Detect the method and apparatus of rail break
The present invention relates to a kind of method of monitoring the railroad track integraty, be specifically related to a kind of method that detects rail break.
The invention still further relates to the equipment that is used to realize this method.
Some railway transportation chaufeur, in fact certain type of traffic such as passenger traffic route, speed surpass all these class chaufeurs of the route etc. of 160km/h, need have an autonomous real-time system to detect rail break on the ground.In fact, term " in real time " delay of a few minutes at the most that is understood to mean response command.
In fact imperative in time detects rail break, because the energy to failure in the rail break, particularly warp rail section causes grave accident, as overstepping the limit.
And, after first rail break takes place, very may near near fracture for the first time fracture for the second time take place.So provided under the situation of checking system by track circuit (a track circuit), it shows as and produce " gap " or train " loss " (" toss " of a train) in detection.
Track circuit is to use the system of two rails as transmission line.Inject signal with difference form (in differential form) on one point, and receive by the receptor at another some place.Convert the axletree that exists between these somes the resistance of two rails of short circuit to, by this method, the signal that is received is produced decay.Thereby this system is as checking system, can very detect reliably in the given highway section to have axletree.The latter is defined as respectively by emission and the length that receives 2 highway sections that limit.
A kind of known way is to limit this track circuit by inserting contact (joint); By in by tuning track circuit, using radiofrequency signal, obtain insulation tape (mechanical breakpoint) or electric contact (not having mechanical breakpoint)---the solution of current the best.So this track section of being divided into is also referred to as by electric contact separated " section system " (" block system ").
According to the prior art state, get used to big section, also promptly 100 meters use electric contact to the track between 2 kms.
Principle according to track circuit, occurrent electric interruption will cause receptor place blackout in the rail, yet in the reality, situation is not that such was the case with: track ground connection and traction current (traction current) have constituted parasitic route towards the backflow of substation (substation), make the electric current of track circuit can avoid the rail break place, thereby hinder its detection.
But, follow some criterions towards the backflow of substation, can on certain possibility, guarantee to detect by making earth point location and traction current.
In addition,, tend to be track " loading " (" pupinize "), that is to say that cond is placed at the fixed interval place between two rails in order to compensate the self-induction coil of per unit length track.This might realize being increased relatively by the power attenuation that " loading " parasitic route not causes.A kind of technology in back might alleviate these shortcomings, but does not eliminate these shortcomings fully.
Be noted that the defective that this use track circuit detects, greatly depend on external parameter, as earthing type, roadbed state, track geometry structure (suspended pattern or have type of the 3rd rail etc.).
In addition, these technology can not be distinguished orbit occupancy and this two classes incident of rail break.In fact, this two classes incident all causes voltage decline in the track circuit.In addition, can detect reliably and have train, distinguishing two category informations simultaneously is rail break and orbit occupancy, very important certainly.
In addition, at this moment can only have the multiple solution of using prior art to propose under the situation of circuit of track circuit of electricity or mechanical contacts in installation, usually be not used in the little circuit of transportation volume, or have the circuit of ERTMS (European railroad train management system) level-3 type signal.
Up to now, still this class track is not detected the equipment of rail break.
Goal of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of solution that does not have the prior art shortcoming, a kind of reliable Detection that is used for is provided, say the method and apparatus of rail break with the railway construction term.
Therefore, the object of the present invention is to provide a solution, might comprise the system that utilizes track circuit to detect, or use the system that does not comprise track circuit, detect rail break by use.
Another object of the present invention is to method and apparatus of the present invention to be applied to for example be used for tens kms in the quite long orbital segment, especially be used in the circuit that track circuit can not guarantee train detection.
Another purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of low-cost solution, makes device quantity minimum.
The invention principal character
The present invention relates to a kind of method that is used to monitor at least one section of railway track track integraty, described section track is made of two parallel rails, is provided with between it, and on the one hand, one is in the signal generator or the detector of an end, and an impedance that is in the other end; On the other hand, a detector or signal generator are set in the common-mode circuit (common-mode link), and this method comprises the following steps:
-produce the signal of a certain frequency by means of described signal generator, and this signal is injected described section,
-pick up and detect the described signal of described frequency by means of this detector,
-described signal is handled, and carry out the integraty diagnosis to described section.
First embodiment according to the inventive method:
-by means of the AC voltage source that is arranged between the rail, produce one with corresponding to the corresponding a certain frequency signal of electric current in first circuit of described orbital segment,
-in the standby circuit that constitutes by at least one common-mode wiring (common-modeconnection) that links to each other with described first circuit, by means of being arranged on the described electric current that detector in the common-mode circuit picked up and detected described frequency,
According to second embodiment:
-the current source from standby circuit produces the signal of a certain frequency, and described current source is arranged in the common-mode wiring,
-by means of described detector, in first circuit, pick up and detect the described signal of described frequency with the form of differential voltage between two rails corresponding to described orbital segment.
In the method for the invention, can encode to this signal.
In the method for the invention, be under the situation of AC electric current at traction current, the common-mode wiring can be the ground connection wiring.Perhaps, be under the situation of DC electric current at traction current, this common-mode circuit can be for returning the wiring of substation as traction current.
The invention still further relates to a kind of railroad track section integraty that is used to monitor, preferably be used to detect the equipment of rail break, according to first embodiment, this equipment comprises at least:
-one is used to produce the device of signal, be set between two rails of described railroad track,
-one impedance is connected the described signal generation device of distance one preset distance place between the rail,
-have the device of mid point, be set between the rail, and connect its mid point in such a way by lead at least, forming a common-mode wiring,
-be used to detect the device of described signal, be set in the described common-mode wiring,
-described signal is handled, and carry out the diagnotic device of integraty to described section.
In the equipment according to first embodiment, the described device that is used to produce signal can comprise an AC voltage source, and the described device that is used to detect described signal can comprise an AC current probe.
The invention still further relates to a kind of railroad track section integraty that is used to monitor, preferably be used to detect the equipment of rail break, according to second embodiment, this equipment comprises at least:
-one is used for the device of detection signal, be set between two rails of described railroad track,
-one impedance is connected the described detecting device of distance one preset distance place between the described rail,
-have the device of mid point, be set between the described rail, and connect its mid point in such a way by lead at least, forming a common-mode wiring,
-one is used to produce the device of described signal, be set in the described common-mode wiring,
-described signal is handled, and carry out the diagnotic device of integraty to described section.
In the equipment according to described second embodiment, the described device that is used for detection signal can comprise an AC piezoelectric detector, and the described device that is used to produce signal can comprise an AC current source.
In the device in accordance with the invention, described common-mode wiring can comprise a grounding jumper by earth point.Perhaps, described common-mode wiring can comprise that one makes traction current return the lead of substation.
In the device in accordance with the invention, described device with mid point can be the coil with a mid point.
In equipment according to first embodiment, described voltage source can be used from the effect of projector (Tx) part of the track circuit that detects train, and described impedance can play the tuned cell that links to each other with the receptor (Rx) of the track circuit that is used to detect train.Described track circuit can be separated by insulation tape or electric contact and adjacent track circuit.
In equipment according to second embodiment, the differential voltage detector can be used from the effect of receptor (Rx) part of the track circuit that detects train, and described impedance can play the tuned cell that links to each other with the projector (Tx) of the track circuit that is used to detect train.Described track circuit can be separated by insulation tape or electric contact and adjacent track circuit.
According to the present invention, described detecting device can comprise an instrument transformer, and this instrument transformer comprises first coil as primary winding, second coil and at least one receptor as output primary.
According to one embodiment of the invention, described first coil links to each other the mid point that the mid point and of two devices belongs to two different tracks (A and B), and described at least one receptor can detect the electric current of the corresponding first frequency of first track circuit (F1) that go up to exist with first track (A), and detects the electric current of going up the corresponding second frequency of second track circuit (F2) of existence with second track (B).
Brief Description Of Drawings
Fig. 1 a and 1b schematically show according to the present invention, and a use of track circuit that is used for detecting in the common-mode mode device of rail break is installed.
Fig. 2 a schematically shows the four class devices that are used to detect rail break according to the present invention to 2d.
Fig. 3 schematically shows and utilizes its projector and its receptor, detects the track circuit that has train between two electric contacts.
Fig. 4 schematically shows the track circuit that is used to detect train, has the device that is used to detect rail break according to the present invention.
Fig. 5 schematically shows the most preferred embodiment according to the present invention, comprises two orbital segments that the parallel rail of the device that is used to detect rail break is installed.
The description of the some most preferred embodiments of the present invention
The invention reside in existence one signal generator, particularly be placed between two rails of railroad track or voltage source or current source on the common-mode circuit, and the described signal that the expression rail is broken or ruptures detects.Source Type (voltage or electric current) is included within the scope of the invention with any combination of detector type (measurement curtage).
Term " common-mode " is considered to be meant the device that two rails can be coupled together.These common-mode devices are made of the device with mid point usually, and perhaps they oneself interconnect by wiring, perhaps with the direct ground connection of its mid point.
Fig. 1 and 2 has schematically described the detection principle of the method and apparatus of realizing according to most preferred embodiment.Obtain more detailed description with reference to Fig. 3.
According to Fig. 1 and 2, utilize this embodiment, provide one to be arranged on two voltage sources between the rail according to this embodiment, and, detect the existence of common mode current according to this embodiment.Certainly, can carry out identical analysis, that is to say, and detect two differential voltages between the rail if use the current source that is arranged in the common-mode wiring to inverse structure.
In first kind of situation, constitute track circuit by rail 1 and 2, the impedance 4 of giving constant impedance that AC voltage source 3 and that a frequency is F1 has under voltage source 3 described frequencies is being set between two rails.
Preferably with the certain frequency coding, the long more frequency in highway section is low more for the electric current that this voltage source produces.
The method according to this invention preferably uses a code signal system to distinguish traction current and the electric current that is used to detect rail break.
The device 5 (impedance) that has mid point in addition allows ground connection when drawing with alternating-current voltage/AC voltage, perhaps when drawing with vdc described electric current is returned substation.These devices make it to realize the common-mode wiring.
In fact, this class device 5 is installed on the track circuit, relies on and be used for the present invention in this.
In the situation of alternating-current voltage/AC voltage traction current, 25kV for example, 50Hz AC voltage, the device 5 that this class has mid point makes the part traction current return by lead 8, and (Fig. 2 is a) towards earth point 13 guiding.So between two mid points of device 5, have common-mode wiring 6.
Same this class device 5 that exists under the situation of DC traction current is so that guarantee track and ground insulation.In this case, by lead 8 with traction current from the mid point of described device 5 and lead 14 to substation's 15 guiding (Fig. 2 b).Represent a common-mode wiring 6 by the electric pathway that the part of two leads 8 and lead 14 constitutes.According to the present invention, will use the rail break in the rail portion between this wiring 6 (Fig. 2 a or 2b) detection means 5.
In order to detect the existence of common mode current, preferably the device 7 of the described electric current of energy measurement is arranged in the wiring 6 between device 5 and lead 14 or the earth point 13, this depends on actual conditions.
Can constitute this device 7 by the instrument of any measurement electric current well known in the prior art.Certainly, its be configured to the frequency that traction current and being used to detects rail break be F1 electric current pass through distinguish.
Under normal operation, that is to say between source 3 and the impedance 4 does not have rail break, and (Fig. 1 a) by track circuit 10 for electric current I.Because the intrinsic asymmetry of track, the limited part of described electric current will be by wiring 6.
Under the situation of rail break 11, electric current I will be by circuit 12 (Fig. 1 b), and the electric current that will cause device 7 to be detected increases (traction current+because the electric current that common-mode produces).Therefore be enough to detect this increase of electric current, can judge in rail 1 or rail 2 interruption has taken place, thereby in the highway section of being concerned about, detect rail break.
The adjustment of testing process should be considered orbital environment (ground connection is dangled etc.).The traction type is depended in the restriction of using, depend on to have ground connection or return substation, and depend on track characteristic.
As shown in Figure 2, wiring 6 can be formed various ways, this depends on track characteristic.There are two kinds of contingent things relevant in essence with the backflow of traction current (AC or DC).At 25kV, (Fig. 2 a) in the situation of 50Hz AC traction voltage, utilize the earth point 13 of track rail (drain) traction current (at the fixed range place) of can releasing, perhaps by direction along ng a path a plurality of points are connected to the existence of the lead 14 of substation 15, it comes down to the common-rail insulating point (Fig. 2 b) of some points on the track in DC traction voltage situation.
In fact Fig. 2 a has described first embodiment (AC voltage), and it has utilized the earth point 13 of interface unit 5 mid points.Device 5 of the present invention is emotional resistance (coil) preferably, and it shows given size under the frequency F1 of track circuit, forms low resistance simultaneously under low frequency.Exist this device as under the situation of traction current return path in orbit, can use these coils in the method for the invention.
Fig. 2 b represents second embodiment under the dc voltage situation: lead 14 is released traction current in fact towards substation 15, but same as the wiring 6 that realizes the inventive method.
Thereby principle of the present invention is to use this wiring to detect the existence of common mode current, this wiring or for ground connection connects (Fig. 2 perhaps is the connection (Fig. 2 b) that is redirected to substation a).
Use the electric current between the known method measurement point then, for example the mid point of device 5 coils and wiring 6 a bit for example earth point or make traction current return on the path of substation a bit.The frequency that specific detectors 7 detects in this wiring 6 is the signal indicating of F1, in (section system) rail break is taking place on the highway section of being investigated.
Fig. 2 c and 2d represent that wherein current source 40 and differential voltage detector 41 are placed on the embodiment in the common-mode wiring 6 between the rail.This system can detect described rail break 11 equally by detecting the influence that 11 pairs of detectors 41 of rail break record voltage.
According to a most preferred embodiment, method of the present invention adopts existing track circuit, as by the separated track circuit that is used to search train position of electric contact.
Traditionally, the electric contact of type shown in Fig. 3 (being called the RX/TX contact) comprises two tuned cells respectively, TU.Rx (" tuned cell---receptor ") and TU.Tx (" tuned cell---projector "), be arranged between two rails 1 and 2, connect these two rails and be arranged to 15 to 30 meters each other apart.Distance between two adjacent contacts can change between hundreds of rice to one or two kms.Thereby each contact is divided into two section 50 and 60 with overlapping region 70 with track, is called " section system ", and this overlapping region is equivalent to the distance between these two unit.Electric signal under each the section system typical frequencies that exists in utilization and the corresponding circuit of described section system is realized the detection that train exists, and these can two adjacent circuits of electric separation.
Fig. 3 represents the electric contact of two formation track circuit boundaries.The unit 20 of left side contact and the unit 21 of right side contact electric capacity under first frequency F1 equates.Under this frequency, AC source (Tx) injects signal by these two track circuits that contact limits.In fact source Tx connects with unit 20, and unit 21 has the receptor Rx of a parallel connection, and this receptor must comprise that one is used for measuring the device of this track circuit electric current.Because external unit 22 and 23 is equal to short circuit under frequency F1, should separate with section system 50 respective track circuit and adjacent circuit 60.Under different frequency F3, these cell capacitance are inequality, are the existence that the electric current of F3 can detect train in the adjacent sections system 60 by frequency in this way.
For example, the detection of train in the section system 50 is because 24 of the axletrees of this train form short circuit between rail 1 and 2.In fact, axletree shows can regard short circuited low resistance as, and voltage descends in the receptor that will cause linking to each other with unit 21, makes its deexcitation in this way.Therefore this deexcitation is equivalent to detect train between unit 20 and 21.
This situation is very similar to the described situation of Fig. 1.Have the device 5 and common-mode wiring 6 of mid point by use, might in each section system, detect rail break reliably, as shown in Figure 4 with current measuring device 7.The device with mid point 5 as emotional resistance needn't be arranged between the tuned cell of electric contact.
And the highway section that the method according to this invention is monitored may comprise that several detect track circuit.The contact setting of the close limited amount of this permission direction along ng a path has the device 5 of mid point, rather than near each electric contact.
Thereby observe, when on the track circuit 50 train being arranged, electric current will be by the axletree of this train, and not by wiring 6.As for traction current, when train by the time 7 measure by device.
Therefore on highway section, can not obscure between the detection that rail break and train exist,, make traction current can be different from the common-mode signal that is used to detect rail break as long as signal is suitably encoded corresponding to track circuit 50.
Fig. 5 expresses most preferred embodiment of the present invention.Substantially parallel two couples of A and B rail 1,2 and 1 ', 2 ' are carried out current measurement.These two track A and B are equipped with the track circuit that is used to detect train, and described circuit is separated by electric contact (20,22) and (21,23).In this special case, current measuring device 7 is instrument transformer (18,19, a 32) form, can one of them detects rail break to two branch block systems (30,31) of belonging in two parallel orbits any.Utilization is called the detection that differential signal under the different frequency of F1 and F2 is realized train in section system 30 and 31.Device 5,5 ' with mid point is between the tuned cell of electric contact.
For example in AC voltage situation, impedance 18 is for having the self-induction coil of a grounded neutral, and as the primary winding of this instrument transformer.Under the situation of dc voltage, this mid point can be connected on the cable, this cable is as the wiring of returning substation.In this case, can realize the detection of two electric currents in two circuit of parallel orbit by means of single measuring element.If ground connection is provided as shown in Figure 5, then use two coils 18.
At least one dedicated receiver 32 that is used to detect rail break links to each other with the output primary 19 of this voltage transformer.
Owing to be intended to avoid existence to be equal to imaginary fracture, use the track-circuit signalling of coding with train.
Therefore the right use of pre-programmed frequency codes might be judged (or difference more accurately) electric current and traction current from track circuit.Corresponding to determined frequency, receptor 32 detects the signal (filtering) that surpasses a certain threshold value, and encodes.This detection may determine to exist unusual section system or track.
Might each earth point use a receptor 32, as long as it is equipped with the device (for example decoding device) of the signal of the signal that is used for crossover frequency F1 and frequency F2.Preferably each earth point is installed two receptors 32, that is to say each frequency F1, receptor of F2.These receptors will be installed in parallel on the output primary 19.
As shown in Figure 5, detect in two section systems 30 and 31 one or rail break in another by current measuring device (18,19,32).With allied equipment (18 ', 19 ', 32 ') the monitoring adjacent sections system that links to each other with inductance wiring 5 ' near adjacent contact.In fact, the existence near the earth point of electric contact should participate in the common-mode conduction relevant with rail break in this highway section.Thereby needn't attempt to detect this signal in adjacent place.
Current sensor 18,19 and detector 32 preferably are included in the shell, and for example having in this shell, a lead that is loaded with common mode current passes through.Can be at the track place or realize the detection undertaken by detector 32 in a distance.