CN1546974A - Aeroengine materials hot end environment experimental simulation method and device - Google Patents

Aeroengine materials hot end environment experimental simulation method and device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1546974A
CN1546974A CNA2003101189667A CN200310118966A CN1546974A CN 1546974 A CN1546974 A CN 1546974A CN A2003101189667 A CNA2003101189667 A CN A2003101189667A CN 200310118966 A CN200310118966 A CN 200310118966A CN 1546974 A CN1546974 A CN 1546974A
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water
firing chamber
simulation
thermal shock
test specimen
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CN1239897C (en
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成来飞
张立同
徐永东
栾新刚
刘小瀛
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Northwestern Polytechnical University
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Northwestern Polytechnical University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a hot end environment experimental-analogic method and device for a kind of aviation engine material. The invention carries on thermal shock simulation by using constant gas temperature to change the sample position, carries on accelerating simulation by using oxygen, water and salt water solution to change the gas composition. The invention combines the normal pressure subsonic velocity air tunnel and material performance testing machine, the invention uses the silicon nitride and silicon carbonate ceramic as the linings of the combustion chamber to upgrades the high temperature resisting level of the combustion chamber. The structure of sample bracket, rotary chain, and rotary handle can carry on hot shock simulation. There distributes with gas apertures and water apertures around the combustion chamber, it can upgrade the high oxygen partial pressure and the water partial pressure, it upgrades the melted salt partial pressure through salt dissolved in the water. The invention has a high simulating temperature, short time, and it is safe.

Description

Materials for aeroengines hot junction environmental experiment analogy method and device
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of materials for aeroengines hot junction environmental experiment analogy method and device, particularly utilize normal pressure subsonic speed high-temperature tunnel bond material performance aircraft, be applicable to multifactor coupling accelerated tests simulation under the high-temperature fuel gas environmental baseline.Be mainly used in the physical modeling of aviation thermal structure material environmental performance development laws such as high temperature alloy and ceramic matric composite, also can be used for the environmental performance test of other thermal structure materials.
Background technology
At present, known high-temperature tunnel is mainly used to carry out aeroengine components simulation, determining the stress field and the temperature field of member, for the design and the checking of member provides foundation.Though the theoretical life-span of member can calculate according to the conventional mechanical property of material, can only or take a flight test definite the actual life of member by bench test drive.Yet, by test run or take a flight test member is examined the problem that has three aspects: (1) test run or the process complexity of taking a flight test, involve a wide range of knowledge, and expense is very expensive; (2) owing to do not consider the influence of complicated actual engine environment, there is very big uncertainty the actual life of member; (3) member takes place can't determine damage mechanism after the improper inefficacy, is difficult to material improvement information is provided.In fact, except stress field and temperature field, the serviceable life of member is main to be developed relevantly with the environmental performance of material, carries out environmental experiment exactly and simulates and obtain the valid approach of environmental performance development law.
Though aeromotor hot junction environmental factor is complicated, can be divided into hot physicochemical environment factor and ambient stress factor two classes.Hot physicochemical environment controlled variable comprises fuel gas temperature, combustion gas composition, gaseous-pressure and combustion gas speed, and wherein combustion gas parameter mainly is partial pressure of oxygen, water partial pressure and fused salt dividing potential drop.The ambient stress controlled variable comprises fatigue, creep and thermal shock.Much study although carried out both at home and abroad, also do not carry out the report of total factor coupling experiment analogy method and device at present at the experimental simulation of above-mentioned single factor and part coupling factor.
Improving constantly of aeromotor thrust-weight ratio proposed more and more higher requirement to hot junction material and working temperature, and therefore, the simulation of the environmental experiment of hot junction material at first will solve a resistant to elevated temperatures difficult problem.Can only work below 1500 ℃ in stainless steel water-cooled firing chamber commonly used, can not satisfy the constantly requirement of development of aviation thermal structure material in present and following a period of time.
The gaseous-pressure height of aeromotor, combustion gas speed also is higher than velocity of sound, and therefore it is better to use the high pressure supersonic wind tunnel to carry out environmental experiment simulation similarity.But the high pressure supersonic wind tunnel is ten parts of costlinesses of cost not only, can only work the short time, and working temperature are lower.Though the high pressure supersonic wind tunnel can be simulated the duty of actual engine environment member, obviously can not satisfy the experimental simulation requirement of material environment performance.
The igniting of aeromotor and reinforcing are typical thermal shock environment, but the simulation of the coupling experiment of present thermal shock and stress is all carried out in the still air medium.Though relying on lights a fire repeatedly carries out under the combustion gas condition that the thermal shock experimental simulation can be realized and the coupling of ambient stress, obviously difficulty is very big, and fuel gas temperature is difficult to stable.
Although normal pressure subsonic wind tunnel equipment is simple relatively, cost is cheap relatively, because fuel consumption is bigger, environmental experiment simulation expense is still very high for a long time.Therefore, carrying out the accelerated tests simulation is very important.Contain certain oxygen, water and fused salt in the combustion gas, but the salt dividing potential drop is all lower.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome the infull deficiency of prior art experimental simulation research coupling factor, the invention provides a kind of materials for aeroengines hot junction environmental experiment analogy method and device.Utilize normal pressure subsonic speed high-temperature tunnel bond material performance aircraft, be applicable to multifactor coupling accelerated tests simulation under the high-temperature fuel gas environmental baseline.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: a kind of materials for aeroengines hot junction environmental experiment analogy method, it is characterized in that: at first, sample is fixed on the specimen mounting, and at sample two ends connection Acoustic radiating instrument and resistance instrument, then, the firing chamber igniting, light a fire after 6~8 seconds, gas flame is stabilized in 900~1700 ℃, starts the material property testing machine and applies fatigue, creep loading, start Acoustic radiating instrument and resistance instrument simultaneously, turning handle makes specimen mounting vertical with gas flame, the thermal shock heating, this process keeps after 25~35 seconds turning handle once more, make specimen mounting parallel with gas flame, the thermal shock cooling, this process keeps repeating said process after 80~100 seconds,---cooling---heating again---is the process of cooling again, finishes the thermal shock test simulation to make the sample on the specimen mounting be in heating.
For accelerated test simulates, after the igniting of firing chamber,, improve partial pressure of oxygen and water partial pressure by being looped around firing chamber valve and water nozzle aerating oxygen and water on every side, improve the fused salt dividing potential drop by the salt that is dissolved in the water.
A kind of materials for aeroengines hot junction environmental experiment analogue means, comprise normal pressure subsonic speed high-temperature tunnel 18 and material property testing machine 3, it is characterized in that: material property testing machine 3 is installed in jet pipe 4 places of normal pressure subsonic speed high-temperature tunnel 18, test specimen 1 links to each other with lower sub 7 with the top connection 5 of material property testing machine 3 respectively by two holes on the jet pipe 4, test specimen 1 and jet pipe 4 are by heat insulation plug 12 sealings, in firing chamber 2, be provided with ceramic-lined 10, pass cooling jacket 11 and ceramic-lined 10 along the firing chamber 2 around and several valves 19 of column distribution and water nozzle 20.
Described test specimen 1 can replace with test specimen frame 13, and turning joint 15 and turning handle 16 are arranged on the test specimen frame 13, and test specimen frame 13 is vertical with gas flame 21, turning handle 16, and under the drive of turning joint, test specimen frame 13 also can be parallel with gas flame 21.
Described ceramic-lined 10 are the convergence structure, and thickness is 6~10, and the import inside diameter D is 230~240, and the outlet inner diameter d is 70~90, is the silicon nitride combined silicon carbide pottery, and porosity is controlled at 25~35%.
The present invention's advantage compared to existing technology is that because employing is ceramic-lined in the firing chamber increase, the temperature height of test simulation, fuel gas temperature can reach 1700 ℃; The valve and the water nozzle that distribute around its firing chamber can improve partial pressure of oxygen and water partial pressure, improve the fused salt dividing potential drop by the salt that is dissolved in the water, and the environmental factor of simulation is complete; In a word, method of the present invention has the analog temperature height, simulated time environmental factor short, simulation is complete.Utilize existing high-temperature sub velocity of sound combustion gas wind-tunnel and material property testing machine in conjunction with the experimental provision of forming, cost is low.
The present invention is further described below in conjunction with drawings and Examples.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the experimental simulation apparatus structure synoptic diagram of aeromotor hot junction material environment
Fig. 2 is the chamber structure synoptic diagram
Fig. 3 is the specimen mounting position view
1-test specimen among the figure, 2-firing chamber, 3-material property testing machine, the 4-jet pipe, 5-upper grip, 7-lower chuck, 10-is ceramic-lined, 11-cooling jacket, the heat insulation chock plug of 12-, 13-test specimen frame, 15-turning joint, 16-turning handle, 18-normal pressure subsonic speed high-temperature tunnel, the 19-valve, 20-water nozzle, 21-gas flame.
Embodiment
Improving constantly of aeromotor thrust-weight ratio proposed more and more higher requirement to hot junction material and working temperature, and therefore, the simulation of the environmental experiment of hot junction material at first will solve a resistant to elevated temperatures difficult problem.Can only work below 1500 ℃ at stainless steel water-cooled firing chamber commonly used, can not satisfy the constantly requirement of development of aviation thermal structure material in present and following a period of time.The present invention adopts the silicon nitride combined silicon carbide of development voluntarily ceramic-lined, makes the working temperature of firing chamber bring up to 1700 ℃.By controlling ceramic sintering hole efficient and using silicon-carbide particle as mutually toughness reinforcing, increased substantially the thermal shock resistance of liner, can satisfy firing chamber ceramic-lined request for utilization that does not produce the penetrability cracking when lighting a fire thermal shock repeatedly.
The present invention adopts normal pressure subsonic speed high-temperature tunnel, and gaseous-pressure is a little more than atmospheric pressure, and combustion gas speed is near velocity of sound.Though the environmental baseline of normal pressure subsonic wind tunnel is bigger with actual engine environment difference except combustion gas is formed, can not influence the experimental simulation of material environment performance.At first, gaseous-pressure shows as aerodynamic loading to the influence of material environment performance development, and aerodynamic loading can be converted to paying attention in loading system after the mechanical load.Secondly, combustion gas speed shows as change Medium Diffusion speed to the influence of material environment performance development, and combustion gas speed can extension to the influence of spreading speed.Therefore, the normal pressure subsonic wind tunnel can satisfy the experimental simulation requirement of aeromotor hot junction material environment performance.
The present invention carries out the thermal shock except relying on igniting repeatedly, and main the employing rotated thermal shock.The principle of rotating thermal shock is constant fuel gas temperature, and sample is installed on the specimen mounting, and specimen mounting can rotate around turning joint under the promotion of turning handle.Thermal shock heating when specimen mounting is vertical with gas flame, thermal shock cooling when specimen mounting is parallel with gas flame.Because the drainage of gas-flow, the speed of thermal shock cooling is also very fast.Can not realize and the coupling of ambient stress though rotate thermal shock, can realize the coupling of thermal shock and combustion gas environment, and intensification and cooling rate during thermal shock are that additive method is inaccessiable.
The present invention adopts the method that changes the combustion gas composition to carry out the accelerated tests simulation, and aerating oxygen improves partial pressure of oxygen, feeds water and improves water partial pressure.The salts such as sodium sulphate that are dissolved in the water are introduced the firing chamber by water, thereby improve the fused salt dividing potential drop.The oxygen G﹠W is introduced by a plurality of firing chamber water nozzle and valves on every side that are looped around, and introducing the position should be suitable.Introduce the too forward stability that influences flame combustion in position, and influence very much the blending homogeneity of oxygen and water vapor and combustion gas by the back.Can adjust partial pressure of oxygen, water partial pressure and fused salt dividing potential drop by changing oxygen flow, discharge and the solubleness of salt in water.
The stress parameters of aeromotor hot junction environment mainly is tired and creep and reciprocation thereof, and Material Testing Machine can realize this point very easily.The present invention adopts the INSTRON testing machine to carry out the simulation of ambient stress, and testing machine is installed in the jet pipe place of high-temperature tunnel firing chamber.The jet pipe that sample passes the firing chamber during simulation links to each other with the chuck of testing machine, and heat insulation plug is housed between the space between sample and the jet pipe, prevents the influence of high-temperature fuel gas radiation to the specimen mounting head.Because the temperature of chuck is lower, the collection that makes material develop information becomes possibility.Gather crackle with Acoustic radiating instrument and generate signal, gather crackle damage and spread signal with the resistance instrument.In the simulation process, combustion gas vertically acts on the sample, thereby the temperature at combustion gas center is exactly the temperature at sample center.In order to reduce fuel consumption, also long for fear of sample, the outlet diameter of firing chamber jet pipe is 80mm.
Application Example 1:
Si powder with 30% and 70% SiC powder mix, and with the method moulding of injection molding, carry out nitridation sinteredly then in the reaction-sintered stove, and it is ceramic-lined to obtain silicon nitride combined silicon carbide.The granularity of Si powder is 320 orders, and the granularity of SiC powder has three kinds in 70 orders, 40 orders and 10 orders, accounts for 30%, 60% and 10% respectively.Respectively 1150 ℃, 1250 ℃, 1350 ℃ and 1450 ℃ of insulations, total temperature retention time is 40~50 hours during nitrogenize.In order to improve thermal shock resistance, the porosity of liner is controlled at 30%, thickness is 8mm.Ceramic-lined inlet diameter is 237mm in order to restrain structure, and outlet diameter is 80mm.
Application Example 2: constant temperature experimental simulation.
The hole that it is 20mm that the sample that will be of a size of 185mm * 15mm * 3mm passes firing chamber jet pipe two diameters up and down links to each other with the chuck of material property testing machine, connects acoustic emission gauge head and resistance gauge head at the two ends of sample simultaneously, and light a fire in the firing chamber then.That lights a fire that flame within back 8 seconds can be between 900 ℃~1700 ℃ enters steady state (SS) to fixed temperature, at this moment starts the material property testing machine and applies load such as fatigue, creep, starts Acoustic radiating instrument and resistance instrument simultaneously.In whole simulation process, record loading spectrum, acoustic emission signal spectrum and resistance signal spectrum.
Application Example 3: thermal shock test simulation.
The thermal shock test simulation has two kinds, and the process of first kind of thermal shock experimental simulation and constant temperature experimental simulation process are identical, and just material property testing machine, Acoustic radiating instrument and resistance instrument are in opening always, and lights a fire repeatedly in the firing chamber.Second kind of thermal shock experimental simulation is that the sample with a plurality of 60mm of being of a size of * 5mm * 3mm is fixed by bolts on the specimen mounting, and an end of sample is in the center of circular specimen frame, is spoke type and arranges.Igniting back, firing chamber steady temperature is constant, relies on handle that specimen mounting is rotated and enters gas flame, keeps after 30 seconds specimen mounting being produced gas flame, stops repeated rotation specimen mounting after 90 seconds.Close material property testing machine, Acoustic radiating instrument and resistance instrument in the experimental simulation process, record thermal shock TEMPERATURE SPECTROSCOPY.
The main performance index of materials for aeroengines hot junction environmental experiment analogue means can reach:
Maximum operation (service) temperature: 1700 ℃
Maximum load: 2.5 tons
Combustion gas speed: 270 meter per seconds
Gaseous-pressure: 0.986 kilograms per centimeter 3
Combustion gas is formed: partial pressure of oxygen, water partial pressure and fused salt dividing potential drop are adjustable
1300 ℃ of thermal shock firing rates: 15 seconds
Jet pipe outlet diameter: 80mm
Specimen size: 185 * 15 (mm)
The firing chamber life-span: 100 hours

Claims (5)

1, a kind of materials for aeroengines hot junction environmental experiment analogy method, it is characterized in that: at first, sample is fixed on the specimen mounting, and at sample two ends connection Acoustic radiating instrument and resistance instrument, then, the firing chamber igniting, light a fire after 6~8 seconds, gas flame is stabilized in 900~1700 ℃, starts the material property testing machine and applies fatigue, creep loading, start Acoustic radiating instrument and resistance instrument simultaneously, turning handle makes specimen mounting vertical with gas flame, the thermal shock heating, this process keeps after 25~35 seconds turning handle once more, make specimen mounting parallel with gas flame, the thermal shock cooling, this process keeps repeating said process after 80~100 seconds,---cooling---heating again---is the process of cooling again, finishes the thermal shock test simulation to make the sample on the specimen mounting be in heating.
2, materials for aeroengines according to claim 1 hot junction environmental experiment analogy method, it is characterized in that: for accelerated test simulates, after the igniting of firing chamber, by being looped around firing chamber valve and water nozzle aerating oxygen and water on every side, improve partial pressure of oxygen and water partial pressure, improve the fused salt dividing potential drop by the salt that is dissolved in the water.
3, a kind of materials for aeroengines hot junction environmental experiment analogue means, comprise normal pressure subsonic speed high-temperature tunnel (18) and material property testing machine (3), it is characterized in that: material property testing machine (3) is installed in the jet pipe (4) of normal pressure subsonic speed high-temperature tunnel (18) and locates, test specimen (1) links to each other with lower sub (7) with the top connection (5) of material property testing machine (3) respectively by two holes on the jet pipe (4), test specimen (1) and jet pipe (4) are by heat insulation plug (12) sealing, in firing chamber (2), be provided with ceramic-lined (10), pass cooling jacket (11) and ceramic-lined (10) along the firing chamber (2) around and several valves of column distribution (19) and water nozzle (20).
4, materials for aeroengines according to claim 3 hot junction environmental experiment analogue means, it is characterized in that: the available test specimen frame of described test specimen (1) (13) replaces, turning joint (15) and turning handle (16) are arranged on the test specimen frame (13), test specimen frame (13) is vertical with gas flame (21), turning handle (16), under the drive of turning joint, test specimen frame (13) also can be parallel with gas flame (21).
5, materials for aeroengines according to claim 3 hot junction environmental experiment analogue means, it is characterized in that: described ceramic-lined (10) are the convergence structure, thickness is 6~10, the import inside diameter D is 230~240, the outlet inner diameter d is 70~90, be the silicon nitride combined silicon carbide pottery, porosity is controlled at 25~35%.
CN 200310118966 2003-12-09 2003-12-09 Aeroengine materials hot end environment experimental simulation method and device Expired - Fee Related CN1239897C (en)

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