CN1341991A - Analogue storage method and its temp. compensation crystal oscillator - Google Patents

Analogue storage method and its temp. compensation crystal oscillator Download PDF

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CN1341991A
CN1341991A CN 01128748 CN01128748A CN1341991A CN 1341991 A CN1341991 A CN 1341991A CN 01128748 CN01128748 CN 01128748 CN 01128748 A CN01128748 A CN 01128748A CN 1341991 A CN1341991 A CN 1341991A
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analog
crystal oscillator
carrier
function
analog memory
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CN1166051C (en
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周渭
宣宗强
周晖
陈辰
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西安电子科技大学
陕西维系电子技术有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a new signal processing method and new device based on said method. The function relationship between analog signals is stored with accuracy to be used in signal process, in order to eliminate quantization error and provide high signal-to-noise. The crystal oscillator with temperature compensation is composed of a analog memory and a controlled crystal oscillator. One component element of storage device is a storage carrier for recording or storing measured function relationship, for example fixed pole plate of capacitor, and another component element of the storage device, for example moving pole plate of capacitor, is controlled by argument, and its position is changed to the fixed pole plate, and the above mentioned both are formed into the storage device, and connected with controlled object so as t implement control or compensation. The invention provides merits of simple structure, high accuracy, good frequency-temperatures stability and short-term stability.

Description

模拟存储方法及其温度补偿晶体振荡器 Analog storage method and temperature compensated crystal oscillator

技术领域 FIELD

:本发明涉及信息处理方法和器件,主要涉及在测量和控制系统及装置中自、因变量间函数关系的模拟量存储方法和器件,具体讲,是一种模拟存储方法及基于该方法的温度补偿晶体振荡器。 : The present invention relates to an information processing method and device, and primarily relates to a self control system and measuring apparatus, a method and due to the analog storage device functional relationship between variables, specifically, is an analog storage method and the method based on temperature compensated crystal oscillator.

背景技术 Background technique

:在信息科学领域中,对于信号处理,尤其是在测量与控制领域里,相当广泛地应用模拟处理方法和数字计算机处理方法,与此相对应的温度补偿晶体振荡器也有模拟补偿晶体振荡器和数字及微机补偿晶体振荡器。 : In the field of information science, the signal processing, especially in the field of measurement and control, analog processing rather broadly applied method and a digital computer processing method, and this corresponds to the temperature compensated crystal oscillator is also compensated crystal oscillators and analog compensated crystal oscillator and a digital computer. 模拟处理方法主要建立在放大、借助于非线性线路的变换和特殊器件基础上的信号处理技术,比如:主要由电阻和热敏电阻网络所构成的模拟温度补偿晶体振荡器(TCXO)。 Analog processing methods mainly based amplification, the signal processing by means of non-linear transformation on the line basis and special devices, such as: analog temperature compensated crystal oscillator resistor and the thermistor is mainly composed of a network (TCXO). 它简单,但是精度很有限,而且对于复杂关系的信号处理无能为力。 It is simple, but the accuracy is limited and complex relationship between the signal processing powerless. 而数字及计算机处理方法通常都要经过模-数(A/D)、数-模(D/A)转换、数字存储和计算机处理等步骤,它虽然精度较高,但是在大量推广的情况下,造价相对较高,而且在对模拟信号处理时会带来量化误差,因为中间转换环节多,不仅量化误差大,进而形成控制系统的噪声特性差,使得测量和控制的精度在要求低噪声的情况下又会降低。 And the digital processing method and computer generally go through the analog - digital (A / D), the number of - analog (D / A) conversion, digital processing and computer storage step, although high precision, but in case it is replicated in a large amount , relatively high cost, but also in the analog signal processing will bring the quantization error, because multiple intermediate conversion part, not only the quantization error is large, thereby forming difference in noise characteristic control system, so that the measurement and control accuracy of the low noise It will reduce the case. 这在数字温度补偿晶体振荡器中表现为补偿后的频率-温度稳定度被提高,但晶体振荡器的自身短期频率稳定度和相位噪声指标会随着温度的变化而变坏。 This is reflected in a digital temperature compensated crystal oscillator frequency compensated - temperature stability is improved, but their short-term frequency stability and phase noise crystal oscillator is deteriorated as the temperature changes. 其短期频率稳定度甚至比普通模拟补偿晶体振荡器还差近一个数量级。 Short-term frequency stability even worse nearly one order of magnitude than the average analog compensated crystal oscillator. 也就是说提高了频率-温度稳定度,牺牲了自身短期频率稳定度和相位噪声指标。 That increased the frequency - temperature stability at the expense of their own short-term frequency stability and phase noise performance. 要进一步提高其短期频率稳定度,就要用更多位数的模-数、数-模转换器和数字存储器,所花费的代价也是很昂贵的。 To further improve its short-term frequency stability, it is necessary to use more bits of analog - digital, digital - analog converter and a digital memory, the cost is spent very expensive. 通常的模拟补偿方式的温度补偿晶体振荡器是用热敏电阻和电阻构成补偿网络,由其产生随温度变化而变化的控制电压信号来控制和补偿压控晶体振荡器(VCXO)的频率的。 A conventional temperature compensated crystal oscillator compensation analog compensation network is configured by a thermistor and a resistor, generating therefrom a frequency variation with temperature changes the control signal to control the voltage and the compensation voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) is. 这种方法只能够实现大的趋势补偿,而不能像数字补偿那样实现逐点的测量和补偿。 This method can only achieve a large tendency compensation, and can not be achieved as the measurement image point by point compensation digital compensation. 它在较宽的温度范围内(如-55度到+85度)只能得到1×10-6及其以下的频率-温度稳定度指标,而数字温度补偿晶体振荡器则可以获得1~2×10-7甚至更好的频率-温度稳定度指标。 It (e.g., -55 degrees to +85 degrees) can give 1 × 10-6 or less and a frequency in a wide temperature range - Temperature stability index, the digital temperature compensated crystal oscillator can be obtained 1-2 × 10-7 even better frequency - temperature stability index. 模拟补偿方式的温度补偿晶体振荡器的短期稳定度指标有可能达到10-9/秒量级,但是简单的数字温度补偿晶体振荡器的短期稳定度指标多在10-8/秒量级或更差。 Short-term stability index temperature compensated crystal oscillator of the analog compensation could reach 10-9 / order of seconds, but the short term stability index simple digital temperature compensated crystal oscillator of the plurality 10-8 / second or more order of difference. 两种方法各有所长,各有所短。 Both methods have their own strengths, but each is short.

可以说,在测量和控制技术领域里,控制信号的精确度和所采用的技术措施在造价方面的矛盾一直是人们很关注的问题。 It can be said, in the field of measurement and control technology, precision and technical measures adopted by control signals contradiction in terms of the cost has been an issue that people are concerned about.

这方面的参考文献大量登载在每年的美国《IEEE国际频率控制年会论文集》中、国内的《宇航计测技术》等刊物中。 References in this respect a lot of the United States published in the annual "IEEE International Frequency Control Proceedings" in the country "space measurement technology" and other publications. 由于晶体振荡器使用的相当普遍,每年所发表的文章数量是很大的。 Due to the use of the crystal oscillator is quite common, the number of articles published per year is great. 但是,与本发明有关的关于高精度的温补晶体振器和模拟存储技术未见报导。 However, temperature-compensated crystal oscillator and analog storage techniques for accurately related to the present invention has not been reported. 如国际著名的频率控制专家,美国IEEE的UFFC学会主席John Vig博士在他发表于1993年IEEE国际频率控制年会的文章:“Quartzcrystal resonators and oscillators-for frequency control and timingapplications(A tutorial)”和其后于一系列的IEEE国际频率控制年会的讲座中都系统地介绍了各种不同类型的温度补偿晶体振荡器,其中均没有涉及到与本发明有关的技术内容;我国著名的晶体振荡器与频率控制技术专家湖南大学的赵声衡教授在他的《石英晶体振荡器》一书(1997年湖南大学出版社出版))中也系统地介绍了各种不同类型的温度补偿晶体振荡器,同样没有涉及与本发明有关的技术内容。 As the world's leading frequency control expert, John Dr. Vig president of the American IEEE's UFFC learn he published in 1993 IEEE International Frequency Control article annual meeting: "Quartzcrystal resonators and oscillators-for frequency control and timingapplications (A tutorial)" and its after a series of IEEE international frequency control seminar in both systems will be introduced various types of temperature compensated crystal oscillator, which are not related to the technical contents related to the present invention; famous of the crystal oscillator Professor Zhao Heng frequency sound control technology experts Hunan University in his "quartz crystal oscillator," a book (Hunan University Press, 1997)) are also systematically introduced various types of temperature compensated crystal oscillator, the same does not involve the present invention and technical content.

发明内容 SUMMARY

:本发明的目的就是针对采用模拟信号处理方法和数字信号处理方法优点不可兼得的问题提出的一种新的技术方案,提供一种直接由模拟量控制、可对于复杂关系的信号进行处理的精度高、信息处理环节少、完全消除量化误差的新的信号处理方法和基于此方法的精确度高、噪声小、其频率-温度稳定度指标和短期稳定度指标相对都好、结构简单、造价低的温度补偿晶体振荡器。 : A new technical solution for the object of the present invention is to the advantage of using analog signal processing and digital signal processing methods can not have both the questions raised, there is provided a, the signal may be processed directly to the complex relationship controlled by the analog high precision, less information processing part, a new signal processing method to completely eliminate the quantization error and high accuracy based on this method, noise, frequency - temperature stability and short-term stability index is relatively good, simple structure, cost low temperature compensated crystal oscillator.

简单地讲该方法就是把被控对象的输入、输出两个模拟量间的函数关系借助于一个具有存储功能的器件真实、严格地直接保存下来。 Briefly the method is input to the controlled object output function between two analog amount by means of a real device having a memory function, strictly saved directly down. 将这样的存储器应用于被控电路,由输入的连续变化的自变量信号的值,通过该存储器就能够得到准确的连续变化的输出因变量的值,以此去控制和补偿被控装置,获得准确的、连续的补偿或控制量。 Such output is applied to the memory circuit controlled by the value of the argument of the input signal is continuously changed by the memory can be obtained an accurate value of the variable changes continuously because, in order to control the controlled device and compensation to obtain accurate, or continuous compensation control amount.

下面结合附图对本发明进行详细说明,本发明首先是一个方法发明,具体的实现以电容式模拟存储温度补偿晶体振荡器为例辅助说明,模拟存储方法实现的主要步骤如下:①根据具体的使用场合需要选定存储载体,一定的物理器件或传感器常常可以用来构成这样的存储载体,如电容器的极板、电阻器的电阻膜、电感器的电感等;②通过实测,获得被控对象自变量和因变量间的对应变化数据,比如晶体振荡器是被控对象,通过实际实验和测定,当自变量(温度)有一个变化量,晶体振荡器的因变量(频率)就有一个对应地变化量,依次类推;③对这些数据进行数据处理,得到表示连续特性的函数关系,这些函数关系可能是复杂关系的连续特性函数关系;④再根据此函数关系,对存储载体进行加工,该存储载体就准确保存或存储了这个实测获得的连续特性的 DRAWINGS The present invention will be described in detail, the present invention is a first method of the invention, the specific analog memory implemented in a capacitive temperature compensated crystal oscillator of assistance in explaining an example, the main steps of the analog memory implemented method as follows: ① The specific use memory carrier selected as occasion demands, certain physical device or sensor can often be used to construct such a memory carrier, such as a plate, a resistive film resistors, inductors inductance capacitor; ② by Found obtained from the controlled object a corresponding change in the data between the independent and dependent variables, such as crystal oscillator is a controlled object, and by measuring the actual experiment, when the independent variable (temperature) there is a change amount of the dependent variable crystal oscillator (frequency) there is a correspondence the amount of change, and so on; ③ these data for data processing, to obtain a function representing the relationship between the continuous nature of the function may be continuous characteristic function of the complex relationship; ④ then according to this function, a memory carrier for processing, the memory saved or stored on the carrier accurately the characteristics of the continuous measurement obtained 函数关系;⑤.将加工好的存储载体与相关部件构成模拟存储器件,应用于信息控制系统,构成反馈或补偿。 Function;. ⑤ The processed carrier with associated storage member constituting an analog memory device, applied to an information control system, a feedback or compensation.

本发明的实现还在于函数关系的参数表示可以是图形、波形或曲线。 Implementation of the present invention is a function of the parameters may be a graphical representation of the waveform or curve. 以电容式存储载体为例,先通过对晶体振荡器的实际测量,获得晶体振荡器的补偿电容-温度变化特性,必要时,通过数据拟合得到能够表示该温度特性的连续特性的公式或表格,再根据电容器相对极板面积与电容量之间的关系式C=εs/d,得出存储载体即定极板的图形;而电容器的动极板是事先就确定的规则图形(定、动极板的关系也可以反来);本发明的实现还在于以所获图形制作存储载体,加工过程可以用计算机辅助加工进行,这是以严格的科学测定为基础,通过对获得的离散数据进行数据拟合,将所得到的函数规律,用器件并以模拟量的形式固定下来的。 Capacitive storage carrier, for example, first by actual measurement of the crystal oscillator, the crystal oscillator compensation capacitance - temperature characteristics, when necessary, be able to obtain continuous characteristics of the temperature characteristic represents a formula or table data by fitting , then the relative capacitor according to the area between the plates the capacitance relationship C = εs / d, i.e. derived storage carrier plate fixed pattern; moving plate of the capacitor is determined in advance of the regular pattern (fixed and moving relationship between plates may also be trans); implementing the present invention is to produce the resulting pattern storage carrier, the process can be performed with computer-assisted processing, which is based on strict scientific measurement performed on the data obtained by the discrete data fitting, the laws of the function obtained in the form and fixed with analog devices. 也可以在实验过程中利用连续改变自变量导致因变量相应变化时,通过“在线存储”实现,化学的方法如:镀膜、机械的方法如:刻蚀或电信号加工的方法如:波形构成等,直接对存储载体进行加工。 May also be used while continuously changing the argument results in a corresponding change in the dependent variable, the "online storage" achieved during the experiment, chemical methods such as: coating, mechanical methods such as: a method such as etching or electric signal processing: a waved like directly to the memory carrier processing. 也就是在确定的自(输入)、因(输出)变量情况下用镀膜或刻蚀的方法,把两者的函数关系保持下来。 That is determined from (input), the result (output) variables where etching or plating method, a function of the relationship between the two preserved. 即通过对两变量进行扫描就获得了完整的存储载体。 That is scanned by two variables to get a complete storage carrier. 这种方法对实验加工条件要求很高。 This method of processing the experimental conditions require very high.

本发明的实现还在于在对被控对象的自、因变量进行实际测量时,所得的数据是离散数据。 The present invention is also achieved when the controlled object from the dependent variable actual measurement, the obtained data is discrete data. 在温度补偿晶体振荡器中,温度实验常常是通过对被实验振荡器在温度实验设备中每隔一定的温度(如5度)而采集一次相应的频率值或补偿电压等数据。 In the temperature compensated crystal oscillator, the temperature test is often experimentally by the oscillator at predetermined temperature (e.g., 5 degrees) at a temperature in the acquisition test device corresponding frequency value or a compensation voltage data and the like. 获得的结果只能是离散的。 The results obtained can only be discrete. 对于离散数据,需要进行拟合处理,获得以公式、曲线或图形的方式所表示的连续数据,即得到能够表示补偿量随温度变化的连续特性的函数关系。 For discrete data fitting process is required to obtain continuous data to a formula, curve or graphically represented to obtain a continuous function characteristic compensator it can be expressed with the amount of temperature change.

本发明还是一种新型器件,是一种基于模拟存储方法的温度补偿晶体振荡器,该温度补偿晶体振荡器由模拟存储器件和被补偿的晶体振荡器构成,模拟存储器件一定包含有保存或存储着自、因变量连续特性函数关系的存储载体,以电容式器件为例,其器件是由介质隔开的两部分电极组成,其存储载体为两电极之一,如存储载体为电容器的固定电极,则固定电极保存或存储了一实测获得的连续的函数关系,再配以活动电极,与固定电极形成电连接,以构成具体的模拟存储器件。 The present invention is also a novel device, a temperature compensated crystal oscillator based analog storage method, the temperature compensated crystal oscillator composed of an analog memory device and the compensated crystal oscillator, an analog memory device must contain saved or stored the self, because the memory carrier as a function of continuous characteristic variable, in an example a capacitive device, which device is composed of two electrodes separated from the medium part of the composition, the carrier is one which stores the two electrodes, the fixed electrode carrier is a storage capacitor , the fixed electrode saved or stored as a function of a continuous measurement is obtained, together with the movable electrode, electrically connected to the fixed electrode to constitute a specific analog memory device. 模拟存储器件的输入和输出均为模拟量。 Analog memory device inputs and outputs are analog. 模拟存储器件的输入是被控对象自变量的位移或角度传感器的信号,模拟存储器件的输出直接接被补偿的晶体振荡器。 Input analog signal storage device is charged or angular displacement sensor target independent variables, the output of the analog memory device connected directly compensated crystal oscillator.

本发明的实现还在于模拟存储器件中存储载体对自、因变量连续特性函数关系的保存或存储是通过实测所得的被控对象的自、因变量连续特性函数关系的图形实现的,当一个电极保存或存储自、因变量连续特性函数关系时,另一个电极的形状是规则的。 Implementation of the present invention is stored in an analog memory device for self-support, the dependent variable as a function of a continuous characteristic saved or stored by the controlled object from the obtained measured, due to the continuous pattern of characteristic variable as a function implemented when one of the electrodes saved or stored from, the dependent variable as a function of a continuous characteristic, the shape of the other electrode is regular.

本发明的实现还在于模拟存储器件还可以是电阻式器件或电感式器件。 Implementation of the present invention is an analog memory device may be a resistive or inductive device device. 电阻式模拟存储器的模拟存储载体按函数关系加工的电阻膜或线绕电阻,而通过改变活动部分触臂的位置来改变电阻值;电感式是模拟存储器的模拟存储载体是按函数关系变化的线圈自感或互感,通过改变磁芯或另一个线圈的位置来改变电感。 Analog resistive analog memory storage carrier according to processing function of the resistive film or wire wound resistor, the resistance value is changed by changing the position of the movable portion of the contact arm; inductive analog memory is an analog memory carrier according to a function change is a coil self or mutual inductance, the inductance is changed by changing the position of the other coil or core.

本发明精确度高的根源,是采用了对测量、控制对象进行准确地实测,经过拟合、建模、处理,而不是大概的趋势补偿,也没有从模拟到数字,又从数字到模拟的多个转换环节,所以本发明既具有一般模拟处理技术结构比较简单、信号-噪声特性较好的特点,又具有数字和计算机处理方法可以逐点进行处理因而精度高的优点。 The root of the present invention, high accuracy is employed for measurement, the control object accurately measured, through the fitting, modeling, processing, rather than the approximate trend compensation, nor from analog to digital and from digital to analog a plurality of transformation link, the present invention generally has both an analog processing technique is relatively simple structure, the signal - noise characteristics better characteristics, but also having a computer and a digital processing method may thus treated point by point the advantage of high accuracy. 它可以完全消除数字处理技术中的量化误差,是一种高精度的信号处理技术。 It can completely eliminate the quantization error of the digital processing techniques, it is a high-precision signal processing techniques. 它可以被广泛地用于传感器信号处理、测量与控制装置等,可广泛地应用于电子技术、电子测量、自动控制、仪器仪表、航空航天等技术领域的信号处理。 It can be widely used for sensor signal processing, measurement and control devices, etc., it can be widely used in the field of signal processing electronics, electronic measurement, automatic control, instrumentation, aerospace and the like.

这种方法中虽然也要用到计算机,但是在其功能的开发过程中。 Although this method is also used in computers, but in the development of its function. 计算机可以用于帮助模拟存储器严格模拟存储关系的形成,把其自身的数字化处理的能力用模拟表现的方式由模拟存储物理器件保持下来。 The computer can be used to help form an analog memory stores an analog strict relationship, the ability of its own digitized analog manner represented by the preserved physical analog memory device. 这是一种把计算机留在实验室,而把开发出来的不含计算机的结果交给用户的作法。 This is a way to stay in the computer lab, and the results developed without the computer user to practice. 因此,它具有很高的性能-价格比。 Therefore, it has a high performance - price ratio.

在此技术基础上,本发明还提供一种完全新的较之一般模拟处理方法温度补偿精度高出一个数量级、结构简单、造价低、功耗小的模拟存储温度补偿晶体振荡器。 In this technique, based on the present invention further provides a completely new approach as compared to general analog temperature compensation precision an order of magnitude, simple structure, low cost, low power consumption of the analog storage temperature compensated crystal oscillator. 它主要由存储载体和被补偿的晶体振荡器构成,其存储载体可以是由固定和活动的两个电极所组成的电容式存储器(也可以是电感式、电阻式的等),其定极板是根据为了消除晶体频率随温度的变化所需要的补偿信号与温度的函数关系而设计构成的具有一定图形的导电电极,如图3所示。 It is mainly composed of a carrier and storage compensated crystal oscillator, which carrier may be a capacitive storage memory consists of two fixed and movable electrodes consisting of (may be inductive, resistive, etc.), which fixed plate the frequency is to eliminate the crystal with the temperature compensation signal as a function of change in temperature required for the design of the conductive electrode pattern having a certain configuration, as shown in FIG. 活动部分与固定部分根据所采用的存储载体的不同而由于其相对位置等的变化造成了电容、电感或电阻等的变化,在采用电容式的存储器时,动、定片间通过介质(如空气、玻璃、石英等)隔离而构成电容量能被设定的可变电容器。 Movable portion and the fixed portion according to different storage carrier being employed due to changes in relative positions and the like cause changes capacitance, inductance, or resistance at the time of use of capacitive storage, movement, between the fixed plate through the medium (e.g., air , glass, quartz, etc.) and the isolation capacitor forming the variable capacitance can be set. 输入和输出均为模拟量,该模拟存储器与被补偿的晶体振荡器一起就组成温度补偿晶体振荡器。 Inputs and outputs are analog, and the analog memory can be compensated crystal oscillator temperature compensated crystal oscillator composed together.

本发明的模拟存储温度补偿晶体振荡器的工作可参照图1,整个工作系统主要由三部分组成,即位移或角度传感器、模拟存储器件以及被控晶体振荡器。 Analog storage temperature compensated crystal oscillator of the present invention can work with reference to FIG. 1, the entire operating system is mainly composed of three parts, i.e., displacement or angle sensor, and an analog memory device controlled crystal oscillator. 假如,有一个温度的变化量,首先,由温度-位移传感器(如双金属温度传感器)将温度变化转化成与此对应的位移或角度的变化,用该变化量控制模拟存储器的活动部分,其固定部分即定极板是以图形的方式已存储或保存了输入、输出量间的拟合函数关系的模拟载体,该存储器件的模拟输出再去控制被控晶体振荡器,使得振荡器的输出频率从而获得精确的逐点的连续补偿效果,形成精度高的温度补偿。 If there is a change amount of a temperature of, firstly, by the temperature - a displacement sensor (e.g. a bimetal temperature sensor) to convert a temperature change into a change in displacement or angle corresponding thereto, with the amount of change control activities part analog memory, which i.e., that the fixed plate portion fixed pattern is stored or saved as a function of an analog carrier fitting between the input, output, the analog output of the storage control device again controlled crystal oscillator, so that the output of the oscillator to thereby obtain successive frequency compensation effect exact point by point, the temperature compensation with high accuracy is formed.

本发明由于把存储载体随温度变化的规律以物理器件的形式固化,直接将互成自、因变量之间的准确的函数关系以模拟量的方式保存于存储载体,就从原理上实现了连续和逐点补偿;省略了模拟和数字之间的转换环节,消除了量化误差,因而可以获得高的精度和噪声特性。 The present invention, since the memory carrier with the law of varying the curing temperature in the form of a physical device directly into each other since, due to the precise function of the relationship between variables in an analog manner vector stored in the storage, is realized continuously from the principle and compensation point by point; omitted conversion between analog and digital links, the quantization error is eliminated, it is possible to obtain a high accuracy and noise characteristics. 以温度补偿晶体振荡器为例,其短期稳定性指标相对于数字温度补偿晶体振荡器提高一个数量级,达到10-9/秒量级或更高。 A temperature compensated crystal oscillator as an example, short-term stability index with respect to a digital temperature compensated crystal oscillator an order of magnitude to 10-9 / sec or higher magnitude. 所构成的晶体振荡器属于通讯、邮电、仪器仪表、航空航天等方面应用相当广泛的一种稳定的频率源。 Crystal oscillator composed belongs communications, telecommunications, instrumentation, aerospace and other aspects of the wide range of applications of a stable frequency source.

从效果上看本发明综合了模拟处理方法和数字及计算机处理的方法这两种信号处理方法的优点,并避免其缺点的新的信号处理方法。 In effect the present invention is a method of synthesis of digital and analog processing method, and computer processing of the advantages of both signal processing method, and a new signal processing method to avoid its drawbacks. 它既是一种新的信号处理方法,又是在这种方法指导下的一系列新的技术和相应的温度补偿晶体振荡器。 It is a new signal processing method, and this method is directed to a series of new technologies and corresponding temperature compensated crystal oscillator. 也就是以比较简单的结构来保证信号处理的高精度,同时又避免了量化误差的出现。 It is a relatively simple configuration to ensure high accuracy of signal processing, while avoiding the quantization errors. 用这种方法作为温度补偿晶体振荡器的设计技术,可以兼顾模拟温度补偿晶体振荡器结构简单、短期稳定度相对较好的特点,同时又具有数字和微机补偿晶体振荡器可以实现逐点进行补偿、频率-温度稳定度好的特点,其信号处理精度的短期稳定度指标与模拟补偿方式接近,同时其频率-温度稳定度指标与数字补偿方式接近。 In this way as the temperature compensated crystal oscillator design can be simulated taking into account the temperature compensated crystal oscillator structure is simple, relatively good short-term stability characteristics, while having a microcomputer and a digital compensated crystal oscillator can be realized by compensating point frequency - and good temperature stability, short-term stability proximity index and its compensation mode analog signal processing accuracy, while the frequency - temperature stability proximity indicators and the digital compensation. 由于减少了诸多的A/D、D/A等转换环节,也大大地降低了造价,量化误差的影响也可以被完全克服。 By reducing the transformation stage many A / D, D / A, but also greatly reduce the cost, the quantization effect of the error can also be completely overcome. 仅从温度补偿晶体振荡器的角度来看,本发明是对已有各种温度补偿晶体振荡器的一个很好的升级换代技术和产品。 Only from the temperature compensated crystal oscillator standpoint, the present invention is a temperature compensated crystal oscillator has a variety of upgrading a good technology and products.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

:图1是本发明实施例的工作框图;图2是本发明的晶体振荡器频率补偿前后随温度的变化、所要求的补偿电容随温度的变化曲线对照图;图3是电容式模拟存储器定极板的展开图。 : FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an embodiment of the working of the present invention; FIG. 2 is a frequency change before and after compensation crystal oscillator of the present invention with temperature, the control curve of FIG required capacitance change with temperature compensation; FIG. 3 is a set of capacitive analog memory expanded view plate.

具体实施方式 detailed description

:以电容为存储载体的模拟存储方式的温度补偿晶体振荡器的工作方式如图1所示。 : Temperature compensated crystal oscillator works in analog memory carrier capacitance storage shown in Figure 1. 本例中存储载体是受温度传感器控制的电容器的定极板。 In the present embodiment the memory carrier plate is fixed by the temperature sensor control capacitor. 该电容器定极板图形的获得是,先通过对晶体振荡器的温度实验,获得它的离散的补偿电容-温度变化特性。 The capacitor plates to obtain a given pattern is, the first test the temperature of the crystal oscillator, which is obtained discrete compensation capacitance - temperature characteristics. 再通过数据拟合(如多项式拟合等)得到能够表示该温度特性的连续特性的公式或表格。 And then by fitting the data (e.g., polynomial, etc.) can be obtained continuously showing characteristics of the temperature characteristics of the formula or table. 再根据电容器定极板面积与电容量之间的关系式C=ϵSd]]>(其中,ε是极板间介质材料的介电常数,S是电容器两极板间重合部分的面积,d是极板之间的距离),就可以求出定极板的图形。 According to another capacitor plate area set between a relationship with the capacitance C = & epsiv; Sd]]> (where, ε is the dielectric constant of the dielectric material between the plates, S is the area between the overlapping portions of the plates of the capacitor, d is the distance between the plates), set on the graphic plates can be obtained. 经过处理的图形是连续变化的,这就不同于一般数字方式的台阶式量化变化情况与可能存在的量化误差。 After image processing is continuously changed, which is different from the case where the stepped quantization error may be present in a digital manner a quantization change in general. 补偿电容的变化是光滑连续的,因此所获得的被补偿晶体振荡器的频率就不可能会有台阶式的量化种跳变(即使这种跳变有时会很小)。 Variation compensation capacitor is smooth and continuous, thus obtained is frequency compensated crystal oscillator can not be stepped transition quantization species (even if such a transition is sometimes small). 晶体振荡器的频率在补偿前后随温度的变化、所要求的补偿电容随温度的变化如图2所示。 Before and after the crystal oscillator frequency variation with temperature compensation, the required compensation capacitor changes with temperature as shown in FIG.

如图1所示,这里的存储载体是受温度传感器控制的电容器。 As shown in FIG. 1, where the capacitor storage carrier is controlled by a temperature sensor. 首先使用一个温度-位移传感器(如双金属温度传感器)将温度变化转换成与此对应的位移或角度的变化。 First, using a temperature - displacement sensor (e.g. a bimetal temperature sensor) to convert the displacement into a change in temperature or the angle corresponding thereto. 而电容器动极板和定极板之间的相对位置由该传感器来控制。 While the relative position between the movable plate and the fixed plate of the capacitor is controlled by the sensor. 动极板的形状是规则的(如矩形等),而定极板的形状则是存储载体的关键部分。 Movable plate is regular shape (e.g., rectangular, etc.), and the plate is given the shape of a key part of the memory carrier. 它的图形是考虑了在一定的相对位置下电容量与温度(转角或位移量)的函数关系而设定的。 It is considered a graphics at a certain relative position of the capacitance as a function of temperature (or angle displacement amount) of the set. 也就是根据晶体振荡器本身的频率-温度特性所对应的使振荡器的频率保持恒定的补偿电容-温度特性而获得的。 I.e. according to the frequency of the crystal oscillator itself - corresponding to the frequency-temperature characteristic of the oscillator is kept constant compensation capacitance - temperature characteristics is obtained. 这也正是本发明不同于已有技术之处,普通的模拟补偿方法采用的是按相应的特性趋势进行补偿而无法实现数字补偿那样的逐点补偿,因此它只能是大概的、并且不可能很精确,对于复杂的特性模拟处理方法更是无能为力的。 This is different from the prior art of the present invention, the conventional analog compensation method used is compensated by the corresponding characteristic as the trend can not be achieved by the digital compensator compensating point, so that it can only be approximate, and do not may be very precise, complex characteristic for analog processing method is powerless. 而本发明实现了和逐点补偿同样的效果。 The present invention achieves the same effects and compensation point by point. 不同于数字或微机补偿方法的是,在所有的量中并没有出现数字量,减少了A/D、D/A、CPU和数字存储器等中间环节,因此量化误差就不可能出现。 Unlike digital compensation method or computer is digital does not appear in all amounts, the reduction of the intermediate links A / D, D / A, CPU and digital memory, so the quantization error is unlikely to occur.

用于模拟存储装置的存储载体还可以有其它更多的选择。 Analog memory means for storing vectors may also have other more choices. 如采用波形就是另一种选择,还可以有电感、电阻。 As another option is a waveform can also be an inductor, a resistor. 在在采用波形作为存储载体情况下,代表自变量的是与时间相关、或能够转换成时间量的量(如通过锯齿波把电压量转换得到);而因变量则直接与电压幅度相关。 In a waveform in a case where the memory carrier, on behalf of independent variables is time, or can be converted into the amount of time (e.g., the voltage obtained by converting the amount of sawtooth); dependent variable directly related to the voltage amplitude.

本发明的模拟存储器和普通的具有所要求的补偿特性的模拟器件最大的区别在于,后者只是用自身的特点与要求的补偿控制信号从总的轮廓上拟合或尽量接近。 Analog memory of this invention and the conventional simulator biggest difference compensating element having the required characteristics is that the latter is just as close to the control signal from the fitting or contour compensating total own characteristics and requirements. 这与本发明的“逐点”进行的严格的补偿有本质的区别。 This is strictly compensated for with "point by point" of the present invention are essentially different. 正因为模拟存储的补偿方法能够从原理上实现严格的连续和逐点补偿。 Because the analog compensation method can be implemented stringent storage and continuous point by point from the compensation principle. 才有其高精度的结果。 The results which have high precision.

由于所有的温度传感和补偿功能的实现都是不耗电的,因此这种温度补偿晶体振荡器在所有同类器件中是功耗最小的。 Since all temperature sensing and compensation is achieved no power, so this is a temperature compensated crystal oscillator with minimum power consumption in all similar devices.

本发明的信号处理方法一旦与其他要求及存储载体结合在一起就能够在更广泛的应用领域起到上述模拟存储式温度补偿晶体振荡器同样的效果。 The signal processing method of the present invention in combination with other requirements upon storage carrier together and the same effects can be simulated storage temperature compensated crystal oscillator in the above broader applications.

Claims (7)

1.一种模拟存储方法,其特征在于将被控对象的自变量和因变量这两个模拟量之间函数关系准确测定,并准确存储或保存于存储载体,通过该模拟存储载体实现对被控信息进行补偿或控制,即输入自变量即可准确地获得所要求的因变量,主要的步骤如下:②根据具体的使用场合需要选定存储载体;②通过实测,获得被控对象自变量和因变量间的对应变化数据;③对这些数据进行数据处理,得到表示连续特性的函数关系;④再根据此函数关系,对存储载体进行加工,该存储载体就准确保存或存储了这个实测获得的连续特性的函数关系;⑤.将加工好的存储载体与相关部件构成模拟存储器件,应用于信息控制系统,构成反馈或补偿。 An analog memory, characterized in that the accurate determination of the functional relationship between the controlled object and dependent variables from both analog and accurately stored or saved in the memory carrier, achieved by the carrier of the analog memory is control compensation or control information, i.e., the input argument variable to accurately obtain the desired result, the main steps are as follows: ② necessary to select a memory carrier according to the specific usage scenarios; ② by Found obtain a controlled object and arguments due to a corresponding change in the data between variables; ③ these data for data processing, to obtain a function representing the relationship between the continuous characteristic; ④ then according to this function, a memory carrier for processing, the memory carrier for the accuracy saved or stored this Found obtained continuous characteristic function;. ⑤ the processed carrier with associated storage member constituting an analog memory device, applied to an information control system, a feedback or compensation.
2.根据权利要求1所述的模拟存储方法,其特征在于函数关系的参数表示可以是图形、波形或曲线。 2. The method of claim analog memory according to claim 1, characterized in that the parameters of the function may be a graphical representation of the relationship between the waveform or curve.
3.根据权利要求1所述的模拟存储方法,其特征在于加工过程可以用计算机辅助加工进行,也可以在实验过程中利用连续改变自变量导致因变量相应变化时,通过化学的方法如:镀膜、机械的方法如:刻蚀或电信号加工的方法如:波形构成,直接对存储载体进行加工。 The analog storage method according to claim 1, characterized in that the process can be performed with computer-assisted processing, may also be used to change the argument results in a continuous change in the corresponding dependent variable, such as by chemical methods during the experiment: Coating , mechanical methods such as: a method such as etching processing or the electrical signal: a waveform configuration, memory carrier directly processed.
4.根据权利要求1所述的模拟存储方法,其特征在于在进行步骤②、③时,对于离散数据,进行拟合处理,得到表示连续特性的函数关系。 The analog storage method according to claim 1, wherein in performing step ②, when ③, for discrete data, fitting process, to obtain a function representing the relationship between the continuous characteristic.
5.一种基于模拟存储方法的温度补偿晶体振荡器,其中的模拟存储器件主要是由两部分组成,其特征在于该温度补偿晶体振荡器由模拟存储器件和被补偿的晶体振荡器构成,组成模拟存储器件的两部分之一是存储载体,存储载体保存或存储从实测获得的自、因变量连续特性函数关系,对于电容式模拟存储器存储载体就是其中的一个电极板保存或存储函数关系,另一极板通过介质与其构成模拟存储器件,模拟存储器件的输入和输出均为模拟量,模拟存储器件的输入是被控对象自变量的位移或角度传感器的信号,存储器件的输出直接接被补偿的晶体振荡器。 A temperature compensated crystal oscillator based analog storage method, wherein the analog memory device is mainly composed of two parts, characterized in that the temperature compensated crystal oscillator composed of an analog memory device and the compensated crystal oscillator composed of one of the two analog memory device is a storage carrier storing a saved or stored vector obtained from the measured self-dependent variable as a function of a continuous characteristic, to an analog memory storage capacitance wherein the carrier is a plate electrode saved or stored function, other a signal through the dielectric plate constituting its input and output analog memory device, an analog memory device inputs are analog, the analog memory device is charged or angular displacement sensor target independent variables, the output of the memory device is directly connected to the compensation a crystal oscillator.
6.根据权利要求5所述的温度补偿晶体振荡器,其特征在于模拟存储器件中的存储载体对于自、因变量连续特性函数关系的保存或存储对于电容式模拟存储器来说是通过一个电极来实现的,该电极以极板的图形来保存或存储着自、因变量连续特性的函数关系,当一个电极是保存或存储着自、因变量连续特性函数关系的电极时,另一个电极的形状是规则的,两电极通过介质构成电容式模拟存储器件。 The temperature compensated crystal oscillator as claimed in claim 5, characterized in that the storage support for the analog memory device from, saved or stored by a function of the characteristic variable for the continuous analog memory is a capacitive electrode through a implementation, the electrode pattern plate to hold or store the self, because the function of a continuous variable characteristics, as a function of the electrode due to the self-characteristics of a continuous variable, the shape of the electrodes is a saved or stored, the other electrode is regular, two electrodes form a capacitor dielectric analog memory device.
7.根据权利要求6所述的温度补偿晶体振荡器,其特征在于模拟存储器件还可以是电阻性器件或电感性器件。 7. A temperature compensated crystal oscillator according to claim 6, characterized in that the analog memory device may be a resistive or inductive device device.
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