50 in Fig. 6 A-D, 7-10,11A-D and 12A-C is shown in Figure 13-16 and the 20A-B.As shown in the figure, battery 50 comprises one or more battery units 80 that have a kind of chemical substance and nominal voltage.Equally, each battery unit 80 can comprise positive terminal 90 and negative pole end 95.In some structures, the structure shown in Fig. 6 A and the C for example, battery 50 can have lithium ion battery chemical substance and approximately 18V or the approximately nominal voltage of 21V (for example deciding according to the type of battery unit), and can comprise five battery unit 80a, 80b, 80c, 80d and 80e.In other structure, the structure shown in Fig. 6 B and the D for example, battery 50 can have lithium ion battery chemical substance and approximately 24V, about 25V or the approximately nominal voltage of 28V (for example deciding according to the type of battery unit), and can comprise seven battery unit 80a, 80b, 80c, 80d, 80e, 80f and 80g.In other structure, battery 50 can have greater or less than top shown and described battery unit 80.In exemplary configurations, each battery unit 80 has the chemical substance of lithium ion, and each battery unit 80 have with such as about 3.6V, approximately 4V or the about essentially identical nominal voltage of 4.2V.

In some structures, two or more battery units 80 can arranged in series: the positive terminal 90 of a battery unit 80 is electrically connected with the negative pole end 95 of another battery unit 80, shown in Fig. 6 A and C.Battery unit 80 can be electrically connected by conductor wire or conductive strips 100.In other structure, battery unit 80 can be arranged in other mode, for example is arranged in parallel: the positive terminal 90 of battery unit 80a-e is electrically connected and negative pole end 95 electrical connection or series connection and the combination in parallel mutually of battery unit 80a-e mutually.As shown in Fig. 6 B and D, battery unit 80 can be coupled to circuit 130 independently.In some structures, circuit 130 can be arranged to various arrangement modes to battery unit 80, for example: be arranged in parallel, arranged in series (for example series connection of the battery unit shown in Fig. 6 A and the C 80), the independent arrangement (promptly from single battery unit 80 projected current or provide electric current to it), part are arranged in parallel (promptly minority battery unit 80 being arranged in series connection), part arranged in series (promptly minority battery unit 80 being arranged in parallel connection) or series connection, part series, parallel, the combination that partly is arranged in parallel.In some structures, be included in that circuit 130 in the battery 50 can pass through software (promptly by the performed program of processor, microprocessor 140 as discussed below) or hardware is for good and all set up these arrangements.In some structures, circuit 130 can be revised these arrangements by software or hardware (being one or more switches, logic element etc.).

Battery 50 can also comprise terminal block 105, and it can comprise the one or more battery terminal that supported by terminal support 70 (as shown in Figure 1).In the structure that illustrates, terminal block 105 can comprise anode terminal 110, cathode terminal 115 and inductive terminations 120.Anode terminal 110 can be electrically connected to the positive terminal 90 of the first battery unit 80a, and negative pole end 115 can be electrically connected to the negative pole end 95 (or battery unit 80g) of the second battery unit 80e.In the structure that illustrates, the first battery unit 80a is will be by first battery of the battery unit 80 of series connection link, and the second battery unit 80e or 80g are respectively will be by the battery unit 80a-e of series connection link or last battery of 80a-g.

As mentioned above, battery 50 can comprise circuit 130.Circuit 130 can be electrically connected to one or more battery units 80, and can be electrically connected to one or more battery terminal of terminal block 105.In some structures, circuit 130 can comprise the element of the performance that can strengthen battery 50.In some structures, circuit 130 can comprise can the monitoring battery characteristic, voltage detecting, storage battery characteristic are provided, show battery behavior, notify some battery behaviors of user, interrupt in the battery 50 electric current, detect battery 50 and battery unit 80 etc. temperature, from battery 50 and/or within it portion shift the element of heat.In aspect some structures and some, circuit 130 comprises voltage detecting circuit, booster circuit, state-of-charge indicator etc., as following discussion.In some structures, circuit 130 can be coupled to printed circuit board 145, as following discussion.In other structure, circuit 130 can be coupled to flexible circuit 145.In some structures, flexible circuit 145 can be around one or more batteries 80 or around the inside of shell 65.

In aspect some structures and some, circuit 130 can also comprise microprocessor 140.Microprocessor 140 can storage battery characteristic or battery identification information, for example battery chemistries, nominal voltage etc.In other structure and others, microprocessor 140 can be stored additional battery behavior, the for example number of the number of times that is recharged of battery temperature, temperature on every side, battery 50, number of times that battery 50 is recharged, various monitoring threshold value, various discharge threshold, various charge threshold etc., and can store the information of relevant microprocessor 140 oneself and the information of operation thereof, for example calculated frequency of battery behavior and/or number of times, microprocessor 140 stop the number of times of battery 50 etc.Microprocessor 140 can also controlling packet be contained in other electric device of the circuit 130 in the battery 50, as following discussion.

In aspect the structure that illustrates and some, microprocessor 140 can be electrically connected to printed circuit board (" PCB ") 145.In the structure that illustrates, PCB 145 can provide necessary electrical connection between the microprocessor in being included in battery 50 140 and terminal 110,115 and 120, battery unit 80a-g and other electric device, as following discussion.In other structure, this PCB145 can comprise additional circuit and/or element, for example Fu Jia microprocessor, transistor, diode, current limiting element, capacitor etc.

In aspect some structures and some, circuit 130 can also comprise the temperature sensing device, for example thermistor 150 and thermostat (not shown).The temperature sensing device can sensing be included in the temperature of the one or more battery unit 80a-g in the battery 50, temperature that can sensing entire cell 50, the temperature around perhaps can sensing etc.In some structures, the resistance value of thermistor 150 can be represented the temperature of sensed one or more battery unit 80a-g, and can change along with one or more battery unit 80a-g variation of temperature.In some structures, microprocessor 140 can be determined the temperature of one or more battery unit 80a-g according to the resistance value of thermistor 150.Microprocessor 140 can also be by coming the variation on monitoring temperature and the time relationship along with the mode of the change monitoring thermistor 150 of time.Microprocessor 140 can also send temperature information to such as the electric equipment of electric tool 55 and/or battery charger 60, and/or serviceability temperature information starts other element in some functions or the control battery 50, as following discussion.As shown in the structure that illustrates, thermistor 50 is assembled on the PCB 145.

In aspect some structures and some, circuit 130 can also comprise current state-of-charge indicator, for example at the fuel meter 155 shown in the structure that illustrates.Fuel meter 155 can comprise the light-emitting diode (" LED ") of the current charged state that is used to represent battery 50.In other structure, fuel meter 155 can comprise matrix and show.As shown in Fig. 1-3, fuel meter 155 can be positioned on the upper surface of battery case 65.In other structure, fuel meter 155 can be positioned on any position of shell 65, for example on the lower surface 158 of shell 65, in the side 159 of shell 65 one goes up, two or more first-class on the basal surface 161 of shell, on the rear surface 162 of shell 65, in the surface of shell 65 or the side.

In some structures, the fuel meter 155 that is positioned on the shell 65 of battery 50 can start by push-button switch 160.In other structure, the fuel meter can utilize to be waited automatically by the predefined time cycle of timer timing or predefined battery behavior and activate.In the structure that illustrates, fuel meter 155 can be electrically connected to microprocessor 140 by flat cable 165, and four LED 170a, 170b, 170c and 170d that provide LED to show can be provided.

In some structures, when button 160 was pressed, microprocessor 140 can be determined the current charged state (being how many electric charges of residue in the battery 50) of battery 50 and export charging level to fuel meter 155.For example, if the current charged state of battery 50 is about 100%, then all LED 170a, 170b, 170c and 170d will be opened by microprocessor 140.If the current charged state of battery 50 is about 50%, then have only two LED (for example LED 170a and 170b) to be opened.If the current charged state of battery 50 is about 25%, then have only a LED (for example LED 170a) to be opened.

In some structures, after button 160 was begun to press, this output can approximately show the predefined time cycle (promptly " showing the time cycle ") on fuel meter 155.In some structures, if the temperature of one or more battery unit 80a-g surpasses pre-set threshold, then microprocessor 140 can stop fuel meter 155 or export the output of working as the leading zero charged state.In some structures, even battery 50 residues have higher relatively charge stage, when detecting unusual battery behavior (for example high battery temperature), microprocessor 140 can stop fuel meter 155 or export the output of working as the leading zero charged state.In some structures, if the current charged state of the current charged state of battery 50 or one or more battery unit 80a-g is lower than pre-set threshold, microprocessor 140 can stop fuel meter 155 or export the output of working as the leading zero charged state.In some structures, no matter button 160 is to keep the state press or do not have, after the predefined time cycle (i.e. " cycle opening time "), microprocessor 140 can stop the output that the leading zero charged state is worked as in fuel meter 155 or output.In some structures, cycle opening time can equal to show the time cycle substantially, and in other structure, cycle opening time then can be greater than showing the time cycle.

In some structures, be at battery 50 (for example at charging and/or interdischarge interval) during time cycle of state of activation, when button 160 was pressed, microprocessor 140 was not activated fuel meter 155.During these time cycles, the current charging status information of battery can be suppressed, to avoid occurring the charged state reading of mistake.In these structures, when being lower than pre-set threshold, microprocessor 140 can only provide the information of current charged state when the electric current (for example charging current, discharging current, parasite current etc.) by battery 50, the button 160 that is pressed with response.

In some structures, be at battery 50 (for example at charging and/or interdischarge interval) during time cycle of state of activation, no matter whether button 160 is pressed, microprocessor 140 can both starting fluid meter 155.For example in a kind of structure, fuel meter 155 can move between charge period.In this structure, microprocessor 140 is starting fluid meter 155 automatically, to continue termly the current charged state that (for example draw/supply during in) shows battery 50 after certain pre-set time interval or at low current, to respond some battery behaviors (for example when current charged state reaches certain preset threshold, the for example rising of charged state each 5%), perhaps respond charging cycle interior some stages, pattern or change.In other structure, when battery 50 was in state of activation, microprocessor 140 can starting fluid meter 155, with pressing of response button 160.

In aspect some structures and some, fuel meter 155 can wait by contact plate, switch and start.In other structure, battery 50 can comprise another button or switch (not shown), is used for starting and stopping automatic display mode.In these structures, the user can select to make circuit 130 with automatic display mode operation with manual display mode operation.Automatically display mode can comprise the fuel meter 155 that is used for showing the current charged state of battery 50 under the situation that no user activates.For example, in automatic display mode, fuel meter 155 is the current charged state of (for example after certain pre-set time interval) demonstration battery 50 regularly, to respond some battery behaviors (for example when current charged state reaches certain preset threshold, for example rising or the decline of charged state each 5%) etc.Manually display mode can comprise the fuel meter 155 that is used to show current charged state, and with response user's activation, for example button 160 presses.In some structures, when circuit 130 moved with automatic display mode, button 160 can be disabled.In other structure, even when circuit 130 moves with automatic display mode, button 160 still can starting fluid meter 155.In other structure, automatically display mode can be by button 160, start and stop from the control signal of electric equipment (for example electric tool 55 or battery charger 60 etc.).

In some structures, circuit 130 can comprise booster circuit 171.Booster circuit 171 can provide extra power to the element that is included in the circuit 130 during low battery voltages, as following discussion.For example, microprocessor 140 may need the voltage source of an about 3V or about 5V, to carry out work.If the current charged state of battery 50 drops to about 5V or below the 3V, microprocessor 140 may not receive enough energy and moves with controlling packet and be contained in other element in the circuit 130 so.In other structure, booster circuit 171 can be lower input voltage " (boost) boosts " to higher output voltage, as following discussion.

The various structures of booster circuit 171 are shown in Figure 11 A-F.In a kind of structure, for example in the structure shown in Figure 11 A, booster circuit 171a may comprise power supply or power component, for example another battery unit 172.In some structures, the chemical substance of battery unit 172, nominal voltage etc. may be different with series connected battery unit 80.For example, battery unit 172 can be the 1.2V battery of lithium ion.

In some structures, when the charged state of the current combination of battery unit 80 drops to threshold value when following, booster circuit 171a can only provide energy other element to circuit 130 (for example microprocessor 140).In some structures, when the temperature of battery unit 80 drops to temperature threshold when following, and drop to low voltage threshold when following when the current combined charging state of battery unit 80, booster circuit 171a can only provide energy other element to circuit 130.In other structure, the duration of work under low temperature situation (for example battery pack temperature is lower than the low temperature threshold value, and perhaps Zhou Wei temperature is lower than the low temperature threshold value), booster circuit 171a can only provide energy other element to circuit 130.Booster circuit 171a can only provide power, " weakening (brown out) " situation (for example the voltage supply is not enough in cycle a period of time) occurs to prevent circuit 130 (for example microprocessor 140).This weakened condition may cause by cell voltage fluctuation, voltage fluctuation during low working temperature (for example battery pack temperature or environment temperature) more obviously or give prominence to.

For example in the another kind of structure shown in Figure 11 B, booster circuit 171b can comprise the parts 173 that boost, for example induction " flyback (flyback) " formula transducer, switching capacity transducer etc.Be similar to booster circuit 171a, this booster circuit 171b can provide energy other element to circuit 130, to respond various battery situations.

In another kind of structure, for example in the structure shown in Figure 11 C, booster circuit 171 can be capacitive character booster circuit 171c.As shown in the figure, capacitive character booster circuit 171c can comprise capacitor 174.During operation, capacitor can be by the discharge circuit of battery unit 80, from the signal of microprocessor or additional circuit charging.Be similar to booster circuit 171a, booster circuit 171c can provide energy other element to circuit 130, to respond various battery situations.

In another kind of structure, for example in the structure shown in Figure 11 D, booster circuit 171d can comprise transistor or switch 175.In some structures, switch 175 can be power field effect transistor (" FET "), as following discussion.In a kind of exemplary embodiment, switch 175 is FET.In some structures, booster circuit 171d can interrupt the discharging current regular hour, so that the current charged state of battery 50 is recovered.For example, owing to hang down battery temperature, low temperature on every side, high discharging current factors such as (for example heavy loads), significantly voltage fluctuation may appear in battery unit 80.By interrupting discharging current a period of time, the significantly fluctuation in the charged state may be retarded, and the voltage of battery unit 80 may raise.Activation and deactivation switch 175 can prevent from significantly to fluctuate and bring weakened condition to circuit 130.Be similar to booster circuit 171a, can activate booster circuit 171d, to respond some battery situations, for example low temperature, low battery charging state etc.In some structures, switch 175 can use with the capacitor 174 of circuit 171c, again capacitor 174 is charged.

In some structures, can activate (for example switch) repeatedly switch 175 in the frequency of setting or on the work period.In other structure, switch 175 can be activated in the mode that lags behind.For example, if the voltage of battery 50 reaches or drops to below the first threshold, an activator switch 175 then.The current charged state that the open mode of switch 175 (for example interruptive current) can remain to battery 50 returns to or surpasses second threshold value, and this second threshold value is usually greater than first threshold.In some structures, second threshold value is generally equal to first threshold.In some structures, the charged state of battery is consumed many more, and it is just long more that charged state need return to or reach time of second threshold value.In some cases, circuit 130 can also comprise a timer (not shown).When the expiration of very first time that timer kept and charged state did not return to second threshold value, so, circuit 130 can infer that battery 50 is discharged fully, and continues to make switch 175 to stay open state, enters over-discharge state to prevent battery 50.

In another structure, for example in the structure shown in Figure 11 E and the 11F, booster circuit 171 can be a capacitive charge pump booster circuit, for example booster circuit 171e and booster circuit 171f.In these structures, booster circuit 171e and 171f can be one or more lower voltage signals " (boost) boosts " to higher output voltage signals.As shown in Figure 11 e, booster circuit 171e can comprise one or more input 176a-f and one or more low-voltage inputs 179 that are used to receive one or more low voltage signals that are used to receive AC signal, control signal etc.This signal (for example AC signal and/or control signal) can be used to improve low voltage signal and increase is stored in the electric charge (or its voltage) in the capacitor 178 and is used for generating a higher voltage output signal in output 177.Be similar to booster circuit 171e, booster circuit 171f can also comprise one or more input 176a-d and one or more low-voltage inputs 179 that are used to receive one or more low voltage signals that are used to receive low-voltage AC power signal, control signal etc.In the exemplary embodiment, booster circuit 171e can boost to the input signal of about 3V the output signal of about 10V, and booster circuit 171f can boost to the input signal of about 3V the output signal of about 5V.

In some structures, booster circuit 171e and 171f can be at any time and during any battery situation the element in circuit 130 the higher voltage signal is provided.For example, booster circuit 171e can be provided for the output signal of driving power FET or switch, and as following discussion, and booster circuit 171f can be provided for driving one or more transistorized output signals, as following discussion.

In aspect some structures and some, circuit 130 can comprise semiconductive switch 180, when circuit 130 (for example microprocessor 140) was determined or sense the pre-set threshold situation that is higher or lower than (i.e. " unusual battery situation "), switch 180 interrupted discharging current.In some structures, unusual battery situation can comprise for example high or low battery cell temperature, high or low battery charging state, high or low battery unit charged state, high or low discharging current, high or low charging current etc.In the structure that illustrates, switch 180 comprises power fet or metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) FET (" MOSFET ").In other structure, circuit 130 can comprise two switches 180.In these structures, switch 180 can be arranged in parallel.Paralleling switch 180 can be included in the battery unit that high average discharge current (battery 50 of power to annular saw 56, driving rig 58 etc. for example is provided) is provided.

In some structures, circuit 130 can also comprise ON-OFF control circuit 182, with control switch 180 (or a plurality of switch 180, state if you are using).In some structures, ON-OFF control circuit 182 can comprise transistor 185, for example npn DJ transistor or field-effect transistor (" FET ").In these structures, circuit 130 (microprocessor 140) can come control switch 180 by the state that changes transistor 185.Shown in Fig. 7-9, the source electrode 190 of FET 180 can be electrically connected to the negative pole end 95 of battery unit 80a-e, and the drain electrode 195 of FET 180 can be electrically connected to cathode terminal 115.Switch 180 can be assembled in the 2nd PCB200 and go up (as shown in Figure 7).In aspect some structures and some, the structure shown in Figure 14 A-E for example, switch 180 can be assembled on the PCB 145.In other structure, switch 180 can be assembled on another suitable position or place.

In the exemplary embodiment, electric current flows to source electrode 190 in the drain electrode 195 of interdischarge interval by switch 180, and the source electrode 190 by switch 180 flows to drain electrode 195 between charge period.Ifs circuit 130 (for example microprocessor 140) detects unusual battery situation, and for example microprocessor 140 can be opened transistor 185, promptly transistor 185 is displaced to conducting state.When transistor 185 is in conducting state, there is not enough voltage to make switch 180 be in conduction state between the grid 205 of FET 180 and the source electrode 190.Therefore, FET 180 becomes non-conductive state, and electric current is interrupted.

In some structures, when switch 180 becomes non-conductive state, even never detect abnormal conditions, also reset switch 180 not.In some structures, circuit 130 (for example microprocessor 140) is ability reset switch 180 when indicating microprocessor 140 reset switch 180 such as the electric equipment of battery charger 60 only.In some structures, microprocessor 140 can be after the predefined time reset switch 180.In some structures, if microprocessor 140 detects unusual battery situation at interdischarge interval, microprocessor 140 can be changed into non-conductive state to the state of switch 180, also detects discharging current up to microprocessor 140 and is under the pre-set threshold (being the low discharge electric current).

In some structures, when battery 50 was discharging, switch 180 can be arranged to an interruptive current.That is, even when switch 180 is in non-conductive state, battery 50 also can be recharged.Shown in Figure 4 and 5, switch 180 can occlusion body diode 210, and in some structures, body diode 210 is synthetic whole with MOSFET and other transistor junction.In other structure, body diode 210 can be electrically connected to switch 180 in parallel.

In a further exemplary embodiment, when battery 50 is discharged (, in Fig. 5, being in the first position switch 215 on 220 makes electric current can flow through load 225 such as electric tool 55), electric current flows through battery 50 with direction 230, that is, flow to the source electrode 190 of FET 180 from the drain electrode 190 of FET 180.When battery 50 is recharged (, in Fig. 5, be in switch 215 on the second place 235 and make electric current can flow through electric equipment such as battery charger 60), electric current flows through battery 50 with direction 240, that is, flow to the drain electrode 195 of FET 180 from the source electrode 190 of FET 180.

In the present embodiment, when switch 180 was in non-conductive state, the electric current that flows with direction 230 can be interrupted.Therefore, battery 50 no longer provides discharging current to load 225.In some structures, the circuit 130 that for example comprises microprocessor 140 or adjunct circuit 250 (may or may not comprise microprocessor 140) can be changed into conduction state to the state of switch 180 from non-conductive state, when microprocessor 140 receives that indication or order allow it do like this.In some structures, microprocessor 140 and/or adjunct circuit 250 may be confiscated indication or order, therefore cannot change into conduction state to the state of switch 180 from non-conductive state.For example, battery 50 may seriously be discharged, and makes battery 50 not have enough energy to come drive circuit 130 at battery unit 80.If battery 50 does not have enough power to come drive circuit 130, communication between battery 50 and the electric equipment (for example battery charger 60) (being carried out by circuit 130) may not be carried out, electric equipment may not send a control signal to battery 50 so, with reset switch 180.In these situations, the body diode 210 that is included in the switch 180 may conduct the electric current (being charging current) that is provided by the electric equipment such as battery charger 60 with direction 240.This makes that the battery 50 that will be recharged can reset switch 180 and begin communication or charging, even switch 180 does not have conducting or receives enough electric charges at least with drive circuit 130.

In aspect some structures and some, whether circuit 130 (for example microprocessor 140) can the monitoring battery cell voltage abnormal conditions (for example low battery cell voltage) occur, and if detect abnormal conditions, can activator switch 180, to interrupt discharging current.In some structures, if cell voltage descends or is lower than certain voltage (for example battery " oppositely (reversal) " voltage), the situation of battery unit may appear damaging.In some structures, reverse battery occurs on about 0V.In some structures, microprocessor 140 or circuit 130 can be set up a reverse battery threshold value, as preventative prevention voltage.In some structures, the reverse battery threshold value can be arranged on the reverse battery voltage.In other structure, the reverse battery threshold value can be set as and be higher than reverse battery voltage.For example, the reverse battery threshold value can be made as about 1V.

In some cases, voltage " (depression) glides " (for example voltage is temporary descends significantly) may appear in battery 20 when beginning to discharge.Voltage glides normally temporary transient and the most obvious on low battery temperature.In some structures, voltage glides may drop to reverse battery threshold value or following.

Aspect some structures and some, circuit 130 (for example microprocessor 140) can comprise the various response times, with response or react on the battery behavior of being monitored.In some structures, the various response times can comprise a plurality of monitoring modes that are used for circuit 130.That is, when in detection and/or monitoring battery characteristic (for example charged state of the charged state of battery unit, battery and other similar battery behavior), circuit 130 (for example microprocessor 140) can move with various modes.For example, microprocessor 140 can comprise first pattern with first sampling rate and second pattern with second sampling rate.In some structures, first sampling rate can be set up and can be different from second sampling rate that also is set up.In other structure, first sampling rate may depend on first parameter, it may comprise for example one or more battery behaviors, one or more control signals from electric equipment (for example electric tool 55 or battery charger 60) etc., and may change according to first parameter.Similarly, second sampling rate also may depend on first parameter or second parameter (for example being similar to first parameter), and may change according to second parameter.In other structure, microprocessor 140 can comprise additional sampling rate and additional pattern, and it is discussed below.

In some structures, for example, microprocessor 140 can be with first pattern or " slowly " mode operation.In these structures, because gliding, voltage prolonged the response time, the operation under the slow mode may reduce the vigor of switch 180.In some structures, when the load on the battery 20 is not high and when need not fast response time (for example projected current is relatively low), microprocessor 140 can move with slow mode.In some structures, microprocessor 140 can move with slow mode, drops under the pre-set threshold for example about 10% charged state surplus up to the surplus of current battery charging state.

In the exemplary embodiment, when moving under slow mode, microprocessor 140 can be with slow rate (for example per second once) sampling cell voltage.Because microprocessor 140 is with the slow rate sampling, microprocessor 140 experiences the slower response time.In some structures, slow mode may be suitable and can reduce the parasite current of being drawn by circuit 130 (for example microprocessor 140 and adjunct circuit) for major part monitoring situation.In some structures, as long as cell voltage is higher than pre-set threshold or " mode switch " threshold value (for example 3.73V), then microprocessor 140 moves with slow mode.

In some structures, microprocessor 140 can be with second pattern or " soon " mode operation.In these structures, the operation under the fast mode can accelerate to be used to detect the response time of abnormal conditions.In some structures, when one or more cell voltages dropped to pre-set threshold or " mode switch " threshold value (for example 3.73V), microprocessor 140 can move with fast mode.In some structures, drop to pre-set threshold following time in current battery charging state surplus, for example about 10% charged state surplus, microprocessor 140 can move with fast mode.

In a further exemplary embodiment, when moving under fast mode, microprocessor 140 can be with rapid rate (for example 100 sampling of per second) sampling cell voltage.In some structures, before activator switch 180 took place, the battery cell voltage of being sampled by microprocessor 140 can average certain frequency in sampling.In some structures, when the mean value of 30 sampling was equal to or less than the reverse battery threshold value, microprocessor 140 is activator switch 180.Sampling is averaged the information of voltage that may numeral " filter (filtering) " be read by microprocessor 140, and, glide with electric current and/or the voltage of ignoring " pouring in (inrush) " for microprocessor 140 provides some time-delays.Sampling is averaged the information of voltage of the electrical noise that may " filter (filtering) " and be freed from the external speed control circuit and produce.In some structures, being used for average frequency in sampling can change according to type of the operational mode of microprocessor 140, monitored battery behavior etc.

In some structures, when moving under fast mode, if battery cell voltage drops to pre-set threshold (for example disconnecting threshold value) following a period of time (for example several seconds), microprocessor 140 can also activator switch 180.In some structures, disconnecting threshold value can be greater than the reverse battery threshold value.For example, disconnecting threshold value can be about 2V, and the reverse battery threshold value can be about 1V.In the situation below voltage drops to 1V, the response time can accelerate greatly (approximately 300ms magnitude).The various response times can reduce the tedious number of times of closing, and the battery that still can adequately protect.

In some structures, voltage threshold (disconnecting threshold value and reverse battery threshold value) can be heightened or turn down according to battery temperature by microprocessor 140.This makes and can be optimized according to the battery temperature characteristic.

In a further exemplary embodiment, microprocessor 140 can change the response time by the mode that change is used for average frequency in sampling.For example, can sample battery behavior, for example battery temperature of microprocessor 140.According to first pattern, average by battery temperature measurement 50 sampling, microprocessor 140 may have " slowly " response time.According to second pattern, average by battery temperature measurement 30 sampling, microprocessor 140 may have " soon " response time.In some structures, these measurements can be at the enterprising line sampling of identical speed.In other structure, these measurements can be at the enterprising line sampling of different speed.For example, first pattern can be sampled to these measurements on the speed of approximately 1 sampling of per second, and second pattern can be sampled to these measurements on the speed of approximately 10 sampling of per second.

In some structures, because microprocessor 140 can come the high discharging current of sensing by the monitoring battery cell voltage, microprocessor 140 can need not to use control and restriction projected current under the situation of electric grippe detecting device.For example, when high current loads caused battery cell voltage to drop to low-level (for example disconnecting the reverse threshold value of threshold value and/or battery unit) to go up, microprocessor 140 can activator switch 180 and is stopped battery 20.When cell voltage dropped on the certain level (for example disconnecting threshold value and/or reverse battery threshold value), microprocessor 140 can limit the electric current of drawing indirectly by monitoring cell voltage and the mode that stops battery 20.

In aspect some structures and some, circuit 130 (for example, in some structures, microprocessor 140) can regular monitoring battery situation (for example battery cell voltage/current charged state, battery cell temperature, battery voltage/current charged state, battery pack temperature etc.), to reduce the parasite current of from battery 50, drawing.In these structures, microprocessor 140 may move the first predefined time cycle (i.e. " the cycle length of one's sleep ") under " sleep " pattern.During sleep pattern, microprocessor 140 can be drawn low quiescent current from battery 50.After length of one's sleep period expires, microprocessor 140 may " (wake up) wakes up ", or in other words, the operation second predefined time cycle (i.e. " activationary time cycle ") under enable mode.During enable mode, microprocessor 140 can be monitored one or more battery situations.

In some structures, the cycle length of one's sleep can be greater than the activationary time cycle.In some structures, the ratio in activationary time cycle and the cycle length of one's sleep is very low, and it is low making the mean parasitized electric current draw.In some structures, known to time cycle of battery activity in, for example sense discharging current or charging current when approximating pre-set threshold greatly when microprocessor 140, this ratio can be regulated (for example raising).In some structures, when microprocessor 140 detected some voltages and/or temperature spy, the cycle length of one's sleep can be lowered and/or the activationary time cycle can be raised.

Aspect some structures and some, circuit 130 can comprise voltage detecting circuit 259.In some structures, voltage detecting circuit 259 can comprise the resistor 260 of a plurality of formation potential-divider networks.Shown in the structure, a plurality of resistors 260 can comprise resistor 260a-d as shown.A plurality of resistors 260 can be electrically connected to one or more battery unit 80a-g and a plurality of transistor 265.In the structure that illustrates, a plurality of transistors 265 can comprise transistor 265a-d or a-f.In some structures, the number that is included in the resistor in a plurality of resistors 260 can equal to be included in the transistor number in a plurality of transistors 265.

In some structures, when microprocessor 140 was in enable mode, the voltage characteristic of battery 50 and/or battery unit 80 can be read by a plurality of resistors 260 by microprocessor 140.In some structures, microprocessor 140 can begin the voltage readings incident by cutting out transistor 270 (transistor 270 becomes non-conductive state).When transistor 270 when being non-conductive, transistor 265a-d becomes conduction state, and battery 50 and/or battery unit 80 relevant voltage measurements can be carried out by microprocessor 140.A plurality of transistors 265 are covered to reduce the parasite current of drawing in the battery 50 in the battery 50, because transistor 265 conduction periodically just.

Aspect some structures and some, when battery 50 was electrically connected with electric equipment, microprocessor 140 was transferred to electric equipment such as electric tool 55 and/or battery charger 60 to electric properties of battery unit and/or situation.In some structures, microprocessor 140 is with the mode and the electric equipment digital communication of series connection.The sensing terminal 120 of battery 50 provides serial communication link between microprocessor 140 and electric equipment.The relevant information of the battery 50 that can exchange between microprocessor 140 and electric equipment includes, but is not limited to the residue life expectancy, discharge information of cycle-index, the estimation of current charged state, collimation technique/information, charging indication, the charging of current charged state, battery unit nominal voltage, battery pack temperature, the battery pack of battery pack chemical substance, battery pack nominal voltage, battery pack temperature, battery pack etc.

In some structures, when electrical connection is set up, can calibrate microprocessor 140 such as the electric equipment of battery charger 60.In some structures, the measuring circuit that is included in the battery charger 60 will be more accurate than the circuit that is included in the battery 50.Therefore, battery charger 60 calibrations are included in microprocessor 140 and/or the circuit 130 in the battery 50, to improve the battery measurement that is drawn by microprocessor 140 and/or circuit 130.

In some structures, circuit 130 can also comprise voltage regulator 273.Voltage regulator 273 can provide suitable voltage LED 170a-d and other any additional electrical components that needs the constant voltage input to microprocessor 140, fuel meter 155.In the structure that illustrates, this voltage regulator 273 can be exported the voltage of about 5V.

In aspect some structures and some, battery 50 can comprise fin 275.Fin 275 can be communicated by letter with power fet or switch 180 heat.Fin 275 can be used for the heat that is generated by switch 180 is removed from switch 180.

In aspect some structures and some, battery 50 can also comprise heat pipe (not shown) or fan (not shown), to increase the heat that transmits from fin 275.In order to remove the heat of being assembled by fin 275, heat pipe can be communicated by letter with fin 275 heat.Fan or hair-dryer can be positioned on the position of the cold air flow that can produce the fin 275 of flowing through.The air duct (not shown) can be placed in the shell 65 of battery 50, so that cold air enters battery pack 50 and make hot-air leave battery pack 50.In some structures, can place heat pipe and/or fan, assembling and/or to remove the heat that generates by battery unit 80a-e, and or replace the heat that generates by fin 275.

In aspect some structures and some, battery 50 can also comprise phase-change material 300 (referring to Figure 20-22).In these structures, can place phase-change material 300 to absorb and/or to remove the heat that generates by battery unit 80a-g and conductive link 100 (not shown in Figure 20-22).Since phase-change material 300 on phase transition temperature, change mutually (for example: from solid-state to liquid, from the liquid state to the gaseous state, from liquid state to solid-state, from the gaseous state to the liquid state etc.), lot of energy is absorbed or discharges (i.e. the latent heat of Rong Hua latent heat, evaporation etc.).Between tour, phase-change material 300 has relative steady temperature in this phase.

In the exemplary embodiment, when load was applied on the battery unit 80, the temperature of battery unit 80 can raise.In some structures, as shown in figure 20, phase-change material 300 can surround each battery unit 80.In these structures, the heat that is generated by battery unit 80 at first is passed to the outer surface 305 of battery unit 80, the phase-change material 300 around being passed to then.Because phase-change material 300 continues to absorb the heat from battery unit 80 and conductive link 100, the temperature of phase-change material 300 may rise.When the temperature of phase-change material 300 reached phase transition temperature, phase-change material 300 began to carry out the transformation mutually of from first to second phase, and the temperature of phase-change material 300 remains unchanged relatively and approximates phase transition temperature greatly simultaneously.In some structures, phase-change material 300 may be proceeded to change mutually, up to phase-change material 300 be converted to fully second mutually and/or load removed (be battery unit 80 no longer produces hot) from battery unit 80.

In aspect some structures and some, phase-change material 300 can have greater than the expection environment temperature and less than the phase transition temperature of the largest battery cell temperature that allows.In aspect some structures and some, phase-change material 300 can have the phase transition temperature between-34 ℃-116 ℃.In aspect some structures and some, phase-change material 300 can have the phase transition temperature between 40 ℃-80 ℃.In aspect some structures and some, phase-change material 300 can have the phase transition temperature between 50 ℃-65 ℃.

Phase-change material 300 can be any suitable phase-change material, per unit mass has high latent heat, can be that heat is capable of circulation, inertia, non-corrosive, free of contamination, can comprise solution, polyethylene glycol, stearic acid and the combination thereof of eutectic mixture (for example eutectic mixture of the salt that can obtain), halogenated hydrocarbons of solid paraffin (for example can be positioned at the paraffin that the Rubitherm  of Hamburg, Germany obtains), salt and composition thereof, salt hydrate from the Climator that is positioned at Sweden Skovde from general headquarters.

The replacement structure of battery 50A is shown in Figure 21 and 22.Identical assembly has identical reference character " A ".

In the structure that illustrates, battery 50A can also comprise fin 275A, so that the heat of battery unit 80A is dispersed on the bigger zone of phase-change material 300.Fin 275A can also be used to the hot memory capacity that provides extra, to absorb and/or to remove the heat of being produced by battery unit 80A.

In some structures, fin 275A can comprise an assembly (not shown) around each and all battery unit 80a-e.In other structure, fin 275A can comprise a plurality of, make each battery unit 80A by fin 275A fully around, shown in Figure 21 and 22.In other structure, as shown in figure 21, fin 275A can comprise the interior column part 320 adjacent with the outer surface of battery unit 80A, with interior column part 320 apart outside cylinder part 325 radially, and radial rib 330, radial rib 330 mutual circumference apart, column part 320 and outside cylinder part 325 and define interval 335 between them in connecting.This interval 335 can be filled by phase-change material 300A.Also can be used for encapsulating a plurality of battery unit (not shown) with similar structures shown in Figure 21.In other structure, fin 275A can comprise aforesaid radial rib 330, and need not to use in interior column part 320 and the outside cylinder part 325 one or two.

Replace in the structure at another, as shown in figure 22, fin 275B can comprise aforesaid interior column part 320B and radial rib 330B, and phase-change material 300B can be from battery unit 80B and fin 275B skew.Should be appreciated that also and can use other fin and phase change material structure.Fin 275 can be made up of metal (for example aluminium), polymer (for example nylon) and/or any material that other has high thermal conductivity and specific heat.

In aspect some structures and some, battery 50 may comprise shock absorber part or " buffer " 340.Shown in Figure 20 A and B, the inner surface 345 of battery case 65 can comprise one or more shock absorber parts 340.In some structures, shock absorber part 340 can be attached to or be fixed on the inner surface 345 of shell 65.In other structure, shock absorber part 340 can be connected to one or more battery units 80 or surround the end cap 350 (part shown in Figure 16) of an end of battery unit 80.In some structures, shock absorber part 340 can absorb the energy in when bump, and the mode that is delivered to the quantity of the energy on the battery unit 80 by restriction during clashing into is protected battery unit 80.Shock absorber part 340 can comprise any thermoplastic elastomer, for example polypropylene RPT 100 FRHI (for example HI high impact polypropylene flame redardant).

Shown in Figure 21 A-C, 22 and 23, battery 50 can be arranged to be connected with electric equipment such as electric tool 55.Electric tool 55 comprises shell 400.The coupling part 405 that this shell can provide battery 50 to be attached thereto.Coupling part 405 can comprise one or more electric equipment terminals (schematically illustrated in Figure 22), so that battery 50 is electrically connected to electric tool 55.Being included in terminals in the electric tool 55 is configured to and is included in terminals 110,115 and/or 120 couplings in the battery 50 and be used to receive power and/or information from battery 50.

In some structures, schematically illustrated structure among Figure 21 A-C for example, electric tool 55 can comprise microcontroller or microprocessor 420, to communicate by letter with battery 50, to receive from the information of battery 50, the operation of control electric tool 55 and/or the discharge process of control battery 50.In the structure that illustrates, electric tool 55 can comprise the anode terminal 430 of the anode terminal 110 that is connected to battery 50, the cathode terminal 435 of cathode terminal 115 that is connected to battery 50 and the sensing terminal 440 that is connected to the sensing terminal 120 of battery 50.Microprocessor 420 can be electrically connected to each terminal 430,435 and 440.

No matter whether battery 50 comprise microprocessor (for example microprocessor 140), microprocessor 420 can both be communicated by letter with battery 50 or receives information from battery 50 by sensing terminal 440.Comprise in the structure of microprocessor (for example microprocessor 140) at battery 50, can carry out duplex communication by sensing terminal 120 and 440.Microprocessor 140 and 420 is exchange message back and forth, and for example battery behavior, electric tool running time and electric tool require (for example nominal current and/or voltage).

Do not comprise in the structure of microprocessor at battery 50, one or more assemblies or elements in microprocessor 420 periodic measurements or the detection battery 50, to determine battery behavior and/or cell work information, for example battery chemistries, nominal voltage, current battery charging state, battery cell voltage, temperature etc.Microprocessor 420 can be controlled the operation of electric tool 55 according to these and other battery behavior and job information.

For example, in some structures, microprocessor 420 can be compiled to detecting battery temperature, and if battery temperature be higher than threshold temperature, then stop to drive electric tool 55.In this example, microprocessor 420 regularly detects the resistance of the thermistor 150 that is positioned at battery 50, and determines the temperature in instrument run duration (promptly when the motor 450 in the instrument 55 is moving) battery pack 50.Then, microprocessor 420 determines whether the temperature of battery 50 is in the suitable working range.This can by in the one or more temperature ranges of microprocessor 420 stored, microprocessor 420 can be realized the mode of the temperature of detected battery 50 and these one or more temperature range comparisons.If the temperature of battery 50 is not in the suitable working range, microprocessor 420 interrupts from the electric current of battery 50 and/or cuts out motor 450.In some structures, microprocessor 420 continues forbidding motors 450 and/or interrupts electric current from battery 50, drops in the suitable temperature range up to the temperature of battery 50.Determine that at microprocessor 420 temperature of batteries 50 is not in some structures in the suitable working range, microprocessor 420 detects up to it and just stops motor 450 when offering the low discharge electric current of motor 450 by battery 50.In some structures, when microprocessor 420 detects battery 50 by when electric tool 55 is removed, motor 450 is restarted (being that electric tool 55 can move).

In aspect some structures and some, electric tool 55 can also comprise fan or hair-dryer 470, passes through instrument 55 and battery pack 50 to impel cold air, shown in Figure 21 B.So, battery unit 80a, fin 275, heat pipe (not shown) and/or power fet or switch 180 (if being included in the battery 50) can be cooled off by air flowing.In this structure, battery 50 and electric tool 55 comprise one or more air ducts, so that cold air enters and hot-air is come out.Electric tool 55 comprises one or more air channels 475 of going into, and in the structure that illustrates, goes into the top that air channel 475 is located substantially on electric tool shell 400.This electric tool 55 also comprises one or more exhaust passages 480, and it is located substantially on the bottom of the coupling part 405 of electric tool 55.Being included in exhaust passages 480 in the electric tool 55 also can be placed to the air channel (not shown) of going into of battery 50 is located substantially on below it.In the structure that illustrates, be included in motor 485 drive fan 470 in the electric tool 55.In some structures, be included in the operation of the microprocessor 490 control fans 470 in the electric tool 55.If during pre-set time interval and/or detect high battery temperature, then microprocessor 490 can activate fan 470.

Shown in Figure 21 C, the circuit 130 that is included in the battery 50 can be given the microcontroller 420 that is included in the electric tool 55 state transfer of charge information.In this structure, the microcontroller 420 in the electric tool 55 can be included on instrument 55 shells or the fuel meter 115a of the inside on show the charging status information of battery.In this structure, fuel meter 155a can be similar to the fuel meter 155 that is included in the battery 50, and (for example automatic display mode, manual display mode etc.) operation by in an identical manner.In some structures, fuel meter 155a can comprise button 160 and comprise greater or less than LED (for example LED 170a-d) shown and that describe.

As shown in figure 23, be included in circuit 130 in the battery 50 and also can be used to control operation such as the electric equipment of electric tool 55.In the structure shown in this, electric tool 55 comprises motor 450, by user activated trigger switch 491, speed control circuit 492, electric clutch 493 and brake 494.Instrument 55 also comprise the anode terminal 105 that is connected to battery 50 anode terminal 900, be connected to the cathode terminal 901 of the cathode terminal 110 of battery 50, and two the sensing terminal 902a and the 902b that are connected to two sensing terminal 120a of battery 50 and 120b.In other structure, electric tool 55 and battery 50 can have greater or less than terminal shown and that describe.

In this structure, circuit 130 can provide instrument speed control and monitoring battery group parameter or characteristic.Power MOSFET or switch 180 can control tool 55 the switching function of speed control circuit.In this structure, the power MOSFET that is used for speed control control circuit 492 can be included in the battery 50 rather than in the electric tool 55.

As shown in figure 24, battery 50 also can be arranged to be connected with electric equipment such as battery charger 60.Battery charger 60 comprises shell 500.The coupling part 505 that shell 500 provides battery 50 to be attached thereto.Coupling part 505 can comprise one or more electric equipment terminal (not shown), and battery 50 is electrically connected to battery charger 60.Being included in terminals in the battery charger 60 is configured to and is included in the terminals coupling in the battery 50 and be used to transmit and receive energy and information from battery 50.

In aspect some structures and some, battery charger 60 also comprises microprocessor or microcontroller 510.The transmission of the energy between microcontroller 510 control batteries 50 and the battery charger 60.In some structures, the transmission of Information between microcontroller 510 control batteries 50 and the battery charger 60.In some structures, microcontroller 510 is discerned and/or the one or more characteristics or the situation of definite battery 50 according to receiving from the signal of battery 50.Equally, microcontroller 510 can be controlled the work of charger 60 according to the evident characteristics of battery 50.

In aspect some structures and some, battery charger 60 carries out charging scheme or method to battery 50 chargings according to the temperature of battery 50.In a kind of structure, battery charger 60 provides charging current to battery 50, the temperature of regular simultaneously detection or monitoring battery 50.If battery 50 does not comprise microprocessor, the resistance of battery charger 60 periodic measurement thermistor (for example thermistor 150) after the predefined time cycle.If battery 50 comprises microprocessor (for example microprocessor 140), so battery charger 60 or: 1) if regularly inquire about microprocessor 140 to determine that battery temperature and/or battery temperature be not in suitable working range; Perhaps 2) wait for and receiving from microprocessor 140 and the expression battery temperature signal in suitable working range not.

In some structures, when battery temperature surpassed pre-set threshold or do not drop in the suitable working range, battery charger 60 interrupted charging current.Battery charger 60 continuation detection regularly or monitoring battery temperature or wait receive from microprocessor 140 and represent the not signal in suitable working range of battery temperature.In the time of in battery temperature is in suitable working range, battery charger 60 can restart to offer the charging current of battery 50.Battery charger 60 continues the monitoring battery temperature, and interrupts and restart charging current according to detected battery temperature.In some structures, after the predefined time cycle or when current battery charging state reaches pre-set threshold, battery charger 60 stops charging.

In aspect some structures and some, battery 50 and/or can detect unbalanced battery unit in the battery 50 such as the electric equipment of electric tool 55 and battery charger 60.In some structures, such as two groups in the microprocessor monitoring battery unit 80 of microprocessor 140,420,490 and/or 510 (" monitoring microprocessor "), and the voltage ratio that uses two battery pack judges the battery imbalance, rather than monitors each battery unit 80a-e individually.

For example, the part of battery 600 is shown in Figure 25.In some structures, battery 600 is similar to battery 50, and comprises microprocessor 140.In other structure, battery 600 does not comprise microprocessor.In the structure that illustrates, battery 600 comprises five battery unit 605a, 605b, 605c, 605d and 605e, and each all has essentially identical nominal voltage, for example about 4V.

Battery unit 605a-e is aligned to two groups: group 610 and group 615.Group 610 comprises battery unit 605a and 605b, and group 615 comprises battery unit 605c and 605d and 605e.

Battery 600 also comprises the voltage V that group 615 two ends are provided 615The lead-in wire or the tap 620 of (being the total voltage of battery unit 605c and 605d and 605e).When battery unit 605a-e is full of electricity basically, the voltage V of group 615 615Approximate 12V greatly.Voltage V TBe the voltage of crossing over all battery unit 605a-e.When battery unit 605a-e is full of electricity basically, voltage V TApproximate 20V greatly.

Monitoring microprocessor organized can monitoring voltage V 615And V TIn some structures, microprocessor continues or monitors V termly 615And V T, and calculate measured voltage V 615And V TBetween ratio R.This ratio R is determined by following formula:

R=V 615/V T

When battery unit 605a-e was in a basic balance, ratio R approximated 0.6 greatly.If one or more battery units of first group 610 are unbalanced (promptly having the current battery charging state or the cell voltage that are lower than other battery) during charge or discharge, ratio R will be higher than 0.6.If one or more battery imbalances of second group 615 during charge or discharge, ratio R will be lower than 0.6.If two battery units during charge or discharge (one from first group 610 and one from second group 615, for example battery 605a and battery 605e) imbalance, then ratio R will be higher than 0.6.In other words, if unbalanced battery unit, ratio R is with the equilibrium ratio of forward or negative offset 0.6.If monitoring microprocessor detects the imbalance of battery unit, promptly calculate ratio R and be higher or lower than 0.6 equilibrium ratio substantially, the operation of battery 600 (promptly charge and/or when) is interrupted or changes.In aspect some structures and some, if ratio R is included in about 0.55 in about 0.65 scope, then the operation of battery 600 is interrupted or changes.

Figure 26 and 27 be illustrate when occur at battery 600 uneven and during this period ratio R how to be offset the curve chart of example of the voltage of balance.In this example, each battery 605a-e has the nominal voltage of about 4V, and the equilibrium ratio of ratio R is about 0.6 or 60.0%.

In the structure that illustrates, axle 700 expressions are the time of unit with the second, and axle 705 expressions are the voltage of unit with the volt, and the ratio or the percentage of axle 710 expression volts/volts.Line 715a represents the time dependent voltage of battery unit 605a, and line 715b represents the time dependent voltage of battery unit 605b, and line 715c represents the time dependent voltage of battery unit 605c.Line 715d represents the time dependent voltage of battery unit 605d, and line 715e represents the time dependent voltage of battery unit 605e, and the time dependent ratio R of line 720 expressions.

In the example that illustrates, uneven (being represented by numeral 725 on the curve chart) approximately occurred on 86 seconds.This imbalance 725 is caused by the battery unit 605e that is included in the group 615.(t=86 second) at this moment, ratio 720 begins to reduce or be offset 0.6 equilibrium ratio of (promptly 60%).Because ratio 720 descends, can judge that uneven battery is in group 615.When ratio R on about 91 seconds near 55.0% the time (in Figure 24 by numeral 730 expressions), the voltage of battery unit 605e is about 1V.In some structures, monitoring microprocessor detects ratio R and has dropped to approximately 55.0%, stops the operation of battery 600 then, further discharges to avoid battery 605e.

In some structures, monitoring microprocessor is monitored the voltage of each battery unit, rather than uses ratio measures (ratiometric) method of monitoring such as microprocessor 140.As mentioned above, battery 50 comprises a plurality of resistors 260, is used to provide the voltage measurement to battery unit 80.A plurality of resistors 260 are aligned to the voltage that makes microprocessor 140 can measure each battery unit 80a-g basically simultaneously.In some structures, when one or more battery units 80 reached about 1V, microprocessor 140 detected the imbalance of battery 50.

In some structures aspect some in, when detecting imbalance, battery 50 or 600 is balancing battery unit 80a-g or 605a-e again.In some structures, in the time of in equilibrium ratio R no longer is in acceptable scope, monitoring microprocessor stops battery 50 or 600 (for example interrupt battery operation, stop battery operation etc.).After battery 50 or 600 was stopped, monitoring microprocessor was judged which battery unit 80a-e or 605a-e imbalance (" low-voltage battery ").

In some structures, monitoring microprocessor activates or opens each transistor (for example transistor 265a-f) that is electrically connected to those battery units 80a-e not low in current charged state or 605a-e (being that battery has the current charged state that is higher than low-voltage battery).Monitoring microprocessor begins to have the battery unit 80a-e of high current charged state or the controlled discharge of 605a-e.For example, monitoring microprocessor will be controlled each transistorized little discharging current of flowing through from the battery unit 80a-e of balance or 605a-e.In whole controlled discharge process, monitoring microprocessor will be proceeded the voltage measurement of battery unit 80a-e or 605a-e.When the current charged state of battery unit 80a-e with higher charged state or 605a-e is lowered to when approximating previous low-voltage battery greatly, monitoring microprocessor will finish controlled discharge process.

In some structures, monitoring microprocessor utilizes the controlled discharge process to come actuation indicator, for example makes all the LED 170a-d flickers on the fuel meter 155.In this structure, for example, the LED 179a-d of flicker indicates that battery 50 or 600 is stopped and/or again in the process of balance 80a-e or 605a-e to operator or user.

Another schematic block diagram of battery 50 is shown in Figure 28.In some structures, circuit 130 comprises the electronic component such as identification resistor 750, and identification resistor 750 can have the resistance of setting.In other structure, electronic component can be that capacitor, inductor, transistor, semiconductive element, circuit or other have the element that resistance maybe can send the signal of telecommunication, for example microprocessor, digital logic element etc.In the structure that illustrates, the resistance value of identification resistor 750 can be selected according to the characteristic (for example nominal voltage of battery unit 80 and chemical substance) of battery 50.Sensing terminal 120 can be electrically connected to identification resistor 750.

Can be electrically connected to electric equipment as battery schematically illustrated in Figure 28 50, to receive or transmission of power such as battery charger 820 (schematically illustrated equally).Battery charger 820 can comprise anode terminal 825, cathode terminal 828 and sensing terminal 830.Each terminal 820,828,830 (difference) of battery charger 820 is electrically connected to the counterpart terminal 110,115,120 of battery 50.Battery charger 820 also comprises the circuit that has electronic component, for example first resistor 835, second resistor 840, solid-state electric device or semiconductor 855, comparator 860 and processor or microprocessor (not shown).In some structures, semiconductor 855 can comprise can be at operation under saturated or " opening " state and the transistor that can move under disconnection or " closing " state.In some structures, comparator 860 can be specialized voltages monitoring device, microprocessor or processing unit.In other structure, comparator 860 can be included in the microcontroller (not shown).

In some structures, the microcontroller (not shown) can be weaved into to discerning the resistance value of the electric device (for example discerning resistor 750) in the battery 50.Microcontroller can also be weaved into to determining one or more characteristics of battery 50, for example battery chemistries of battery 50 and nominal voltage.As mentioned above, the specific value that the resistance value of identification resistor 750 can be related with one or more definite battery behaviors is corresponding.For example, the resistance value of identification resistor 750 can be included in the resistance value scope corresponding with the chemical substance of battery 50 and nominal voltage.

In some structures, microcontroller can be weaved into to identifying a plurality of resistance ranges of identification resistor 750.In these structures, each scope is corresponding with a battery chemistries (for example NiCd, NiMH, Li-ion etc.).In some structures, microcontroller can identify additional resistance range, and each is all corresponding with another battery chemistries or another battery behavior.

In some structures, microcontroller can be weaved into to identifying a plurality of voltage ranges.Be included in that voltage in these voltage ranges can depend on or, make microcontroller can determine the resistance value of resistor 750 according to measured voltage corresponding to the resistance value of identification resistor 750.

In some structures, each feasible nominal voltage value that the resistance value of identification resistor 750 can also be chosen as for battery 50 all is unique.For example, in a resistance value scope, the first special resistors value can be corresponding with the nominal voltage of 21V, and the second special resistors value can be corresponding with the nominal voltage of 16.8V, and the 3rd special resistors value can be corresponding with the nominal voltage of 12.6V.In some structures, more or less special resistors value can be arranged, each is all corresponding to the possible nominal voltage of the battery related with this resistance range 50.

In the exemplary embodiment, battery 50 is electrically connected to battery charger 820.In order to discern first battery behavior, semiconductor 855 switches to " opening " state under the control of adjunct circuit (not shown).When semiconductor 855 was in " opening " state, identification resistor 750 and resistor 835 and 840 constituted the voltage potential-divider network.This network is established voltage V in first reference point 875 AIf the resistance value of resistor 840 is significantly less than the resistance value of resistor 835, voltage V so AThe resistance value of identification resistor 750 and resistor 840 will be depended on.In this embodiment, voltage V ABe in the scope of determining by the resistance value of identification resistor 750.The microcontroller (not shown) is measuring voltage V on first reference point 875 A, and according to voltage V ADetermine the resistance value of identification resistor 750.In some structures, microcontroller is voltage V ACompare with a plurality of voltage ranges, to determine battery behavior.

In some structures, the first identified battery behavior can be comprised battery chemistries.For example, the resistance value of the arbitrary 150k of being lower than ohm can represent that battery 50 has the chemical substance of NiCd or NiMH, and arbitrary about 150k ohm or above resistance value can represent that battery 50 has the chemical substance of Li or Li-ion.When microcontroller is determined and identified the chemical substance of battery 50, can select suitable charging algorithm or method.In other structure, a plurality of resistance ranges are arranged, each is all corresponding to another battery chemistries in the non-above-mentioned example.

Continue this exemplary embodiment is discussed, in order to discern second battery behavior, semiconductor 855 switches to " closing " state under the control of adjunct circuit.When semiconductor 855 switched to " closing " state, identification resistor 750 and resistor 835 constituted the voltage potential-divider network.Now, the voltage V on first reference point 875 AResistance value by identification resistor 750 and resistor 835 is determined.The resistance value of identification resistor 750 is chosen as the voltage V that makes on second reference point 880 BATTSubstantially equal the nominal voltage of battery 50, make the voltage V on first reference point 875 ASubstantially equal the voltage V on the 3rd reference point 885 REFIf the voltage V on first reference point 875 ASurpass the fixed voltage V on the 3rd reference point 885 REF, the output V of comparator 860 OUTChange its state.In some structures, this exports V OUTCan be used to stop charging or the designator of additional function, for example maintenance program, equilibrium code, discharging function, near discharge scheme etc. to start with.In some structures, voltage V OUTIt can be fixed reference potential.

In some structures, the second identified battery behavior can be comprised the nominal voltage of battery 50.For example, the general formula that is used to calculate the resistance value of identification resistor 750 can be:

R 100 = V REF R 135 V BATT V REF

R wherein 100Be the resistance value of identification resistor 750, R 135Be the resistance value of resistor 835, V BATTBe the nominal voltage of battery 50, and V REFBe fixed voltage, for example about 2.5V.For example, in resistance value scope for lithium ion (above set), the resistance value that is used to discern about 150k ohm of resistor 750 can be corresponding to the about nominal voltage of 21V, approximately the resistance value of 194k ohm can be corresponding to the nominal voltage of about 16.8V, and approximately the resistance value of 274.7k ohm can be corresponding to the nominal voltage of about 12.6V.In other structure, more or less special resistors value can be corresponding to additional or different battery pack nominal voltage values.

In the structure that illustrates, identification resistor 750 and the 3rd reference point 885 can all be placed on " height " end of current-sense resistor 890.When charging current occurring, place identification resistor 750 and the 3rd reference point 885 by this way and can slow down V AAnd V REFBetween any relevant voltage fluctuation.If identification resistor 750 and the 3rd reference point 885 are referred to ground 895, and charging current is applied on the battery 50, and voltage fluctuation may appear at voltage V AOn.

In some structures, battery charger 820 can also comprise the charger controlled function.As mentioned above, as voltage V ASubstantially equal voltage V REFThe time (expression voltage V BATTEqual the nominal voltage of battery 50), the output V of comparator 860 OUTThe change state.In some structures, as the output V of comparator 860 OUTDuring the change state, no longer provide charging current to battery 50.When in case charging current is interrupted, cell voltage V BATTBegin to descend.As voltage V BATTWhen reaching lower threshold value, the output V of comparator 860 OUTChange state once more.In some structures, voltage V BATTLower threshold value determine by the resistance value of hysteresis resistor 898.Output V when comparator 860 OUTWhen changing state once more, charging current is set up once more.In some structures, this circulation repeats by the predefined number of times of microcontroller or repeats to change number of times by certain state that comparator 860 is made.In some structures, this circulation is repeated until that battery 50 removes from battery charger 820.

In aspect some structures and some, the circuit 130 of battery 50 also can indicate one or more battery behaviors.In some structures, battery behavior comprises for example nominal voltage and the temperature of battery 50.Circuit 130 comprises electric recognition component or identification resistor 910, temperature sensing device or thermistor 914, first current limiting device or protectiveness diode 918, second current limiting device or protectiveness diode 922 and capacitor 926.Identification resistor 910 has the fixed resistance value corresponding with one or more definite battery behaviors.In some structures, the resistance value of identification resistor 910 is corresponding to the nominal voltage of battery 50 or battery unit 80.In some structures, this resistance value is corresponding to the chemical substance of battery 50.In some structures, this resistance value is corresponding to two or more battery behaviors or corresponding to different battery behaviors.The resistance value of thermistor 914 is represented the temperature of battery unit 80, and changes along with the change of battery unit 80 temperature.Sensing terminal 930 is electrically connected to circuit 130.

As schematically illustrated in Figure 29, battery 50 is electrically connected to the electric equipment such as battery charger 942 (schematically illustrated equally).Battery charger 942 comprises anode terminal 946, cathode terminal 950 and sensing terminal 954.Similar with the mode of battery 50 shown in Figure 28 and battery charger 820, the anode terminal 934 of battery 50, cathode terminal 938 and sensing terminal 930 are electrically connected to anode terminal 946, cathode terminal 950 and the sensing terminal 954 of battery charger 942 respectively.Battery charger 942 also comprises such as the control circuit of control device, processor, microcontroller or controller 958 and electronic component or resistor 962.

The operation of battery 50 and battery charger 942 will be discussed with reference to Figure 29 and 30A-B.In some structures, when battery 50 is electrically connected to battery charger 942, and capacitor 926 is when beginning to discharge, and controller 958 is the voltage V on first reference point 964 ABe increased to about first threshold.In some structures, first threshold is about 5V.As shown in Figure 30 A, controller 958 is greatly about time T 1The time voltage V ABe increased to first threshold.

When first threshold is applied on first reference point 964, in battery 50 and battery charger 942, set up first current path.First current path comprises resistor 962, capacitor 926, first diode 918 and identification resistor 910.As voltage V AWhen approximately being elevated to first threshold, the voltage V that controller 958 is measured on second reference point 966 OUTVoltage V on second reference point 966 OUTBe elevated to very soon on the voltage of being established by the voltage potential-divider network, the diode 918 that the voltage potential-divider network is passed through by identification resistor 910, resistor 962 and forward voltage decline is formed.In some structures, voltage V OUTScope will be from about 0V to small in voltage V AAs shown in Figure 30 B, greatly about time T 2Last voltage V OUTOccur raising, and controller 958 is greatly about time T 2Or time T 2Measuring voltage V in the time of after a while OUTIn some structures, time T 2Approximate time T greatly 1In some structures, almost in time T 1Time of occurrence T immediately afterwards 2Time T 2Can later appearance according to measuring tolerance.

In a kind of structure, by the voltage V of controller 958 measurements OUTCorresponding to the resistance value that is used to discern resistor 910.This resistance value is corresponding to the nominal voltage of battery 50.In some structures, along with the reduction of identification resistor 910 resistance values, voltage V OUTAlso and then raise.

In the structure that illustrates, when capacitor 926 is filled electricity, voltage V OUTSubstantially be elevated to voltage V at last AAfter capacitor 926 was filled electricity, controller 958 was the voltage V on first reference point 964 ABe reduced to second threshold value.In some structures, second threshold value is about 0V.Shown in Figure 30 A, controller 958 is greatly about time T 3Last voltage V ABe reduced to second threshold value.

When second threshold value is applied on first reference point 964, in battery 50 and battery charger 942, set up second current path.Second current path comprises resistor 962, capacitor 926, second diode 922 and thermistor 914.As voltage V AWhen being reduced to about second threshold value, controller 958 is measured the voltage V on second reference point 966 once more OUTVoltage V on second reference point 966 OUTBe reduced to very soon on the voltage of being established by the voltage potential-divider network, the diode 922 that the voltage potential-divider network is passed through by thermistor 914, resistor 962 and forward voltage decline is formed.In some structures, voltage V OUTScope will be from about 0V to small in voltage V AAs shown in Figure 30 B, greatly about time T 4Last voltage V OUTOccur descending, and controller 958 is greatly about time T 4Or time T 4Measuring voltage V in the time of after a while OUTIn some structures, time T 4Approximate time T greatly 3In some structures, almost in time T 3Time of occurrence T immediately afterwards 4In some structures, time T 4Can later appearance according to measuring tolerance.

In a kind of structure, by controller 958 in time T 4The voltage V of last measurement OUTCorresponding to the resistance value that is used for thermistor 914.This resistance value is corresponding to the temperature of battery 50.In some structures, along with the decline of thermistor 914 resistance values, voltage V OUTIncrease.

In some structures, capacitor 926 provides DC barrier functionality.Capacitor 926 prevents that existing battery charger (for example can not discern the battery charger such as newer power tool battery chemical substance such as lithium or lithium ion chemical substance, and not have the battery charger that is used for the required corresponding charging algorithm of this newer chemical substance) can charge to the battery pack that has circuit 130.

Existing power tool battery 968 is schematically illustrated in Figure 31, and the another kind of structure of battery 970 is schematically illustrated in Figure 32.With reference to figure 31-34, another batter-charghing system comprises the battery 968 and 970 that embodies various aspects of the present invention, existing battery charger 972 (as shown in figure 33) and battery charger 974 (as shown in figure 34) simultaneously.

With reference to Figure 31, existing battery 968 comprises the one or more battery units 976 that all have a kind of chemical substance and a kind of nominal voltage is provided.Typically, normally plumbic acid, NiCd or NiMH of the chemical substance of battery unit 976.Battery unit 976 comprises positive terminal 978 and negative pole end 980.Anode terminal 982 is electrically connected to the positive terminal 978 of battery unit 976, and cathode terminal 984 is electrically connected to the negative pole end of battery unit 976.

Battery 968 also comprises electronic component or thermistor 986.The resistance value of thermistor 986 is represented the temperature of battery unit 976, and changes with battery unit 976 variation of temperature.In some structures, the resistance value of thermistor 986 is comprised in first scope of resistance value.Existing battery charger 972 can identify the resistance value of the thermistor 986 in first scope that is in, and correspondingly existing battery 968 is charged.For example, first scope of resistance value comprises and approximates greatly and less than the resistance value of 130k ohm.If the resistance value of thermistor 986 is not included in first scope of resistance value, existing battery charger 972 can not charge to existing battery 968.Existing battery 968 also comprises the sensing terminal 988 that is electrically connected to thermistor 986.

Shown in figure 32, battery 970 comprises the chemical substance that all has a kind of battery 970 and one or more battery units 990 that a kind of nominal voltage is provided.Normally, the chemical substance of battery unit 990 comprises for example lithium, lithium ion or another chemical substance based on lithium.Battery unit 990 comprises positive terminal 992 and negative pole end 993.Anode terminal 994 is electrically connected to the positive terminal 992 of battery unit 990, and cathode terminal 995 is electrically connected to the negative pole end 993 of battery unit 990.

Battery 970 also comprises two sensing terminals 996 and 997.The first sensing terminal 996 is electrically connected to first electric device or identification resistor 998, and the second sensing terminal 997 is electrically connected to second electric device or temperature sensing device or thermistor 999.In some structures, the resistance value of identification resistor 998 be not comprised in can first scope by the resistance value of existing battery charger 972 identifications in.For example, the resistance value of identification resistor 998 approximately is equal to or greater than ohm in 150k.The resistance value of thermistor 986 is represented the temperature of battery unit 990, and changes with battery unit 990 variation of temperature.

As shown in figure 34 and in most of structure, battery charger 974 comprises anode terminal 1001, cathode terminal 1002, the first sensing terminal 1003 and the second sensing terminal 1004.The first sensing terminal 1003 of battery charger 974 or be electrically connected to the first sensing terminal 996 of battery 970 perhaps is electrically connected to the sensing terminal 988 of existing battery 968.

As shown in figure 33 and in most of structure, existing battery charger 972 comprises anode terminal 1005, cathode terminal 1006 and sensing terminal 1007.The sensing terminal 1007 of existing battery charger 972 or be electrically connected to the first sensing terminal 996 of battery 970 or be electrically connected to the sensing terminal 988 of existing battery 968.

When existing battery 968 was electrically connected to battery charger 974, the second sensing terminal 1004 of battery charger 974 was not electrically connected to any battery terminal.In some structures, the control device, microprocessor, microcontroller or the controller 1008 that are included in the new battery charger 974 are determined the resistance value of thermistor 986 by the first sensing terminal 1003, and battery 968 is identified as has NiCd or NiMH chemical substance.Charging method or algorithm that controller 1008 selects to be applicable to existing battery 968 according to the chemical substance and the temperature of battery 968.Battery charger 974 correspondingly charges to existing battery 968.

When battery 970 was electrically connected to battery charger 974, the second sensing terminal 1004 of battery charger 974 was electrically connected to the second sensing terminal 997 of battery 970.In some structures, controller 1008 is determined the resistance values of identification resistors 998, and battery 970 is identified as has for example lithium, lithium ion or other chemical substance based on lithium.For example, identification resistor 998 approximately or greater than the resistance value of 150k ohm corresponding to lithium, lithium ion or other chemical substance based on lithium.

In some structures, the resistance value of identification resistor 998 is further selected according to the nominal voltage of battery 970.For example, the resistance value of about 150k ohm of identification resistor 998 represents that battery 970 has the nominal voltage of about 21V.The resistance value of about 300k ohm is corresponding to the nominal voltage of about 16.8V, and the resistance value of about 450k ohm is corresponding to the nominal voltage of about 12.6V.In some structures, along with the rising of identification resistor 998 resistance values, the nominal voltage of battery 970 descends.In some structures, controller 1008 is also determined the resistance value of thermistor 385.Controller 1008 selects to be applicable to the charging method or the algorithm of battery 970 according to chemical substance, nominal voltage and/or the temperature of battery 970.Battery charger 974 correspondingly charges to battery 970.

When existing battery 968 was electrically connected to existing battery charger 972, the sensing terminal 1007 of battery charger 972 was electrically connected to the sensing terminal 988 of existing battery 968.In some structures, if the resistance value of thermistor 986 is included in first scope of resistance value, be included in microcontrollers 1009 in the existing battery charger 972 and determine the resistance value of thermistors 986, and battery 968 is identified as has for example NiCd or NiMH chemical substance.Existing battery charger 972 is determined the temperature of existing battery 968 according to the resistance value of thermistor 968, and selects to be applicable to the charging method or the algorithm of battery 968 according to its temperature.Battery charger 972 correspondingly charges to existing battery 968.

When battery 970 was electrically connected to battery charger 974, the sensing terminal 1007 of existing battery charger 972 was electrically connected to the first sensing terminal 996 of battery 970.The second sensing terminal 997 of battery charger 970 is not electrically connected to any battery charger terminal of existing battery charger 972.In some structures, microcontroller 1009 is determined the resistance value of identification resistor 998.In some structures, the resistance value of identification resistor 998 is not included in first scope of the resistance value that is identified by microcontroller 1009.Because microcontroller 1009 can not be discerned battery 970, existing battery charger 972 is not carried out charging method or algorithm.Battery 970 can not be charged by existing battery charger 972 by power block or " pinning ".

Another battery 1030 that embodies various aspects of the present invention is shown in Figure 35-37,40-41,48A and the 49-52.Battery 1030 can be similar to the battery 50 shown in Fig. 1-5.For example, battery 1030 can be connected to electric equipment or the device such as cordless power tool 1034 (shown in Figure 48 A), to drive electric tool 1034 selectively.Battery 1030 can be removed from electric tool 1034, and can be recharged by battery charger 1038 (shown in Figure 40-44).

Shown in Figure 35-37, battery 1030 can comprise shell 1042 and at least one rechargeable battery unit 1046 (schematically illustrated in Figure 41) by shell 1042 supports.In the structure that illustrates, battery 1030 can be the 21V battery pack that comprises the 18V battery pack of five about 3.6V battery units 1046 that are connected in series (illustrates) or comprise five about 4.2V battery units 1046 that are connected in series (illustrates).In other structure (not shown), battery 1030 can have another nominal battery voltage, and for example 9.6V, 12V, 14.4V, 24V, 28V etc. charge with the driving electric device with by battery charger 1038.Should be appreciated that in other structure (not shown) battery unit 1046 can have different nominal battery cell voltage and/or can for example be connected in parallel or the parallel/series connection in another structure.

Battery unit 1046 is any rechargeable battery unit chemical types, for example NI-G (NiCd), nickelous cyanide (NiMH), lithium (Li), lithium ion (Li-ion), other chemical substance based on lithium, other rechargeable battery unit chemical substance etc.In the structure that illustrates, battery unit 1046 is lithium ionic cell units.

Shell 1042 can provide support part 1050, is used to be supported on the battery 1030 such as on electric tool 1034 or the battery charger 1038.In the structure that illustrates, support section 1050 can provide C shape cross section (referring to Figure 37), and it can be connected to T shape cross section support section complementary on the electric equipment.Shown in Figure 35-37, support section 1050 can comprise the cross bar 1054 that extends and define groove 1062 along back shaft 1058.Center spine 1066 can also be provided, with the surface engagement of electric equipment support section.Groove 1070 (with reference to figure 35-36) can be defined in the ridge 1066, makes ridge 1066 have horizontal outwardly directed part 1072.

Battery 1030 can also comprise (referring to Figure 35-37) locked component 1074, and it can be locked in battery 1030 on the electric equipment, for example is locked on electric tool 1034 and/or the battery charger 1038.In some structures, locked component 1034 can comprise the locking piece 1078 that can move between latched position and non-locked position, on latched position, the corresponding locking piece on locking piece 1078 and the electric equipment engages, so that battery 1030 is locked on the electric equipment.Locked component 1074 can also comprise actuator 1082, is used for mobile locking piece 1078 between latched position and non-locked position.The offset member (not shown) can make locking piece 1078 skews to latched position.

Battery 1030 can also comprise (referring to Figure 35-39 and 41) terminal block 1086, can be electrically connected to circuit in the electric equipment to battery unit 1046.Terminal block 1086 can comprise the terminal enclosure 1090 that (referring to Figure 35-37) provided by shell 1042.In aspect the structure that illustrates and some, can in terminal enclosure 1090, provide window or opening 1094.Terminal block 1086 can comprise (referring to Figure 35,37-39 and 41) positive battery terminal 1098, grounding terminals 1102, the first sensing terminal 1106 and the second sensing terminal 1110.As schematically illustrating among Figure 41, terminal 1098 and 1102 is connected to the opposite ends of a battery unit or a plurality of battery unit 1046.

Sensing terminal 1106 and 1110 can be connected to the electric device 1114 and 1118 in the circuit that is connected battery 1030 respectively.The information of sensing terminal 1106 and the relevant battery 1030 of 1110 transmission is to electric equipment.For example, an electric device (for example electric device 1114) that is connected to sensing terminal 1106 can be the recognition component such as resistor, with the identifying information of transmission to the characteristic of battery 1030 (for example the nominal voltage of the chemical substance of battery unit 1046, battery 1030 etc.).Other electric device (for example electric device 1118) that is connected to sensing terminal 1110 can be temperature sensing device or thermistor, with the temperature of transmission battery 1030 and/or battery unit 1046.

In other structure, electronic component 1114 and 1118 can be other suitable electronic component that can generate the signal of telecommunication, for example microprocessor, controller, digital logic element etc., perhaps electric device 1114 and 1118 can be other suitable passive electric components, for example resistor, capacitor, inductor, diode etc.

Should be appreciated that in other structure (not shown), electronic component 1114 and 1118 can be the electronic component of other type, and can transmit other characteristic or the information of relevant battery 1030 and/or battery unit 1046.Should be appreciated that be used for electronic component 1114 and 1118 " transmission " (communication) with " communication " (communicate) " can also the letter lid have or be in the electric device 1114 and/or 1118 that maybe can determine the circumstance or state that the device of the circumstance or state of electric device 1114 and/or 1118 senses by sensor.

As shown in figure 39, terminal 1098,1102 and 1106 can be oriented at face P parallel to each other substantially respectively 1, P 2And P 3On.Terminal 1110 can be oriented in face P 4On, in the structure that illustrates, face P 4With all other face P 1, P 2And P 3In at least one is not parallel.In a kind of structure, face P 4Can with face P 1, P 2And P 3Vertically.Terminal 1098,1102,1106 and 1110 can be along each A 1, A 2, A 3And A 4Extend, and in the structure that illustrates, terminal shaft A 1, A 2, A 3And A 4Be parallel to (referring to Figure 35 and 37) back shaft 1058.

Shown in Figure 40-44, the battery charger 1038 that embodies various aspects of the present invention can be connected to battery 1030 (as shown in figure 40), and can be to battery 1030 chargings.The charging circuit 1126 (schematically illustrated in Figure 41) that battery charger 1038 can comprise charger case 1122 and be supported by shell 1122, and can be connected to the power supply (not shown).Charging circuit 1126 can be connected to the terminal block 1086 (schematically illustrated in Figure 41) of battery 1030, and can operate and be used for through-put power to battery 1030, so that battery unit 1046 is charged.

Aspect some structures and some, charging circuit 1126 can operate in the U.S. Patent No. 6 of publishing with on September 24th, 2002,456,035 and the U.S. Patent No. 6 of publishing April 24 calendar year 2001, same way as described in 222,343 (being incorporated herein by reference) is charged to battery 1030.In other structure, charging circuit 1126 can operate in submit on January 17th, 2003 and sequence number be that same way as described in 60/440,692 the U.S. Provisional Application (all contents are incorporated herein by reference) is charged to battery 1030.

Shown in Figure 42-44, shell 1122 can be provided for the cell support part 1130 of support cells 1030.Support section 1130 can have (referring to Figure 42) general T shape cross section, the C shape cross section complementation of the support section 1050 of it and battery 1030.Support section 1130 can comprise (referring to Figure 42-44) extends and define groove 1142 along back shaft 1138 cross bar 1134.This support section 1130 can also comprise the surface 1146 that engages with ridge 1066.

Ledge or rib 1150 can 1146 extensions from the surface.When battery 1030 was placed on the support section 1130, rib 1150 can substantially transversely be aimed at locking piece 1078, so that locking piece 1078 is fixed on the latched position.In a kind of structure, rib 1150 is lowerd to guarantee that rib 1150 does not engage with ridge 1066 on the support section 1050 of battery 1030, and prevention battery 1030 is connected to battery charger 1038.

Battery charger 1038 can also comprise (referring to Figure 41-47) terminal block 1154, and it can operate in the terminal block 1086 (as schematically showing among Figure 41) that charging circuit 1126 is electrically connected to battery 1030.Shown in Figure 42-44 and 46-47, the terminal enclosure 1158 that is provided by support section 1130 can be provided terminal block 1154.Terminal block 1154 can also comprise (referring to Figure 41-47) anode terminal 1162, cathode terminal 1166, the first sensing terminal 1170 and the second sensing terminal 1174.Charger terminal 1162,1166,1170 and 1174 can be connected respectively to battery terminal 1098,1102,1106 and 1110 (as schematically illustrating among Figure 41).

Charger terminal 1162,1166,1170 and 1174 can be connected to charging circuit 1126.Charging circuit 1126 can comprise the microcontroller 1178 of the charging that is used to control battery 1030.Microcontroller 1178 can operate in the electronic component 1114 and 1118 the circumstance or state of sensing battery 1030 or communicate with, with the one or more characteristics and/or the situation of identification battery 1030, for example temperature of the chemical substance of the nominal voltage of battery 1030, battery unit 1046, battery 1030 and/or battery unit 1046 etc.According to the judgement that controller 1178 has been done, controller 1178 can be controlled charging circuit 1126, correctly battery 1030 is charged.

Shown in Figure 35,37-39, battery terminal 1098,1102 and 1106 can be protruding blade (male blade) terminal.As shown in figure 42, charger terminal 1162,1166 and 1170 can be a female terminal, and it can operate in and receive protruding blade terminal 1098,1102 and 1106.Battery terminal 1110 (referring to Figure 35-39) and charger terminal 1174 (referring to Figure 42-44) can provide the joint of cantilever (cantilever) spring.In the structure that illustrates (referring to Figure 42-44), charger terminal 1174 can be extended with the direction that is basically perpendicular to back shaft 1138, with combination that inclination is provided with contact with battery terminal 1110.

Battery 1030 can be connected to the electric device such as electric tool 1034 (shown in Figure 48 A), with driven tool 1034.Electric tool 1034 comprises shell 1182, to support the electro-motor 1184 (schematically illustrating) that is optionally driven by battery 1030.Shell 1182 can provide the support section 1186 of support cells 1030 (referring to Figure 48 B) in the above.Support section 1186 has general T shape cross section, the C shape cross section complementation of the support section 1050 of itself and battery 1030.Support section 1186 has also defined lock slots 1188 (illustrating), and in its inside, locking piece 1078 can be used for battery 1030 is locked in electric tool 1034.

Electric tool 1034 can also comprise the terminal block 1190 (part is shown in Figure 48 B) of the terminal block 1086 that can be connected to battery 1030, so energy can be transferred to electric tool 1034 from battery 1030.In the structure that illustrates, terminal block 1190 can comprise the terminal 1098 that connects battery 1030 respectively and 1102 anode terminal 1194 and cathode terminal 1198.

Be to be understood that, in other structure (not shown), terminal block 1190 can comprise the attaching terminal (not shown) that can be connected to sensing terminal 1106 and/or 1110, so that the information of relevant battery 1030 (for example situation of one or more characteristics of battery 1030 and/or battery 1030) can be transferred to electric tool 1034 or by its sensing.In this structure, electric tool 1034 can comprise the controller (not shown), judging being transmitted or the information of sensing of relevant battery 1030, and controls the operation of electric tool according to these information.

The replacement structure of battery 1030A that embodies various aspects of the present invention is shown in Figure 53-56.Identical assembly has identical reference character " A ".

Shown in Figure 53-56, battery 1030A can comprise the shell 1042A that supports one or more battery units (not shown, but be similar to battery unit 1046).Battery 1030A can comprise the support section 1050A (referring to Figure 56) with general C shape cross section, it and the support section 1130 (referring to Figure 42) of battery charger 1038 and support section 1186 (referring to Figure 48 B) complementation of electric tool 1034 are so that battery 1030A can be connected to battery charger 1038 and electric tool 1034.

Shown in Figure 53-56, support section 1050A can comprise ridge 1066A.Shown in Figure 55, ridge 1066A can extend to a cross side (among Figure 55 lower cross side), so that horizontal outwardly directed part 1072A to be provided.

For some structures and some parts, additional autonomous behavior, the structure of battery 1030A and operate in above described in further detail.

When battery 1030A is placed on the support section 1130 of battery charger 1038, lower rib 1150 (as shown in figure 42) does not engage with the part 1072A of extension of ridge 1066A on the support section 1050A of battery 1030A, so battery 1030A is prevented from being connected to battery charger 1038.

Figure 57-61 shows existing battery 1230.Battery 1230 can comprise shell 1242 and at least one rechargeable battery unit 1246 (schematically illustrated in 61) by shell 1242 supports.In the structure that illustrates, battery 1230 can be the 18V battery pack that comprises 15 about 1.2V battery units 1246 that are connected in series.In other structure (not shown), battery 1230 can have another nominal battery voltage (for example 9.6V, 12V, 14.4V, 24V etc.) to drive electric device and to be charged by battery charger 1038.Should be appreciated that in other structure (not shown) battery unit 1246 can have different nominal battery cell voltage and/or can for example be connected in parallel or the parallel/series connection in another structure.Battery unit 1246 is any rechargeable battery chemical type, for example NiCd or NiMH.

Shown in Figure 57-60, shell 1242 can provide support part 1250, is used to be supported on the battery 1230 such as on electric tool 1034 (shown in Figure 48) or the battery charger 1038 (shown in Figure 42).In the structure that illustrates, support section 1250 can provide C shape cross section (referring to Figure 60), and it can be connected to the complementarity T shape cross section support section (at support section on the electric tool 1,034 1186 (shown in Figure 48 B) and the support section 1130 (shown in Figure 42) on battery charger 1038) on the electric equipment.Shown in Figure 57-60, support section 1250 can comprise along back shaft 1258 and extends and the cross bar 1254 of definition groove 1262, and center spine 1266 can be provided, with the surface engagement of electric equipment support section.This ridge 1266 can have basic linear and not interrupted lateral surfaces 1272.Ridge 1266 does not provide horizontal outwardly directed part (as the part 1072 (shown in Figure 36) of the extension of battery 1030 or as the part 1072A (shown in Figure 55) of the extension of battery 1030A).

Battery 1230 can also comprise (referring to Figure 57-60) locked component 1274, and it can be locked in battery 1230 on the electric equipment, for example is locked on electric tool 1034 (shown in Figure 48 A) and/or the battery charger.Locked component 1274 can comprise the locking piece 1278 that (referring to Figure 57-60) can move between latched position and non-locked position, on latched position, corresponding locking piece (for example lock slots 1188 on the electric tool 1034) on locking piece 1278 and the electric equipment engages, so that battery 1230 is locked on the electric equipment.Locked component 1274 can also comprise actuator 1282, is used for mobile locking piece 1278 between latched position and non-locked position.The offset member (not shown) can make locking piece 1278 skews to latched position.

Battery 1030 can comprise (referring to Figure 58 and 60) terminal block 1286, and it can operate in battery unit 1246 is electrically connected to the interior circuit of electric equipment.The terminal enclosure 1290 that is provided by shell 1242 can be provided terminal block 1286.Terminal block 1286 can comprise positive battery terminal 1287, grounding terminals 1302 and sensing terminal 1306.Shown in Figure 58 and 60, terminal 1298,1302 and sensing terminal 1306 are fixed in the face parallel to each other substantially, and along each extension that is parallel to back shaft 1258.

As schematically illustrating among Figure 61, terminal 1298 and 1302 is connected to the opposite ends of a battery unit or a series of battery unit 1046.Sensing terminal 1306 can be connected to the electronic component 1314 in the circuit that is connected battery 1230.In the structure that illustrates, electronic component 1314 can be temperature sensing device or thermistor, with the temperature of transmission battery 1230 and/or cell device 1246.

As schematically illustrating among Figure 61, battery 1230 can be connected to battery charger 1038, and battery charger 1038 can operate in battery 1230 chargings.Battery terminal 1298,1302 and 1306 can be connected to three charger terminal 1162,1166 and 1170 respectively.Microcontroller 1178 can be discerned battery 1230 (or definite battery 1230 is not battery 1030 or battery 1030A) and discern the situation of electronic component 1314 or thermistor, with the temperature of sensing battery 1230.Microcontroller 1178 can be controlled the charging of battery 1230.

Battery 1230 can be supported on the support section 1130 of battery charger 1038.Rib 1150 (shown in Figure 42) can be not engage with ridge 1266 (shown in Figure 57-60) on the support section 1250 of battery 1230, so battery 1230 is prevented from being connected to battery charger 1038.

Battery 1230 can be connected to the electric device such as electric tool 1034 (shown in Figure 48 A), to drive electric tool 1034.Battery 1230 can be supported on the support section 1186 of electric tool 1034 (shown in Figure 48 B), and can be connected to motor 1184 (schematically illustrated in Figure 48 A), with CD-ROM drive motor 1184.

Figure 62-65 shows another kind of battery charger 1338.The charging circuit 1346 (schematically illustrated in Figure 65) that battery charger 1338 can comprise charger case 1342 and be supported by shell 1342, and can be connected to the power supply (not shown).Charging circuit 1346 can be connected to the terminal block 1286 of battery 1230, and can through-put power to battery 1230, so that battery unit 1246 is charged.

Shown in Figure 62-64, shell 1342 can be provided for the cell support part 1350 of support cells 1230.Support section 1350 can have (referring to Figure 62) general T shape cross section, the C shape cross section complementation of the support section 1250 (referring to Figure 60) of it and battery 1230.This support section 1350 can comprise (referring to Figure 62-64) extends and define groove 1362 along back shaft 1358 cross bar 1354.Support section 1350 can also comprise the surface 1366 that engages with ridge 1266.

Ledge or rib 1370 can 1366 extensions from the surface.Rib 1370 can extend fartherly from the surface 1146 of battery charger 1038 than rib 1150 from the distance that surface 1366 (referring to Figure 43-44) extend.When battery 1230 was placed on the support section 1350, rib 1370 was along the edge tilt (referring to Figure 59) of ridge 1266, so that battery 1230 can be connected to battery charger 1338.The ridge 1266 of battery 1230 in the horizontal can be narrower than the ridge 1066 of battery 1030, and can not comprise the part 1072 of stretching out.

If shown in the 62-65, battery charger 1338 can also comprise terminal block 1374, and it can be electrically connected to charging circuit 1346 terminal block 1286 of battery 1230.The terminal enclosure 1378 (referring to Figure 62-64) that is provided by support section 1350 can be provided terminal block 1374.Terminal block 1374 can also comprise positive battery terminal 1382, cathode terminal 1386 and sensing terminal 1390.As schematically illustrating among Figure 65, charger terminal 1382,1386 can be connected battery terminal 1298,13022 and 1306 respectively with 1390.

Charging circuit 1346 can comprise the microcontroller 1394 of the charging that is used to control battery 1230.Controller 1394 is determined the temperature of battery 1230 by the situation of sensing electronic component 1314 or thermistor.According to the judgement that controller 1394 has been done, controller 1394 can be controlled charging circuit 1346, correctly battery 1230 is charged.

In the exemplary embodiment, if the user attempts to connect battery 1030 to battery charger 1338, the part of battery charger 1338, the rib 1370 (shown in Figure 62) that for example protrudes upward can stop battery 1030 to be connected to battery charger 1338.When battery 1030 is placed on the support section 1350, the part 1072 of the extension of the lateral widening of the ridge 1066 on the support section 1050 of rib 1370 and battery 1030 engages (shown in Figure 36), is connected to battery charger 1338 fully to stop battery 1030.Rib 1370 is placed on the support section 1370, so that the terminal block 1086 of battery 1030 is not connected with the terminal block 1374 of charger 1338.

In certain aspects, the invention provides have additional communication or sense path such as the battery of battery 1030 or 1030A and/or such as the battery charger of battery charger 1038.In certain aspects, the invention provides can be to having the additional communication or the battery pack of sense path (for example battery 1030 or 1030A) and not having additional communication or charger (for example charger 1038) that the battery pack (for example battery 1230) of sense path is charged.In certain aspects, the invention provides " mechanical caging ", to prevent that battery such as battery 1030 or 1030A is connected to the charger such as existing charger 1338, the battery such as battery 1030 or 1030A can use together with corresponding existing electric equipment (for example electric tool 1034) simultaneously.

Top describe and the structure that goes out shown in the figure be with shown in the mode of example and not as restriction to notion of the present invention and principle.Equally, those of ordinary skill in the art should be appreciated that under the situation that does not deviate from the defined the spirit and scope of the present invention of claims various changes on assembly and structure and arrangement mode all are feasible.

Claims (107)

1. an execution contains the method for the operation of battery pack, and described method comprises the following steps:
Monitor the first battery pack situation with the first monitoring rate;
Judge when the second battery pack situation reaches threshold value;
After the second battery pack situation reaches threshold value, monitor the first battery pack situation with the second monitoring rate, the second monitoring rate is different from the first monitoring rate.
The method of claim 1, wherein when the second battery pack situation be to equal at least and/or during greater than this threshold value, carry out described first monitoring step.
The method of claim 1, wherein when the second battery pack situation be to equal at least and/or during less than this threshold value, carry out described second monitoring step.
4. the method for claim 1, the wherein said first battery pack situation is a battery voltage.
5. the method for claim 1, the wherein said second battery pack situation is a battery voltage.
6. the method for claim 1, the wherein said first battery pack situation is identical battery pack situation with the second battery pack situation.
7. method as claimed in claim 6, the wherein said first battery pack situation and the second battery pack situation are battery voltages.
8. the method for claim 1, the wherein said first monitoring rate is slower than the described second monitoring rate.
9. the method for claim 1, the wherein said second monitoring rate is faster than the first monitoring rate.
10. the method for claim 1, and further be included in the step of through-put power between battery pack and the electric equipment.
11. comprising from battery pack, method as claimed in claim 10, wherein said transmitting step provide the step of power, to move described electric equipment to electric equipment.
12. method as claimed in claim 11, and further comprise the following steps:
Judge when the second battery pack situation reaches second threshold value; And
The power of interruption from the battery pack to the electric equipment provides, to interrupt the operation of electric equipment.
13. the method for claim 1, wherein said battery pack comprises battery unit, and the wherein said first battery pack situation is a battery cell voltage.
14. the method for claim 1, wherein said battery pack comprises battery unit, and the wherein said second battery pack situation is a battery cell voltage.
15. the method for claim 1, and further comprise the step of connection controller to battery pack, this controller is carried out monitoring step and determining step.
16. the method for claim 1, wherein said battery pack are the power tool battery groups, and wherein said method further comprises the step of connection battery pack to electric tool.
17. the method for claim 1, wherein at least one in the first monitoring rate and the second monitoring rate is the stationary monitoring rate.
18. the method for claim 1, the wherein said first monitoring rate are about 1 measurement/per seconds.
19. method as claimed in claim 18, the wherein said second monitoring rate are about 100 measurement/per seconds.
20. the method for claim 1, wherein at least one in the first monitoring rate and the second monitoring rate is variable monitoring rate.
21. method as claimed in claim 20, and further comprise the step of judging variable monitoring rate.
22. comprising according in the first battery pack situation and the second battery pack situation at least one, method as claimed in claim 21, the step of wherein judging variable monitoring rate judge the step of variable monitoring rate.
23. a battery pack comprises:
Shell;
The battery unit that has voltage, power can transmit between battery unit and electric equipment;
Controller is used to control the function of battery pack, and described controller is to equal at least and/or greater than the voltage operation of operating voltage threshold value, described battery unit provides voltage to controller selectively; And
Circuit when the voltage that is provided by battery unit is lower than the operating voltage threshold value, causes the controller operation.
24. battery pack as claimed in claim 23, wherein said circuit provides voltage to controller, makes to provide to the voltage of controller to equal at least and/or greater than the operating voltage threshold value.
25. battery pack as claimed in claim 24, wherein said circuit comprises booster circuit, the voltage that is provided by battery unit is brought up to equal at least and/or greater than the operating voltage threshold value.
Can provide the power supply of voltage 26. battery pack as claimed in claim 24, wherein said circuit comprise, make to provide to the voltage of controller to equal at least and/or greater than the operating voltage threshold value, power supply does not provide power to electric equipment to controller.
Can provide the power component of voltage 27. battery pack as claimed in claim 26, wherein said power supply comprise, make to provide to the voltage of controller to equal at least and/or greater than the operating voltage threshold value to controller.
Can provide the capacitor of voltage 28. battery pack as claimed in claim 27, wherein said power component comprise, make to provide to the voltage of controller to equal at least and/or greater than the operating voltage threshold value to controller.
Can provide the battery unit of voltage 29. battery pack as claimed in claim 27, wherein said power component comprise, make to provide to the voltage of controller to equal at least and/or greater than the operating voltage threshold value to controller.
30. battery pack as claimed in claim 23, wherein said circuit comprises the switch that can alternately interrupt the power delivery between battery unit and the electric equipment, and this controller control switch makes to be provided to the voltage of controller by battery unit and equals at least and/or greater than the operating voltage threshold value.
31. battery pack as claimed in claim 30, wherein said switch comprises FET, and this controller can operate in control FET, makes to be provided to the voltage of controller by battery unit to equal at least and/or greater than the operating voltage threshold value.
32. battery pack as claimed in claim 23, wherein said battery unit can operate in provides power to electric equipment, to move described electric equipment.
33. battery pack as claimed in claim 32, wherein said battery pack are the power tool battery groups, wherein said electric equipment is an electric tool, and wherein said battery unit can operate in and provide power to electric tool, to move this electric tool.
34. battery pack as claimed in claim 32 wherein, when battery unit is in low temperature, provides to cause to be provided to the voltage of controller by battery unit to the power of electric equipment to be lower than the operating voltage threshold value.
35. battery pack as claimed in claim 34 wherein, when battery unit is in higher temperature, provides can not make to be provided to the voltage of controller by battery unit to the power of electric equipment to be lower than the operating voltage threshold value.
36. battery pack as claimed in claim 32, wherein, when around temperature when being low temperature, provide to cause to provide to the voltage of controller to the power of electric equipment to be lower than the operating voltage threshold value by battery unit.
37. battery pack as claimed in claim 36, wherein, when around temperature when being higher temperature, provide can not make to provide to the voltage of controller to the power of electric equipment to be lower than the operating voltage threshold value by battery unit.
38. battery pack as claimed in claim 32, wherein, the load on the electric equipment causes to be provided to the voltage of controller by battery unit and is lower than the operating voltage threshold value.
39. battery pack as claimed in claim 32, wherein said operating voltage threshold value are about 5 volts.
40. battery pack as claimed in claim 32, wherein said operating voltage threshold value are about 3 volts.
41. battery pack as claimed in claim 33, wherein said function comprise the power delivery of interruption between battery unit and electric equipment.
42. battery pack as claimed in claim 41, wherein said battery unit can operate in provides power to electric equipment, and moving this electric equipment, and wherein said function comprises the power supply of interruption from the battery unit to the electric equipment.
43. battery pack as claimed in claim 41, wherein said electric equipment is an electric tool, and wherein said function comprises the power supply of interruption from the battery unit to the electric tool.
44. a method that is used to move battery pack, this battery pack has the battery pack situation, and the battery pack situation has scope, and described method comprises step:
Execution comprises the operation of battery pack;
Measure first measured value of battery pack situation;
Measure second measured value of battery pack situation, at least one in first measured value and second measured value is outside described scope;
Average first measured value and second measured value are to provide average measurement value; And
If average measurement value is within the described scope, continue to comprise the operation of battery pack.
45. method as claimed in claim 44, and further comprise the step that controller is provided, and wherein said measuring process is carried out by controller with average step.
46. method as claimed in claim 45 wherein saidly provides step to comprise the step of the battery pack that has controller is provided.
47. method as claimed in claim 44, wherein said battery pack situation is a voltage.
48. method as claimed in claim 44, wherein said battery pack situation is a temperature.
49. method as claimed in claim 44, and further comprise the step of the 3rd measured value of measuring the battery pack situation, and wherein said average step comprises the step of average first measured value, second measured value and the 3rd measured value, so that average measurement value to be provided.
50. method as claimed in claim 44, and if further comprise average measurement value outside described scope, stop to have the step of the operation of battery pack.
51. method as claimed in claim 50, wherein said scope comprises range threshold, and if wherein average measurement value equal at least and/or greater than described range threshold, the then described step that stops to comprise the step that stops described operation.
52. method as claimed in claim 50, wherein said described scope comprises range threshold, and if average measurement value equals at least and/or less than described range threshold, the then described step that stops to comprise the step that stops described operation.
53. method as claimed in claim 44, the wherein said execution in step and the step that continues comprise from battery pack provides power to electric equipment, to move the step of described electric equipment.
54. method as claimed in claim 53 wherein saidly provides step to comprise to provide power from the battery pack to the electric tool, to move the step of described electric tool.
Provide the step of impulse current 55. method as claimed in claim 54, wherein said execution in step comprise, provide the step of impulse current to cause in first measured value and second measured value at least one to be in outside the described scope to electric tool.
Provide the step of speed control information to electric tool 56. method as claimed in claim 54, wherein said execution in step comprise, this provides the step of speed control signal to cause in first measured value and second measured value at least one to be in outside the described scope.
57. method as claimed in claim 54, wherein said execution in step comprise the step of stall (stalling) electric tool, the step of this stall electric tool causes in first measured value and second measured value at least one to be in outside the described scope.
58. method as claimed in claim 44, the wherein said execution in step and the step that continues comprise provides the step of power to battery pack, so that battery pack is charged.
59. a method that is used to carry out the operation that comprises battery pack, described method comprises step:
Monitoring battery pack situation; And
The function of control battery pack, this controlled step comprises the following step:
When the battery pack situation is in first scope, control described function with first response time that is used for described function, and
When the battery pack situation is in second scope, control described function with second response time that is used for described function, described second response time is different from described first response time.
60. method as claimed in claim 59, and further comprise the step that controller is provided, and wherein said monitoring step and controlled step are carried out by controller.
61. method as claimed in claim 60 wherein saidly provides step to comprise the step of the battery pack that has controller is provided.
62. method as claimed in claim 59, wherein said battery pack situation is a voltage.
63. method as claimed in claim 59, wherein said battery pack situation is a temperature.
64. method as claimed in claim 59, wherein said monitoring step comprises the following step:
Measure first measured value of battery pack situation;
Measure second measured value of battery pack situation, and
Average first measured value and second measured value are to provide average measurement value.
65. as the described method of claim 64, wherein said controlled step comprises the following step:
When average measurement value is in first scope, control described function with first response time that is used for described function, and
When average measurement value is in second scope, control described function with second response time that is used for described function.
66., and further comprise the step of carrying out the operation that has battery pack as the described method of claim 64.
67. as the described method of claim 66, wherein said function is the step that stops to have the operation of battery pack.
68. as the described method of claim 67, wherein said first scope comprises a range threshold.
69. as the described method of claim 68, wherein, if average measurement value equals at least and/or greater than described range threshold, the then described step that stops to comprise the step that stops described operation.
70. as the described method of claim 68, wherein, if average measurement value equals at least and/or less than described range threshold, the then described step that stops to comprise the step that stops described operation.
71. as the described method of claim 68, wherein said range threshold is between first scope and second scope.
72. as the described method of claim 66, wherein said execution in step comprises from battery pack provides power to electric equipment, to move the step of described electric equipment.
73., wherein saidly provide step to comprise to provide power to electric tool, to move the step of described electric tool from battery pack as the described method of claim 72.
74. as the described method of claim 72, wherein said execution in step comprises provides the step of impulse current to electric tool, this provides the step of impulse current to cause the battery pack situation to be among in first scope and second scope one.
75. as the described method of claim 72, wherein said execution in step comprises provides the step of speed control information to electric tool, provides the step of speed control signal to cause the battery pack situation to be among in first scope and second scope one.
76. as the described method of claim 72, wherein said execution in step comprises the step of stall electric tool, the step of this stall electric tool causes the battery pack situation to be among in first scope and second scope one.
77. as the described method of claim 66, wherein said execution in step comprises from providing power to battery pack, step so that battery pack is charged.
78. method as claimed in claim 59, wherein said first response time is slower than described second response time.
79. method as claimed in claim 59, wherein said first response time is faster than described second response time.
80. method as claimed in claim 59, wherein, at least one is fixed in first response time and second response time.
81. method as claimed in claim 59, wherein, at least one is variable in first response time and second response time.
82., and further comprise one the step of determining in first response time and second response time as the described method of claim 81.
83. method as claimed in claim 59, wherein said function comprise the step of interrupting the power delivery between battery unit and the electric equipment.
84. as the described method of claim 83, wherein said battery unit can operate in provides power to electric equipment, moving described electric equipment, and wherein said function comprises the step of the power supply of interruption from the battery unit to the electric equipment.
85. as the described method of claim 83, wherein said electric equipment is an electric tool, and wherein said function comprises the step of the power supply of interruption from the battery unit to the electric tool.
86. a battery pack comprises:
Shell;
By the battery unit that shell supports, power can transmit between battery unit and electric equipment;
By the shell circuit supported, can operate the function that is used to control battery pack; And
Fin carries out heat exchange with circuit, and can operate in the heat of distributing from circuit.
87. as the described battery pack of claim 86, wherein said circuit comprises controller, and wherein said fin and described controller carry out heat exchange, and can operate in the heat of distributing from described controller.
88. as the described battery pack of claim 86, wherein said circuit comprises can operate in the switch that interrupts the power delivery between battery unit and the electric equipment, and wherein said fin and described switch carry out heat exchange, and can operate in the heat of distributing from described switch.
89. as the described battery pack of claim 88, wherein said switch comprises FET, and wherein said fin and described FET carry out heat exchange, and can operate in the heat of distributing from described FET.
90. as the described battery pack of claim 89, wherein said circuit comprises controller, and wherein said fin and described controller carry out heat exchange, and can operate in the heat of distributing from described controller.
91. as the described battery pack of claim 86, wherein said function comprises the power delivery of interrupting between battery unit and the electric equipment.
92. as the described battery pack of claim 91, wherein said battery unit can operate in provides power to electric equipment, moving described electric equipment, and wherein said function comprises the power supply of interruption from the battery unit to the electric equipment.
93. as the described battery pack of claim 91, wherein said electric equipment is an electric tool, and wherein said function comprises the power supply of interruption from the battery unit to the electric tool.
94. an execution comprises the method for the operation of battery, this battery comprises the battery unit with voltage, power can transmit between battery unit and electric equipment, be used to control the controller of the function of battery pack, this controller is to equal at least and/or greater than the operation of the voltage of operating voltage threshold value, this battery unit can operate in provides voltage to controller selectively, and when the voltage that is provided by battery unit was lower than the operating voltage threshold value, described method comprised the step of start-up control device operation.
95. as the described method of claim 94, wherein said battery comprises provides the circuit of voltage to controller, and wherein said setting up procedure be included in provide in the circuit voltage to controller, make to provide to the voltage of controller and equal at least and/or greater than the step of operating voltage threshold value.
96. as the described method of claim 95, wherein said circuit comprises the booster circuit of the voltage that rising provides by battery unit, and wherein saidly provides step to comprise to equal at least and/or greater than the operating voltage threshold value being provided by battery unit to bring up to the voltage of controller.
97. as the described method of claim 95, wherein said circuit comprises provides the power supply of voltage to controller, this power supply can not operate in provides power to electric equipment, and wherein said provide step comprise from power supply provide voltage to controller, make to provide to the voltage of controller and equal at least and/or greater than the step of operating voltage threshold value.
98. as the described method of claim 97, wherein said power supply comprises provides the power component of voltage to controller, and wherein said provide step comprise from power component provide voltage to controller, make to provide to the voltage of controller and equal at least and/or greater than the step of operating voltage threshold value.
99. as the described method of claim 98, wherein said power component comprises to operate in provides the capacitor of voltage to controller, and wherein said provide step comprise from capacitor provide voltage to controller, make to provide to the voltage of controller and equal at least and/or greater than the step of operating voltage threshold value.
100. as the described method of claim 98, wherein said power component comprises to operate in provides the battery unit of voltage to controller, and wherein said provide step comprise from battery unit provide voltage to controller, make to provide to the voltage of controller and equal at least and/or greater than the step of operating voltage threshold value.
101. as the described method of claim 94, wherein said circuit comprises can operate in the switch that alternately interrupts the power delivery between battery unit and the electric equipment, and wherein said setting up procedure comprises control switch, makes to be provided to the voltage of controller by battery unit and equal at least and/or greater than the step of operating voltage threshold value.
102. as the described method of claim 101, wherein said switch comprises FET, and wherein said setting up procedure comprises control FET, makes to be provided to the voltage of controller by battery unit and equal at least and/or greater than the step of operating voltage threshold value.
103., and further comprise from battery unit and provide power to electric equipment, to move the step of described electric equipment as the described method of claim 94.
104. as the described method of claim 103, wherein said battery pack is the power tool battery group, wherein said electric equipment is an electric tool, and wherein saidly provides step to comprise from battery unit to provide power to electric tool, to move the step of described electric tool.
105., and further comprise the step of interrupting the power delivery between battery unit and the electric equipment with controller as the described method of claim 94.
106. as the described method of claim 105, wherein said battery unit can operate in provides power to electric equipment, moving described electric equipment, and wherein interrupt step comprises the step of the power supply of interruption from the battery unit to the electric equipment.
107. as the described method of claim 105, wherein said electric equipment is an electric tool, and wherein said interrupt step comprises the power supply of interruption from the battery unit to the electric tool.
CNB2003101199033A 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Method and system for cell protection CN100492750C (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CNB2003101199033A CN100492750C (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Method and system for cell protection

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CNB2003101199033A CN100492750C (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Method and system for cell protection
CN201910342402.2A CN110247127A (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Operation containing battery pack and the method and power tool battery group for running battery pack
CN201610445533.XA CN106099218B (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Operation containing battery pack and the method and power tool battery group for running battery pack

Related Child Applications (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201910342402.2A Division CN110247127A (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Operation containing battery pack and the method and power tool battery group for running battery pack
CN201610445533.XA Division CN106099218B (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Operation containing battery pack and the method and power tool battery group for running battery pack
CN201210080443.7A Division CN102623765B (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Operation containing set of cells and run method and the power tool battery group of set of cells
CN 200910133170 Division CN101620427B (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Methods and system for protecting battery

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN1622387A true CN1622387A (en) 2005-06-01
CN100492750C CN100492750C (en) 2009-05-27

Family

ID=34761442

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201610445533.XA CN106099218B (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Operation containing battery pack and the method and power tool battery group for running battery pack
CN201910342402.2A CN110247127A (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Operation containing battery pack and the method and power tool battery group for running battery pack
CNB2003101199033A CN100492750C (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Method and system for cell protection

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201610445533.XA CN106099218B (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Operation containing battery pack and the method and power tool battery group for running battery pack
CN201910342402.2A CN110247127A (en) 2003-11-24 2003-11-24 Operation containing battery pack and the method and power tool battery group for running battery pack

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (3) CN106099218B (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102624055A (en) * 2005-10-21 2012-08-01 史赛克公司 System and method for recharging a battery exposed to a harsh environment
CN102684234A (en) * 2011-03-08 2012-09-19 南京德朔实业有限公司 Direct-current system
CN101242011B (en) * 2007-02-05 2012-09-19 三洋电机株式会社 Cell unit
CN103038657A (en) * 2010-08-27 2013-04-10 德州仪器公司 Monitoring a rechargeable battery with multiple parameter update rates

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5990664A (en) * 1998-03-30 1999-11-23 Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Process and apparatus for modulating terminal voltage of battery
CA2403725A1 (en) * 2000-03-22 2001-09-27 The Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Illinois Oscillatorless dc-dc power converter
JP2001352687A (en) * 2000-05-08 2001-12-21 Sun-Lite Trading Ltd Intelligent switch for battery
CN1252892C (en) * 2000-12-28 2006-04-19 英属开曼群岛凹凸微系国际有限公司 Intelligent battery charger

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102624055A (en) * 2005-10-21 2012-08-01 史赛克公司 System and method for recharging a battery exposed to a harsh environment
CN102624055B (en) * 2005-10-21 2014-12-17 史赛克公司 Battery comprising internal controller pulling out different current based on battery temperature
US9142992B2 (en) 2005-10-21 2015-09-22 Stryker Corporation Battery with an internal microcontroller that draws different currents from the cells internal to the battery based on the temperature of the battery
CN101242011B (en) * 2007-02-05 2012-09-19 三洋电机株式会社 Cell unit
CN103038657B (en) * 2010-08-27 2016-01-13 德州仪器公司 Monitor the rechargeable battery with many kinds of parameters renewal rate
CN103038657A (en) * 2010-08-27 2013-04-10 德州仪器公司 Monitoring a rechargeable battery with multiple parameter update rates
CN102684234B (en) * 2011-03-08 2015-03-11 南京德朔实业有限公司 Direct-current system
CN102684234A (en) * 2011-03-08 2012-09-19 南京德朔实业有限公司 Direct-current system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN106099218A (en) 2016-11-09
CN110247127A (en) 2019-09-17
CN106099218B (en) 2019-05-17
CN100492750C (en) 2009-05-27

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US10090692B2 (en) Charger for hand-held power tool, power tool system and method of charging a power tool battery
AU2016262725B2 (en) Power tool system
US9748780B2 (en) Electric power tool system
US9819203B2 (en) Electric power tool system
CN1311618C (en) Switching power source device
TWI230494B (en) Battery charger capable of indicating time remaining to achieve full charge
US6281661B2 (en) Method of charging a plurality of batteries
EP1696498B1 (en) Cordless power tool system
CN100347204C (en) Method for purification of aqueous fluoropolymer emulsions, purified emulsions, and fluorine-containing finished articles
JP4547036B2 (en) Battery pack
US9768435B2 (en) Portable jump starter apparatus with simplified safety protection
KR101399754B1 (en) Charge control device and method for secondary battery module
CN1183654C (en) Power supply device and air conditioner using said power supply
TWI425737B (en) Charging apparatus and charging method
US9041322B2 (en) Electric power tool
EP2562895B1 (en) Device for estimating amount of heating of battery for power tool, and device for power tool
JP3869585B2 (en) Discharge method of multiple secondary batteries and assembled battery
JP4857585B2 (en) Cordless power tool
JP3826929B2 (en) Battery pack
CN1311585C (en) Electrolyte for rechargeable lithium battery and rechargeable lithium battery comprising same
AU2007231975B2 (en) Battery charger
CN1077341C (en) Charging method, charging device and integrated circuit
CN101563827B (en) Set battery control method, set battery control circuit, charging circuit having the control circuit, and battery pack
CN100364202C (en) Charging device and portable electronic equipment comprising same
CN101154820B (en) Adaptor, assembly of battery pack and adaptor, and electric tool with the same

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C06 Publication
PB01 Publication
C10 Entry into substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
C14 Grant of patent or utility model
GR01 Patent grant