CN1362692A - Laser scannning and tracking instrument with six feedom measurement function - Google Patents

Laser scannning and tracking instrument with six feedom measurement function Download PDF

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CN1362692A
CN1362692A CN 02100883 CN02100883A CN1362692A CN 1362692 A CN1362692 A CN 1362692A CN 02100883 CN02100883 CN 02100883 CN 02100883 A CN02100883 A CN 02100883A CN 1362692 A CN1362692 A CN 1362692A
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spindle
rotation
mechanism
measuring
corner cube
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CN1160654C (en
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王宝光
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天津大学
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Abstract

The laser scan tracker with six-freedom measurement function comprises double-frequency laser interferometer, two-D position sensitive detection device, spectroscope, two-D rotation plane mirror and coordinate bearing measuring target. Its coordinate bearing measuring target comdprises main shaft, axial plane rotating mechsniam in upper end of the main shaft and equipped with corner cube, main shaft circumagitating mechanism positioned in middle portion of main shaft and equipped with photoelectric measuring head or hollow tetrahedron measuring head and positioing mechanism which is positioned in lower end of main shaft and is composed of measuring bar and contact ball. The outer end of rotation arm is equipped with corner cube, said rotation is controlled by positioing plate.

Description

六自由度测量功能的激光扫描跟踪仪 Six degrees of freedom laser scanning measurement function tracker

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及一种六自由度测量功能的激光扫描跟踪仪。 The present invention relates to a measurement function of the six degrees of freedom laser scanner tracker. 属于激光扫描跟踪仪的创新技术。 Belonging to the innovative technology of laser scanning tracker.

背景技术 Background technique

现有的三维激光扫描跟踪仪是一种高精度(动态测量时为±20ppm)、高分辨力(距离测量精度为0.1μm,角度测量精度为0.25arc-sec.)、大范围(25m)、智能化动态测量仪器,其工作原理如图1所示。 Conventional three-dimensional laser scanner is a high precision tracker (dynamic measurement is ± 20ppm), high resolution (distance measurement accuracy of 0.1 m, angle measurement accuracy 0.25arc-sec.), A large range (25m), intelligent dynamic measurement instrument shown in Figure 1 works. 由HP双频激光干涉仪1发出的测量光束经分光镜3入射到二维旋转的平面反射镜4上,由平面镜4反射出的平行光束打到角隅棱镜5的中心位置后被反射回到分光镜3,返回的光束照射到二维位置灵敏检测器件(PSD)2上。 By measuring the beam emitted from the beam splitter 1 HP dual-frequency laser interferometer 3 is incident on a two-dimensional plane of the rotating mirror 4, reflected by the plane mirror 4 parallel beam hit the center position of the corner cube is reflected back after 5 beam splitter 3, the return beam is irradiated to the two-dimensional position sensitive detector devices (PSD) 2. 当发射光束的中心位于角隅棱镜的中心位置时,返回光束的中心必位于PSD坐标的中心位置,此时,跟踪仪的机械系统处于静止状态。 When the center position of the center of the emitted light beam is located on the corner cube, the return beam will be centrally located PSD center coordinates, time, mechanical tracker system in a stationary state. 当棱镜移动时,返回光束的中心位置将偏离PSD的中心,PSD将偏离其中心的几何量转换为电信号,该电信号经计算机处理后驱动平面镜4水平与垂直旋转,直到发出的光束再次跟踪入射到棱镜的中心,同时返回的光束也重新回到PSD的中心。 When the prism moves, the return beam will deviate from the center position of the center of the PSD, the PSD amount into an electric signal from the geometric center thereof, after the electrical signal processed by the computer driving the horizontal and vertical plane of the rotating mirror 4, the light beam emitted again until the track incident to the prism center, but also the return beam back to the center of the PSD. 平面镜4的旋转由伺服电机驱动,其水平与垂直旋转的角度值由位于平面镜4水平与垂直轴线上的角度光栅给出并由计算机记录,从而完成扫描跟踪测量。 The plane of rotation of the mirror 4 is driven by a servo motor, its horizontal and vertical angular value by a computer is recorded by the rotating mirror 4 is located in the horizontal plane and the angle of the grating given by the vertical axis, thereby completing the scanning trace measurement.

显然,该三维激光扫描跟踪仪适合于坐标轨迹的跟踪测量,也适合于曲面轮廓的描绘。 Clearly, the three-dimensional scanning laser tracker is suitable for tracking the coordinates of the trajectory measurement, also suitable for the surface profile depicted. 因此在大尺寸、高精度的空间坐标测量项目中有着广泛的应用。 Thus large-size, high-precision measurements of spatial coordinates has been widely used. 但是,直接应用上述三维测量装置不能实现被跟踪物体坐标方位的测定(如孔中心轴线方位角的测量,多孔之间中心距的测量等),也不能实现空间点之间的距离测量(如瞄准与测量两个空间十字线交点的距离等)。 However, direct application of the three-dimensional coordinates measuring apparatus for measuring the orientation of the object to be tracked can not be achieved (as measured azimuth axis center of the hole, the center distance between the porous measurement), they can not measure the distance between the spatial points (aiming measuring the distance of the cross point of two spaces). 原因是该角隅棱镜的作用只是将入射光线沿原方向返回,而当该角隅棱镜围绕入射光线有方位角转动时,其反射光线的方向不变,因此无法测量出围绕入射光线的方位角变化,即不能实现三维方位角的测量。 The reason is that the effect of the corner cube only the incident light returns along the original direction, and when the corner cube is rotated about the incident ray has an azimuth angle which the reflected light does not change direction, the azimuth angle can not be measured around the incident ray change, i.e., a three-dimensional azimuth measurement can not be achieved. 又由于该角隅棱镜自身不具备子坐标系功能,因此无法携带点位瞄准测头,所以不能实现空间点之间的距离测量。 Also, because the corner cube coordinate system itself does not have the sub-function, and therefore can not carry the aiming point probe, the distance between the measuring point in space can not be achieved.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明的目的在于提供一种六自由度测量功能的激光扫描跟踪仪。 Object of the present invention is to provide a scanning laser tracker six degrees of freedom measurement. 该激光扫描跟踪仪不仅能完成坐标轨迹的跟踪及曲面轮廓的描绘;而且还具备测量或瞄准所跟踪物体坐标方位及空间点距的多项功能,并使该仪器成为六自由度、大测量范围、高精度、高分辨力的基准溯源装置。 The scanning laser tracker not only to complete the contour drawing coordinates and surface tracking locus; and further comprising a coordinate measuring object or aim and spatial orientation of the tracked pitch multiple functions, and the apparatus becomes six degrees of freedom, measuring range , high-precision, high-resolution reference traceable device.

本项发明是通过下述技术方案加以实现的。 The present invention has been achieved item by the following technical solutions. 包括由双频激光干涉仪、二维位置灵敏检测器件、分光镜、二维旋转平面镜及坐标方位测量靶构成六自由度测量功能的激光扫描跟踪仪。 It includes a laser tracker consists scanning frequency laser interferometer, a two-dimensional position-sensitive detection means, a beam splitter, a two-dimensional plane of rotation of the mirror and the coordinate position of the target measuring six degrees of freedom measurement. 其特征在于,它的坐标方位测量靶是由主轴9、位于主轴上端携带角隅棱镜5的轴向平面转动机构、位于主轴中部携带光电测头或空心正四面体测头的绕主轴转动机构以及主轴下端由测杆与触球构成的定位机构所组成。 Characterized in that it is a target coordinate position is measured by the spindle 9, at the upper end of the spindle 5 carries an axial plane of the corner cube rotation mechanism, located in the central shaft or hollow probe carrying a photoelectric tetrahedron around the shaft of the probe and a spindle rotation mechanism the lower end of the spindle by the positioning mechanism and ball constituting the composition.

上述携带角隅棱镜的轴向平面转动机构由一块与主轴连接的定位靠板7,定位靠板上镶嵌短轴14连接转动臂6组成,在转动臂外端装置角隅棱镜5。 The carrying-corner cube axial plane rotation mechanism consists of a spindle connected with the plate 7 is positioned against the positioning plate against the rotating arm 14 is connected to the minor axis mosaic composition 6, the outer end of the rotary arm 5 of the corner cube means. 定位靠板上分别于0°、90°、180°的轴线位置处设有由弹性钢球与锥窝副构成的锁定转动臂的定位点。 Positioning plate respectively by 0 °, the axis position at 90 °, 180 ° is provided with an elastic locking ball and fix tapered socket sub constituted by the rotation arm.

上述携带光电测头或空心正四面体测头的绕主轴转动机构,由绕主轴转动的转动块8及转动块上垂直于主轴设置能自转动的侧向臂12组成。 The portable photoelectric tetrahedral hollow probe or probe around the spindle rotating mechanism, the rotation around the main shaft 8 of the rotary block arranged perpendicular to the spindle and can be rotated from the lateral arm 12 of the rotary block composition. 转动块8通过其上的弹性钢球与主轴上的锥窝副构成在主轴上0°、90°、180°与270°的四个锁定点。 8 is rotated by the elastic block on which the ball and socket on the cone constituting the sub-spindle on the spindle 0 °, 90 °, 180 ° and 270 °, four locking points. 侧向臂12通过转动块8上的弹性钢球与其自身的锥窝副构成的定位机构可使所携带的光电测头的测量轴线锁定在平行于主轴轴线或垂直于主轴轴线的两个位置方向上。 Lateral arm 12 by the rotation of the elastic positioning means 8 ball on its own sub-cone and socket configuration allows measurement axis photoelectric probe carried locked in two positions parallel to the spindle axis or direction perpendicular to the spindle axis, on.

本发明不仅适用于坐标轨迹的跟踪及曲面轮廓的描绘;而且还能实现测量或瞄准所跟踪物体坐标方位及空间点距的多项功能,从而确立了该仪器成为六自由度、大测量范围、高精度、高分辨力的基准溯源装置。 The present invention is applicable not only to track the surface profile depicted coordinates and trajectory; but also to achieve the object coordinate measuring or aiming pitch and spatial orientation of the tracked multiple functions, thus establishing that the apparatus becomes six degrees of freedom, measuring range, high precision, high resolution reference traceable device.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1为三维激光扫描跟踪仪的工作原理示意图。 1 is a schematic working principle of the three-dimensional laser scanner tracker.

图2为本发明的坐标方位测量靶的结构示意图。 Azimuth measurement target coordinate structural diagram of FIG. 2 of the present invention.

图3为图2A-A剖面示意图。 FIG 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. 2A-A.

图4为图2B-B剖面示意图。 FIG 4 is a sectional view of FIG. 2B-B.

图5为空心正四面体结构示意图。 5 is a schematic view of a tetrahedral structural hollow positive.

图中:1-双频激光干涉仪 2-二维位置灵敏检测器件(PSD) 3-分光镜 4-平面反射镜5-角隅棱镜 6-转动臂 7-定位靠板 8-转动块 9-主轴 10-测杆 11-触球12-侧向臂 13-光电定位测头 14-短轴 15-角隅棱镜磁性靶座 16-空心正面体。 REFERENCE NUMERALS 1: 2- frequency laser interferometer means two-dimensional position sensitive detector (PSD) 3- 4- dichroic mirror plane corner cube 6- 5- 7- rotary arm plate positioned against the rotary block 8- 9- main spindle 11- 10- 12- lateral arm ball locating probe photoelectric 13- 15- 14- minor axis corner cube magnetic target base 16- hollow front body.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

结合附图对本发明的原理及实施测量的过程加以说明。 BRIEF will be described in conjunction with the principles of the invention and the measurement process embodiment.

在携带角隅棱镜的轴向平面转动机构中,转动臂6的中心线可由弹性钢球与锥窝副准确定位在定位靠板7的三个位置处(OA、OB、OC),因此,角隅镜光靶的中心在三个位置上的坐标值(图中A、B、C三点)可在三坐标测量机上测量确定。 In the axial plane of the rotating mechanism to carry the corner cube, the centerline of the rotary arm 6 by an elastic ball with the tapered socket sub accurate positioning of the plate 7 is positioned against the three positions (OA, OB, OC), therefore, the angle coordinate value of the center of the target corner mirror light at three positions on the (a, B, C three o'clock in the drawing) can be measured on a coordinate measuring machine is determined. 设以轴向平面转动机构的旋转中心O为坐标原点,以A(xa'ya'za')、B(xb'yb'zb')、C(xc′yc'zc')三点坐标值为参考点构成“三自由度坐标方位测量靶”的坐标系统。 The rotation mechanism provided in an axial plane is the rotation center O of the coordinate origin, A (xa'ya'za '), B (xb'yb'zb'), C (xc'yc'zc ') coordinate values ​​of three o'clock reference point constitutes a "three degrees of freedom coordinate orientation measurement target" coordinate system. 该坐标方位测量靶与三维激光扫描跟踪仪联机应用时,其坐标系为扫描跟踪仪的子坐标系,以X'Y'Z'表示。 When the three-dimensional coordinate measuring target azimuth scanning laser tracker online applications, which coordinates the coordinate system of the sub-scan tracker to X'Y'Z 'expressed.

在携带光电测头或空心正四面体测头的绕轴转动机构中,侧向臂12可安装光电定位测头13,用于定位被测点;也可安装空心正四面体16,采用六自由度参数综合调整法来定位二维视觉传感器等。 Photoelectric measuring head or carrying a hollow tetrahedron rotates around the axis of the probe mechanism, the lateral arm 12 may be mounted optical positioning the probe 13, for locating measured points; can also be installed tetrahedral hollow 16, with six degrees of freedom parameter comprehensive adjustment method to locate the two-dimensional vision sensors.

在测量时,随着角隅棱镜光靶绕其坐标原点O旋转一周,计算机将采集光靶位于0°、90°和180°三个位置处的坐标值。 In the measurement, with the corner cube optical rotation around its target coordinates an origin O, the optical target acquisition computer located at 0 °, 90 ° and 180 ° of the coordinate values ​​at three positions. 根据这三点的坐标值,由式(1)可以求出X'-Y'平面方程,pa(x'-x'b)+qa(y'-y'b)+ra(z'-z'b)=0 (1)式中pa、qa、ra为X'-Y'平面的方向数。 The coordinate values ​​of these three points, by the formula (1) can be obtained X'-Y 'plane equation, pa (x'-x'b) + qa (y'-y'b) + ra (z'-z 'b) = 0 (1) wherein pa, qa, ra is the X'-Y' direction of the plane number. 并由该平面方程求得其通过O点的法线方程。 The plane equation is obtained by the normal equation by which the point O. 因此,通过矩阵2的运算便可将靶标系统X'Y'Z'的坐标转换到三维激光扫描跟踪仪的主坐标系统之中。 Thus, the target system can be converted X'Y'Z 'coordinates by calculation of the matrix 2 into the coordinate system of the three-dimensional laser scanning primary tracker. 式中R9为坐标旋转系数,t为坐标平移系数。 Wherein R9 is a coordinate rotation coefficient, t is a coordinate translation factor.

例如,在汽车自身整体误差测量项目中,该“三自由度坐标方位测量靶”上的空心正四面体的棱边被用来虚拟(代表)车身上某标准棱边,并被安排到图纸规定的空间坐标与方位处,以便用它来定位二维视觉传感器在主坐标系中的位置。 For example, the total error in the vehicle's own measurements, the hollow on the "three degrees of freedom coordinate measuring target position" is a regular tetrahedron edges to virtual (on behalf of) a vehicle body of a standard edge, and placed in a predetermined Drawings the spatial coordinates and orientations, so as to use it to locate the position of two-dimensional vision sensor in the primary coordinate system. 显然,该定位过程的实质是对所跟踪物体坐标方位的瞄准。 Obviously, the essence of the process is aimed at positioning the object coordinate position tracked. 由于靶标系统X'Y'Z'已建立在三维激光扫描跟踪仪的主坐标系统之中,因此位于X'Y'Z'坐标系中的空心正四面体的棱边位置便也已得知。 Since the target system X'Y'Z 'has been established in the three-dimensional laser scanning of the primary tracker coordinate system, thus positioned X'Y'Z' coordinate system position edges hollow tetrahedron will also known.

再如,利用测杆与触球测量时,不但触球的位置可知,而且测杆轴线在主坐标系中的方位也已知。 Again, when measured using a measuring rod and ball, not only the position of the ball can be seen, but the orientation of the main spindle axis coordinate system are also known. 因此,既可测量空间的点距,也可测量孔中心线的坐标方位。 Thus, the pitch of the measurement space can also measure position coordinates of the axis of the hole.

因此,该“三自由度坐标方位测量靶”可装卡各种用途的传感器,进一步扩大了三维激光扫描跟踪仪的功能;仅通过简单的矩阵计算便可实现了空间六自由度的测量。 Thus, the "three degrees of freedom coordinate measuring target position" may be chucking various uses sensors to further expand the three-dimensional laser scanning tracker function; matrix calculated by simply measuring space can be achieved in six degrees of freedom.

Claims (3)

1.一种六自由度测量功能的激光扫描跟踪仪,该扫描跟踪仪式包括由双频激光干涉仪、二维位置灵敏检测器件、分光镜、二维旋转平面镜及坐标方位测量靶构成,其特征在于:它的坐标方位测量靶是由主轴、位于主轴上端携带角隅棱镜的轴向平面转动机构、位于主轴中部携带光电测头或空心正四面体测头的绕主轴转动机构以及主轴下端由测杆与触球构成的定位机构所组成。 A six degrees of freedom measurement function tracker laser scanning, the scanning tracking service will include frequency laser interferometer consists of a two-dimensional position-sensitive detection means, a beam splitter, a two-dimensional plane of rotation of the mirror and the coordinate measuring target position, characterized in in that: its target coordinate position is measured by the spindle, the spindle carries at the upper end corner cube axial plane rotation mechanism, located in the central shaft or hollow probe carrying a photoelectric tetrahedron turned around a spindle and a spindle mechanism of the probe from the lower end of the spindle the positioning mechanism and ball configuration composed.
2.按权利要求1所述的六自由度测量功能的激光扫描跟踪仪,其特征在于:携带角隅棱镜的轴向平面转动机构由一块与主轴连接的定位靠板,定位靠板上镶嵌短轴连接转动臂组成,在转动臂外端装置角隅棱镜,定位靠板上分别于0°、90°、180°的轴线位置处设有由弹性钢球与锥窝副构成的锁定转动臂的定位点。 2. The laser scanner according to claim tracker six degrees of freedom of the measurement function 1, wherein: an axial plane carrying the turning mechanism by a corner cube is positioned on a plate attached to the spindle, the positioning plate against the insert short turning arm connecting shaft composed of an outer end of the rotary arm corner cube means positioned against the plate, respectively 0 °, axial position at 90 °, 180 ° is provided with a ball made of an elastic lock with the tapered socket sub rotatable arm location point.
3.按权利要求1所述的六自由度测量功能的激光扫描跟踪仪,其特征在于:携带光电测头或空心正四面体测头的绕主轴转动机构,由绕主轴转动的转动块及转动块上垂直于主轴设置能自转动的侧向臂组成,转动块通过其上的弹性钢球与主轴上的锥窝副构成在主轴上0°、90°、180°与270°的四个锁定点;侧向臂通过转动块上的弹性钢球与其自身的锥窝副构成的定位机构可使所携带的光电测头的测量轴线锁定在平行于主轴轴线或垂直于主轴轴线的两个位置方向上。 3. The laser scanner according to claim tracker six degrees of freedom of the measurement function 1, characterized in that: the probe carrying a photoelectric or hollow tetrahedron around the spindle head rotation measuring mechanism, rotated by rotation around the spindle and rotary block block a spindle disposed perpendicular to the lateral arm is rotated from the composition, by rotation of the sub-blocks constituting an elastic ball on the cone socket and a spindle on which 0 °, 90 °, 180 ° and 270 °, four locking point on the spindle ; lateral arm allows the axis of the measuring probe carried by a photoelectric locked in two positions parallel to the direction of the spindle axis or perpendicular to the spindle axis by the positioning means on the elastic ball is rotated to its sub-blocks composed of tapered socket itself .
CNB021008833A 2002-02-07 2002-02-07 Laser scanning and tracking instrument with six feedom measurment function CN1160654C (en)

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CN104136880A (en) * 2012-01-30 2014-11-05 法罗技术股份有限公司 Laser tracker used with six degree-of-freedom probe having separable spherical retroreflector
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