CN1529460A - Whole load equalizing method based on global network positioning - Google Patents

Whole load equalizing method based on global network positioning Download PDF

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CN1529460A
CN1529460A CN 200310100387 CN200310100387A CN1529460A CN 1529460 A CN1529460 A CN 1529460A CN 200310100387 CN200310100387 CN 200310100387 CN 200310100387 A CN200310100387 A CN 200310100387A CN 1529460 A CN1529460 A CN 1529460A
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gnp
server
dns
web
coordinates
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CN100456690C (en
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宇 林
林宇
柯怡
王文东
程时端
卢美莲
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北京邮电大学
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Abstract

Characters of the method are as following: based on GNP coordinate of web client in DNS query message and GNP coordinate of each mirror imaged web server with different IP addresses corresponding to domain names to be parsed, DNS server calculates distances between web client and each server. Global load balancing treatment is carried out for the distances. IP address of server with nearest or relative nearer distance to the client is as DNS query result to return back to the web client. Thus, current format of DNS query message and DNS server software is needed to modify. The invented method guarantees nearest or relative nearer distance between selected mirror imaged server and client sent out request, improving current used polling method. The invention increases response speed for request and transmission speed for web page, reduces unnecessary network flux so as to raise service quality of web system.

Description

基于全球网络定位的全局负载均衡方法 Global load balancing method based on global positioning network

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及一种基于全球网络定位GNP(Global Network Positioning)的全局负载均衡方法,确切地说,涉及一种主要解决在一个域名对应着多个具有不同IP地址的镜像Web服务器时,如何更好地选择由哪个服务器响应Web客户请求的问题;属于负载均衡技术领域。 When it comes to network based on Global Positioning GNP (Global Network Positioning) global load balancing methods, particularly, to a main solution in a domain name corresponding to multiple mirror Web server with a different IP address to the invention, how to better the choice of which Web server to respond to client requests; belonging to the load-balancing technology.

背景技术 Background technique

参见图1,Web客户1(通常称为浏览器)与Web服务器2使用一个或多个传输控制协议(TCP,Transmission Control Protocol)连接进行通信。 Referring to Figure 1, Web Client 1 (commonly referred to as a browser) is connected to the Web server 2 using one or more transmission control protocol (TCP, Transmission Control Protocol) communication. Web浏览时,客户端与服务器在TCP连接上采用超文本传输协议(HTTP,HypertextTransfer Protocol)进行通信。 When a Web browser, client and server communicate using hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP, HypertextTransfer Protocol) over TCP connection. Web客户发出http请求,Web服务器对客户端请求进行响应,向Web客户提供Web的内容和某种形式的数据。 Web client issues a http request, Web server responds to client requests, and to provide some form of Web content data to the Web client.

参见图2,当客户需要和远端Web系统通信,如一个用户连接Web站点,在实际和远端Web系统开始通信前,必须将Web域名转换为IP地址,这个转换由域名服务器(DNS,Domain Name Server)来完成,因此在客户机配置中至少需要指定一个域名服务器DNS。 Referring to Figure 2, when the client needs and Web remote system communication, such as a Web site that the user is connected, a distal end and before the actual start of communication systems Web, Web must convert domain names into IP addresses converted by the domain name server (DNS, Domain Name server) to complete, so at least you need to specify a domain name server in the DNS client configuration. 当Web客户向它的一个DNS服务器发出查询请求,即一个客户端1(如浏览器)程序,产生一个统一资源定位(URL,UniformResource Locator,)解析请求,例如http://www.bupt.edu.cn,以DNS查询报文的形式交给本地DNS服务器2时,该本地DNS服务器2会尽可能把该域名(即www.bupt.edu.cn)解析成IP地址。 When the Web client sends it to a DNS server queries that a client 1 (such as a browser) program, resulting in a uniform resource locator (URL, UniformResource Locator,) resolution request, for example http://www.bupt.edu .cn, DNS query message to the form to the local DNS server 2, the local DNS server 2 will try to put the domain name (ie www.bupt.edu.cn) resolved to an IP address. 本地DNS服务器2接受了客户机的查询时,客户机1通常处于等待状态;该本地域名服务器2就在其域名数据库中查找所查询域名对应的IP地址,或从比它层次级别更高的DNS服务器3得到与接收到的查询相匹配的域名对应的IP地址。 When the local DNS server queries received 2 client, the client is usually a waiting state; the local domain name server 2 to find the corresponding IP address of the queried domain names in its database, or from a higher level than its level DNS obtain the IP address of the domain name server 3 corresponding to the received query matches. 也就是说,如果客户机1所查询的域名解析结果就在该本地域名服务器2的缓存中,可以直接得到结果;如果答案不在该本地域名服务器2的缓存,该域名服务器2必须到其它域名服务器3查找,还可以将查询发送到根服务器,并根据根服务器值引导所查询域的授权服务器。 In other words, if the DNS query results by the client 1 on the local domain name server cache 2, the result can be obtained directly; if the answer is not in the local domain name server cache 2, the domain name server to another domain name server must 2 3 lookup, may also send a query to the root server, the authorization server and the queried domain root server according to the value of the guide. 一旦该本地服务器2从授权服务器得到答案,它就将答案保存在它的缓存中,并将答案提供给客户。 Once the local server 2 to get an answer from the authorization server, it will save the answer in its cache, the answers provided to the customer. DNS服务器将查询结果以DNS响应报文的形式返回给客户,以便客户使用收到的IP地址连接Web服务器并下载Web页面。 DNS server will query results in the form of DNS response packet back to the client, so that customers receive the IP address to connect to the Web server and download a Web page. DNS定义了一个用于查询和响应的报文格式。 DNS defines a packet format for query and response. 下表是这个报文的总体格式。 The following table is the overall message format. 该报文由12字节长的首部和4个长度可变的字段组成。 A 12-byte packet header and four long variable length fields.

在DNS的报文首部里,标识字段由客户程序设置并由服务器返回结果。 In the first part of the DNS packet, the identifier field is set by the client by the server returns the results. 客户程序通过它来确定响应与查询是否匹配。 Client to determine whether the response to the query by matching it. 16bit的标志字段被划分为若干子字段,如下表所示。 16bit flag field is divided into several sub-fields, as shown in the following table.

1 4 1 1 1 1 3 4其中QR是1bit字段:0表示查询报文,1表示响应报文。 14111134 wherein QR is 1bit field: 0 indicates that the query packet, a response packet represents. opcode是一个4bit字段:通常值为0,表示标准查询,其它值为1和2,为1时,表示反向查询(即通过IP地址查找对应的域名);为2时,表示服务器状态请求。 is a 4bit opcode field: a value of 0 usually represents standard query, the other values ​​1 and 2 is 1, represents a reverse lookup (i.e., search for a corresponding domain name IP address); is 2, indicates that the server status request. AA是1bit标志,表示授权回答(authoritative answer),说明该域名服务器是授权于该域的。 AA is 1bit flag indicating authorization answer (authoritative answer), indicating that the domain name server is authorized in the domain. TC是1bit字段,表示可截断的(truncated)。 TC field is 1bit, represents truncated (truncated). 使用用户数据报协议(UDP,UserDatagram Protocol)时,它表示当应答的总长度超过512字节时,只返回前512个字节。 When using User Datagram Protocol (UDP, UserDatagram Protocol), which represents the former when the total length exceeds 512 bytes of response, returns only 512 bytes. RD是1bit字段,表示期望递归(recursion desired)。 RD is 1bit field, representing the desired recursion (recursion desired). 该比特可以设置在一个查询中,并在响应中返回。 This bit may be set in a query, and returned in the response. 该标志告诉域名服务器必须处理这个查询,称为递归查询。 The flag tells name servers must deal with this inquiry, called recursive queries. 如果该比特位为0,且被请求的域名服务器没有授权回答,它就返回一个能解答该查询的其他域名服务器列表,称为迭代查询。 If this bit is 0, and the domain name server is not authorized to answer a request, it returns a list of domain name servers can answer the query other, called iterative query. RA是1bit字段,表示可用递归。 RA is 1bit field indicating available recursion. 如果域名服务器支持递归查询,则在响应中将该比特设置为1。 If the domain name server supports recursive queries, then in response to this bit is set to 1 in. 除了某些根服务器,大多数域名服务器都提供递归查询。 In addition to some of the root servers, domain name servers provide the majority of recursive queries. 随后的3bit字段必须为0。 Subsequent 3bit field must be zero. rcode是一个4bit的返回码字段。 return code field rcode is a 4bit. 通常的值为0,表示没有差错;数值为3,表示名字差错。 Generally a value of 0, indicating no error; value of 3, represents the name of error. 名字差错只有从一个授权域名服务器上返回,它表示在查询中指定的域名不存在。 Error name only returned from a authoritative name server, it indicates that the specified domain name does not exist in the query. 随后的4个16bit字段说明最后4个变长字段中包含的条目数。 The next four 16bit field specifies the number of entries in the last four variable length field contains. 对于查询报文,问题数通常是1,而其他3项则均为0。 For the query message, the number of problem is usually 1, while the other three are zero. 对于应答报文,回答数至少是1,剩下的两项可以是0或非0。 For a reply, the answer is the number of at least 1, and the remaining two may be zero or non-zero.

在DNS查询报文中的查询问题部分中的每个问题的格式如下表所示,通常只有一个问题。 The format of each partial query in question issues a DNS query message in the following table, usually only a problem.

其中查询名是要查找的IP地址或域名,它是一个或多个标识符的序列。 Where the query name is the IP address or domain name you want to find, it is a sequence of one or more identifiers. 每个标识符以首字节的计数值来说明随后标识符的字节长度,每个查询名都以最后字节为0结束,长度为0的标识符是根标识符。 Each count value of the first byte identifier to be described subsequently identifier byte length, each query names ending with the last byte 0, length identifier 0 is a root identifier. 这里的计数字节的值是0~63的数,即标识符的最大长度仅为63。 Byte count value here is a number of 0 to 63, i.e. the maximum length of only 63 identifiers. 因为计数字节的最高两个比特为1,即值192~255被用于压缩格式。 Because the top two bits of the byte count is 1, i.e. the value of 192 to 255 is used for compression format. 该字段无需以整32bit边界结束,即无需填充字节。 This field need not 32bit integer boundary end, i.e. without padding bytes.

参见图3,该图说明了如何存储域名www.bupt.edu.cn。 Referring to Figure 3, which shows how the storage domain www.bupt.edu.cn. 它是四个标识符的序列,每个标识符都以首字节的计数值(分别为3、4、3、2)来说明随后标识符的字节长度,并以最后字节为0结束该查询名。 It is the sequence of four identifiers, each identifier is the count value of the first byte (3,4,3,2, respectively) will be described subsequent byte length identifiers, and ending with the last byte 0 the query name.

每个查询问题有一个查询类型,每个响应(也称资源记录)也有一个类型,总共大约有20个不同的类型值。 Each query issues a query types, each response (also called resource records) also has a type, a total of about 20 different types of values. 下表显示了其中的一些查询类型值,表中显示的类型值中只有两个用于查询类型:A和PTR。 The following table shows some of the types of queries which the value of the type of values ​​shown in the table for only two query types: A and PTR. 最常用的查询类型是A,表示期望获得查询名的IP地址。 The most common type of query is A, representing the desired query name to obtain the IP address. 另一个查询类型是PTR,表示请求获得一个IP地址对应的域名。 Another query type is PTR, indicates a request to obtain an IP address corresponding to the domain name.

查询类通常是1,指互联网地址。 Query class is usually 1, refers to the Internet address. 某些站点也支持其他非IP地址。 Some sites also support other non-IP address.

在DNS响应报文中的资源记录部分中最后的三个字段:回答字段、授权字段和额外信息字段,均采用如下表所示的称为资源记录(RR,Resource Record)的格式。 Format called a resource record (RR, Resource Record) answer field, the authorization field and an additional information field, it is shown in the table as follows: resource record in the DNS response message portion of the last three fields.

其中域名是记录中资源数据对应的名字。 Which is the domain name record data corresponding resource name. 它的格式和图3所示的查询名字段格式相同。 Query the same name field format shown in FIG. 3, and its format. 类型说明资源记录的类型码。 Type Description resource record type code. 它的值和前面介绍的查询类型值是一样的。 Query type and value of its value is the same as described earlier. 类通常为1,指互联网数据。 Class 1 generally refers to Internet data. 生存时间字段是客户程序保留该资源记录的秒数。 Time to live field is the resource client retention record number of seconds. 资源记录通常的生存时间值为2天。 Resource records often survival time is 2 days. 资源数据长度说明资源数据的数量。 Resource data length that the number of resource data. 该数据的格式依赖于类型字段的值。 The format of the data depends on the value of the type field. 对于类型1(A记录)资源数据是4字节的IP地址。 (A record) data for the resource type is a 4-byte IP address.

在互联网应用中有很多场合需要估计网络距离,如还回时延(round-tripdelay);又如:对应一个Web站点(如Yahoo)有多个映像服务器(S1…Sn)可以同时为Web客户提供服务,当一台主机H要连接到该Web站点时,希望选择连接距离该主机最近的一个映像服务器,以保证web页面传输速度,提高http请求的响应速度,进而提高Web服务质量。 There are many occasions need to estimate the distance network, as also trip delay (round-tripdelay) in Internet applications; Another example: corresponds to a Web site (such as Yahoo) have more than one image server (S1 ... Sn) may also provide for the Web client service, when a host H to connect to the Web site, select the hosts hope of a recent image from the server connection, to ensure that web page transmission speed, improve the response speed of the http request, and to improve the Web service quality. 这时,就需要估计网络中该主机H与各个映像服务器之间的距离。 In this case, the distance between the host H and the network server needs to estimate each image. 由此可见,估计网络中端到端主机间的距离是很有必要的。 Thus, the estimated distance between the end-host network is necessary.

目前,GNP(Global Network Positioning)是估计端到端网络距离比较有效的方法,其算法的思路是:根据网络结点之间的距离信息,将各个网络结点映射到一个N维坐标系,使各个网络结点在这个N维坐标系中的距离(即GNP距离)尽可能接近于各个网络结点之间的实际距离(比如可以采用结点间的还回时延作为实际距离)。 Currently, GNP (Global Network Positioning) is estimated from end to end network more effective method, its idea of ​​the algorithm is: The distance information between network nodes, each network node mapped to an N-dimensional coordinate system, so that in each network node from the N-dimensional coordinate system (i.e., the distance GNP) close to the actual distance between the respective network nodes as possible (for example, may also be employed as the actual distance trip delay between nodes). 这样,就可以通过计算网络结点之间的GNP距离来估计网络结点之间的实际距离。 Thus, it is possible to estimate the actual distance between network nodes by calculating the GNP between network nodes. 图4就是把网络中的四个结点放入一个三维坐标系示意图。 FIG 4 is the four nodes in the network into a three dimensional coordinate system of FIG.

下面简要说明GNP算法估计网络中各个结点间距离的计算步骤:首先在网络中找出一些结点作为路标(Landmark),把这些路标放入一个N维坐标系,使得这些路标的坐标间的距离与它们之间的实际距离(如还回时延)的差最小,再计算出这些路标在N维坐标系中的坐标。 Between first identify a number of nodes in the network as landmarks (Landmark), the waypoints into a N-dimensional coordinate system, such that the coordinates of these signs: GNP briefly explained below estimation algorithm between each node in the network distance calculation step actual distance (e.g., further back delay) between the minimum distance and the difference between them, and then calculates the coordinates of the waypoints in N-dimensional coordinate system. 图5就是在GNP算法中,将网络中三个结点L1、L2、L3作为路标放入二维坐标系的操作示意图。 FIG 5 is in GNP algorithm, the three network nodes L1, L2, L3 as signposts illustrating the operation into two-dimensional coordinate system.

然后,将需要测量距离的普通主机放入N维坐标系。 Then, the distance to be measured into the host ordinary N-dimensional coordinate system. 根据它们与这些路标之间的实际距离,计算它们在该坐标系中的坐标。 The actual distance between them and the signs, the coordinates are calculated in this coordinate system. 图6是GNP算法中参照图5中的路标L1、L2、L3将另一台普通主机放入二维坐标系的操作示意图。 FIG 6 is a GNP algorithm with reference to FIG. 5 signs L1, L2, L3 schematic operation of the two-dimensional coordinate system into another common host.

这样,GNP算法就可以把网络上的任一结点放入N维坐标系。 Thus, GNP algorithm can be any of the nodes on the network into the N-dimensional coordinate system. 之后,就可以利用两台主机的GNP坐标直接计算它们之间的GNP距离,并作为它们之间网络距离的估计值。 Thereafter, you can use the coordinates of the two hosts directly GNP GNP calculated distance between them, and the network as an estimate the distance between them. 实验证明,直接通过GNP坐标计算得到的两台主机间的GNP距离确实能够比较准确地反映网络中两台主机间的实际距离。 Experiments show that, indeed directly reflect the actual distance between the two hosts in the network by more accurately the distance between the two hosts GNP GNP coordinates calculated. 如果N维坐标空间S下的两台主机H1与主机H2的GNP坐标分别为:CH1S=(x1,x2,…,xN),CH2S=(y1,y2,…,yN),则它们之间的GNP距离的计算公式为:dH1,H2=Σi=1N(xi-yi).]]>现在,由于Internet业务量的快速增长,Web服务器的访问者数量呈快速增加的发展态势,例如Yahoo每天会收到数百万次的访问请求,Web服务器必须具备提供大量并发访问服务的能力。 If two hosts H1 and H2 in a host GNP coordinates N-dimensional coordinate space S are: CH1S = (x1, x2, ..., xN), CH2S = (y1, y2, ..., yN), the between them the formula GNP distance is:. dH1, H2 = & Sigma; i = 1N (xi-yi)]]> now, due to the rapid growth of Internet traffic, the number of visitors to the Web server was a rapid increase in momentum of development, such as Yahoo receive millions of times a day access request, Web server must have the ability to provide a large number of concurrent access to services. 对于提供大负载Web服务的服务器来讲,CPU、I/O等处理能力会很快成为制约访问量的瓶颈,简单地提高单台服务器的硬件性能并不能真正解决问题,因为单台服务器的性能总是有限的。 For large load Web server provides services in terms of, CPU, I / O and other processing capacity will soon become a bottleneck restricting traffic to simply improve the performance of a single server hardware does not really solve the problem, because the performance of a single server always limited. 尤其是网络请求具有突发性,可能出现某一段时间内网络访问量急剧上升的现象,从而造成网络瓶颈。 Especially online request with the unexpected may occur within a certain period of time a sharp rise in the phenomenon of network traffic, resulting in network bottlenecks. 因此,必须采用多台服务器提供网络服务,并将网络请求尽量均衡地分配给这些服务器分担,才能提供处理大量并发请求的能力。 Therefore, we must use multiple servers to provide network services, network and try to balance requests to these servers assigned to the share, in order to provide the ability to handle a large number of concurrent requests.

在负载均衡的条件下,多台服务器的地位是平等的,都可以独立为Web客户提供服务而无须其它服务器的辅助,因此这些服务器通常称为镜像服务器。 Under conditions of load balancing, the status of multiple servers are equal, can independently provide services to Web clients and without the aid of other servers, these servers are often called mirror server. 然后通过某种负载均衡技术,将外部发送来的多个请求均匀分配到各台服务器上,而接收到请求的服务器都独立响应客户机的请求。 A plurality of requests then some load balancing techniques, will be sent to external evenly distributed to each server, and the server receives the request in response to client requests independently. 由于建立内容完全一致的Web服务器并不复杂,因此负载均衡技术就成为建立一个高负载Web站点的关键技术之一。 Since the establishment of exactly the same content of the Web server is not complicated, so load balancing technology has become one of the key technology to establish a high-load Web site.

从其应用的地理结构上,负载均衡有两种,分为本地负载均衡(Local LoadBalance):对本地的服务器群作负载均衡,以及全局负载均衡(Global LoadBalance):对分别放置在不同的地理位置、有不同网络结构的服务器群进行负载均衡。 From the application of geological structures, load balancing, there are two, divided into local load balancing (Local LoadBalance): local server farms for load balancing and global load balancing (Global LoadBalance): were placed in different geographical locations there are different network structures of the server farm load balancing. 其中全局负载均衡具有能实现地理位置无关性,远距离为用户提供完全的透明服务等优点;它不仅能够避免服务器、数据中心等的单点失效,也能避免由于网络故障引起的单点失效,还可以解决网络拥塞问题,提高服务器响应速度,达到更好的访问质量。 Wherein the global load balancing can be achieved having a location-independent, remote users to provide full transparency services, etc; it is not only possible to avoid the servers, data centers and other single point of failure, but also to avoid a single point of failure caused by the failure of the network, It can also solve network congestion problems and improve server responsiveness, achieve better access to quality. 全局负载均衡技术主要用于在多个区域拥有自己服务器的站点(比如Yahoo),也可用于子公司地址分散、站点分布广、希望通过企业内联网Intranet来达到资源统一合理分配目的的大公司。 Site (such as Yahoo) global load balancing technology is mainly used to have their own servers in multiple regions, can also be used to address a subsidiary dispersed widely distributed sites, corporate intranets Intranet hopes to achieve a unified rational allocation of resources large companies purposes.

目前,实现全局负载均衡最常用的技术是DNS服务器(Round Robin DNS)轮循负载均衡技术。 At present, to achieve global load balancing technology is most commonly used DNS server (Round Robin DNS) round-robin load balancing technology. 因为基于Web服务器软件的负载均衡需要改动其软件,经常得不偿失;而DNS轮循负载均衡技术是在Web服务器软件之外,即在DNS系统中实现负载均衡,这样就无需修改现有Web服务器软件。 Because Web-based server load balancing software needs to change its software, often more harm than good; and the DNS round-robin load balancing technology is outside of the Web server software that load balancing in the DNS system, so there is no need to modify existing Web server software. DNS负载均衡技术是通过DNS服务器中的随机名字解析来实现的,也就是在DNS服务器中为同一个域名配置多个IP地址,在应答DNS查询时,DNS服务器对每个查询将以DNS文件中域名记录的IP地址按顺序返回不同的解析结果,将客户端的访问引导到不同的机器上去,使得不同的客户端访问不同的服务器,从而达到负载均衡的目的。 DNS load balancing technology is parsing achieved by random names in the DNS server that is configured with multiple IP addresses in the same domain as the DNS server, DNS queries in response, the DNS server will query DNS for each document IP address of the DNS record order to return a different analysis results, client access to a different boot up the machine, so that the different clients to access different servers to achieve load balancing purposes. 这种DNS负载均衡的算法是轮循均衡:将每一次来自网络的请求轮流分配给n个服务器。 This DNS load balancing is Round Robin algorithm: each time a request from the network server in turn assigned to n. 这种DNS负载均衡算法的优点是简单易行,Web服务器可以位于互联网的任意位置上。 The advantage of this DNS load balancing algorithm is simple, Web servers can be located anywhere on the Internet. 该技术已经成功应用在包括Yahoo在内的许多知名的全球Web站点上。 The technology has been successfully applied in many well-known global Web sites, including Yahoo, including.

但是,这种基于简单轮循机制的DNS负载均衡技术功能比较简单,存在不少缺点,特别突出的问题是服务器分配可能不合理。 However, the DNS-based load balancing technology features a simple round robin is relatively simple, there are many shortcomings, particularly prominent problem is the distribution server may not make sense. 因为http服务传输的web页面数据量较小,如果服务器离Web客户越近,越能保证web页面传输的速度,即保证响应http请求的速度和保证Web服务的质量。 Because small web page http amount of data transmission services, if the Web server from the client closer, the more web pages to ensure the transmission speed, the speed of response is to ensure http requests and ensure the quality of Web services. 然而,DNS负载均衡采用的是简单轮循的方式,不能保证客户访问的服务器就是距离该客户最近的服务器,从而获得最快的访问速度。 However, DNS load balancing is used in a simple round-robin fashion, can not guarantee customers access to the server from the client is the closest server to obtain the fastest access speed. 例如,有些互联网服务提供商(ISP,InternetService Provider)可能在美洲、欧洲、亚洲都有自己的应用服务器。 For example, some Internet service providers (ISP, InternetService Provider) may have their own application server in the Americas, Europe and Asia. 采用DNS轮循负载均衡方式,可能会让亚洲用户访问美洲的服务器,而美洲用户访问亚洲的服务器。 Using DNS round robin load balancing methods, it may allow users to access Asian American servers, and user access Americas Asia server. 这样不仅降低了系统对用户的反应速度,降低系统的服务质量;还引起不必要的跨洋网络流量,增加了ISP的通信成本。 This not only reduces the speed of response to the user's system, reduce the quality of service system; transoceanic also causes unnecessary network traffic, the ISP communication cost increases.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明的目的是提供一种基于全球网络定位GNP的全局负载均衡方法,该方法是对现在最常用的基于DNS服务器轮循的全局负载均衡方法的改进和优化,能够保证所选择的镜像服务器与发出请求的Web客户的距离最近或相对较近,提高Web请求的响应速度和web页面的传输速度,进而减少不必要的网络流量,提高Web系统的服务质量。 Object of the present invention is to provide a method of load balancing based on global positioning GNP global network, which is now the most commonly used method based on the improvement and optimization of the global load balancing method round robin DNS servers, to ensure that the selected mirror server requesting from the Web client or the recent relatively close, increase the transmission speed of the response speed of Web requests and web pages, thereby reducing unnecessary network traffic, improve service quality Web systems.

本发明的目的是这样实现的:一种基于全球网络定位的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:DNS服务器根据DNS查询报文中Web客户的GNP坐标和所要解析的域名对应的具有不同IP地址的各个镜像Web服务器的GNP坐标,计算该Web客户与各个服务器的GNP距离,再根据该距离进行全局负载均衡处理,将距离该Web客户最近或相对较近的服务器的IP地址作为DNS查询结果返回给该Web客户。 Object of the present invention is implemented as follows: A Global load balancing method of a global network based positioning, wherein: DNS server according to the DNS query message in the Web client of GNP coordinates and to be resolvable domain corresponding to different IP addresses GNP coordinates of the image of the Web server, the Web client computing with the GNP from each server, and then deal with global load balancing based on the distance, as the DNS query results back to the client from the IP address of the Web server recent or relatively close to the the Web client.

该方法操作之前进一步包括下列步骤:A、修改现有的DNS查询报文格式,即在该DNS查询报文中加入准备发出http请求的Web客户的GNP坐标;DNS服务器返回的查询结果响应报文,不需做任何改动;B、修改现有的DNS服务器软件,使之能够识别含有GNP坐标的DNS查询报文和在数据库中找到每个域名所对应的各个服务器的IP地址及其GNP坐标,完成基于GNP的全局负载均衡算法的初始化。 The method further comprises the following steps prior to the operation: A, modify an existing DNS query packet format, i.e., ready to issue added GNP coordinate http request to the Web client in a DNS query packet; DNS server returns a query result in response packets , without any changes; B, DNS server to modify existing software to enable it to recognize containing GNP DNS query message and coordinates to find the IP address of each server and GNP coordinates corresponding to each domain name in the database, complete load balancing algorithm based on global GNP of initialization.

所述步骤A进一步包括下列操作步骤:A1、修改查询报文首部的定义:在标志字段增加opcode字段的值,即在现有opcode字段定义0为标准查询、1为反向查询和2为服务器状态请求的基础上,增加数值3为支持GNP坐标的DNS查询;A2、在DNS查询报文中加入GNP坐标。 Said step A further comprises the following steps: A1, to modify the definition of a query message header: increasing the value of the opcode field in the flag field, i.e. 0 is a standard defined query prior opcode field, a reverse query and a server 2 based on the status of the request, to increase the value 3 GNP coordinate query DNS support; A2, GNP coordinates added DNS query message.

所述步骤A2在DNS查询报文中加入GNP坐标的操作步骤为下述两种方法之一:修改查询报文的问题部分:在支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文中,除了原有的域名的IP地址查询字段外,增加一个问题字段,并在该问题字段中写入本主机的GNP坐标,其查询类型为Coordinate,类型值为25,表示Web客户的GNP坐标信息,查询类为5,指GNP坐标;再在查询名内存储本主机的GNP坐标,即按GNP坐标的格式CHS给出本主机的坐标,该式表示在N维坐标空间S下的主机H的GNP坐标,其中N为当前GNP坐标的维数;同时将报文首部的问题数修改为2,即将原有的问题数增加1;或修改和定义额外信息字段:定义支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文的额外信息字段格式采用资源记录RR(Resource Record)格式;其中域名为0,表示没有常规意义上的域名;定义类型为Coordinate,类型值为25,表示Web客户的GNP坐标信息;类的值为 The A2 is one of the following two methods Procedure DNS query message GNP coordinates added step of: modifying the query message is part of the problem: GNP coordinates support DNS query packet, in addition to the existing domain name query the IP address field, the problem of increasing a field, and writes this host GNP coordinate field in the problem, which is the coordinate query type, the type is 25, the Web client GNP represents the coordinate information, query class 5, means GNP coordinates; then the query name GNP coordinates stored in this host, i.e., the format of the coordinates are the coordinates of the CHS GNP this host, the formula represents a coordinate GNP host H in the N-dimensional coordinate space S, where N is the current GNP dimension coordinate; at the same time the number of questions packet header changed to 2, the upcoming original number of issues increased by 1; or modify and define additional information fields: define support the additional information field format GNP coordinates DNS query messages using resource record RR (resource record) format; which domain is 0, indicating no domain name in the conventional sense; defined type coordinate, type a value of 25, indicates that the Web client GNP coordinate information; the value category 5,指的是GNP坐标;资源数据长度说明资源数据的数量,当该资源是GNP坐标时,即类型字段为25时,则按GNP坐标的格式CHS给出本机的坐标,该式表示在N维坐标空间S下的主机H的GNP坐标,其中N为当前GNP坐标的维数。 5, referring to the coordinates of GNP; resource data length of data that the number of resources when the resource is GNP coordinates, i.e., the type field is 25, press the CHS format GNP coordinates are given the coordinates of the machine, represented in the formula GNP coordinates host H at the N-dimensional coordinate space S, where N is the dimension of the coordinates of the current GNP.

所述步骤B进一步包括下列操作步骤:B1、DNS服务器识别支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文:DNS服务器读出DNS请求报文首部标志字段中的opcode字段为3,即识别该报文为支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文,再在第二个问题域中读出发出查询请求的Web客户的GNP坐标;或根据额外资源记录数,在其后的额外资源域中读出发出查询请求的Web客户的GNP坐标;B2、修改DNS服务器的数据库:在原有DNS数据库的基础上,将每个域名所对应的各个镜像Web服务器的GNP坐标与其IP地址一起存储记录;DNS服务器在更新数据时,同时更新各个IP地址对应的GNP坐标,以便在DNS服务器进行域名解析时,得到对应于同一个域名的各个服务器的IP地址和GNP坐标。 Said step B further comprises the following steps: B1, DNS server identifies a support GNP coordinate DNS query message: DNS server DNS request packet read out header opcode field flag field is 3, that is identified to support packet GNP DNS query messages coordinates, and then read out the coordinates of GNP send a query of the Web client in the second problem domain; or based on the number of records additional resources, additional resources in the domain subsequent readout send queries Web client the GNP coordinates; B2, DNS server to modify a database: GNP coordinates on the original DNS database, each domain corresponding to its respective mirror Web server stores the IP address is recorded together; DNS server when updating the data, while update when each IP address corresponding to the coordinates of GNP, for the DNS server in the DNS, server corresponding to each obtain the same IP address and the domain name of the GNP coordinates.

该方法包括下列操作步骤:(1)当Web客户要发出http请求时,如果此前在本主机内没有保存本主机在空间S的GNP坐标CHS,则Web客户需要根据各路标Landmark和本主机的距离,按照GNP算法计算本主机在空间S的GNP坐标,并保存该GNP坐标;(2)Web客户按照修改后的DNS查询报文格式发出含有本主机GNP坐标信息的DNS查询请求;(3)当DNS服务器收到Web客户发出的带有GNP坐标信息的域名解析请求后,如果该DNS服务器不支持基于GNP的全局负载均衡方法,则按普通DNS服务器的负载均衡方法,轮循选择一个服务器的IP地址返回;如果该DNS服务器支持基于GNP的全局负载均衡方法,则根据GNP负载均衡算法选择一个响应该Web客户的服务器的IP地址作为该Web客户的域名解析请求结果返回;(4)DNS服务器按照普通DNS响应报文的格式将查询结果返回给Web客户,以便Web客户用收到的IP地址连接Web服务 The method comprises the following steps: (1) When a Web client to issue http request, if not previously stored on this host within the host space S GNP coordinates CHS, the Web client needs in accordance with the distance each landmark Landmark and this host calculated according to the GNP algorithm GNP coordinate present host in the space S, and stores the GNP coordinate; (2) Web client issues a DNS query request containing this host GNP coordinate information according to the DNS query message format modified; (3) when after the DNS server receives a name resolution request with the GNP coordinate information sent by a Web client, if the DNS server does not support the GNP-based global load balancing methods, load balancing methods press ordinary DNS server, select a server round-robin IP return address; if the DNS server supports global load balancing method GNP based on the one IP address of the Web server of the customer's response GNP load balancing selection algorithm according to the Examples of the Web client domain name resolution request result is returned; (. 4) DNS server according to Normal DNS response packet format query results back to the Web client, Web client to connect to a Web service using the IP address received ,并下载Web页面。 And download Web pages.

所述步骤(3)中,当DNS服务器支持基于GNP的全局负载均衡方法时,进一步包括下列操作步骤:(31)从DNS查询报文中取出该Web客户的GNP坐标,找到所要解析的域名对应的IP地址列表后,按照GNP算法计算该Web客户到各个IP地址所对应的服务器的GNP距离;(32)选择其中一个与发出DNS请求的Web客户GNP距离最近或相对较近的服务器的IP地址;(33)将所选IP地址作为DNS查询报文的响应结果写入DNS响应报文,并返回给Web客户。 Said step (3), when the DNS server supports when global load balancing method GNP-based, further comprising the following steps: (31) removing GNP coordinates of the Web client from the DNS query message, to find the domain name to be resolved corresponds to after the list of IP addresses, the Web client to the server computing each IP address corresponding to the distance in accordance with GNP algorithm GNP; (32) select the server where the Web client is issuing a DNS request from the GNP or relatively close to the latest IP address ; (33) the selected IP address as a response to the DNS query packet results are written DNS response packet, and returns to the Web client.

所述步骤(31)中按照GNP算法计算Web客户到各个IP地址所对应的服务器的GNP距离的算法公式是:dH1,H2=Σi=1N(xi-yi),]]>式中假设N维坐标空间S下的主机H1与主机H2的GNP坐标分别为:CH1S=(x1,x2,…,xN),CH2S=(y1,y2,…,yN)。 FORMULATION said step (31) calculating the Web client to the server each IP address corresponding according GNP algorithm GNP distance is: dH1, H2 = & Sigma; i = 1N (xi-yi),]]> formula assumed host H1 and H2 in a host GNP coordinates N-dimensional coordinate space S are: CH1S = (x1, x2, ..., xN), CH2S = (y1, y2, ..., yN).

所述步骤(32)中,选择其中一个与发出DNS请求的Web客户GNP距离最近或相对较近的服务器的IP地址的方法有下述两种:选择与该Web客户的GNP距离最近的IP地址对应的服务器作为响应该Web客户的服务器;或先选择与该Web客户的GNP距离最近的多个IP地址,即按照距离排序最小的若干个IP地址,再在该若干个IP地址中随机选择一个,将其对应的服务器作为响应该Web客户的服务器。 Said step (32), wherein the selected IP address issuing a DNS request from the Web client GNP recent or relatively close to the server the following two methods: GNP selected distance from the nearest Web Client IP address corresponding to the server as a response to the Web client of the server; GNP or first select distance from the nearest to the Web client multiple IP addresses, i.e. ordered according to the distance of the minimum number of IP addresses, and then randomly select one of the plurality of IP addresses , corresponding to the server as a response to the client's Web server.

所述选择与Web客户的GNP距离最近的IP地址对应的镜像服务器Sj作为响应该客户Web请求的服务器的计算公式为:j∈{1..n},且dH,Sj=mini∈{1..n}{dH,Si};即j取1,2,…,n中的一个,dH,Sj是dH,S1,dH,S2,…,dH,Sn中最小的一个;其中H为Web客户,n为与所解析域名对应的具有不同IP地址的Web服务器的总数;所述先选择与该Web客户的GNP距离最近的多个IP地址,再在该多个IP地址中随机选择一个作为响应该Web客户的服务器的步骤中选择与Web客户距离最近的多个Web服务器的数量m的计算公式为: The Web client selects the nearest distance GNP IP address corresponding to the image server Sj is calculated as the response from the server to the client Web request: j∈ {1..n}, and dH, Sj = mini∈ {1. .n} {dH, Si}; j takes i.e., 1,2, ..., n is a, dH, Sj is dH, S1, dH, S2, ..., dH, Sn smallest one; wherein H is a Web client , and n-total number of Web servers having different IP addresses corresponding to the domain name is resolved; GNP said first select distance from the nearest multiple Web client IP addresses, the plurality of randomly selecting an IP address as a response the formula should be selected and the number m of the Web client nearest multiple Web servers Web client steps as server: 式中 Where 为向上取整,即 Is rounded up, i.e., 为取大于等于n/2的最小整数;其中n为与所解析的域名对应的具有不同IP地址的Web服务器的总数。 To take the smallest integer greater than or equal to n / 2; and wherein n is the domain name corresponding to the parsed Web server having the total number of different IP addresses.

本发明基于全球网络定位GNP的全局负载均衡方法不是简单地轮循指定一个服务器,而是考虑Web服务器与Web客户的相对位置因素进行负载均衡,能够保证所选择的IP地址对应的服务器与发出请求的Web客户的距离最近或相对较近,进而减少不必要的网络流量,保证http请求的响应速度,也保证了Web服务的传输速度和质量,提高Web系统的服务质量。 The present invention is not simply specify a polling server based on the global positioning global network load balancing method of GNP, but considering the relative position of the factors Web server and Web client load balancing, to ensure that the selected IP address of the server corresponding to the request the Web client's nearest relative or close, thereby reducing unnecessary network traffic and ensure responsiveness http requests, but also to ensure the transmission speed and quality of Web services, improve service quality Web systems.

本发明这种考虑距离因素的基于GNP的全局负载均衡方法还可以与其它负载均衡算法相结合,应用于其它几种全局负载均衡技术。 The present invention contemplates that the distance factors global load balancing method based GNP also be combined with other load balancing algorithm is applied to several other global load balancing technique. 因此,本发明具有很好的应用前景。 Accordingly, the present invention has a good prospect.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1是Web服务器向Web客户提供服务的连接示意图。 Figure 1 is a schematic connect to the Web server that provides services to Web clients.

图2是DNS服务器向Web客户提供域名解析服务的过程示意图。 Figure 2 is a DNS server to provide name resolution services to Web clients schematic diagram of the process.

图3是在本发明DNS查询报文中举例域名www.bupt.edu.cn的存储记录方式示意图。 3 is a schematic of the domain name stored recording www.bupt.edu.cn DNS query packet illustrated in the present invention.

图4是GNP算法中把网络中的四个结点放入一个三维坐标系示意图。 FIG 4 is the algorithm GNP four nodes in the network into a schematic three dimensional coordinate system.

图5(A)、(B)分别是作为路标的三个结点L1、L2、L3在网络中的相对位置图及将其放入二维坐标系的GNP算法操作示意图。 FIG 5 (A), (B) are three nodes as landmarks L1, L2, L3 in FIG relative position in the network and its schematic GNP arithmetic operation into two-dimensional coordinate system.

图6(A)、(B)分别是另一台普通主机与图5所示的三个路标L1、L2、L3在网络中的相对位置图及将该主机放入二维坐标系的GNP算法操作示意图。 FIG 6 (A), (B) are the three signs L1 shown in FIG other regular host 5, L2, L3 GNP algorithm into a two-dimensional coordinate system relative positions and the network of FIG host operation FIG.

图7是本发明DNS服务器基于GNP的全局负载均衡方法的操作步骤示意图。 FIG 7 is a schematic view of the present invention based on the DNS server Procedure global load balancing method GNP.

图8是图7中的DNS服务器收到Web客户的域名解析请求后进行基于GNP的全局负载均衡算法操作的处理流程方框图。 FIG 8 is in the FIG. 7 DNS server receives a client Web domain name resolution request block diagram showing a processing flow based on the global load balancing algorithm operation GNP.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

本发明是一种基于全球网络定位GNP的全局负载均衡方法,也是对现有DNS轮循负载均衡方法的改进,即将原来的轮循均衡算法改进为基于GNP的全局负载均衡算法。 The present invention is a method of load balancing global positioning GNP-based global network, but also improve the existing DNS round robin load balancing methods, improve global load balancing algorithm GNP is based on the upcoming original Round Robin algorithm. 该方法是由DNS服务器根据DNS查询报文中的Web客户的GNP坐标和所要解析的域名对应的具有不同IP地址的各个镜像服务器的GNP坐标,计算该Web客户与各个服务器的GNP距离,再根据该距离进行全局负载均衡处理,将距离该Web客户最近或相对较近的服务器的IP地址作为DNS查询结果返回给该Web客户。 This method is implemented by a DNS server according to GNP coordinate DNS query packets Web client GNP coordinates and to be resolvable domain corresponding to each of the mirror servers having different IP addresses, calculating the Web client and each server GNP distance, then in accordance with the distance global load balancing process, as DNS query results are returned to the Web client from the IP address of the Web client recently or relatively close to the server. 由于基于GNP算法求出的GNP距离能很好地反映两台主机在网络上的距离(如还回时延round-trip delay),以GNP距离为依据选择的Web服务器能够保证所选服务器与该Web客户网络距离最近或相对较近。 Since the distance can reflect two hosts on the network based on GNP GNP algorithm derived from the (as yet trip delay round-trip delay), at a distance of GNP based Web server selection to ensure that the selected server Web customer networks from recent or relatively close. 为此,本发明首先需要修改现有的DNS报文格式以及DNS服务器软件,以便能够完成对基于GNP的全局负载均衡的支持。 To this end, the invention first need to modify existing DNS packet format and DNS server software, in order to be able to complete the GNP-based supports global load balancing.

由于要使DNS服务器在解析域名后选择与Web客户GNP距离最近或相对较近的Web服务器对应的IP地址,本发明首先要在原有DNS查询报文的基础上作一定的修改,即本发明在DNS查询报文中加入准备发出http请求的Web客户的GNP坐标和修改报文首部的定义,DNS服务器返回的查询结果响应报文不需做任何改动。 Because DNS servers enable customers to choose the Web GNP or relatively close to the nearest corresponding IP address of the Web server after resolving the domain name, the present invention is the first to make certain changes in the original DNS query messages on that the present invention Defining DNS query packet ready to issue http request to join the Web client GNP coordinate and modify the header of packets, DNS server query results returned in response message does not need to make any changes.

其中对查询报文首部定义的修改只是在标志字段增加opcode字段的值,即在现有opcode字段定义0为标准查询、1为反向查询和2为服务器状态请求的基础上,增加数值3为支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文。 Wherein modifying the query packet header is defined only in the flag field value added opcode field, i.e., opcode field is defined in the existing standard queries 0, 1 and 2 for the reverse query based on the server status request, to increase the value 3 GNP coordinate support DNS query messages. 标志字段中的其它字段定义不变。 Flag field defined in other fields unchanged. 下表是DNS报文首部中的标志字段的组成结构。 The following table shows the composition of the DNS packet header structure Flags field in.

1 4 1 1 1 1 3 4对于在DNS查询报文中加入GNP坐标可以有两种方案:一种是修改查询报文的问题部分:如果是普通DNS查询报文,通常只有一个问题。 14,111,134 to join GNP coordinates DNS query messages can have two options: one is the question of amending the part of the query message: if an ordinary DNS query message, usually only one problem. 如果是支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文,除了原有的域名的IP地址查询字段外,需要增加一个问题字段(如下表所示),并在该问题字段中写入本主机的GNP坐标;其查询类型为Coordinate,类型值为25,表示Web客户的GNP坐标信息,查询类为5,指GNP坐标。 If the GNP is supported coordinate DNS query packet, the IP address query fields in addition to the original name, it is necessary to add a question field (shown in the following table), and writes the coordinates of GNP present in the host field problems; its the type of query to coordinate, type a value of 25, indicates that the Web client GNP coordinate information, query class 5, GNP refers to the coordinates. 再在查询名内存储本主机的GNP坐标,即按GNP坐标的格式CHS给出本主机的坐标,该式表示在N维坐标空间S下的主机H的GNP坐标;例如五维空间中的GNP坐标为:5-3.013747 21.12015793.054810-6.044852 12.845207,其中第一个数N是正整数,表示维数;N可以为5、或7、或9、...;后面N个4字节浮点数为各个维坐标的值。 Again in the name of the query stored coordinates GNP this host, i.e., the format of the coordinates are the coordinates of the CHS GNP this host, the formula represents a coordinate GNP host H in the N-dimensional coordinate space S; for example five dimensional space GNP coordinates: 5-3.013747 21.12015793.054810-6.044852 12.845207, wherein the first number N is a positive integer representing the number of dimensions; N may be 5 or 7, or 9, ...; 4-byte floating-point back to N the value of each dimension coordinates. 同时要将报文首部的问题数修改为2,即将原有问题数增加1。 To issue the same time the number of packets header revised to 2, is about to increase the original number 1 problem.

另一种是修改和定义额外信息字段:通常的DNS查询报文的额外资源记录数一般为0,表示没有额外信息字段,为了加入GNP坐标信息,本发明定义支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文的额外信息字段的格式如下表所示:采用资源记录RR格式;其中域名为0,表示没有常规意义上的域名;定义类型为Coordinate,其类型值为25,表示Web客户的GNP坐标信息;类的值为5,指的是GNP坐标;资源数据长度说明资源数据的数量,如果该资源是GNP坐标,即类型字段为25时,则按GNP坐标的格式CHS给出本机的坐标,该式表示在N维坐标空间S下的主机H的GNP坐标。 Another is to modify the definition and additional information fields: record number of additional resources normal DNS query packet is generally 0 indicates no additional information field, GNP was added to the coordinate information, the definition of the present invention supports GNP coordinate DNS query messages format of the extra information field is as follows: resource record RR format employed; where the domain name is 0, indicating that no domain in the conventional sense; is defined as the coordinate type, which type is 25 indicating the coordinate information of the Web client of GNP; class 5 is, referring to the coordinates of GNP; resource data length that the number of resource data, if the resource is GNP coordinates, i.e., the type field is 25, press the CHS format GNP coordinates are given the coordinates of the machine, the formula represents GNP coordinates host H at the N-dimensional coordinate space S. 例如:五维空间中的坐标为:5-3.01374721.120157 93.054810-6.044852 12.845207,其中第一个数N是正整数,表示维数,N可以为5、或7、或9、...;后面N个4字节浮点数为各个维坐标的值。 For example: five-dimensional coordinate space is: 5-3.01374721.120157 93.054810-6.044852 12.845207, wherein the first number N is a positive integer representing the number of dimensions, may be N 5, or 7, or 9, ...; rear N a 4 byte floating point value of each dimension of the coordinate.

此外,还要修改现有的DNS服务器软件,使之能够支持基于GNP的全局负载均衡。 Also, modify existing DNS server software that can support the GNP-based global load balancing. 具体做法是通过读出DNS请求报文首部标志字段中的opcode字段为3,识别为支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文,再在第二个问题域中读出发出查询请求的Web客户的GNP坐标,或根据额外资源记录数,在其后的额外资源域中读出发出查询请求的Web客户的GNP坐标;还要修改DNS服务器的数据库,以完成基于GNP的全局负载均衡算法的初始化。 This is done by reading the GNP coordinate DNS request opcode field header in the flag field 3, to identify the coordinates of GNP to support DNS query message, send a query and then read out in the second question in the domain of Web customers or the number of records according to additional resources, additional resources in the domain subsequent readout send queries of GNP coordinate Web clients; but also to modify the DNS server database to complete the load balancing algorithm based on the global GNP of initialization. 即在原有DNS数据库的基础上,将每个域名所对应的各镜像Web服务器的GNP坐标与其IP地址一起记录;DNS服务器在更新数据时,要同时更新各个IP地址对应的GNP坐标。 GNP recorded together with the mirror coordinate their respective IP addresses of the Web server that is based on the original DNS database, each corresponding to the domain name; DNS server when the update data, to simultaneously update the IP address corresponding to the respective coordinates GNP. 这样,当DNS服务器进行域名解析时,能够得到对应于同一个域名的各个服务器的IP地址和GNP坐标。 Thus, when the DNS name resolution server, the server can be obtained corresponding to each of the same IP address and the domain name GNP coordinates.

本发明基于全球网络定位GNP的全局负载均衡方法的过程概述是:在某一Web客户要发送http请求之前,进行域名解析时,DNS服务器先用GNP算法求出该Web客户到所要解析域名的各个IP地址对应的Web服务器的GNP距离,再根据该GNP距离及基于GNP的全局负载均衡算法选择一个镜像Web服务器,将其IP地址返回给Web客户。 The present invention is based on the process of global load balancing method global network is positioned GNP overview: Before a Web client to send http request for domain name resolution time, DNS server, first find the Web client with the GNP algorithm to resolve domain names to each GNP distance corresponding to the IP address of the Web server, and then based on the distance and the GNP select a Web server mirror global load balancing algorithm based on GNP, its IP address will be returned to the Web client. 图7简明地表述了该处理过程。 FIG 7 concisely express the process.

参见图7,下面详细描述该处理过程。 Referring to Figure 7, the process is described in detail below.

(1)当Web客户要发出http请求时,如果以前在本主机内没有保留本主机在空间S的GNP坐标CHS,则需要按GNP的方法根据各个路标Landmark和本主机的距离(比如用还回时延表示该距离),计算本主机的GNP坐标,并保存该GNP坐标。 (1) When a Web client to issue http request, if previously within the host does not retain this host space S GNP coordinates CHS, is required by the method GNP according to the distance each landmark Landmark and this host (such as by further back delay represents the distance), this host GNP calculated coordinates, and stores the coordinates GNP.

(2)按照修改后的DNS查询报文格式发出DNS查询请求,即在DNS查询报文中的标志字段设置opcode字段值为3和加入本主机的GNP坐标信息。 (2) according to a modified DNS query message format sent DNS query request, i.e., flag field is set in the opcode field of the DNS query message 3 is added to this host and GNP coordinate information.

(3)当DNS服务器收到该Web客户的域名解析请求后,如果该DNS服务器不支持基于GNP的全局负载均衡方法,则按普通DNS服务器的负载均衡方法,轮循选择一个服务器的IP地址返回;如果该DNS服务器支持基于GNP的全局负载均衡方法,则从DNS查询报文中取出Web客户的GNP坐标。 (3) When the DNS server receives the client's Web domain name resolution request, if the DNS server does not support the GNP-based global load balancing methods, load balancing methods press ordinary DNS server, select a server round-robin IP address returned ; if the DNS server supports global load balancing method based on GNP, from the DNS query packet out of GNP Web client coordinates. 因为DNS服务器中保留了与所要解析的域名对应的多个IP地址IPS1、IPS2、…、IPSn(分别对应于镜像服务器S1、S2、…、Sn),以及其对应的GNP坐标CS1S、CS2S、…、CSnS,根据这些服务器的GNP坐标和Web客户的GNP坐标,DNS服务器计算出该Web客户与各个Web服务器之间的GNP距离dH,S1、dH,S2、…、dH,Sn,其中计算两个结点之间的GNP距离的公式为:dH1,H2=Σi=1N(xi-yi),]]>式中该两个结点是N维坐标空间S下的两个主机H1和H2,其GNP坐标分别为:CH1S=(x1,x2,…,xN)和CH2S=(y1,y2,…,yN)。 Because the DNS server retains a plurality of IP addresses IPS1 to be resolved corresponding domain, IPS2, ..., IPSn (corresponding to a mirror S1, S2, ..., Sn), and its corresponding GNP coordinates CS1S, CS2S, ... , CSnS, according GNP coordinates of these servers and Web clients coordinate GNP, DNS servers GNP calculated distance dH between the respective Web client and Web servers, S1, dH, S2, ..., dH, Sn, wherein two calculated formula GNP distance between nodes is: dH1, H2 = & Sigma; i = 1N (xi-yi),]]> where the two nodes are two hosts H1 in N-dimensional coordinate space and H2 S which GNP coordinates are: CH1S = (x1, x2, ..., xN), and CH2S = (y1, y2, ..., yN).

(4)DNS服务器选择某一个镜像服务器的IP地址作为Web客户域名解析查询的结果。 (4) DNS server selects a mirrored server IP address as a result of the Web client DNS queries. 可以有两种选择方式,一种是选择与该Web客户GNP距离最近的镜像服务器Sj作为响应该客户Web请求的服务器:j∈{1..n},且dH,Sj=mini∈{1..n}{dH,Si};即j取1,2,…,n中的一个,dH,Sj是dH,S1,dH,S2,…,dH,Sn中最小的一个;其中H为Web客户,n为与所解析域名对应的具有不同IP地址的Web服务器的总数。 There are two ways to select a choice with the Web client GNP Nearest mirror server Sj as a response to the Web client requests the server: j∈ {1..n}, and dH, Sj = mini∈ {1. .n} {dH, Si}; j takes i.e., 1,2, ..., n is a, dH, Sj is dH, S1, dH, S2, ..., dH, Sn smallest one; wherein H is a Web client , n is a Web server with a different IP address and the domain name corresponding to the parsed total. 但是,直接采用上述方式,有可能出现http请求分配不当,即有大量同一区域的Web客户请求都按距离最近的原则分配到同一个Web服务器,造成某个Web服务器负载较大,使得各个Web服务器负载差距较大。 However, direct manner described above, there may be an http request misallocation that a large number of Web clients are requesting the same area by the nearest distance of principle assigned to the same Web server, Web server load caused by a large, such that each Web server heavy load gap. 此时建议选用另一种选择方式,即采用GNP距离最近与随机选择相结合的办法:先选择与Web客户距离最近的多个Web服务器,例如m个;按照 At this time suggested the use of an alternative way, i.e. using the nearest approach GNP randomly selected combination of: the first client selects the nearest Web plurality of Web servers, for example, the m; according ( ( 为向上取整,即 Is rounded up, i.e., 为取大于等于n/2的最小整数,其中n为与所解析的域名对应的具有不同IP地址的Web服务器的总数)的计算公式,再在这m个Web服务器中随机选择一台作为响应该Web客户的服务器,将其IP地址作为DNS服务器的域名解析结果返回给Web客户。 Is taken greater than or equal to n smallest integer / 2, where n is the total number of the resolved domain name corresponding to the Web server has a different IP address) is calculated, and then randomly select one in the m Web server as a response to the DNS results Web client server, its IP address as the DNS server returns to the Web client.

(5)DNS服务器按照普通DNS响应报文的格式将查询结果返回给Web客户,以便Web客户用收到的IP地址连接Web服务器,并下载Web页面。 (5) DNS server packet format query results back to the Web client in accordance with the ordinary DNS response, in order to connect to the Web server with a Web client receives an IP address, and download a Web page.

参见图8,该图是图7中的DNS服务器收到Web客户发出的带有GNP坐标的域名解析请求后进行基于GNP的全局负载均衡算法操作的处理流程方框图。 Referring to Figure 8, this figure is a process flow operation of the global load balancing algorithm based GNP after block diagram in FIG. 7 DNS server receives a DNS request with the coordinates GNP issued Web client. 也就是上述步骤(3)~(5)的操作流程图,这里不再赘述。 Is a flowchart of operation of the above step (3) to (5), and is not repeated here.

因为Web服务的响应速度是衡量其服务质量的一个重要指标,要求响应http请求的Web服务器与该Web客户的距离最近或相对较近,进而保证http请求的响应速度最快,是保证Web服务质量的关键之一。 Since the response speed of Web services is an important indicator of its quality of service, it requires a response from the Web server http request to the Web client of recent or relatively close, thereby ensuring the fastest response speed http request is to ensure the quality of Web Services one of the keys. 所以本发明在全局负载均衡算法中,考虑到响应http请求的Web服务器与该Web客户之间的距离确实很有必要,而且,本发明基于GNP的全局负载均衡算法中对距离因素的考虑可以与其它负载均衡算法相结合,进而应用于其它几种全局负载均衡技术。 Therefore, the invention in global load balancing algorithm, taking into account the Web server responds to http requests and the distance between the Web client is really necessary, but the present invention is based global load balancing algorithm GNP in consideration of the distance factor and can be other load balancing algorithm are combined, and then applied to several other global load balancing technique. 例如,可以类似地将GNP坐标加入http请求消息的头部,当利用http重定向技术进行负载均衡时,可以从http消息头部中取出GNP坐标,并结合其它负载均衡的算法(如考虑负载等其它因素的负载均衡算法)选择一个离Web客户相对较近的Web服务器响应http请求。 For example, the coordinates can be similarly added to the GNP http request header of the message, when the load balancing using http redirection, may be removed from the coordinate GNP http message header, and in combination with other load balancing algorithm (e.g., load and other considerations load balancing algorithm other factors) select the Web server from a Web client relatively close in response to http requests.

Claims (10)

1.一种基于全球网络定位的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:DNS服务器根据DNS查询报文中Web客户的GNP坐标和所要解析的域名对应的具有不同IP地址的各个镜像Web服务器的GNP坐标,计算该Web客户与各个服务器的GNP距离,再根据该距离进行全局负载均衡处理,将距离该Web客户最近或相对较近的服务器的IP地址作为DNS查询结果返回给该Web客户。 A method of load balancing based on global positioning global network, wherein: GNP coordinates corresponding to the DNS server DNS query message according to the customer's Web GNP coordinates and each of the domain name to be resolved by the Web server mirror having a different IP address calculates the Web client and each server GNP distance, then global load balancing processing according to the distance, it will be returned to the Web client as a result of the DNS query from the IP address of the Web client recently or relatively close to the server.
2.根据权利要求1所述的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:该方法操作之前进一步包括下列步骤:A、修改现有的DNS查询报文格式,即在该DNS查询报文中加入准备发出http请求的Web客户的GNP坐标;DNS服务器返回的查询结果响应报文,不需做任何改动;B、修改现有的DNS服务器软件,使之能够识别含有GNP坐标的DNS查询报文和在数据库中找到每个域名所对应的各个服务器的IP地址及其GNP坐标,完成基于GNP的全局负载均衡算法的初始化。 The global load balancing method as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the method further comprising the steps prior to the operation: A, modify an existing DNS query packet format, i.e., the added ready to issue a DNS query message Web client http requests GNP coordinates; DNS server returns a query result in response packets, without any changes; B, DNS server to modify existing software to enable it to recognize containing GNP DNS query message and the coordinates in the database find the IP address of each server and its GNP coordinates corresponding to each domain name to complete the GNP-based global load balancing algorithm of initialization.
3.根据权利要求2所述的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:所述步骤A进一步包括下列操作步骤:A1、修改查询报文首部的定义:在标志字段增加opcode字段的值,即在现有opcode字段定义0为标准查询、1为反向查询和2为服务器状态请求的基础上,增加数值3为支持GNP坐标的DNS查询;A2、在DNS查询报文中加入GNP坐标。 The global load balancing method according to claim 2, wherein: said step A further comprises the following steps: A1, to modify the definition of a query message header: increasing the value of the opcode field in the flag field, i.e., in the current there opcode field is defined as the standard query 0, 1 and 2 for the reverse query based on the server status request to increase the value of 3 to support GNP coordinate DNS query; A2, GNP coordinates added DNS query message.
4.根据权利要求3所述的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:所述步骤A2在DNS查询报文中加入GNP坐标的操作步骤为下述两种方法之一:修改查询报文的问题部分:在支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文中,除了原有的域名的IP地址查询字段外,增加一个问题字段,并在该问题字段中写入本主机的GNP坐标,其查询类型为Coordinate,类型值为25,表示Web客户的GNP坐标信息,查询类为5,指GNP坐标;再在查询名内存储本主机的GNP坐标,即按GNP坐标的格式CHS给出本主机的坐标,该式表示在N维坐标空间S下的主机H的GNP坐标,其中N为当前GNP坐标的维数;同时将报文首部的问题数修改为2,即将原有的问题数增加1;或修改和定义额外信息字段:定义支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文的额外信息字段格式采用资源记录RR格式;其中域名为0,表示没有常规意义上的域名;定义类型为Coordinate,类型 The global load balancing method according to claim 3, wherein: said step A2 GNP coordinates added DNS query packets Procedure as one of two methods: Modify the problem part of the query message : in support of GNP coordinates DNS query messages, in addition to the IP address of the domain name of the original query field, add a field problem, and write GNP coordinate this host of problems in the field, its query type coordinate, type value of 25, indicates that the Web client GNP coordinate information, query class 5, GNP refers coordinates; then the query name GNP coordinates stored in this host, i.e., the format of the coordinates are the coordinates of the CHS GNP this host, the formula represents GNP coordinates host H in the N-dimensional coordinate space S, where N is the dimension of the current GNP coordinates; while the number of problems packet header is modified to 2, i.e. the original number of problems increase 1; or modifications and define additional information field: additional information field format defined coordinate support GNP DNS query messages using resource record RR format; which domain is 0, indicating no domain name in the conventional sense; defined type coordinate, type 为25,表示Web客户的GNP坐标信息;类的值为5,指的是GNP坐标;资源数据长度说明资源数据的数量,当该资源是GNP坐标时,即类型字段为25时,则按GNP坐标的格式CHS给出本机的坐标,该式表示在N维坐标空间S下的主机H的GNP坐标,其中N为当前GNP坐标的维数。 25, showing the coordinate information of the Web client of GNP; class is 5, referring to the coordinates of GNP; resource data length of data that the number of resources when the resource is GNP coordinates, i.e., the type field is 25, the press GNP CHS format native coordinates given coordinates, the formula represents a coordinate GNP host H in the N-dimensional coordinate space S, where N is the dimension of the coordinates of the current GNP.
5.根据权利要求2所述的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:所述步骤B进一步包括下列操作步骤:B1、DNS服务器识别支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文:DNS服务器读出DNS请求报文首部标志字段中的opcode字段为3,即识别该报文为支持GNP坐标的DNS查询报文,再在第二个问题域中读出发出查询请求的Web客户的GNP坐标;或根据额外资源记录数,在其后的额外资源域中读出发出查询请求的Web客户的GNP坐标;B2、修改DNS服务器的数据库:在原有DNS数据库的基础上,将每个域名所对应的各个镜像Web服务器的GNP坐标与其IP地址一起存储记录;DNS服务器在更新数据时,同时更新各个IP地址对应的GNP坐标,以便在DNS服务器进行域名解析时,得到对应于同一个域名的各个服务器的IP地址和GNP坐标。 The global load balancing method according to claim 2, wherein: said step B further comprises the following steps: Bl, DNS server DNS query packet identification support GNP coordinates: DNS server DNS request packet read opcode field header flag field is 3, that identifies the message in support of GNP coordinate the DNS query message, and then read out the coordinates of GNP send a query of the Web client in the second problem domain; or based on additional resource records each mirror in the original Web server from the DNS database, the corresponding per domain: B2, modify the DNS server database; the number of additional resources in a domain subsequent readout GNP coordinates Web client query request issued memory recording GNP coordinate its IP address together; a DNS server when the update data, while updating each IP address corresponding to GNP coordinates for DNS in the DNS server, to give corresponding to each server in the same domain name of the IP address and GNP coordinates .
6.根据权利要求1所述的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:该方法包括下列操作步骤:(1)当Web客户要发出http请求时,如果此前在本主机内没有保存本主机在空间S的GNP坐标CHS,则Web客户需要根据各路标Landmark和本主机的距离,按照GNP算法计算本主机在空间S的GNP坐标,并保存该GNP坐标;(2)Web客户按照修改后的DNS查询报文格式发出含有本主机GNP坐标信息的DNS查询请求;(3)当DNS服务器收到Web客户发出的带有GNP坐标信息的域名解析请求后,如果该DNS服务器不支持基于GNP的全局负载均衡方法,则按普通DNS服务器的负载均衡方法,轮循选择一个服务器的IP地址返回;如果该DNS服务器支持基于GNP的全局负载均衡方法,则根据GNP负载均衡算法选择一个响应该Web客户的服务器的IP地址作为该Web客户的域名解析请求结果返回;(4)DNS服务器按照普通DNS响应报文的格式将查询结 6. The global load balancing method of claim 1, wherein: the method comprises the following steps: (1) When the Web client http requests to be issued, if not previously stored in the space S present in the host in this host the GNP coordinates CHS, the Web client needs in accordance with the distance each landmark Landmark and this host, in accordance with the GNP algorithm GNP coordinate present host in the space S, and stores the GNP coordinate; (2) the Web client in accordance with DNS query message modified DNS queries sent message format contains this host GNP coordinate information; (3) when the DNS server receives a domain name with a GNP coordinate information Web client sends resolution requests, if the DNS server does not support the GNP-based global load balancing method , press load balancing methods common DNS server, select a round-robin IP address of the server is returned; if the DNS server supports the GNP-based global load balancing methods, the GNP load balancing algorithm selected according to the client's Web server a response of IP Web client address as the domain name resolution request return result; (. 4) DNS server a DNS response packet according to the conventional format of the query result 返回给Web客户,以便Web客户用收到的IP地址连接Web服务器,并下载Web页面。 Back to the Web client, Web client to connect to the Web server using the IP address received, and download a Web page.
7.根据权利要求6所述的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:所述步骤(3)中,当DNS服务器支持基于GNP的全局负载均衡方法时,进一步包括下列操作步骤:(31)从DNS查询报文中取出该Web客户的GNP坐标,找到所要解析的域名对应的IP地址列表后,按照GNP算法计算该Web客户到各个IP地址所对应的服务器的GNP距离;(32)选择其中一个与发出DNS请求的Web客户GNP距离最近或相对较近的服务器的IP地址;(33)将所选IP地址作为DNS查询报文的响应结果写入DNS响应报文,并返回给Web客户。 The global load balancing method according to claim 6, wherein: said step (3), the time when the DNS server supports global load balancing method based GNP, further comprising the following steps: (31) from the DNS after the query packet extracted GNP coordinates of the Web client, find the list of IP addresses corresponding domain name to be resolved, calculating the Web client to the server each IP address corresponding according GNP algorithm GNP distance; (32) selecting one of the IP address sent from the Web client DNS requests GNP recent or relatively close to the server; (33) the selected IP address as a response to the DNS query packet results are written DNS response packet, and returns to the Web client.
8.根据权利要求7所述的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:所述步骤(31)中按照GNP算法计算Web客户到各个IP地址所对应的服务器的GNP距离的算法公式是:dH1,H2=Σi=1N(xi-yi),]]>式中假设N维坐标空间S下的主机H1与主机H2的GNP坐标分别为:CH1S=(x1,x2,…,xN),CH2S=(y1,y2,…,yN)。 8. The global load balancing method as claimed in claim 7, wherein: said step (31) is calculated according to the Web client algorithm algorithm formula GNP GNP distance corresponding to the IP address of each server is: dH1, H2 = & Sigma; i = 1N (xi-yi),]]> formula assumed host H1 to the host in N-dimensional coordinate space S GNP coordinate H2, respectively: CH1S = (x1, x2, ..., xN), CH2S = (y1, y2, ..., yN).
9.根据权利要求7所述的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:所述步骤(32)中,选择其中一个与发出DNS请求的Web客户GNP距离最近或相对较近的服务器的IP地址的方法有下述两种:选择与该Web客户的GNP距离最近的IP地址对应的服务器作为响应该Web客户的服务器;或先选择与该Web客户的GNP距离最近的多个IP地址,即按照距离排序最小的若干个IP地址,再在该若干个IP地址中随机选择一个,将其对应的服务器作为响应该Web客户的服务器。 9. The global load balancing method as claimed in claim 7, wherein: said step (32), wherein the method of selecting a server and sent from the Web client DNS requests GNP recent or relatively recent IP address there are the following two: selecting a server corresponding to the distance to the Web client GNP latest IP address as the server in response to the Web client; or to select the nearest distance from the plurality of IP addresses to the Web client to GNP, i.e. ordered according to the distance the minimum number of IP addresses, then randomly select one of the plurality of IP addresses, the corresponding Web server to the client as a server response.
10.根据权利要求8所述的全局负载均衡方法,其特征在于:所述选择与Web客户的GNP距离最近的IP地址对应的镜像服务器Sj作为响应该客户Web请求的服务器的计算公式为:j∈{1..n},且dH,Sj=mini∈{1..n}{dH,Si};即j取1,2,…,n中的一个,dH,Sj是dH,S1,dH,S2,…,dH,Sn中最小的一个;其中H为Web客户,n为与所解析的域名对应的具有不同IP地址的Web服务器的总数;所述先选择与该Web客户的GNP距离最近的多个IP地址,再在该多个IP地址中随机选择一个作为响应该Web客户的服务器的步骤中选择与Web客户距离最近的多个Web服务器的数量m的计算公式为: 10. The global load balancing method of claim 8, wherein: the selection and GNP distance nearest to the Web client IP address corresponding to the image server Sj is calculated Web server requests the client as a response to: J ∈ {1..n}, and dH, Sj = mini∈ {1..n} {dH, Si}; j takes i.e., 1,2, ..., n is a, dH, Sj is dH, S1, dH , S2, ..., dH, Sn smallest one; wherein the Web client is H, n is the number of Web servers having different IP addresses and the domain name corresponding to the parsed; GNP with the distance from the first select latest Web client a plurality of IP addresses, then randomly selects a response to the Web server as a client of the plurality of IP addresses selected in step with the Web client number m calculated from the nearest of a plurality of Web servers: 式中 Where 为向上取整,即 Is rounded up, i.e., 为取大于等于n/2的最小整数;其中n为与所解析的域名对应的具有不同IP地址的Web服务器的总数。 To take the smallest integer greater than or equal to n / 2; and wherein n is the domain name corresponding to the parsed Web server having the total number of different IP addresses.
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