CN1445436A - Self-supporting hidden digging structure - Google Patents

Self-supporting hidden digging structure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1445436A
CN1445436A CN 02107626 CN02107626A CN1445436A CN 1445436 A CN1445436 A CN 1445436A CN 02107626 CN02107626 CN 02107626 CN 02107626 A CN02107626 A CN 02107626A CN 1445436 A CN1445436 A CN 1445436A
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arch
supporting
self
hidden digging
shield
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彭高培
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彭高培
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Abstract

A self-supporting underground excavating structure for reasonably using underground space is composed of arch plate system and top supporting system. Said arch plate system consists of arch plates and covering ground stratum. Said top supporting system is composed of supporting posts and longitudinal beams. Its advantages are no ground settlement, high safety and low cost.

Description

Self-supporting hidden digging structure
The invention belongs to the underground construction tunneling and shore structure
At present, often require tunneling technology in the city underground engineering construction.General tunneling technology has shield structure, Guan Peng, jacking forms such as (box culvert, push pipes).Owing to the Structure Mechanism reason of structure self is shored in tunnelings such as shield structure, jacking, adopt tunneling technologies such as shield structure, jacking to be restricted than the underground construction of large space (span); Pipe canopy tunneling technology also has certain requirement to face of land covering layer height, geological conditions and span size.Should, present tunneling prior art can not satisfy the growing needs in urban underground engineering construction, influences the development and use of underground space resource.
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of present tunneling prior art that is different from fully, its mechanism has superior, stressed clear and definite, the easy construction of architectural characteristic, can guarantee any space underground construction tunneling (particularly weak soil shallow buried covered excavation), is that structure is shored in a kind of safe and reliable novel tunneling---self-supporting hidden digging structure.Self-supporting hidden digging structure digs contrary three parts of doing of formula by the system of shoring, harmless formula arch bar, lid and constitutes.
The present invention is based on that the following fact proposes: underground construction tunneling method kind is more at present, but the whole bag of tricks all has certain limitation.For example: the shield structure is subjected to the restriction of the underground space generally only to be used for construction of tunnel etc.; The pipe canopy be aided with shore, composite technology such as slip casting can be applicable to than the large space underground construction, but it is hard to tackle to construct, and runs into bad ground, is easy to generate security incident: jacking (box culvert, push pipe) is sat in the right seat especially, and range of application is narrow; Lid digs the contrary tunneling category that do not belong to of formula.The present invention integrates the novel tunneling of mechanism, structure and technologies such as contrary work, shield structure, Guan Peng, jacking, slip casting and sliding formwork and shores structure, and its mechanism is different from present any tunneling mechanism.Self-supporting hidden digging structure need not to adopt shores structure foundation construction face temporarily, and arch bar and covering stratum thereof are by the system of shoring oneself independent " directly shoring ", the system of shoring is the ingredient of underground construction, its core is " directly shoring " four words, the tunneling construction does not destroy morphosequent, is self-supporting hidden digging structure so claim its tunneling to shore.Self-supporting hidden digging structure is a kind of new hidden digging structure, is applicable to the underground construction (particularly weak soil, shallow embedding, large space) of Different Strata, each class formation.In the actual underground construction, large space mostly is to connect strides structure, often adopts the arcading form as top board structure, so self-supporting hidden digging structure is called the multi-arch type self-supporting hidden digging structure again.
Concrete structure of the present invention is as follows: self-supporting hidden digging structure Load Transfer system is made of arch bar system and the system of shoring.It is formations such as arch bar (according to technological requirement, the engineering top board can be designed to arch bar) and covering stratum that the arch bar system is answered broad understanding.The system of shoring is made of longeron and bearing post etc.Shore system support arcs plate body system.Stress model is: load---arch bar---longeron---bearing post.Underground construction adopts against making technology, and bearing post is positioned in the middle of the structural column, and the system of shoring is exactly the contrary supporting system of doing, with underground engineering construction, the engineering structures system forms one by one, and the system of shoring is progressively replaced by the engineering structures system, and final arch bar system is supported by the engineering structures system.According to structural calculation, bearing post can be by engineering piles or natural ground supporting.Engineering piles can adopt single pile or many pileworks.Self-supporting hidden digging structure is according to current specifications (Code for design of concrete structures etc.) design, and this component part as underground construction of its structure need not " construction conversion ".
Shoring system (bearing post and longeron) is the core of laying self-supporting hidden digging structure., open cut technology dark according to the employing of job site condition all can.The system of shoring is laid technology can be divided into that concealed wiring, bright post lay, bright system lays three kinds.Shoring system (bearing post and longeron) adopts tunneling technology to lay to be called concealed wiring; Shoring the system bearing post adopts open cut technology, longeron to adopt tunneling technology to lay to be called bright post and lays; Shoring system (bearing post and longeron) adopts open cut to be called bright system to lay.Corresponding self-supporting hidden digging structure can be divided into whole dark digging structure (claiming whole dark digging contrary work again); Bright post hidden digging structure (claiming bright post tunneling contrary work again); Bright is hidden digging structure (claiming that again bright is the contrary work of tunneling).So-called tunneling technology is meant that the system of shoring constructs by service gallery.
Service gallery can be divided into tunnel, track (or shaft structure), three kinds in work tunnel and arch strand tunnel.Each tunnel form of structure should be because of ground (geological characteristics) suiting measures to different conditions, does not impose identically, is prerequisite but should guarantee that the tunnel is safe and reliable.It is vertical with arch strand tunnel that the work tunnel should be arranged at the project site middle part.Employing arch strand tunnel lays the system of shoring and is in proper order: 1, lay tunnel, track, work tunnel successively, encircle service galleries such as twisting the tunnel; 2, in arch strand tunnel, lay the tunnel Grouting Pipe earlier, and improve stratum slip casting, lay bearing post, longeron etc. then.
Longeron also has a kind of horizontal drilling compound (many) longeron (being called for short compound longeron) except that the steel concrete longeron.The horizontal drilling stake can adopt form such as rotary churning pile (on construction face) in the work tunnel to lay, and compound longeron can only adopt two contrary works.
Harmless formula arch bar is the key of laying self-supporting hidden digging structure.The construction face is set up in the self-supporting hidden digging structure measure of not taking temporarily to shore, and directly sets up Arch Bar Structure by means of the system of shoring, and supporting covers vertical loads such as stratum.Can guarantee to construct covering stratum above the not disturbance arch bar does not produce sedimentation, does not destroy environment, does not influence road traffic, so claim its arch bar construction to be harmless formula arch bar technology (abbreviating harmless formula arch bar as).Harmless formula arch bar is the self-supporting hidden digging structure key of success.Lay technology by it and can be divided into three kinds: the one, the longeron formula supports in advance; The 2nd, longeron formula pipe canopy: the 3rd, rail mounted shield structure.The arch bar laying method is decided according to engineering geology and hydrogeology, relatively poor many employing longeron formula pipe canopies of geological conditions and rail mounted shield structure, and geological conditions is better, adopts the longeron formula to support in advance, same engineering can be used alternatingly.The pre-support of longeron formula pipe canopy and longeron formula directly forms arch bar, and rail mounted shield structure is development machine (or being called rail mounted shield structure structure), and arch bar lays by its facility, and both all should carry out twice lining cutting, but lining process is not quite similar separately.Adopt the face of land to lay the system of shoring, still need by means of the work tunnel harmless formula arch bar such as tunnel, track (vertical shaft) construction.
The pre-support of so-called longeron formula is meant that laying arch bar adopts light-duty cage of reinforcement sprayed mortar (poor as geological conditions, as can to adopt the measure of small casing grouting and reinforcing) or other conventional civil engineering lining process to form pre-support arch bar.Pre-support arch bar is supported on the longeron, supports in advance so be called the longeron formula.The length of constructing each time is controlled at 0.6-0.8m, is no more than 1.0m at most.
So-called longeron formula pipe canopy is meant that laying arch bar adopts pipe canopy technology, according to geological conditions, the pipe canopy such as can adopt push pipe (various slip casting), horizontal jet grouting to mix to stir at process form, and longitudinal reinforcement is set, make to form pipe canopy arch bar in the pipe canopy scope, need manage the canopy arch bar by it and can set up horizontal arch rib and its pipe canopy arch bar co-operation, bear vertical loads such as covering the stratum effectively, pipe canopy arch bar is supported on the longeron, so be called longeron formula pipe canopy.Each construction length is advisable with 15-20m.
Rail mounted shield structure be meant have supporting, the steel arch structure of multinomial function such as supporting, wherein support arcs is for there being pull bar two strand steel arches, be supported at both ends on the steel concrete longeron track, have enough degrees of safety, can support vertical loads such as covering the stratum effectively, excavation and operation such as lining cutting have the sense of being perfectly safe just as at " shield " time under steel arch structure.Hydraulic test is installed in the steel arch structure, can finish each road technological process such as jacking, shovel (digging) soil, sliding formwork, roof pressure, jacking (sliding formwork) is to rely on placing of concrete arch, withstand on the support arcs by vertical jack, the shield structure is advanced along longeron, so claim that its steel arch structure is the automatic shield structure of rail mounted hydraulic pressure structure (is called for short rail mounted shield structure, or is called the rail mounted shield machine).
Rail mounted shield structure encircles (pipe canopy arch), supporting arch, grid type supporting, the arch of cutting the earth, jacking arch, sliding formwork arch and track etc. by adjustable pipe canopy to be formed.Each encircles profile by structure design, and length is determined according to geological conditions and execution conditions etc.Pipe canopy arch is made of many adjustable steel pipes (pipe canopy arch), and its working model has two: one, cantilever construction, and pipe canopy arch is fixed on the support arcs, is supported by support arcs; The 2nd, freely supported structure, an end is fixed on the support arcs, and the other end is supported by front end ground layer soil body.The former is applicable to better stratum, and pipe canopy pipe is short and rare, and the latter is applicable to that than soft stratum pipe canopy pipe stiffness is big, has long and close characteristics.The caliber of pipe canopy pipe, rigidity etc. are determined by real; The supporting arch is for being fixed in the cantilever semicircular ring structure on the support arcs; The grid type supporting is positioned at below the supporting arch, links to each other with the jacking arch by the supporting diagonal brace; The arch of cutting the earth is the digging place, and artificial its arch length of cutting the earth of employing should satisfy construction operation, and its arch length of machinery shoveling should satisfy hydraulic shovel and install; The major function of jacking arch is that shield structure jack is set, and guarantees the jacking of rail mounted shield structure, so be called the jacking arch.The slip casting of can pressurizeing in time of jacking arch is tamped because of excavation face earth caves in and backbreaks and wait the loosening and space of causing, and guarantees that synchronous grouting implements, and encircles so be also referred to as slip casting.The jacking arch is combined by a plurality of box-shaped steel structures, so be called the box-shaped arch again; Arch and the jacking arch of cutting the earth is formed support arcs, is supported on the longeron track, is that the supporting of shield structure covers the important structure that vertical load, propelling shield structure such as stratum overcome resistance and adjust every work such as snakelike error, and its intensity, rigidity etc. should satisfy Structural Design Requirement; The sliding formwork arch is made of flexible arch bar and pipe girt strip.The sliding formwork arch has multinomial function: the one, and flexible arch bar is the exterior sheathing of concrete perfusion, advance with the shield structure, flexible arch bar is covering longitudinal sliding motion between the soil body and concrete, and harmless in fact formula arch bar concrete exterior sheathing is to adopt the slipform process construction, so be called the sliding formwork arch; The 2nd, concrete arch lining cutting operation is carried out in the sliding formwork arch, so the sliding formwork arch is also referred to as lining arch; The 3rd, lining concrete and its punching block support and can cover the stratum by whole roof pressure, prevent that the face of land from producing sedimentation, have synchronous roof pressure effect, so the sliding formwork arch is called the roof pressure arch again.Obviously, have only under the prerequisite that adopts slipform process, roof pressure arch (shield structure) just has synchronous roof pressure and covers the stratum ability; Track is installed on the longeron, can be arranged at top or both sides according to engineering specifications, and monorail or double rail type can be adopted in the top.The operations of rail mounted shield structure is implemented by hydraulic jack.For the ease of laying the space, heavy in section, increase pre-timbering with tubular prop ability (length) and snakelike error adjustment, vertically the jacking jack is divided into shield structure jack (comprising the template that covers between stratum and the lining concrete), pipe canopy jack and three independent systems of Ge Peng (supporting) jack.
Pipe canopy arch is cantilever construction, is installed on below shoveling, slip casting, the sliding formwork arch.For being suitable for stratum complicated and changeable, pipe canopy arch adopts the assembling adjustable structure, and every steel pipe all can be adjusted neatly according to geological conditions, is specially adapted to the boulder stratum.
Rail mounted shield support structure design has two aspects: the one, and two sides (longeron is following), the 2nd, excavation face.The two sides support retaining is static retaining soil, presses the current specifications design.The support retaining design of rail mounted shield structure mainly is meant excavation face grid type supporting design, its support retaining belongs to dynamic support retaining notion, should take corresponding structure measure and working measure according to different geological conditionss and execution conditions etc., guarantee that rail mounted shield support face keeps stable.
The job site often has the variety classes formation condition, amplitude of variation can be from hard gravel stratum to weak mud stratum and building waste (boulder) stratum.For example, the hard gravel stratum in area such as China Chengdu, shallow cut (about 3.0m) adopts the vertical cut face to need not to put the slope, and rail mounted shield tunneling face need not any supporting; The soft soil layer in area such as coastal, riverine, if geological characteristics φ value is 10 °, its supporting embedded depth and cutting depth are about 1: 1, the supporting of rail mounted shield tunneling face design seems very outstanding.The design of Different Strata supporting and protection structure is differed greatly, and rail mounted shield structure only is applicable to that various stratum just have vitality.
The grid type supporting is fixed in below the supporting arch, pushes ahead with the shield structure, belongs to dynamic retaining support.The grid type supporting will prop up mask and the excavation face is well-separated, adopts the extruding injection to advance, and earth deposits in the supporting grid, just as culvert pipe is stopped up by earth, when bending, forms supporting and protection structure on grid type supporting and its mud, guarantees the stable of a mask.Have only the supporting grid to stop up full earth, just can guarantee to excavate the face operation.The supporting and protection structure design is carried out by standard, and grill designs should adopt adjustable grid can be applicable to that just different geological conditionss change requirement.Under the constant prerequisite of shield structure propulsive force, geological characteristics Φ value is directly proportional with grid transverse width (or grate opening size), is inversely proportional to the grid longitudinal length.Grid should in time be adjusted with the stratum condition, to satisfy excavation face degree of stabilizing to.
The supporting of decompression type grid is made of the earth in pipe canopy arch, grid type supporting and the grid.Pipe canopy arch can cover the stratum load on the support arcs, be equivalent to the load platform, its load platform and grid type supporting constitute supporting and protection structure jointly, the load platform is equivalent to the relieving platform of supporting and protection structure, can reduce the supporting and protection structure soil pressure, help a mask soil stabilization, so claim that its supporting is the decompression type supporting.
The most basic difference of rail mounted shield structure and the shield structure (muddy water adding pressure type etc.) that adopts at present is a mask earth pressure balance mechanism.The former excavation face is an opened type, and the shield structure adopts the extruding injection, and earth is discharged for the original state soil body.Prop up the mask soil pressure and press the design of retaining support principle, its soil pressure relies on grid type supporting to come balance; Latter's excavation face is closed, and the excavation face is a mask, and both are overlapping, and excavation face soil pressure relies on shield structure propulsive force that excavation face pressurization (muddy water) is come balance, and earth is with the output of slurries form, and deslagging then dewaters.Because excavation face earth pressure balance mechanism difference prevents that the method for ground settlement also is not quite similar.
For the underground construction tunneling of loose soft stratum construction, prevent that the face of land from producing sedimentation, avoid to around environment to cause ill effect (the city underground engineering construction is particularly outstanding) be that the existence together of tunneling construction is closed.For preventing ground settlement, rail mounted shield structure than the longeron formula support in advance, longeron formula pipe canopy is superior.Owing to self mechanism, rail mounted shield structure prevents that sedimentation from having two kinds of specific process: the one, and pressurization slip casting, the 2nd, synchronous roof pressure.
One, pressurization slip casting.Pressurization slip casting is by slip casting improvement formation characteristics, belongs to geotechnical engineering.Except that tunnel slip casting, various pressurization slip castings are all carried out in the shield structure.According to the purpose difference of slip casting, pressurization slip casting can divide supporting slip casting, precipitation slip casting, tamp three kinds of slip castings etc.
(1) supporting slip casting.At soft stratum, in order to reduce the soil pressure of a mask, support capacity is improved on the slip casting of taking to pressurize improvement stratum, and its slip casting is called supporting slip casting.Supporting slip casting can be passed through tunnel Grouting Pipe (tunnel slip casting), and pre-grouting pipe (pre-grouting) and the pipe adjustable steel pipe of canopy (tube shed grouting) etc. carries out, and periphery and excavation face are played prevention of water and pre-supporting effect.Pre-grouting, tube shed grouting are with continuously slip casting of shield structure jacking.Pre-grouting pipe, the adjustable steel pipe of pipe canopy have the sliding formwork function, make injecting cement paste and its pipe not produce bonding and solidify.In order to enlarge range of grouting, increase prevention of water and pre-supporting ability, the pre-grouting pipe, the adjustable steel pipe of pipe canopy can be provided with " hangnail pipe ", is drilled with injected hole on " hangnail pipe ", is called hangnail slip casting by " hangnail pipe " slip casting.Pre-grouting and tube shed grouting can adopt two-layer pipe, and outer tube is the jacking pipe, and interior pipe is a Grouting Pipe, and interior pipe is connected with casting head, by the outer tube jacking.
(2) precipitation slip casting.In broken ground construction (particularly backfill stratum), formation subsidence inevitably appears in precipitation.For preventing that because of precipitation produces sedimentation be that the slip casting of purpose is called precipitation slip casting.Precipitation slip casting can by tunnel Grouting Pipe (tunnel slip casting) and radially Grouting Pipe (radially slip casting) carry out.
(3) tamp slip casting.In digging process, because being easy to generate, a variety of causes shield structure periphery stratum backbreaks and disturbance, to be backbreak in the stratum and slip casting is carried out at the disturbance position by arch face injected hole (arch face slip casting), its slip casting is called tamps slip casting.
Pressurizeing, slip casting is opposite with geological characteristics also coordinates.Firm hard formation pressurization slip casting difficulty, but engineering itself just need not the slip casting of pressurizeing, tunneling, construction safety is reliable; Soft stratum (particularly drift sand) requirement of engineering pressurization slip casting is handled, and pressurization slip casting is implemented easily, and the obvious tunneling construction of effect also can be safe and reliable.Even at abominable stratum construction operation extremely complicated and changeable, the slip casting of effectively pressurizeing also can turn danger into safety.Be not difficult to find out that the pipe ceiling advances with geological characteristics to have opposite characteristic of also coordinating equally, also this specific character makes self-supporting hidden digging structure (rail mounted shield structure) under any complex geological conditions just, all can guarantee the reliable basic reason of engineering safety place.
Every slip casting intensity, slip casting time, pressure size and setting time etc. all need design by construction.
Two, synchronous roof pressure.Roof pressure can prevent ground settlement effectively synchronously.Understand synchronous roof pressure, must grasp sliding formwork arch structure function and process.The sliding formwork arch is made of flexible steel plate and pipe girt strip.Flexible steel plate is to be fixed on the support arcs, pushes ahead with rail mounted shield structure.Pipe girt strip rear end is fixed on the concrete perfusion arch, and when rail mounted shield structure advanced, the pipe girt strip remained static relatively.Rail mounted shield structure advances repeatedly circulation construction through excavation, and when reaching a perfusion length, pipe girt strip front end is held on and carries out a concrete lining on the support arcs.Its construction sequence is: (1) at first loosens terminal bolt behind the pipe girt strip after reaching a perfusion length; (2) with the precast concrete arch bar, precast concrete arch rib and mould bases etc. are assembled into synchronous roof pressure (structure); (3) appropriate jacking mould bases (roof pressure); (4) extracting (propelling) pipe girt strip out places below the support arcs; (5) perfusion arch bar concrete; (6) sliding formwork (advance, excavation is circulation repeatedly) is finished next " perfusion length "; (7) cover when the time comes and do not had sliding formwork arch between stratum and the concrete arch, only for covering the stratum, before concrete initial set, in time carry out the secondary roof pressure above the arch bar.First and second roof pressure is referred to as synchronous roof pressure.Once lining is prefabricated, cast-in-place complex coagulation soil structure; Secondary lining is cast-in-place impervious concrete structure.
The rail mounted shield-tunneling construction divided for two steps: the first step is the assembly unit of rail mounted shield structure.On face, will manage canopy arch, supporting arch, grid type supporting shoveling arch, jacking arch and sliding formwork arch etc. and carry out assembly unit.Second step was the rail mounted shield-tunneling construction.Be divided into propelling, once lining, synchronous roof pressure and secondary lining etc. by its construction sequence.1, advance (excavation): the shield structure advances and repeatedly circulation construction of excavation, reaches a perfusion length.2, once lining: once lining is the composite lining that precast concrete arch rib, precast concrete arch bar and cast-in-situ concrete are formed.3, synchronous roof pressure: utilize mould bases to push up in the once-combined lining cutting, increase compactness with its covering stratum.4, secondary lining: secondary lining is cast-in-place anti-leakage lining.Each the arch section and the grid type supporting of rail mounted shield structure need to adjust according to geological conditions and job practices, and pipe canopy arch, supporting arch and grid type supporting etc. better can be cancelled in the stratum.
Whether pipe canopy arch, cut the earth each arch design such as arch, jacking arch, sliding formwork arch and supporting arch, decompression type supporting, grating type supporting, anti-grand inverted arch etc. are provided with, and how to be provided with to look engineering structures and geological characteristics and different grasp flexibly.With pipe canopy arch is example, firm hard formation, and pipe canopy arch can not be provided with; Scall, pipe canopy arch need be provided with long and close adjustable steel pipe, increases supporting slip casting, makes pipe canopy arch periphery form prevention of water and pre-supporting; Special scall, even need set up hangnail slip casting, further improve the designed output of prevention of water and pre-supporting.Self-supporting hidden digging structure should be adhered to reasonable in design and construction safety is a principle.
By above-mentioned argumentation, support in advance in the longeron formula, in the longeron formula pipe canopy, three kinds of harmless formula arch bars of rail mounted shield structure, rail mounted shield structure advantage is obvious, is adapted to various geological conditionss.
Rail mounted shield structure is to lay one of harmless formula Arch Bar Structure form of self-supporting hidden digging structure, if keep the operating principle of its shield structure, abandon the system of shoring, lid digs technology notions such as the contrary work of formula, harmless formula arch bar becomes full shield, is a kind of special case of self-supporting hidden digging structure.Complete disconnected and shield structure can be circle, oval and other any geometric format.The supporting of shield structure (grid), jacking, slip casting, shoveling, lining cutting and snakelike error adjustment etc. are all carried out in full shield.Full shield is that pipe canopy, jacking, shield structure and sliding formwork (vertically) organically merge, so full shield is called pipe canopy formula shield structure, jacking-type shield structure, sliding formwork formula shield structure again.Full shield has pressurization slip casting and synchronous roof pressure characteristics equally.The synchronous roof pressure notion of full shield and rail mounted shield structure is different, and the former is by " self structure " in the full shield outside roof pressure soil body, and the latter relies on to shore system roof pressure covering stratum.So-called " self structure " is exactly to be provided with to shore structural system in full shield.The full shield minimum dimension can be less than 2m, and maximum size can surpass present maximum shield structure (11.66m).
It is the emphasis of self-supporting hidden digging structure that lid digs contrary work of formula, and the most engineering quantitys of engineering are all dug formula against finishing by lid.After harmless formula arch bar laid, underground construction adopted lid to dig the formula adverse construction method.So-called lid digs that formula is contrary to be done, and is meant that an existing vertical direction spatial (vertical height is about 3.0-4.0m according to the construction needs) can be used as underground engineering construction face (operation place) below the arch bar.Adverse construction method is to the not change and the influences such as morphosequent of face of land mulched ground layer, the adverse construction method picture carries out construction operation under native cover board, by its shape, meaning all be sure to really, cap excavation method worthy of the name, dig as lid that formula is contrary to be done so claim that its underground construction is contrary.Lid digs the contrary work of formula and can put into practice, has benefited from reasonably adjusting the precedence of inter process, sets up in advance dexterously and shores system, lays harmless formula arch bar safely.
Lid digs that formula is contrary does to carry out contrary the work below harmless formula arch bar, except that engineering increases difficulty of construction, contraryly does mechanism and general construction work against there is no substantial difference, and its technology is different.The common buildings engineering is contrary to be done as structural column is contrary, can be considered single contrary work.Whole dark digging is contrary to be done if adopt, and bearing post should lay in the tunnel, and execution conditions are very difficult, can adopt two contrary works.So-called two contrary structural column and bearing post of being meant adopts simultaneously against making technology, so be called two contrary works.Two contrary orders of doing are to solve that to lay bearing post in the tunnel long, and execution conditions difficulty, safety are difficult for guaranteeing, and a kind of working measure of taking.Bearing post adopts only satisfied the shoveling for the first time of just doing to construct to get final product (longeron is about 2m down) for the first time, adopts the second time adverse construction method should satisfy engineering against doing designing requirement.Bearing post is contrary to can be regarded as bearing post vertically construct " conversion ".Bearing post lays in the tunnel for the first time, and its absolute altitude is about 2m under longeron, and the bearing post second time (under arch bar) on the construction face lays, and its absolute altitude is the contrary design elevation of doing.Bright is that tunneling, bright post tunneling need not to adopt two contrary works.
Self-supporting hidden digging structure of the present invention is different from general tunneling and shores structure, is characterized in: 1, structure design is shored in tunneling, construction is carried out by the relevant current specifications of China, has stressed clearly, and architectural characteristic is good; 2, all kinds of underground constructions that are suitable for different geology (engineering geology and hydrogeology) condition, environment (ground settlement) requirement; 3, the system of shoring of structure is with underground engineering construction, and bearing post becomes structural column one by one, and it is to carry out under rail mounted shield structure that arch bar lays, and construction safety is reliable; 4, structure directly adopts adverse construction method technology, and this need not " construction conversion " as the component part of underground construction, reduces engineering construction hidden danger; 5, structure self has multinomial pressurization slip casting and roof pressure measure synchronously, can make in time to stir the stratum and return to original compactness, guarantees that ground settlement meets design requirement; 6, construction is flexible; 7, construction costs is cheap etc.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing design principle of the present invention and architectural feature are described further:
Fig. 1 is stress model figure of the present invention;
Fig. 2 (a) is structural plan figure of the present invention, and Fig. 2 (b) is Fig. 2 (a) sectional drawing;
Fig. 3 encircles strand tunnel sectional drawing for the present invention;
Fig. 4 encircles strand tunnel, bearing post section (bearing post place) figure for the present invention;
Fig. 5 encircles strand tunnel, bearing post, longeron section (bearing post place) figure for the present invention;
Fig. 6 supports drawing in side sectional elevation in advance for longeron formula of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is a longeron formula pipe canopy drawing in side sectional elevation of the present invention;
Fig. 8 (a) is a rail mounted shield structure plan view of the present invention, and Fig. 8 (b) is the drawing in side sectional elevation (jacking arch place) of Fig. 8 (a), and Fig. 8 (c) is the longitudinal plan of figure (a);
Fig. 9 is a full shield jacking arch place drawing in side sectional elevation.
Referring to Fig. 1, this self-supporting hidden digging structure is by arch bar system 2 and shore system 3 and constitute, and arch bar system 2 is by arch bar 4 and cover stratum 45 grades and form, and shores system 3 and is made of longeron 6 and bearing post 7 etc.Arch bar system 2 supporting loads 1 are transmitted to the system of shoring 3 again.
Referring to Fig. 2 (a), service gallery is constructed successively by tunnel, track 8, work tunnel 9 and arch strand tunnel 10.This structure is three little span cross section structures, and arch bar 4 is directly passed to bearing post 7 through longeron 6 with load 1.Along with the construction work adverse construction method carries out, bearing post 7 progressively forms structural column 11.Be not difficult to find out that self-supporting hidden digging structure incorporates architectural structure system at the very start, the two unites two into one, and need not " construction conversion ".
Referring to Fig. 2 (b), arch strand tunnel 10 has been removed, and structural column 11 and structure floor 12 have been constructed.
Referring to Fig. 3, arch strand tunnel 10 supports 15 by tunnel arch 14 and tunnel and constitutes.
Referring to Fig. 4, at first in arch strand tunnel 10, lay bearing post 7.Lay tunnel Grouting Pipe 27 then, and slip casting is improved on the stratum, one can improve the support capacity of a mask, and two can reduce the ground settlement that produces because of precipitation.
Referring to Fig. 5, longeron, tunnel Grouting Pipe and improvement stratum slip casting lay finish after, in arch strand tunnel 10, lay bearing post 7 (engineering piles) again.
Referring to Fig. 6, the pre-support of longeron formula 61 is made up of light-duty cage of reinforcement 56 and sprayed mortar 55.The pre-support 61 of longeron formula is supported on above the longeron 6.
Referring to Fig. 7, longeron formula pipe canopy 62 is made of many horizontal drilling stakes 46.Longeron formula pipe canopy 62 is supported on above the longeron 6.
Referring to Fig. 8 (a), rail mounted shield structure 17 is made of six of pipe canopy arch 18, supporting arch 19, grid type supporting 20, the arch 22 of cutting the earth, jacking arch 23 and sliding formwork arches 24 etc.Grid type supporting 20 is made of grid crossbeam 25 and grid riser 26.Radially injected hole 29 and arch face injected hole 40 are arranged at respectively on cut the earth arch 22 and the jacking arch 23.Sliding formwork arch 24 is made up of flexible steel plate 32 and pipe girt strip 33.Perfusion length 51 is unsuitable long.
Referring to Fig. 8 (b), jacking arch 23 is made of a plurality of box-shaped steel structures 30 and pull bar 5.Support arcs 31 by cut the earth arch 22 and jacking encircle 23 etc. two form, directly support load 1, support arcs 31 two ends are equipped with the shield structure and advance wheel 50 by track 16 supportings.Box-shaped steel structure 30 upper stratas are provided with adjustable steel pipe 42.The 17 excavation section by section lining cutting of rail mounted shield structure, it is unsuitable too high once to excavate absolute altitude 44, is advisable with convenient construction.
Referring to Fig. 8 (c), rail mounted shield structure pipe canopy arch 18, supporting arch 19, grid type supporting 20, the arch 22 of cutting the earth, jacking arch 23, sliding formwork arch 24 and each n-th-trem relation n such as concrete perfusion arch 34 as can be seen.Pipe canopy arch 18 is made up of many adjustable steel pipes 42.Adjustable steel pipe 42 slip castings form Grouting Pipe canopy arch 18.Grid type supporting 20 is made of grid riser 26 and grid crossbeam 25, and a mask 48 separates with excavation face 47, and distance is a grid type supporting thickness 49 between the two, equals the grate opening length of (being equivalent to culvert pipe).The arch 22 of cutting the earth is earth excavation operation place, has radially injected hole 29 on the arch 22 of cutting the earth, and radially Grouting Pipe 28 is from radially injected hole 29 insertion slip castings.Lay supporting diagonal brace 41 between jacking arch 23 and the grid type supporting 20.Have arch face injected hole 40 on the jacking arch 23.Sliding formwork arch 24 is made up of flexible steel plate 32 of polylith and Duo Gen pipe girt strip 33, the flexible steel plate 32 of pipe girt strip 33 supportings.Precast concrete arch rib 36, precast concrete arch bar 37 and mould bases 38 etc. constitute synchronous roof pressure 35, and in fact the length of roof pressure 35 be exactly to pour into length 51 synchronously.Once excavating absolute altitude 44 determines by requirement of engineering.Concrete perfusion arch 34 is as once lining.Whether anti-grand inverted arch 58 is provided with, and length (vertically) is set decides on geological characteristics;
Referring to Fig. 9, the jacking of full shield 65 arch 23 is made up of a plurality of box-shaped steel structures 30.Soil body load 66 is transmitted to full shield 65.Adjustable steel pipe 42 is installed in the box-shaped steel structure 30.
Embodiment: is that example further specifies with the whole dark digging list against making rail mounted shield structure.Construction is dug the contrary work 43 of formula by the system of shoring 3, harmless formula arch bar 64, lid and is carried out successively.
Shore the system construction in two steps: the first step is the adit construction.Construction is undertaken by tunnel, track, work tunnel, arch strand tunnel etc. successively; Second step is for shoring the system construction.At first lay bearing post 7 (comprise bearing post 7 below engineering piles) in arch strand tunnel, before longeron 6 lays, lay the tunnel Grouting Pipe, improve stratum slip casting simultaneously, lay longeron 6 (laying shield structure track 16 simultaneously) then, system 3 is shored in formation;
Harmless formula arch bar 64 (rail mounted shield structure 17) construction was divided into for two steps, and the first step is 17 assembly units of rail mounted shield structure; Second step was 17 constructions of rail mounted shield structure.17 assembly units of rail mounted shield structure are at first set up the construction face, assembled track formula shield structure 17 on face.Rail mounted shield structure 17 is made of pipe canopy arch 18, supporting arch 19, grid type supporting 20, the arch 22 of cutting the earth, jacking arch 23 and seven parts such as sliding formwork arch 24 and track 16.17 constructions of rail mounted shield structure can be divided into propelling and lining cutting (first and second lining cutting), and its key is the management control of grid type supporting 20 and the roof pressure operation of roof pressure 35 synchronously.Grid type supporting 20 should in time be adjusted the grate opening size according to formation variation, guarantees a mask 48 stable and excavation face 47 normal operations.17 execution controls of rail mounted shield structure are dynamic management.Roof pressure 35 will be controlled the pressure of first and second roof pressure synchronously, and the face of land is monitored.Harmless formula arch bar 64 is exactly an arch bar 4.The purpose that arch bar 4 is called harmless formula arch bar 64 is to emphasize that the arch bar 4 that lays by self-supporting hidden digging structure does not influence the city look and feel in city.Do not hinder road traffic.
Lid digs the formula adverse construction method.The lid formula of digging contrary is made mechanism, technology is identical against doing with the common buildings engineering, does not give unnecessary details.

Claims (21)

1, a kind of self-supporting hidden digging structure is by arch bar system (2) with shore system (3) and constitute.It is characterized in that: described arch bar system (2) includes arch bar (4) and covers stratum (45); Shore system (3) and include longeron (6) and bearing post (7); Shore system (3) and shore arch bar system (2).
2, self-supporting hidden digging structure according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described arch bar system (2) is by arch bar (4) and cover stratum (45) formation arch bar system (2), bears vertical load (1).
3, self-supporting hidden digging structure according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the described system (3) of shoring is made of longeron (6) and bearing post (7), shores system (3) and shores arch bar system (2).
4, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described lid digs contrary do (43) of formula, and adverse construction method under the prerequisite of any change does not take place the morphosequent that can guarantee to cover stratum (45).
5, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described steel concrete longeron (6) and bearing post (7) lay in arch strand tunnel (10).
6, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described many horizontal drilling stakes (46) constitute the compound longeron of boring (52) (on the face of promptly constructing) in work tunnel (9) and lay.
7, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described two contrary do (53) are to adopt the contrary technology of doing simultaneously by structural column (11) and bearing post (7).
8, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described longeron formula supports (61) in advance and constitutes pre-support arch bar (57) by sprayed mortar (55) and light-duty cage of reinforcement (56), supports arch bar in advance and is supported on the longeron (6 or 52).
9, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described longeron formula pipe canopy (62) constitutes pipe canopy arch bar (54) by many horizontal drilling stakes (46) and is supported on longeron (6 or 52).
10, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described rail mounted shield structure is by pipe canopy arch (18), supporting arch (19), grid type supporting (20), the arch (22) of cutting the earth, jacking arch (23), sliding formwork arch (24) and track formations such as (16), and its structure has unique shield machine reason.
11, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 10 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described service gallery is made up of tunnel, track (8), work tunnel (9) and arch strand tunnel (10) etc., is the requisite working measure that carries out an invention.
12, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 10 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described pipe canopy arch (18) is made up of many adjustable steel pipes (42), and rail mounted shield structure (a 17) mask (48) is had pre-supporting effect.
13, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 10 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described grid type supporting (20) is made up of grid crossbeam (25) and grid riser (26), and its function is the soil pressure on the balance supporting face.
14, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 10 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described decompression type supporting (21) is made of pipe canopy arch (18) and grid type supporting (20), can reduce a mask soil pressure effectively.
15, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 10 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described anti-grand inverted arch (58) is made of steel work inverted arch (59) or solid matter formula pipe canopy inverted arch (60).
16, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 10 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described sliding formwork arch (24) is made of flexible steel plate (32) and pipe girt strip (33), sliding formwork arch (24) is the key that arch bar (4) forms, and is the requisite prerequisite of synchronous roof pressure (35).
17, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 10 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described supporting slip casting is made up of tube shed grouting, pre-grouting, tunnel slip casting and hangnail slip casting etc., and rail mounted shield structure (a 17) mask (48) is had prevention of water and pre-supporting effect.
18, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 10 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described precipitation slip casting is made up of radially slip casting and tunnel slip casting etc., can improve earth formation prevention surface subsidence effectively.
19, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 10 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: describedly tamp slip casting and constitute, can tamp the stratum and prevent surface subsidence by arch face slip casting.
20, according to claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 10 described self-supporting hidden digging structures, it is characterized in that: described synchronous roof pressure can be controlled ground settlement timely and effectively by precast concrete arch bar (37), precast concrete arch rib (36) and mould bases formations such as (38).
21, self-supporting hidden digging structure according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described full shield (65) can guarantee that excavation, lining cutting carrying out in the section entirely, are a kind of special cases of self-supporting hidden digging structure.
CN 02107626 2002-03-17 2002-03-17 Self-supporting hidden digging structure Pending CN1445436A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101831873A (en) * 2010-05-25 2010-09-15 北京城建设计研究总院有限责任公司 Temporary bridge covered excavation method for constructing box culvert below traffic ground line of operating track
CN106759461A (en) * 2015-11-16 2017-05-31 彭高培 Resist grand supporting construction
CN108915727A (en) * 2018-06-27 2018-11-30 昆明理工大学 It is a kind of using concrete filled steel tube as the tunnel lining structure of skeleton and slding form operation method
CN110219677A (en) * 2019-06-11 2019-09-10 中国十七冶集团有限公司 A kind of big section piping lane preliminary bracing cased arch construction method
CN110725333A (en) * 2019-10-23 2020-01-24 中建四局土木工程有限公司 Construction method of retaining wall

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101831873A (en) * 2010-05-25 2010-09-15 北京城建设计研究总院有限责任公司 Temporary bridge covered excavation method for constructing box culvert below traffic ground line of operating track
CN101831873B (en) * 2010-05-25 2011-11-09 北京城建设计研究总院有限责任公司 Temporary bridge covered excavation method for constructing box culvert below traffic ground line of operating track
CN106759461A (en) * 2015-11-16 2017-05-31 彭高培 Resist grand supporting construction
CN106759461B (en) * 2015-11-16 2019-05-21 彭高培 Resist grand supporting construction
CN108915727A (en) * 2018-06-27 2018-11-30 昆明理工大学 It is a kind of using concrete filled steel tube as the tunnel lining structure of skeleton and slding form operation method
CN110219677A (en) * 2019-06-11 2019-09-10 中国十七冶集团有限公司 A kind of big section piping lane preliminary bracing cased arch construction method
CN110725333A (en) * 2019-10-23 2020-01-24 中建四局土木工程有限公司 Construction method of retaining wall

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