CN1426379A - Mehtod and apparatus for treating waste water - Google Patents

Mehtod and apparatus for treating waste water Download PDF

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CN1426379A
CN1426379A CN 01808509 CN01808509A CN1426379A CN 1426379 A CN1426379 A CN 1426379A CN 01808509 CN01808509 CN 01808509 CN 01808509 A CN01808509 A CN 01808509A CN 1426379 A CN1426379 A CN 1426379A
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filter
solid
liquid separation
permeable
sludge
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CN1232453C (en
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葛甬生
田中俊博
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株式会社荏原制作所
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/02Aerobic processes
    • C02F3/12Activated sludge processes
    • C02F3/1236Particular type of activated sludge installations
    • C02F3/1268Membrane bioreactor systems
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/02Aerobic processes
    • C02F3/12Activated sludge processes
    • C02F3/1236Particular type of activated sludge installations
    • C02F3/1268Membrane bioreactor systems
    • C02F3/1273Submerged membrane bioreactors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • Y02W10/15Aerobic processes

Abstract

一种处理废水的方法,其中通过对未经处理的废水进行生物处理获得含活性污泥的混合液,对上述混合液进行固液分离,特征在于其包括将未净化水输送到生物反应容器中,在此实施生物处理,将生物反应容器中经过处理的包含活性污泥的混合液导入固液分离池,所述固液分离池具有浸在里面的透水过滤器,于是在透水过滤器部件表面上形成污泥的动态过滤层,从透水过滤器部件的内侧提取过滤水。 A method of treating waste water, wherein the untreated waste water by a biological treatment to obtain a mixture containing activated sludge, solid-liquid separation of the liquid mixture, characterized in that it comprises the unpurified water to the bioreactor vessel in this embodiment the biological treatment, the mixed solution through a bioreactor containing activated sludge treatment tank is introduced into the solid-liquid separation vessel, the solid-liquid separation tank having a dip in it water-permeable filter, so the surface of the water-permeable filter member dynamic filter layer is formed on the sludge extracted from the filtered water inside the water-permeable filter member. 该方法能够作为生物处理后实施固液分离的污水处理方法用于活性污泥的高效固液分离。 After the waste water processing method which can be used as a biological treatment in the solid-liquid separation for efficient solid-liquid separation of activated sludge.

Description

废水处理方法及装置 Wastewater treatment method and apparatus

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及一种废水处理,特别是涉及活性污泥或超浓污泥的固液分离,具体涉及包括活性污泥固液分离的废水处理方法和系统,它们可用于有机的工业和生活污水的处理。 The present invention relates to a waste water treatment, particularly to a solid-liquid separation of activated sludge or of concentrated sludge, particularly relates to a method for treating wastewater and solid-liquid separation of activated sludge systems, they can be used organic and industrial sewage deal with.

背景技术 Background technique

在利用活性污泥法的水处理中,为了获得净水,必需将活性污泥分成固体和液体。 In the activated sludge treatment method in order to obtain clean water, activated sludge into the required solids and liquids. 用于该目的的典型方法包括:将活性污泥导入澄清池,通过重力使污泥沉降,将上层清液作为净水从澄清池中排出。 A typical method for this purpose include: activated sludge is introduced into the clarifier, sludge by gravity sedimentation, the supernatant is discharged as clean water from the clarifier. 然而,该方法需要具有沉降区域的澄清池和足能使活性污泥沉降下来的保留时间,这导致处理系统的尺寸增大和相当大空间。 However, this method requires a settling clarifier and a sufficient retention time region of the activated sludge can settle, which results in an increase in size of the processing system and a relatively large space. 当由于污泥膨胀或其它原因而削弱活性污泥的沉降性质时,污泥从澄清池内流出引起净水品质降低。 When expansion or other reasons since the sludge settling properties weakened activated sludge, causing sludge from the clarified effluent water purification tanks reduced quality.

近年来,还使用了通过薄膜分离代替澄清池将活性污泥分成固体和液体的方法。 In recent years, a method is also used to activated sludge into solid and liquid instead of the clarifier by membrane separation. 该情况下,一般用微滤薄膜或超滤薄膜作为固液分离薄膜。 In this case, generally using microfiltration or ultrafiltration thin film solid-liquid separation film. 然而,该方法必需通过泵吸抽汲或加压,以便能在几十到几百kPa的压力下进行常规过滤,这导致很高的泵吸功率,并使运行成本增加。 However, this method required by pumping pumping or pressurizing so as to enable a conventional filter at a pressure of tens to hundreds kPa, which results in a high pumping power, and the running cost increases. 薄膜分离的优点在于能获得没有SS(悬浮固形物颗粒)的清洁流出物,但其具有以下缺点,即渗透通量很低,需要定期进行化学清洗以防薄膜污染。 Membrane separation can be obtained the advantage that no SS (suspended solid particles) cleaning effluent, but it has the disadvantage, i.e., low permeate flux, the need for periodic chemical cleaning to prevent contamination of the film.

新近已提出了一种用于替代对活性污泥进行固液分离的澄清池的方法,其包括将由诸如无纺织物的透气片材构成的过滤器浸在曝气池中,在低水压头压力下过滤。 More recently, a proposed alternative method for solid-liquid separation of activated sludge in the clarifier, which by the filter comprising a permeable sheet made of a nonwoven fabric immersed in the aeration tank, the low head of water, such as pressure filtration. 图1中示出了该方法的概略图。 FIG 1 shows a schematic view of the method. 依照该建议的方法,在生物反应池201中设置了用于曝气的扩散管202和过滤器204,在过滤器下方设置了用于对过滤器进行空气洗涤的扩散管203。 The method according to the proposal, the bioreactor is provided in the diffuser tube 201 and the filter 202 for aeration of 204, is provided below the filter diffuser for an air filter 203 is washed. 在生物反应(过滤操作)过程中,从未净化水输送管205向生物反应池201供应要进行处理的未净化水,从扩散管202散逸空气或类似物,以便使它们在该池内与活性污泥进行生物反应,然后使经处理的液体通过过滤器204,通过排放管206排出流出物(滤出液)。 In the process (filtering operation) in the bioreactor, from the raw water delivery pipe 205 to a biological reaction tank 201 to be processed supplied raw water, from the air diffuser tube 202 or the like is dissipated, so that they are active in the sewage tanks mud biological reaction liquid was then treated by the filter 204, the effluent is discharged through the discharge pipe 206 (filtrate). 在上述过程中,通过扩散管202曝气会使活性污泥混合液在生物反应池(201)的过滤器表面上产生包括向下流的横流(图1a)。 In the above process, the tube 202 will aeration activated sludge mixture produced in the biological reactor (201) comprises a filter surface by diffusion to the downstream cross flow (Figure 1a). 该横流在过滤器204的表面上形成活性污泥动态过滤层,通过所得到的动态过滤层对活性污泥混合液进行过滤,并借助排放管206将它们排出去。 The cross flow is formed on the surface of the filter 204 is dynamically activated sludge filter layer, filter the activated sludge mixture by dynamic filtration layer obtained by means of the discharge tube 206 and discharge them to. 当过滤器204表面上形成的过滤层固结、引起过滤阻力增大、从而使过滤流动速率降低时,会终止通过扩散管202进行的曝气,于是就要通过空气洗涤使空气从扩散管203中散逸出来,以除去过滤器表面上的过滤层(图1b)。 Consolidation when the filter layer 204 is formed on the surface of the filter, causing the filter resistance increases, thereby reducing the flow rate of the filter will be terminated by the aeration diffusing pipe 202, the air will then pass from the air diffuser tube was washed with 203 the dissipation out, to remove the filter layer on the filter surface (FIG. 1b). 依照该方法,可通过分离过滤器表面上形成的污泥动态过滤层获得清洁滤出液。 According to this method, the cleaning can be obtained through the sludge filtrate dynamic filtering layer formed on the surface of the separating filter. 在此“污泥动态过滤层”是指过滤进行时在过滤器的表面上形成的活性污泥颗粒沉淀层。 The "dynamic filtration sludge layer" refers to activated sludge particles are formed on the filtration surface of the filter sediment layer. 该方法中所用过滤器的过滤介质孔径基本上大于活性污泥颗粒的尺寸,这会使污泥颗粒通过,但是在低过滤驱动压条件下,在过滤介质表面上会形成活性污泥颗粒的沉积层(污泥的动态过滤层),于是该动态过滤层能阻止活性污泥颗粒通过介质。 The method as filter media filter pore size substantially larger than the particles of activated sludge, which sludge particles will pass the filter but at a low driving pressure conditions on the filter media formed on the surface deposition of the active sludge particles layer (dynamic filtration layer of sludge), whereupon the dynamic filter layer prevents the active sludge particles through the medium. 一般在该方法中使用的过滤器包括无纺织物、纺织织物、金属网等。 Usually filter used in the method comprises a nonwoven fabric, a woven fabric, a metal net. 在该方法中利用动态过滤层最重要的是在过滤介质表面上均匀而有效地形成活性污泥颗粒的沉积层作为过滤层,为了可靠地阻止活性污泥颗粒通过并稳定地获得具有优良水质的净水,过滤层厚度、密实度和其它因数要适合于过滤活性污泥。 Dynamic filter layer in which the most important is uniformly and effectively form the filter layer of the active sludge particles deposited as a filter layer on the medium surface, in order to reliably prevent sludge and particles are stably obtained by having excellent water quality water, filter thickness, density, and other factors to be suitable for filtering the activated sludge. 在所建议的方法中规定,通过将活性污泥沿过滤器表面流动的流速控制在平均0.05-0.4m/s、优选0.15-0.25m/s,以此形成动态过滤层。 In the proposed method, it is provided by activated sludge flowing along the surface of the filter at an average flow rate control 0.05-0.4m / s, preferably 0.15-0.25m / s, thereby forming a dynamic filter layer. 在所建议的方法中,当沿过滤器表面的流速为0.2m/s时,过滤通量约为2m/d,过滤持续时间为2.5h或更长,但在沿过滤器表面的流速为0.03m/s达45分钟后,开始时过滤通量为4.1m/d,但迅速降低到3.3m/d。 In the proposed method, when the flow along the filter surface is 0.2m / s, the filtration flux of about 2m / d, 2.5h filtration duration or longer, but flow along the filter surface of 0.03 after m / s for 45 minutes, filtered and the start flux 4.1m / d, but rapidly reduced to 3.3m / d.

另外还提出了基于活性污泥法的废水处理系统,其中将过滤器浸在生物反应池和最终澄清池的至少一个中,利用与随后池的水压头差借助过滤器出口从过滤器抽取净水。 Also proposed activated sludge wastewater treatment system based on which the filter is immersed in at least a biological reactor and a final clarifier, a subsequent hydrohead using differential cell extracts by means of the filter outlet from the filter net water.

然而,这些已建议的方法存在以下缺点。 However, there is a disadvantage of these methods have been suggested. 在已建议的方法中,是通过曝气在池中产生流动循环来使污泥混合液沿过滤器表面流动的。 In the method has been proposed, it is to make the surface of the flow direction of the filter sludge mixture aeration generated by the circulating flow in the pool. 然而在这些方法中沿过滤器表面的流速并不恒定,在过滤器表面上不能形成均匀的污泥动态过滤层,污泥也不容易淀积在过滤器表面上。 However, in these processes along the filter surface velocity is not constant, can not form a uniform layer of sludge on the dynamic filtration surface of the filter, the sludge is not easily deposited on the filter surface. 此外,生物反应池中的水位随水流入速度和曝气流速而改变,因此过滤器上的水压头压力也不恒定,过滤流速在变化而不能保持稳定流速。 Further, the water level in the pool water flows into the bioreactor with aeration speed and flow rate changes, so hydrohead pressure is not constant on the filter, the filtration flow rate in the flow rate change is not stable. 如果水压头压力不稳定且非常高,那么过滤器表面上形成的污泥动态过滤层的透水率将变差,从而使过滤通量急剧下降。 If the hydraulic head pressure is very high and unstable, then the water permeability dynamic filtering sludge layer formed on the surface of the filter is deteriorated, so that a sharp decline in the filtration flux. 结果,清洗频率增高,清洗后的通量恢复率降低。 As a result, cleaning frequency increase, decrease recovery rate after cleaning the flux. 另外,即使在进入生物反应池的未净化水中存在很少的残留有机污染物、例如BOD(生物需氧量),它们也会直接沉积在过滤器上,从而在过滤器表面上长出生物粘泥,使滤出液流速显著降低。 Further, even small residual organic contaminants present in the biological reactor is not entering the purified water, for example, BOD (biological oxygen demand), which will be deposited directly on the filter, thereby bioadhesive grow on the surface of the filter mud, so that the filtrate flow rate is significantly reduced.

当将过滤器浸在最终澄清池中时,会发生以下问题。 When soaking the filters in the final clarifier, the following problems occur. 在利用重力沉降污泥的最终澄清池中,就象以下事实所示,厚污泥沉积在底部,从顶部收集上清液,因此澄清池内的污泥浓度并不均匀。 In the final clarifier sludge by gravity sedimentation, as shown in the fact that thick sludge deposited on the bottom, from the top of the supernatant was collected, clarified sludge concentration pool therefore not uniform. 因此,在浸入过滤器的那部分污泥浓度不均匀,结果不能形成良好的动态过滤层,也不能获得稳定的流出物。 Thus, the non-uniform section that is immersed in sludge concentration filter, the results can not form a good dynamic filter layer can not be obtained a stable effluent.

我们进一步详细研究了在利用活性污泥混合液的动态过滤层的过滤方法中过滤器的过滤通量与沿过滤器的表面流速之间的关系,发现,当沿过滤器表面的流速为0.05-0.4m/s、特别是在优选范围0.15-0.25m/s之内时,过滤器表面上的污泥流动有力,于是很难形成具有有效过滤区的均匀污泥动态过滤层,过滤器表面也会迅速被细泥絮状物阻塞,这将抵销利用空气洗涤或水洗涤的效果。 We further studied in detail the relationship between the filter surface of the filter flux flow along the filter in the filtration method using dynamic filtration of activated sludge mixture layer, it was found that when the flow rate along the surface of the filter was 0.05 0.4m / s, especially in the preferred range 0.15-0.25m / s, the flow of the sludge on the filter surface strong, so it is difficult to form a homogeneous sludge dynamic filter layer having an effective filtration area of ​​the filter surface also rapidly blocked fine mud flocs, which will offset the effect of air washing or washing with water. 我们还发现,当表面流速低于0.05m/s时,在清洗过滤器后紧接的5分钟内,稳定动态过滤层的形成非常迅速,5m/d或更高的过滤通量能持续4小时或更长时间,在表面流速低于0.05m/s的条件下,仅通过空气洗涤就能容易地分离过滤器表面上形成的动态过滤层。 We have also found that, when the flow rate is below the surface of 0.05m / s, in the immediately after cleaning the filter for 5 minutes, stable dynamic filter layer is formed very quickly, 5m / d or higher filtration flux can be continued for 4 hours or more, at a surface velocity less than 0.05m / s, the only dynamic filter layer formed on the surface of the filter can be easily separated by air scrub.

考虑到以上问题,我们进行了仔细研究,提供了一种用于高效固液分离活性污泥混合液的方法,结果,我们发现,通过将未净化水导入生物反应池进行生物处理,然后将生物反应池内经过处理的活性污泥混合液导入容纳着浸在其中的透水过滤器的固液分离池,在透水过滤器表面上形成动态污泥过滤层的同时进行过滤,由此能非常有效地实现活性污泥的固液分离。 Considering the above problems, we studied carefully, there is provided a method of efficient solid-liquid separation for activated sludge mixture, a result, we found that biological treatment is introduced into the bioreactor by the raw water and biological the reaction was filtered through activated sludge mixture in the processing tanks is introduced immersed accommodates therein the solid-liquid separation tank permeable filter, the filter layer of sludge is formed on a dynamic pervious filter surface, while thereby can be achieved very effectively a solid-liquid separation of activated sludge. 我们还发现,通过将活性污泥混合液沿透水过滤器表面的移动速度限制为平均低于0.05m/s,可在透水过滤器表面上稳定地形成污泥的动态过滤层。 We have also found, by moving the speed limit along the permeable surface of the filter were lower than the activated sludge mixture is 0.05m / s, the dynamic filter layer can be formed stably in the sludge pervious filter surface. 另外我们还发现,当在固液分离池中设置整流器从而使活性污泥混合液在经过整流器的矫直后沿着并通过透水过滤器表面时,能够更有效地进行固液分离。 We also found that when the rectifier is provided in the tank so that the solid-liquid separation in activated sludge mixture passes through the rectifier and straightening permeable surface of the filter can be more efficiently performed along the solid-liquid separation. 本发明正是基于以上这些发现完成的。 The present invention is based on these findings.

发明公开于是,本发明包括以下方面。 Thus the invention disclosed, the present invention includes the following aspects.

1.一种涉及在对原废水进行生物处理后对所获得的活性污泥混合液进行固液分离的废水处理方法,该方法包括:将未净化水导入生物反应池进行生物处理,然后将生物反应池中经过处理的活性污泥混合液导入容纳着浸在其中的透水过滤器的固液分离池,在透水过滤器表面上形成污泥的动态过滤层,利用水压头压力从透水过滤器获得滤出液。 A relates to the original wastewater after biological treatment of activated sludge mixture of the obtained solid-liquid separation method for treating wastewater, the method comprising: introducing the raw water tank for biological treatment of the bioreactor and biological after the reaction tank is introduced into the activated sludge mixture treatment immersed accommodates therein the solid-liquid separation tank permeable filter, the dynamic filter layer is formed on the sludge permeable surface of the filter, using the hydraulic head pressure from the water-permeable filter obtain filtrate.

2.一种涉及在对原废水进行生物处理后对所获得的活性污泥混合液进行固液分离的废水处理方法,该方法包括:将未净化水导入生物反应池进行生物处理,然后将生物反应池中经过处理的活性污泥混合液导入容纳着浸在其中的透水过滤器的固液分离池,在透水过滤器表面上形成污泥的动态过滤层,用泵抽吸透水过滤器的出口侧获得滤出液。 A relates to the original wastewater after biological treatment of activated sludge mixture of the obtained solid-liquid separation method for treating wastewater, the method comprising: introducing the raw water tank for biological treatment of the bioreactor and biological after the reaction tank is introduced into the activated sludge mixture treatment immersed accommodates therein the solid-liquid separation tank permeable filter, the dynamic filter layer is formed on the sludge pervious filter surface, the suction pump of the water-permeable filter outlet obtained filtrate side.

3.根据上述1或2限定的方法,特征在于,活性污泥混合液沿透水过滤器表面的移动速度平均低于0.05m/s。 3. The method as defined in the above 1 or 2, characterized in that the moving speed of activated sludge mixture along the permeable surface of the filter were lower than 0.05m / s.

4.根据上述1到3中任一方面的方法,特征在于,在固液分离池中设置了整流器,使活性污泥混合液在通过整流器后再通过透水过滤器表面。 4. A process according to any one of 1 to 3, characterized in that, in the solid-liquid separation tank are provided a rectifier, active sludge mixture by the rectifier filter and then through the permeable surface.

5.一种涉及在对原废水进行生物处理后对所获得的活性污泥混合液进行固液分离的废水处理系统中的废水处理方法,其包括:生物反应池,用于将未净化水导入其中进行生物处理,容纳着浸在其中的透水过滤器的固液分离池,用于将生物反应池中经过处理的活性污泥混合液导入其中进行固液分离,特征在于,在透水过滤器表面上形成污泥的动态过滤层,利用水压头压力从透水过滤器获得滤出液。 A relates to an activated sludge mixture obtained is solid-liquid separation method for treating wastewater in a wastewater treatment system after the original biological treatment of wastewater, comprising: a biological reaction tank, for introducing the raw water wherein the biological treatment, which accommodates the solid-liquid separation is immersed in the pool water-permeable filter for the biological activated sludge mixture in the reaction tank through the introducing process wherein the solid-liquid separation, characterized in that the permeable filter surface dynamic filter layer formed sludge, using hydraulic head pressure is obtained from the filtrate permeable filter.

6.一种涉及在对原废水进行生物处理后对所获得的活性污泥混合液进行固液分离的废水处理系统中的废水处理方法,其包括:生物反应池,用于将未净化水导入其中进行生物处理,容纳着浸在其中的透水过滤器的固液分离池,用于将生物反应池中经过处理的活性污泥混合液导入其中进行固液分离,特征在于,在透水过滤器表面上形成污泥动态过滤层,用泵抽吸透水过滤器的出口侧获得滤出液。 A relates to an activated sludge mixture obtained is solid-liquid separation method for treating wastewater in a wastewater treatment system after the original biological treatment of wastewater, comprising: a biological reaction tank, for introducing the raw water wherein the biological treatment, which accommodates the solid-liquid separation is immersed in the pool water-permeable filter for the biological activated sludge mixture in the reaction tank through the introducing process wherein the solid-liquid separation, characterized in that the permeable filter surface dynamic filter layer of sludge formed, was filtered off with suction to obtain water-permeable filter outlet side of the pump.

7.按照上述方面5或6限定的系统,特征在于在固液分离池中设置了整流器,使活性污泥混合液在通过整流器后再通过透水过滤器表面。 7. According to the above aspect of the system defined 5 or 6, characterized in that the solid-liquid separation tank is provided in the rectifier, active sludge mixture by the rectifier filter and then through the permeable surface.

依照本发明,在生物反应池的后续阶段设置了固液分离池,将透水过滤器浸在固液分离池中,于是能以比现有方法中的过滤压力低的过滤压力获得洁净滤出液。 According to the present invention, in a subsequent biological reactor of the stage solid-liquid separation tank, the filter is immersed in a water-permeable solid-liquid separation tank, it was able to lower than that in the conventional method of pressure filtration pressure filtration to obtain a clean filtrate .

在本发明的方法中,用于从过滤器获得滤出液的驱动压是水压头压力或通过泵吸的抽吸压力。 In the method of the present invention, for obtaining from the filter press filtrate drive is hydraulic head pressure by pumping or suction pressure. 利用水压头压力进行过滤具有以下优点:因为过滤驱动压利用了自然重力,因此不需要任何动力,容易产生形成动态过滤层的低过滤压,但其具有以下缺点:由于过滤层密实,使过滤速率有降低倾向。 Was filtered using a pressure head of water has the following advantages: Because the use of natural filtration driving pressure of gravity, so no power, easy to produce low-pressure formation dynamic filtration filter layer, it has the following disadvantages: Since the dense filter layer, the filter rate tends to decrease. 与之相比,利用泵吸获得抽吸压进行过滤具有以下缺点:需要动力,形成动态过滤层的低过滤压很难保持稳定,但它具有以下优点:过滤流速没有降低倾向。 Compared therewith, the suction pressure of the pump suction filter obtained has the following disadvantages: the need for power, forming a low pressure dynamic filtration filter layer is difficult to maintain stability, but it has the following advantages: no filtration flow rate tends to decrease. 在本发明中,考虑上这些方法的优缺点,可以采用其中较为优选的一个。 In the present invention, in consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods may be employed wherein a more preferred.

用于本发明的合适透水过滤器包括现有技术中公知的任何透水过滤器,例如无纺织物、过滤布、和金属网、以及能产生类似效果的任何材料。 Suitable water-permeable filter used in the present invention include any water-permeable filter known prior art, such as a nonwoven fabric, filter cloth, and metal mesh, and any material that can produce a similar effect. 能将过滤器作成本领域公知的任何形状使用,例如平面形、圆形、中空形、或可用作由一束过滤器组成的模块过滤器。 Filter can be of any shape known in the art using the cost, for example, planar, circular shape, hollow shape, or may be used as a filter module consisting of a bundle of filter.

在本发明中,为了在透水过滤器表面上稳定地形成动态过滤层,导入固液分离池的污泥混合液沿过滤器表面的平均流速优选低于0.05m/s。 The average flow rate is preferably in the present invention, in order to stably form a dynamic filter layer on the permeable surface of the filter, introduced into the solid-liquid separation tank sludge mixture along the surface of the filter is less than 0.05m / s. 这能允许在过滤器表面上容易形成良好的动态过滤层,而不管污泥混合液沿过滤器表面是向下还是向上通过。 This can be easily formed allows good dynamic filtration layer on the surface of the filter, regardless of the sludge mixture along the filter surface is a downward or upward through. 污泥混合液沿过滤器表面的平均流速低于0.05m/s能够减少过滤通量的降低,并能稳定地提供高通量,于是与现有的澄清池相比,它能够极大地减小固液分离池的体积,因此,能够提供更为紧凑的处理系统。 The average flow velocity along the filter surface of the mixed sludge is less than 0.05m / s can be reduced to reduce the filtration flux, and can stably provide high throughput, so compared to a conventional clarifier, it can be greatly reduced volume of solid-liquid separation tank, it is possible to provide a more compact processing system. 在本发明中,例如可通过固液分离池中位于污泥混合液入口对侧的泵或其它装置去除固液分离池中经过处理的污泥混合液(富集的污泥混合液),从而沿过滤器表面形成污泥混合液的单向流动。 In the present invention, a pump or other device the mixed liquor inlet can be located for example opposite sides of solid-liquid separation tank after removing sludge mixture (sludge enriched mixture) treatment, by solid-liquid separation tank so along the filter surface to form a unidirectional flow of the mixed liquor. 当从固液分离池的顶部将生物处理池中处理过的活性污泥混合液导入固液分离池时,例如,可利用泵或其它装置从固液分离池底部去除富集的污泥混合液,从而沿过滤器表面形成污泥混合液的单向流动。 When the solid-liquid separation tank from the top of the biological treatment tank will be treated in an activated sludge mixture introduced into the solid-liquid separation tank, e.g., using a pump or other means may be removed from the bottom of the solid-liquid separation tank enriched sludge mixture , thereby forming the surface sludge mixture along the one-way flow filter. 于是,通过控制从固液分离池除去污泥混合液的速度,能够调节污泥混合液沿过滤器表面的流速。 Thus, by controlling the speed of solid-liquid separation tank to remove the sludge mixture, the flow rate can be adjusted along the surface of the filter sludge mixture. 可使被除掉的富集的污泥混合液再回到生物反应池或污泥增稠器或污泥消化池等,或将其清除为剩余污泥。 Can be back to the bioreactor tank or sludge thickener or the like to get rid of the sludge digester sludge mixture enriched, or clear the remaining sludge.

当污泥混合液沿过滤器表面的平均流速等于或低于污泥颗粒的沉降速率时,优选将污泥混合液引导成相对过滤器表面向下流动,即从固液分离池顶部流向底部。 When the average flow rate of the sludge mixture along the surface of the filter is equal to or lower than the settling rate of the sludge particles, the sludge mixture is preferably directed to the opposite surface of the filter to flow downwardly, i.e. from top to bottom of the solid-liquid separation tank. 利用这种设置,因为即使如果流入污泥发生沉降,其也不可避免地要通过过滤器表面,所以能形成良好的污泥动态过滤层。 With this arrangement, because even if the sedimented sludge flows, which will inevitably have to pass through the filter surface, it is possible to form a good dynamic filtration sludge layer.

在本发明的较为优选的实施例中,优选在固液分离池中设置整流器,使活性污泥混合液在通过整流器后再沿过滤器避免流过。 In a more preferred embodiment of the present invention, the rectifier is preferably disposed in the solid-liquid separation tank, the activated sludge mixture flows through a rectifier to avoid them along the filter too. 利用该设置,固液分离池中的流动变为单向,于是在过滤器表面上能均匀地形成污泥的动态过滤层。 With this arrangement, the flow becomes a unidirectional solid-liquid separation tank, the sludge thus formed can be uniformly dynamic filter layer on the filter surface.

在本发明的系统中,优选在固液分离池的过滤器下方设置洗涤器。 In the system of the present invention, is preferably disposed below the filter was washed in the solid-liquid separation tank. 通过定期终止过滤并利用该洗涤器洗涤过滤器,能够容易地分离在过滤器表面上形成的污泥层。 By periodically terminating the scrubber by filtration and washed using a filter, the sludge layer formed on the surface of the filter can be easily separated. 洗涤可以是空气洗涤和水洗涤中的一种或两种。 Washing may be washed and the washing water in the air or both. 在空气洗涤过程中,优选以一定方式控制空气流速,使空气泡的上流速度至少为0.2m/s。 In the air-wash process, preferably in a manner to control the air flow rate, so that high speed of the air bubbles of at least 0.2m / s. 当空气洗涤管位于过滤器模块下方时,理想的是设置一种通气孔大于现有扩散管的通气孔的多孔管。 When the air in the washing tube is positioned below the filter modules, disposed one kind of vent holes is preferably larger than the conventional perforated pipe diffuser vent. 如果使用这种多孔管,就相当通气体积来说,能获得比利用扩散管更高的上流速度,上升气泡也大,于是容易分离过滤器表面上的污泥层。 If such a porous tube, it is quite aeration volume can be obtained than with the diffusion tube is large higher upstream speeds, the rising gas bubbles, sludge layer on the filter surface so easily separated. 多孔管的通气孔直径优选为2mm或更大。 Preferably the diameter of the vent holes of the porous tube is 2mm or greater.

在本发明的系统中,污泥于在过滤器表面上形成污泥动态过滤层之前进入过滤器模块。 In the system of the present invention, the sludge into the filter module in the form of sludge prior to dynamic filtration layer on the filter surface. 于是,为了避免污泥沉积在过滤器模块中,理想的是定期排放污泥。 Thus, in order to avoid the deposition of sludge in the filter module, it is desirable that the periodic discharge of sludge. 对于该污泥排放装置,优选连接从过滤器模块底部刺入内部的污泥排放管,以便将废污泥导入生物反应池。 For this sludge discharge means, preferably connected to the interior of the sludge discharge pipe penetrating from the bottom of the filter module to the waste sludge introduced into the biological reactor. 排放力优选是由于水压头压力产生的重力下落,用于排放的水压头压力优选与用于过滤的水压头压力相当。 Gravity discharge force is preferably generated hydraulic head pressure drops, the head pressure for the hydraulic pressure of the discharge head of water is preferably used to filter equivalent. 然而,特别是当过滤驱动压是通过泵吸来施加时,可利用泵吸作为污泥排放力。 However, especially when the filter press is driven by the pump suction applied can be utilized as a sludge discharge pumping force.

在本发明的系统中,优选使固液分离池中形成的富集污泥再回到生物反应池。 In the system of the present invention, preferably, the enriched sludge formed in solid-liquid separation tank back to the biological reactor. 这将使生物反应池中的BOD负荷得到适当控制,从而能实现稳定的生物处理。 This will enable the BOD load cell bioreactor appropriately controlled, thereby achieving a stable biological treatment. 当活性污泥混合液沿过滤器表面移动时,其逐渐被过滤和富集。 When the activated sludge mixture moves along the surface of the filter, and the filter which is gradually enriched. 优选的是,使这样形成的富集污泥混合液作为回流污泥重新回到生物反应池中。 Preferably, the enriched sludge mixture thus formed is returned as reflux sludge tank bioreactor. 当将污泥从固液分离池的顶部向下导入时,优选将混合液体的富集污泥作为回流污泥从固液分离池底部再回到生物反应池中。 When introduced into the sludge down from the top of the solid-liquid separation tank, the sludge mixture is preferably enriched liquid as reflux liquid separation of sludge from the bottom of the tank back to the bioreactor tank.

如上所述,本发明的系统保持生物反应池和固液分离池,其可由被隔板分成两个腔室的单个池构成,其中这两个腔室例如通过下面的例1和图2所示的位于隔板底部的开口彼此液体连通,或者,固液分离池例如由两个分离的池组成,所述这两个池由下面的例2和图7所示的管路连接。 As described above, the system according to the present invention maintains the biological reactor and the solid-liquid separation tank, which may be composed of a single cell into two chambers of the separator, wherein the two chambers, for example, by the following Examples 1 and 2 the opening at the bottom of the separator a liquid communication with each other, or, for example, a solid-liquid separation tank composed of two separate pools, the two pools are connected by a conduit shown in FIG. 2 and FIG. 7 below.

附图的简要说明图1是依照现有技术的活性污泥混合液的固液分离法的全视图。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a general view of the activated sludge in accordance with prior art solid-liquid separation of the mixture.

图2是依照本发明的废水处理方法的例子的流程图;图3是表示例1中平均管路通量对时间的曲线图。 FIG 2 is a flowchart of an example of the wastewater treatment method of the present invention; FIG. 3 is a diagram of a line average flux versus time representation.

图4是例1中滤出液浊度对时间的曲线图。 1. FIG. 4 is a graph showing the turbidity of filtrate versus time. FIG.

图5是表示比较例1中平均过滤通量对时间的曲线图。 FIG 5 is a Comparative Example 1 in a graph of average filtration flux versus time.

图6是表示比较例1中滤出液浊度对时间的曲线图。 6 is a Comparative Example 1 in filtrate turbidity versus time graph.

图7是依照本发明的废水处理方法的另一例子的流程图。 FIG 7 is a flowchart of another example of the wastewater treatment method of the present invention.

图8是表示例2中平均过滤通量对时间的曲线图。 FIG 8 is a diagram showing the average filtration flux in Example 2 versus time graph.

图9是表示例2中滤出液浊度对时间的曲线图。 FIG 9 is a filtrate turbidity versus time in Example 2 FIG.

附图中的数字参考符号表示以下元件:在图1中,201:生物反应池,202:曝气扩散管,203:空气洗涤扩散管,204:过滤器,205:未净化水输送管,206:滤出液排放管;在图2中,1:流入的未净化水,2:生物反应池,3:鼓风机,4:位于生物反应池出口处的开口,5:整流器,6:固液分离池,7:透水过滤器,8:收纳管,9:流出物,10:洗涤器,11:富集的污泥混合液的回流装置,12:污泥管线,13:扩散管,14:扩散管,15:隔板;在图7中,101:流入的未净化水,102:生物反应池,103:生物反应池流出物,104:污泥沉降池,105:搅拌器,106:污泥输送泵,107:固液分离池,108:过滤器模块,109:滤出液水位调节阀,110:电磁阀,111:电磁阀,112:滤出液,113:泻流池,114:排放反洗水位调节阀,115:电磁阀,116:反洗水泵,117:止回阀,118:回流污泥,1 Digital reference symbols in the drawings indicate the following elements: In FIG. 1, 201: bioreactor, 202: diffuser aeration, 203: air diffuser washing, 204: filter, 205: raw water feed pipe, 206 : filtrate discharge pipe; in FIG. 2, 1: raw water inflow, 2: bioreactor, 3: a blower, 4: biological reactor located at the outlet opening, 5: a rectifier 6: solid-liquid separation pool 7: water-permeable filter, 8: receiving tubes, 9: effluent, 10: washer, 11: sludge mixture enriched reflux apparatus, 12: sludge line, 13: diffuser, 14: diffusion pipe, 15: separator; in FIG. 7, 101: raw water inflow, 102: bioreactor, 103: bioreactor effluent 104: sludge settling tank, 105: stirrer 106: sludge delivery pump, 107: a solid-liquid separation tank, 108: a filter module, 109: filtrate water level regulating valve, 110: solenoid valve 111: solenoid valve 112: filtrate, 113: diarrhea flow cell, 114: emission backwash water level regulating valve, 115: solenoid valve 116: backwash pump, 117: valve, 118: return sludge, 1 19:空气洗涤鼓风机,120:扩散管,121:电磁阀,122:电磁阀,123:滤出液排放管。 19: air blower washing, 120: diffusion tube, 121: solenoid valve 122: solenoid valve 123: filtrate discharge pipe.

以下例子将对本发明进行进一步说明,然而它不是对本发明的限制。 The following examples will further illustrate the present invention, however, it is not a limitation of the present invention. 在下面的描述中,CODMn是指100℃下高锰酸钾的化学耗氧量,S-CODMn是指100℃下高锰酸钾的可溶化学耗氧量,BOD5是指5天的生物化学耗氧量,以及S-BOD5是指5天的可溶生物化学耗氧量。 In the following description, CODMn means of potassium permanganate at 100 ℃ chemical oxygen, S-CODMn means a chemical oxygen demand of soluble potassium permanganate at 100 ℃, BOD5 refers to 5-day biochemical oxygen consumption, and S-BOD5 refers to 5-day biochemical oxygen demand soluble.

例1图2表示依照本发明的用于居民区污水的废水处理方法例子的流程图。 2 shows a flowchart of FIG. 1 example of residential wastewater treatment method for water according to the present invention. 在图2所示的系统中,生物反应池2和固液分离池6被一体地形成,生物反应池2和固液分离池6被隔板15分隔开,同时它们通过位于隔板15底部的开口5彼此液体连通。 In the system shown in FIG. 2, the biological reaction tank 2 and a solid-liquid separation tank 6 is integrally formed, the biological reactor 2 and the solid-liquid separation tank 6 to be separated by the separator 15, while they are located at the bottom of separator 15 through the opening 5 the liquid communication with each other. 首先将流入的未净化水1导入生物反应池2中。 First, non-flowing introduction biological reactor 2 in purified water. 在生物反应池2中,由鼓风机3通过扩散管13供应空气,通过池内容纳的活性污泥中的微生物作用进行曝气处理。 In bioreactor 2, by the action of microorganisms aeration activated sludge treatment tanks in receiving a supply air blower 3 through the diffuser 13. 从生物反应池2排出的活性污泥混合液通过隔板15底部设置的开口4被输送到固液分离池6的底部。 2 from an activated sludge mixture discharged from the bottom of the biological reactor bottom separator 15 is provided to the delivery opening 4 by the solid-liquid separation tank 6. 在固液分离池6中设置了透水过滤器7,并在该透水过滤器下方设置了整流器5。 Provided in the solid-liquid separation tank 6 permeable filter 7, and water-permeable filter disposed below the rectifier 5. 将已通过开口4的活性污泥混合液被输送到整流器5的底部。 Which has been conveyed to the bottom of the rectifier 5 by the activated sludge mixture in the opening 4. 在固液分离池6内,已通过整流器5的活性污泥混合液均匀向上流动,通过透水过滤器被分成固体和液体。 In the solid-liquid separation tank 6, it has a uniform sludge mixture flows upward through the active rectifier 5 is separated into solid and liquid by a permeable filter. 利用水压头压力差从透水过滤器7的收纳管8收集流出物9。 Using a pressure differential hydrohead 9 effluent was collected from the water-permeable filter housing tube 7 8. 通过周期性地终止过滤并借助于扩散管14从位于整流器下方的洗涤器10吹入空气对滤光器7进行洗涤。 By periodically terminating the diffuser 14 by means of filtration and washed on the filter 7 from the air blown into the scrubber 10 is located below the rectifier. 通过用于回流富集污泥混合液的泵11使固液分离池6中的富集污泥混合液回流到生物反应池2中。 Sludge return pump through a solid-liquid separation of the mixture enriched pool enriched sludge mixture 11 is refluxed for 6 2 into the biological reactor. 借助污泥排放管12定期向系统外部排放过剩污泥。 Sludge discharge pipe 12 by means of the excess sludge is periodically discharged to the outside system.

在下面的表1和表2中示出了在利用图2所示系统的废水处理实验中生物反应池2中的处理条件和固液分离池6中的处理条件。 In the following Table 1 and Table 2 shows the processing conditions processing conditions biological reactor 2 and the solid-liquid separation tank 6 in the experimental system of the wastewater treatment shown in FIG. 2.

表1:生物反应池中的处理条件(例1) Table 1: process conditions of a biological reaction vessel (Example 1)

MLSS*=混合液中的悬浮固形物表2:固液分离池中的处理条件(例1) MLSS * = mixture of suspended solids in Table 2: Processing conditions of solid-liquid separation tank (Example 1)

如表1所示,未净化水流入生物反应池2的流速是10m3/d,而富集的污泥混合液从固液分离池6回流的流速是5m3/d。 As shown in Table 1, the flow rate of water flowing into the biological reactor 2 is unpurified 10m3 / d, and the mixture was refluxed enriched sludge from the solid-liquid separation tank 6 is the flow rate of 5m3 / d. 生物反应池2中的MLSS约为2500mg/L。 The biological reactor 2 MLSS of about 2500mg / L. 该情况下,整个池中的BOD)负荷约为0.15kg/kg.d。 In this case, BOD entire pool) load is about 0.15kg / kg.d.

在位于隔板15底部的开口4(即位于生物反应池出口)处从生物反应池2收集混合液,对流出物中的残留BOD5进行测定,发现生物反应池2内流入未净化水1中的BOD已经几乎完全被降解和除去,在进入固液分离池6中的活性污泥混合液中没有残留未降解的BOD。 In the separator 15 located at the bottom opening 4 (i.e., the biological reactor outlet is located) from the collected biological reactor 2 the mixture, the residual effluent BOD5 was measured and found within the bioreactor tank 2 flows into the raw water 1 BOD has been almost completely degraded and removed, undegraded no residual BOD entering the activated sludge mixture in a solid-liquid separation tank 6. 于是,在固液分离池6内的过滤过程中能够控制过滤表面上的生物污染。 Thus, in the filtration process in the solid-liquid separation tank 6 capable of controlling biological contamination on the filter surface. 结果能延长过滤器寿命,并能使稳定的过滤流速持续较长时间。 Results can extend the life of the filter, and the filtration flow rate can be stabilized for a longer time. 为了获得上面描述的处理效果,生物反应池2中的BOD负荷优选为0.3kg/kg.d或更低。 In order to obtain the effect of the above-described processing, BOD load in the biological reactor 2 is preferably 0.3kg / kg.d or less. 不仅可以采用诸如厌氧法/需氧法的BOD去除法或硝化法/脱氮法,而且还可以采用清除N和P的生物法。 Removing method can be employed not only as method or nitrocellulose / denitrification BOD anaerobic / aerobic process, but also may be used to clear the biological N and P.

如表2所示,在该例子中,利用有效面积为0.04m2、有效体积为0.06m3的固液分离池6进行固液分离处理。 As shown in Table 2, in this example, the use of an effective area of ​​0.04m2, the effective volume of the solid-liquid separation tank 6 0.06m3 solid-liquid separation process. 透水过滤器7是过滤器模块,其设置在固液分离池6内,所述过滤器模块由8片有效面积为0.4m2的平面形无纺织物过滤器组成,而每片无纺织物过滤器由孔径为20-30μm、厚度为0.4mm的聚酯无纺织物制成。 Permeable filter 7 is a filter module, which is provided in the solid-liquid separation tank 6, the filter module from the eight effective planar area of ​​the nonwoven fabric filter composed of 0.4m2, and each piece of non-woven fabric filter a pore size of 20-30μm, a thickness of 0.4mm made of a polyester nonwoven fabric. 在过滤过程中平均水压头压力约为10cm。 During the filtration process the mean hydraulic head pressure of about 10cm. 滤出液流速为10m3/d,活性污泥混合液沿过滤器表面的流速约为0.006m/s。 Filtrate flow rate of 10m3 / d, flow along the filter surface of activated sludge mixture from about 0.006m / s. 每进行6小时过滤,就停止过滤3分钟,通过洗涤器10吹气对过滤器进行洗涤。 Filtered every 6 hours, 3 minutes to stop filter, the filter was washed blowing through the scrubber 10. 调节吹气速率,使洗涤过程中气泡沿过滤器表面的流速平均为0.5m/s。 Adjusting the blowing rate, the washing process bubble flow along the filter surface average 0.5m / s.

下面的表3表示在以下条件下连续处理废水2个月后的流出物水质与未净化水水质的比较。 The following Table 3 shows the continuous treatment of wastewater effluent quality comparison with unpurified water quality after 2 months under the following conditions.

表3:未净化水与流出物的水质(例1) Table 3: Water quality of raw effluent (Example 1)

*SS:悬浮固形物如表3所示,流出物的pH=7.6,浊度=5.0度,SS=4.6mg/L,与之相比,未净化水的pH=7.1,浊度=150度,SS=86mg/L,这表明通过无纺织物过滤器上形成的污泥动态过滤层获得的滤出液是洁净的。 * SS: As shown in Table 3 was suspended solids, pH = 7.6 effluent, turbidity = 5.0 degree, SS = 4.6mg / L, compared with unpurified water pH = 7.1, turbidity = 150 ° , SS = 86mg / L, which indicates that the sludge obtained by the filtration filter layer is formed on the dynamic non-woven fabric filter is a clean fluid. 流出物的CODMn、S-CODMn、BOD5、和S-BOD5为12.5mg/L、11.0mg/L、6.3mg/L和5mg/L或更低,与之相比,未净化水的对应值分别为75mg/L、42mg/L、110mg/L和65mg/L,这表明流出物的水质也是良好的。 CODMn effluent, S-CODMn, BOD5, and S-BOD5 of 12.5mg / L, 11.0mg / L, 6.3mg / L and 5mg / L or less, compared with unpurified water corresponding to the values of 75mg / L, 42mg / L, 110mg / L and 65mg / L, which indicates that the effluent quality is good.

图3表示例1中过滤通量对时间的曲线。 Filtration flux in Example 1 versus time represented in FIG. 3. 如图3所示,在约1500小时的连续处理过程中,平均过滤通量约为3.2m/d,这证明获得了稳定处理。 As shown in FIG. 3, at about 1500 hours of continuous process, the average filtration flux of about 3.2m / d, which proved to obtain a stable process. 图4表示流出物的浊度曲线。 Figure 4 shows a graph of turbidity of the effluent. 如图4所示,在约1500小时的连续处理过程中,流出物的浊度总是在5度左右,其没有明显变化,这证明形成的污泥动态过滤层是稳定的,同时也获得了稳定的流出水质。 As shown, at about 1500 hours of continuous processing, the turbidity of the effluent always about 5 degrees, it does not change significantly 4, the sludge formed dynamic filtration layer which proved to be stable, but also access to steady outflow of water.

比较例1在与例1相同的条件下,利用与例1中所用相同的系统进行连续污水处理,但除了以下因素:从固液分离池6回流到生物反应池2中的富集污泥混合液流速为85m3/d,从而将污泥混合液沿过滤器表面的流速增加到0.1m/s,即大约比例1中的高17倍。 Comparative Example 1 under the same conditions as in Example 1, in Example 1 using a continuous sewage treated in the same system, but in addition to the following factors: 2 mixture enriched sludge from the solid-liquid separation tank back into the biological reactor 6 liquid flow rate of 85m3 / d, so that the flow rate of the sludge mixture along the surface of the filter is increased to 0.1m / s, i.e. about 17 times higher in Comparative Example 1.

图5表示比较例1中过滤通量对时间的曲线,图6表示流出物浊度的曲线。 Figure 5 shows the flux versus time in Comparative Example 1 was filtered, FIG. 6 shows the effluent turbidity curve. 如图5所示,当污泥混合液沿过滤器表面的流速为0.1m/s时,即使在处理开始时过滤通量也仅为2.7m/d,这比例1中污泥混合液流速为0.006m/d时的约低10%或更多。 When 5, when the sludge mixture along the surface of the filter at a flow rate of 0.1m / s, the filtration flux of only 2.7m / d even when the process is started, in which the proportion of the mixed liquor flow rate of 1 0.006m / lower at about 10% or more of d. 在比较例1中,正如约170小时后过滤通量为2m/d或更低、约500小时后为1m/d或更低所表示的,过滤通量随时间迅速降低。 In Comparative Example 1, after about 170 hours as the filtration flux was 2m / d or less, about 500 hours after 1m / d or less represented by the filtration flux decreased rapidly with time. 在500小时的处理时或之后,将过滤器洗涤间的间隔从每过滤6小时空气洗涤3分钟缩短到每过滤2小时进行3分钟空气洗涤,但过滤通量仍不能提高,反而逐渐降低。 At 500 hours or after processing, the interval between the filter was washed with each shortened from six hours to three minutes of air filtration and washing the filter for 2 hours every 3 minutes and washed air, but does not improve the filtration flux, but gradually decreased. 这些结果表明当污泥混合液沿过滤器表面的流速为0.05m/s以上时,过滤通量随污泥在过滤器表面上的沉淀而降低。 These results show that when the flow rate of the sludge mixture along the surface of the filter is 0.05m / s or more, the filtration flux with sludge deposited on the filter surface is lowered. 即使提高洗涤频率对保持过滤通量也没有效果,这暗示着过滤器的孔很可能被沉积污泥所阻塞。 Even with a high frequency of washing the flux holding the filter has no effect, suggesting that the pores of the filter is likely to be blocked by the deposited sludge.

如图6所示,在开始处理后200小时内,滤出液浊度为10度那么高,或者更高,这意味着过滤器表面上还没有形成好污泥的动态过滤层。 6, in 200 hours after starting treatment, the turbidity of the filtrate was as high as 10 degrees, or above the upper surface of the filter layer is not formed a good dynamic which means that the sludge filter. 在200小时后滤出液的浊度逐渐降低可能是因为过滤通量随过滤器的阻塞而降低,而进入过滤器的污泥也减少。 After 200 hours the filtrate turbidity gradually decreases probably because of clogging of the filter with a filtration flux is lowered, and the sludge entering the filter is reduced.

例2图7表示依照本发明的用于处理居民区污水的废水处理方法的另一例子的流程图。 Example 2 Figure 7 shows a flowchart of another example of the wastewater treatment method according to the present invention for processing of residential sewage. 首先将流入的未净化水101导入生物反应池102中,在此通过池内容纳的活性污泥中的微生物作用对未净化水进行曝气处理。 First, the raw water 101 flowing into a bioreactor tank 102, this aeration treatment of raw water by the action of microorganisms in the activated sludge contained in the pool. 生物反应池102的流出物通过管线103向下流到污泥沉降池104中。 Bioreactor effluent sludge settling tank 102 flows through line 104, 103 downwardly. 在污泥沿降池104中,在利用搅拌器105进行适度搅拌的同时使污泥絮凝并均质化。 Descending along the sludge pond 104, 105 using a stirrer while stirring moderately in the sludge to flocculate and homogenized. 通过污泥输送泵106从污泥沉降池104向固液分离池107的顶部输送所得污泥混合液。 The resulting sludge mixture 106 fed to the top of the solid-liquid separation tank 107 from the sludge settling tank 104 through the sludge feed pump. 利用位于固液分离池107中的过滤器模块108对污泥混合液进行过滤,通过过滤器模块顶部的收纳管收集滤出液112,并通过电磁阀111使滤出液进入泻流池113。 Using a solid-liquid separation tank 107 is located in the filter module 108 of the sludge mixture was filtered, collected by the top of the filter module housing filtrate tube 112, and through the solenoid valve 111 so that the filtrate flow cell 113 into the diarrhea. 在适当时机通过排放管123将泻流池113内的流出物排放到系统外部。 Effluent within the appropriate time the discharge pipe 123 by the effusion cell 113 is discharged to the external system. 从固液分离池107底部清除已通过固液分离池107的污泥,将其作为回流污泥118回流到生物反应池102中。 From the bottom of the solid-liquid separation tank 107 has been cleared by the solid-liquid separation tank 107 of the sludge, which was refluxed for a return sludge bioreactor 118 to 102. 在过滤过程中,通过切换滤出液位调节阀109以打开电磁阀110来调节过滤器模块上的水压头压力。 During the filtration process, by switching the filtered liquid level regulating valve 109 to open the solenoid valve 110 adjusts the hydraulic pressure on the head of the filter module. 通常通过关闭电磁阀111,启动空气洗涤鼓风机119,在电磁阀121关闭且电磁阀122打开的同时向扩散管120供气,以此实行对过滤器模块外部的洗涤。 Typically by closing the electromagnetic valve 111, an air blower 119 starts washing, the solenoid valve 121 is closed and the solenoid valve 122 is opened while the air supply to the diffuser 120, in order to carry out the washing of the outside of the filter module. 在电磁阀122关闭且电磁阀121打开的同时通过鼓风机119供应空气实现对过滤器模块内壁的空气洗涤。 Supplying air to achieve an inner wall of the filter module was washed with air by a blower 119 in the closed solenoid valve 122 is opened and the solenoid valve 121 simultaneously. 在电磁阀110和111关闭和电磁阀115打开的状态下启动反洗水泵116,从模块顶部将泻流池中的滤出液导入过滤器模块,由此实现对过滤器模块内部的水反洗。 Starts at 111 and the solenoid valve 110 and closing solenoid valve 115 opened backwash pump 116, the filter module from the top of the effusion cell was introduced into the filter module, thereby enabling the water inside of the backwash filter module . 借助电磁阀115将已通过模块的反洗水从位于过滤器模块底部的排放管排放到污泥沉积池104中。 By means of a solenoid valve 115 which has been discharged from the filter module at the bottom to a sludge discharge pipe 104 by deposition bath backwash water module. 通过控制水位调节阀使反洗过程中的水压头压力等于过滤过程中的水压头压力来调节排放反洗水水位。 By controlling the water level regulating valve so that the hydraulic pressure head of backwash water during hydraulic head pressure equal to the filter during the backwash water to adjust the discharge level. 由此,可通过按以下顺序切换电磁阀实现操作自动化:空气洗涤→水反洗→排放反洗水→过滤。 Thus, automatic operation can be achieved by switching the solenoid valve in the following order: air backwash water washing → → → emission filter backwash water.

利用图7所示的系统进行连续废水处理实验。 Continuous waste water treatment experiments using the system shown in FIG. 7. 生物反应池102中的处理条件与例1的相同。 Same biological reactor process conditions of Example 102 1. 下面的表4表示固液分离池107中的处理条件。 The following Table 4 shows the processing conditions of solid-liquid separation tank 107.

表4:固液分离池中的处理条件(例2) Table 4: Processing conditions of solid-liquid separation tank (Example 2)

在该例子中,过滤器模块由一组5片平面形纺织织物过滤器组成,其有效面积为1m2,被设置在固液分离池107中。 In this example, the filter module consists of a set of five planar filter composed of woven fabric, the effective area of ​​1m2, are arranged in a solid-liquid separation tank 107. 所用纺织织物为聚酯材料,厚度为0.1mm,200目,孔径约为72μm。 The woven fabric of a polyester material with a thickness of 0.1mm, 200 mesh, pore size of about 72μm. 过滤过程中的水压头压力和排放反洗水过程中的水压头压力都为10cm,活性污泥混合液沿过滤器模块表面的平均流速为0.01m/s。 Hydraulic head pressure during filtration head of water pressure and the discharge during the backwash water are 10cm, the average flow velocity along the surface of the mixture the filter module activated sludge is 0.01m / s. 对过滤器模块外部进行空气洗涤时的空气流速为150L/min,而对内部进行空气洗涤时的空气流速为30L/min。 When the air flow rate of the external air filter module was washed 150L / min, while the air velocity when the air inside is washed 30L / min. 水反洗过程中的水流速为140L/min。 Water flow rate during the backwash water is 140L / min.

下面的表5表示连续操作的时序图。 The following Table 5 shows a timing chart of continuous operation. 利用每过滤120分钟进行3分钟空气洗涤、30秒水反洗、2分钟排放反洗水的周期连续操作,对过滤器模块进行洗涤。 Every 120 minutes by using the filter was washed three minutes of air for 30 seconds, backwash water, the backwash water discharged two minutes of continuous operation cycle, washing the filter module. 空气洗涤一般包括对过滤器模块外部吹气,其间以50周期一次的频率交替对过滤器模块内部进行空气洗涤。 Generally includes an external air-wash filter module insufflation, a period during which a frequency of 50 alternating pairs of inner air filter module washed.

表5:自动连续操作的时序图(例2) Table 5: automatic continuous operation timing chart (Example 2)

图8表示例2中过滤器模块的过滤通量对时间的曲线。 FIG 8 filtration flux in Example 2 of the filter module versus time representation. 如图8所示,在约1500小时的连续处理过程中,平均过滤通量约为3m/d,这表明实现了稳定处理。 As shown, at about 1500 hours of continuous processing, the filter 8 average flux of about 3m / d, which indicates that to achieve a stable process. 图9表示流出物浊度的曲线。 9 shows a graph of turbidity of the effluent. 如图9所示,在约1500小时的连续处理过程中,流出物的浊度总是在5度左右而没有明显变化,这证明在过滤器模块中稳定地形成了污泥的动态过滤层,同时获得了稳定的流出水质。 9, at about 1500 hours of continuous processing, the turbidity of the effluent always 5 degrees without significant change, which proved to stably form a dynamic filter layer of sludge in the filter module, while achieving a stable outflow of water.

工业实用性依照本发明,在生物反应池的后续阶段设置固液分离池,将透水过滤器浸在固液分离池中,借此利用低过滤压也能获得清洁的滤出液。 Industrial Applicability According to the present invention, in a subsequent biological reactor stage solid-liquid separation tank, the filter is immersed in a water-permeable solid-liquid separation tank, whereby the filter with a low pressure can be obtained clean filtrate. 在本发明的优选实施例中,活性污泥混合液在单一方向方向上沿过滤器表面上以低于0.05m/s的流速流动,由此容易形成良好的动态过滤层,过滤通量几乎不减少,也能稳定地获得高通量,从而与现有的澄清池相比,能极大地缩小固液分离池体积,因此处理系统也能更紧凑。 In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, an activated sludge mixture in a single direction along the upper surface of the filter at a flow rate less than 0.05m / s, thereby easily forming a good dynamic filtration layer, the filtration flux is hardly reduction, it is possible to stably obtain a high throughput, as compared with the conventional clarifiers can greatly reduce the volume of solid-liquid separation tank, the processing system can be more compact. 在本发明的另一优选实施例中,可在固液分离池内设置整流器,使活性污泥混合液在通过整流器后再通过过滤器,由此固液分离池中的活性污泥混合液具有恒定平均的速度,在过滤器表面上也能形成均匀的污泥动态过滤层。 In another preferred embodiment of the present invention may be provided in the solid-liquid separation pool rectifier, active sludge in the mixture, whereby the activated sludge mixture in solid-liquid separation tank having constant by the rectifier filter and then through the average speed, on the filter surface can form a uniform layer of sludge dynamic filtration. 在本发明的另一优选实施例中,可在过滤器下方设置洗涤器,以便定期停止过滤进行洗涤,由此能容易地将过滤器表面上形成的污泥分离出去。 In another preferred embodiment of the present invention may be disposed below the filter is washed, filtered and washed to periodically stop, it can thereby be easily separated sludge formed on the filter surface. 在本发明的另一优选实施例中,可使富集后的污泥从固液分离池再回流到生物反应池中,由此能够适度地控制生物反应池中的BOD负荷,从而保证稳定的生物处理。 In another preferred embodiment of the present invention, can enriched sludge return flow to the reservoir from the solid-liquid separation tank bioreactor, it is possible to appropriately control the BOD load cell bioreactor, thus ensuring stable biological treatment.

Claims (7)

1.一种涉及在对原废水进行生物处理后对所获得的活性污泥混合液进行固液分离的废水处理方法,该方法包括:将未净化水导入生物反应池进行生物处理,然后将在生物反应池中经过处理的活性污泥混合液导入容纳着浸在其中的透水过滤器的固液分离池,在透水过滤器表面上形成污泥的动态过滤层,利用水压头压力从透水过滤器获取滤出液。 A relates to the original wastewater after biological treatment of activated sludge mixture of the obtained solid-liquid separation method for treating wastewater, the method comprising: introducing the raw water tank for biological treatment of the bioreactor, and then in after the biological activated sludge mixture in the reaction tank is introduced into the processing immersed accommodates therein the solid-liquid separation tank permeable filter, the dynamic filter layer is formed on the sludge permeable surface of the filter, using a pressure filter from the permeable hydrohead acquires filtrate.
2.一种涉及在对原废水进行生物处理后对所获得的活性污泥混合液进行固液分离的废水处理方法,该方法包括:将未净化水导入生物反应池进行生物处理,然后将生物反应池中经过处理的活性污泥混合液导入容纳着浸在其中的透水过滤器的固液分离池,在透水过滤器表面上形成污泥的动态过滤层,利用泵抽吸透水过滤器的出口侧获取滤出液。 A relates to the original wastewater after biological treatment of activated sludge mixture of the obtained solid-liquid separation method for treating wastewater, the method comprising: introducing the raw water tank for biological treatment of the bioreactor and biological after the reaction tank is introduced into the activated sludge mixture treatment immersed accommodates therein the solid-liquid separation tank permeable filter, the dynamic filter layer is formed on the sludge permeable surface of the filter, the pump suction filter outlet permeable Get filtrate side.
3.根据权利要求1或2限定的方法,特征在于,活性污泥混合液沿透水过滤器表面的移动速度平均低于0.05m/s。 Or 3.1 A method as defined in claim 2, characterized in that, the moving speed of activated sludge mixture along the permeable surface of the filter were lower than 0.05m / s.
4.根据权利要求1到3中任一项的方法,特征在于,在固液分离池中设置了整流器,使活性污泥混合液在通过整流器后再通过透水过滤器表面。 4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the solid-liquid separation tank is provided in the rectifier, active sludge mixture by the rectifier filter and then through the permeable surface.
5.一种涉及在对原废水进行生物处理后对所获得的活性污泥混合液进行固液分离废水处理系统,其包括:生物反应池,用于将未净化水导入其中进行生物处理,固液分离池,其容纳着浸在其中的透水过滤器,用于将生物反应池中经过处理的活性污泥混合液导入其中进行固液分离,特征在于,在透水过滤器表面上形成污泥的动态过滤层,利用水压头压力从透水过滤器获取滤出液。 A relates to a solid-liquid separation of an activated sludge wastewater treatment system of the mixture obtained after the original biological treatment of wastewater, comprising: a biological reaction tank, for introducing the raw water which is biologically treated, solid liquid separation tank which houses therein immersed permeable filter for the biological activated sludge mixture in the reaction tank through the introducing process wherein the solid-liquid separation, characterized in that sludge formed on the surface of the water-permeable filter dynamic filter layer, using a hydraulic head pressure from the filtrate permeable acquisition filter.
6.一种涉及在对原废水实行生物处理后对所获得的活性污泥混合液进行固液分离的废水处理系统中处理废水的方法,其包括:生物反应池,用于将未净化水导入其中进行生物处理,固液分离池,其容纳着浸在其中的透水过滤器,用于将生物反应池中经过处理的活性污泥混合液导入其中进行固液分离,特征在于,在透水过滤器表面上形成污泥的动态过滤层,利用泵抽吸透水过滤器的出口侧获取滤出液。 A relates to a solid-liquid separation method for treating wastewater in a wastewater treatment system of the activated sludge mixture is obtained after the implementation of the original biological treatment of waste water, comprising: a biological reaction tank, for introducing the raw water wherein the biological treatment, solid-liquid separation tank, which houses therein immersed permeable filter for the biological activated sludge mixture in the reaction tank through the introducing process wherein the solid-liquid separation, characterized in that the permeable filter dynamic filter layer formed on the surface of the sludge, the pump suction outlet side of the water-permeable filter obtain filtrate.
7.按照权利要求5或6限定的系统,特征在于在固液分离池中设置了整流器,使活性污泥混合液在通过整流器后再通过透水过滤器表面。 7. The according to claim 5 or 6 as defined in the system, characterized in that the solid-liquid separation tank is provided in the rectifier, active sludge mixture by the rectifier filter and then through the permeable surface.
CN 01808509 2000-03-27 2001-03-27 Method and apparatus for treating waste water by conducting solid-liquid separation to active mud CN1232453C (en)

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