CN1362692A - Laser scannning and tracking instrument with six feedom measurement function - Google Patents

Laser scannning and tracking instrument with six feedom measurement function Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1362692A
CN1362692A CN 02100883 CN02100883A CN1362692A CN 1362692 A CN1362692 A CN 1362692A CN 02100883 CN02100883 CN 02100883 CN 02100883 A CN02100883 A CN 02100883A CN 1362692 A CN1362692 A CN 1362692A
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China
Prior art keywords
main shaft
gauge head
corner cube
measurement function
constitutes
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CN 02100883
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1160654C (en
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王宝光
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天津大学
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Publication of CN1160654C publication Critical patent/CN1160654C/en

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Abstract

The laser scan tracker with six-freedom measurement function comprises double-frequency laser interferometer, two-D position sensitive detection device, spectroscope, two-D rotation plane mirror and coordinate bearing measuring target. Its coordinate bearing measuring target comdprises main shaft, axial plane rotating mechsniam in upper end of the main shaft and equipped with corner cube, main shaft circumagitating mechanism positioned in middle portion of main shaft and equipped with photoelectric measuring head or hollow tetrahedron measuring head and positioing mechanism which is positioned in lower end of main shaft and is composed of measuring bar and contact ball. The outer end of rotation arm is equipped with corner cube, said rotation is controlled by positioing plate.

Description

The laser scanning tracker of six degree of freedom measurement function
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of laser scanning tracker of six degree of freedom measurement function.The innovative technology that belongs to the laser scanning tracker.
Background technology
Existing 3 D laser scanning tracker be a kind of high precision (during kinetic measurement for ± 20ppm), (range measurement accuracy is 0.1 μ m to high resolution, angle-measurement accuracy is 0.25arc-sec.), (25m), intelligent kinetic measurement instrument on a large scale, its principle of work is as shown in Figure 1.The measuring beam that is sent by HP two-frequency laser interferometer 1 incides on the plane mirror 4 of two dimension rotation through spectroscope 3, the parallel beam that is reflected by level crossing 4 is reflected back to spectroscope 3 after getting to the center of corner cube 5, and the light beam irradiates of returning is to two-dimensional position Sensitive Detection device (PSD) 2.When the emission light beam be centered close to the center of corner cube the time, the center of Returning beam must be positioned at the center of PSD coordinate, at this moment, the mechanical system of tracker remains static.When prism moves, the center of PSD will be departed from the center of Returning beam, the geometric sense that PSD will depart from its center is converted to electric signal, this electric signal machine is as calculated handled rear drive level crossing 4 levels and vertical rotation, be tracked into the center that is mapped to prism once more up to the light beam that sends, the light beam that returns simultaneously also comes back to the center of PSD.The rotation of level crossing 4 is by driven by servomotor, and the angle value of its level and vertical rotation is by being positioned at that angle grating on level crossing 4 levels and the vertical axis provides and by computer recording, thereby finishes the scanning tracking measurement.
Obviously, this 3 D laser scanning tracker is suitable for the tracking measurement of Grid Track, also is suitable for describing of curved surface profile.Therefore in large scale, high-precision volume coordinate measurement project, have a wide range of applications.But, directly use above-mentioned three-dimensional measuring apparatus and can not realize that the mensuration in tracked object coordinates orientation is (as the azimuthal measurement of hole central axis, the measurement of centre distance etc. between the porous), the range observation between can not implementation space point (as aiming and the distance of measuring two space venter of relicles etc.).Reason is that the effect of this corner cube is just returned incident ray along former direction, and when this corner cube has the position angle to rotate around incident ray, the direction of its reflection ray is constant, therefore can't measure the azimuthal variation around incident ray, promptly can not realize the measurement at three-dimensional position angle.Again since this corner cube self not possess subcoordinate be function, therefore can't carry a position aiming gauge head, so the range observation between can not implementation space point.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of laser scanning tracker of six degree of freedom measurement function.This laser scanning tracker can not only be finished the tracking of Grid Track and describing of curved surface profile; But also possess measure or aiming the multinomial function of the object coordinates orientation of following the tracks of and spatial point distance, and the benchmark that makes this instrument become six degree of freedom, wide-measuring range, high precision, the high resolution device of tracing to the source.
This invention is realized by following technical proposals.Comprise by two-frequency laser interferometer, two-dimensional position Sensitive Detection device, spectroscope, two-dimentional rotating mirror and grid bearing and measure the laser scanning tracker that target constitutes the six degree of freedom measurement function.It is characterized in that, its grid bearing measure target by main shaft 9, be positioned at the main shaft upper end carry the axial plane rotating mechanism of corner cube 5, be positioned at the main shaft middle part carry photoelectricity gauge head or hollow tetrahedron gauge head around main shaft rotating mechanism and main shaft lower end by measuring staff with touch the detent mechanism that ball constitutes and formed.
The above-mentioned axial plane rotating mechanism that carries corner cube is inlayed minor axis 14 and is connected swivel arm 6 compositions, at swivel arm outer end device corner cube 5 by a location backup plate 7 that is connected with main shaft on the backup plate of location.Be provided with the anchor point of the locking swivel arm that constitutes by elastic steel ball and awl nest pair on the backup plate of location respectively at 0 °, 90 °, 180 ° axial location place.
Above-mentioned carry photoelectricity gauge head or hollow tetrahedron gauge head around the main shaft rotating mechanism, by on turning block 8 that rotates around main shaft and the turning block perpendicular to main shaft be provided with can autorotation lateral arms 12 form.Turning block 8 by elastic steel ball on it and the awl nest pair on the main shaft be formed on the main shaft 0 °, 90 °, 180 ° with four keyed ends of 270 °.Lateral arms 12 can make the measurement axis of entrained photoelectricity gauge head be locked in by the secondary detent mechanism that constitutes of the elastic steel ball on the turning block 8 and the awl nest of himself to be parallel on main-shaft axis or two localities perpendicular to main-shaft axis.
The present invention is not only applicable to the tracking of Grid Track and describing of curved surface profile; And can also realize measuring or aiming at the multinomial function of the object coordinates orientation of following the tracks of and spatial point distance, the device thereby the benchmark of having established this instrument and become six degree of freedom, wide-measuring range, high precision, high resolution is traced to the source.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the principle of work synoptic diagram of 3 D laser scanning tracker.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation that grid bearing of the present invention is measured target.
Fig. 3 is Fig. 2 A-A diagrammatic cross-section.
Fig. 4 is Fig. 2 B-B diagrammatic cross-section.
Fig. 5 is the hollow tetrahedron structural representation.
Among the figure: 1-two-frequency laser interferometer 2-two-dimensional position Sensitive Detection device (PSD) 3-spectroscope 4-plane mirror
5-corner cube 6-swivel arm 7-location backup plate 8-turning block 9-main shaft 10-measuring staff 11-touches ball
The hollow front of gauge head 14-minor axis 15-corner cube magnetic target stand 16-, 12-lateral arms 13-photoelectricity location body.
Embodiment
Process to principle of the present invention and enforcement measurement is illustrated in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
In carrying the axial plane rotating mechanism of corner cube, the center line of swivel arm 6 can be accurately positioned in three positions (OA, OB, OC) of location backup plate 7 by elastic steel ball and awl nest pair, therefore, the center of corner mirror light target can be measured on three coordinate measuring machine at three locational coordinate figures (A, B, C 3 points among the figure) and determine.If the rotation center O with the axial plane rotating mechanism is a true origin, with A (x a' y a' z a'), B (x b' y b' z b'), C (x c' y c' z c') three point coordinate values are that reference point constitutes the coordinate system of " the Three Degree Of Freedom grid bearing is measured target ".When this grid bearing was measured target and 3 D laser scanning tracker on-line Application, its coordinate was the subcoordinate system of scanning tracker, represents with X ' Y ' Z '.
In the mechanism of swaying of carrying photoelectricity gauge head or hollow tetrahedron gauge head, lateral arms 12 can be installed photoelectricity location gauge head 13, is used to locate the measured point; Also hollow tetrahedron 16 can be installed, adopt six degree of freedom parametric synthesis adjustment method to locate two-dimensional visual sensor etc.
When measuring, along with the corner cube light target rotates a circle around its true origin O, computing machine will be gathered the coordinate figure that light target is positioned at 0 °, 90 ° and 180 ° three positions.According to this coordinate figure of 3, can obtain X '-Y ' plane equation by formula (1),
p a(x '-x ' b)+q a(y '-y ' b)+r a(z '-z ' bP in (1) formula of)=0 a, q a, r aDirection number for X '-Y ' plane.And try to achieve the normal equation that it is ordered by O by this plane equation.Therefore, the computing by matrix 2 just can be with the coordinate conversion of the X ' Y ' Z ' of target system among the main coordinate system of 3 D laser scanning tracker. R in the formula 9Be the rotation of coordinate coefficient, t is the coordinate translation coefficient.
For example, in automobile self global error measurement project, the seamed edge that is somebody's turn to do the hollow tetrahedron on " the Three Degree Of Freedom grid bearing is measured target " is used to certain standard seamed edge on virtual (representative) vehicle body, and be arranged to volume coordinate and the place, orientation that drawing is stipulated, so that locate the position of two-dimensional visual sensor in master coordinate system with it.Obviously, the essence of this position fixing process is the aiming to tracking object coordinates orientation.Because the X ' Y ' Z ' of target system has been based upon among the main coordinate system of 3 D laser scanning tracker, just also learn the seamed edge position that therefore is arranged in the hollow tetrahedron of X ' Y ' Z ' coordinate system.
For another example, when utilizing measuring staff and touching ball and measure, the position of not only touching ball as can be known, and the orientation of measuring staff axis in master coordinate system is also known.Therefore, but both some distances of measurement space, but the also grid bearing of measured hole center line.
Therefore, be somebody's turn to do the sensor of " the Three Degree Of Freedom grid bearing the is measured target " various uses that can be installed, further enlarged the function of 3 D laser scanning tracker; Only just can realize the measurement of space six degree of freedom by simple matrix computations.

Claims (3)

1, a kind of laser scanning tracker of six degree of freedom measurement function, this scanning tracking ceremony comprises that measuring target by two-frequency laser interferometer, two-dimensional position Sensitive Detection device, spectroscope, two-dimentional rotating mirror and grid bearing constitutes, and is characterized in that: its grid bearing measure target by main shaft, be positioned at the main shaft upper end carry the axial plane rotating mechanism of corner cube, be positioned at the main shaft middle part carry photoelectricity gauge head or hollow tetrahedron gauge head around main shaft rotating mechanism and main shaft lower end by measuring staff with touch the detent mechanism that ball constitutes and formed.
2, press the laser scanning tracker of the described six degree of freedom measurement function of claim 1, it is characterized in that: the axial plane rotating mechanism that carries corner cube is by a location backup plate that is connected with main shaft, inlay minor axis on the backup plate of location and connect the swivel arm composition, at swivel arm outer end device corner cube, be provided with the anchor point of the locking swivel arm that constitutes by elastic steel ball and awl nest pair on the backup plate of location respectively at 0 °, 90 °, 180 ° axial location place.
3, press the laser scanning tracker of the described six degree of freedom measurement function of claim 1, it is characterized in that: carry photoelectricity gauge head or hollow tetrahedron gauge head around the main shaft rotating mechanism, by on turning block that rotates around main shaft and the turning block perpendicular to main shaft be provided with can autorotation lateral arms form, turning block by elastic steel ball on it and the awl nest pair on the main shaft be formed on the main shaft 0 °, 90 °, 180 ° with four keyed ends of 270 °; Lateral arms can make the measurement axis of entrained photoelectricity gauge head be locked in by the secondary detent mechanism that constitutes of the elastic steel ball on the turning block and the awl nest of himself to be parallel on main-shaft axis or two localities perpendicular to main-shaft axis.
CNB021008833A 2002-02-07 2002-02-07 Laser scannning and tracking instrument with six feedom measurement function CN1160654C (en)

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Cited By (21)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1323878C (en) * 2003-07-03 2007-07-04 黄保家 Anticollision system for motor vehicle
CN102506900A (en) * 2011-11-17 2012-06-20 大连理工大学 Coordinate direction correction method in vision measurement system, and device thereof
CN103345269A (en) * 2013-06-30 2013-10-09 湖南农业大学 Laser emitting device and automatic tracking method
CN104136880A (en) * 2012-01-30 2014-11-05 法罗技术股份有限公司 Laser tracker used with six degree-of-freedom probe having separable spherical retroreflector
US9007601B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2015-04-14 Faro Technologies, Inc. Automatic measurement of dimensional data with a laser tracker
US9041914B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-05-26 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional coordinate scanner and method of operation
US9151830B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2015-10-06 Faro Technologies, Inc. Six degree-of-freedom laser tracker that cooperates with a remote structured-light scanner
US9164173B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2015-10-20 Faro Technologies, Inc. Laser tracker that uses a fiber-optic coupler and an achromatic launch to align and collimate two wavelengths of light
US9188430B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2015-11-17 Faro Technologies, Inc. Compensation of a structured light scanner that is tracked in six degrees-of-freedom
CN105115601A (en) * 2015-09-01 2015-12-02 中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院 Sweeping type interferometer control system
US9377885B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2016-06-28 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for locking onto a retroreflector with a laser tracker
US9395174B2 (en) 2014-06-27 2016-07-19 Faro Technologies, Inc. Determining retroreflector orientation by optimizing spatial fit
US9400170B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2016-07-26 Faro Technologies, Inc. Automatic measurement of dimensional data within an acceptance region by a laser tracker
US9453913B2 (en) 2008-11-17 2016-09-27 Faro Technologies, Inc. Target apparatus for three-dimensional measurement system
US9482755B2 (en) 2008-11-17 2016-11-01 Faro Technologies, Inc. Measurement system having air temperature compensation between a target and a laser tracker
US9482529B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2016-11-01 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional coordinate scanner and method of operation
US9638507B2 (en) 2012-01-27 2017-05-02 Faro Technologies, Inc. Measurement machine utilizing a barcode to identify an inspection plan for an object
US9686532B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2017-06-20 Faro Technologies, Inc. System and method of acquiring three-dimensional coordinates using multiple coordinate measurement devices
US9772394B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2017-09-26 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for following an operator and locking onto a retroreflector with a laser tracker
CN109798855A (en) * 2017-11-16 2019-05-24 上海铼钠克数控科技股份有限公司 The scaling method and system of lathe
CN109798854A (en) * 2017-11-16 2019-05-24 上海铼钠克数控科技股份有限公司 The scaling method and system of lathe yaw

Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1323878C (en) * 2003-07-03 2007-07-04 黄保家 Anticollision system for motor vehicle
US9482755B2 (en) 2008-11-17 2016-11-01 Faro Technologies, Inc. Measurement system having air temperature compensation between a target and a laser tracker
US9453913B2 (en) 2008-11-17 2016-09-27 Faro Technologies, Inc. Target apparatus for three-dimensional measurement system
US10480929B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2019-11-19 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for following an operator and locking onto a retroreflector with a laser tracker
US9007601B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2015-04-14 Faro Technologies, Inc. Automatic measurement of dimensional data with a laser tracker
US10209059B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2019-02-19 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for following an operator and locking onto a retroreflector with a laser tracker
US9146094B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2015-09-29 Faro Technologies, Inc. Automatic measurement of dimensional data with a laser tracker
US9400170B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2016-07-26 Faro Technologies, Inc. Automatic measurement of dimensional data within an acceptance region by a laser tracker
US9772394B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2017-09-26 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for following an operator and locking onto a retroreflector with a laser tracker
US9377885B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2016-06-28 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for locking onto a retroreflector with a laser tracker
US10267619B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2019-04-23 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional coordinate scanner and method of operation
US10302413B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2019-05-28 Faro Technologies, Inc. Six degree-of-freedom laser tracker that cooperates with a remote sensor
US9207309B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2015-12-08 Faro Technologies, Inc. Six degree-of-freedom laser tracker that cooperates with a remote line scanner
US9164173B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2015-10-20 Faro Technologies, Inc. Laser tracker that uses a fiber-optic coupler and an achromatic launch to align and collimate two wavelengths of light
US9157987B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2015-10-13 Faro Technologies, Inc. Absolute distance meter based on an undersampling method
US9151830B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2015-10-06 Faro Technologies, Inc. Six degree-of-freedom laser tracker that cooperates with a remote structured-light scanner
US9448059B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2016-09-20 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional scanner with external tactical probe and illuminated guidance
US9453717B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2016-09-27 Faro Technologies, Inc. Diagnosing multipath interference and eliminating multipath interference in 3D scanners using projection patterns
US10578423B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2020-03-03 Faro Technologies, Inc. Diagnosing multipath interference and eliminating multipath interference in 3D scanners using projection patterns
US9482746B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2016-11-01 Faro Technologies, Inc. Six degree-of-freedom laser tracker that cooperates with a remote sensor
US9494412B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2016-11-15 Faro Technologies, Inc. Diagnosing multipath interference and eliminating multipath interference in 3D scanners using automated repositioning
US9482529B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2016-11-01 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional coordinate scanner and method of operation
US10119805B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2018-11-06 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional coordinate scanner and method of operation
US9686532B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2017-06-20 Faro Technologies, Inc. System and method of acquiring three-dimensional coordinates using multiple coordinate measurement devices
CN102506900A (en) * 2011-11-17 2012-06-20 大连理工大学 Coordinate direction correction method in vision measurement system, and device thereof
US9638507B2 (en) 2012-01-27 2017-05-02 Faro Technologies, Inc. Measurement machine utilizing a barcode to identify an inspection plan for an object
CN104136880A (en) * 2012-01-30 2014-11-05 法罗技术股份有限公司 Laser tracker used with six degree-of-freedom probe having separable spherical retroreflector
US9188430B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2015-11-17 Faro Technologies, Inc. Compensation of a structured light scanner that is tracked in six degrees-of-freedom
US9041914B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-05-26 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional coordinate scanner and method of operation
US9482514B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-11-01 Faro Technologies, Inc. Diagnosing multipath interference and eliminating multipath interference in 3D scanners by directed probing
CN103345269B (en) * 2013-06-30 2017-08-25 湖南农业大学 A kind of laser beam emitting device and method for automatic tracking
CN103345269A (en) * 2013-06-30 2013-10-09 湖南农业大学 Laser emitting device and automatic tracking method
US9395174B2 (en) 2014-06-27 2016-07-19 Faro Technologies, Inc. Determining retroreflector orientation by optimizing spatial fit
CN105115601A (en) * 2015-09-01 2015-12-02 中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院 Sweeping type interferometer control system
CN109798855A (en) * 2017-11-16 2019-05-24 上海铼钠克数控科技股份有限公司 The scaling method and system of lathe
CN109798854A (en) * 2017-11-16 2019-05-24 上海铼钠克数控科技股份有限公司 The scaling method and system of lathe yaw
CN109798855B (en) * 2017-11-16 2020-12-04 上海铼钠克数控科技股份有限公司 Calibration method and system of machine tool

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