CN1324155A - Video error concealing method in ground digital TV broadcast - Google Patents

Video error concealing method in ground digital TV broadcast Download PDF

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CN1324155A
CN1324155A CN 01118673 CN01118673A CN1324155A CN 1324155 A CN1324155 A CN 1324155A CN 01118673 CN01118673 CN 01118673 CN 01118673 A CN01118673 A CN 01118673A CN 1324155 A CN1324155 A CN 1324155A
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macroblock
error
reference frame
video
position
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CN1134174C (en
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李楚翔
陆建华
顾钧
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清华大学
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Abstract

The video image information lost due to transmission error can be effectively recovered according to the dependence of time and space domain of video compressed data when digital video signals are decoded on receiving terminal. The method includes three steps; time domain compensatino in present frame or reference frame, block matched searching in the reference frame and error macro block hiding.By method of the invention, the reliability of video transmission in ground digital TV broadcasting system can be increased remarkably, so that technology of said inventino is one of reliable tehcnologys for ground digital TV broadcasting system.

Description

地面数字电视广播中的视频差错隐藏方法 Terrestrial digital television broadcast video error concealment methods

本发明属于地面数字电视广播的多媒体传输技术领域,涉及采用MPEG-2视频压缩标准和有关地面数字电视广播系统中多媒体传输的可靠接收技术。 Multimedia transmission Technical Field The present invention belongs to the terrestrial digital television broadcasting, it involves the use of MPEG-2 video compression standard techniques and reliable reception of digital terrestrial television broadcasting system, related to multimedia transmission.

当前,美国、欧洲和日本已经制订了相应的地面数字电视广播(DjgitalTerrestrial TV Broadcasting:DTTB)标准,中国也在积极组织制订适合于中国的地面数字电视广播协议。 Currently, the United States, Europe and Japan have developed a corresponding digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DjgitalTerrestrial TV Broadcasting: DTTB) standard, China is also actively organizations to develop protocols for terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in China. 在地面数字广播中,阴影效应、多径衰落、多普勒频移以及各种噪声和干扰会使接收信号功率产生很大的波动,其波动幅度可以达到10 dB甚至更高,这将严重影响数字视频信号传输的可靠性。 In terrestrial digital broadcasting, shadowing, multipath fading, Doppler shift, and various noise and interference will produce large fluctuations in received signal power, which fluctuations can reach 10 dB or even higher, which will seriously affect digital video signal transmission reliability. 地面数字电视广播中的视频信源采用MPEG-2压缩标准,然而现行标准中并没有包含对抗地面传播差错的信源编译码方法的有关细节。 Video sources in the terrestrial digital television broadcasting using MPEG-2 compression standard, however, the current standard does not include details about the source encoding and decoding method of the ground against error propagation. 因此,基于MPEG-2的视频传输差错隐藏算法是DTTB系统的一个非常重要并且亟待解决的技术。 Therefore, based on MPEG-2 video transmission errors hiding algorithm is a very important and urgent DTTB systems technology.

已有的研究论文中提出了一些视频差错隐藏算法,包括以下几类:时域运动补偿:利用视频图像的时域相关性,根据周围正确接收图像信息的运动矢量信息来预测并恢复因差错而丢失的图像信息。 Existing research paper presents some video error concealment algorithms, including the following categories: time-domain motion compensation: using time domain correlation of the video image, motion vector information is received around the image information correctly and according to the forecast recovery due to errors loss of image information. 该算法对于低码率视频压缩数据有较好的差错隐减效果,但并不适用于高码率视频图像。 The algorithm for low bit rate video data compression has better error concealment reducing effect, but is not suitable for high bit-rate video images.

块匹配运动搜索:利片运动搜索找到最佳匹配位置来恢复丢失的图像信息,可达到很好的差错恢复效果,但其实用性由于高运算复杂度而受到限制。 Block matching motion search: Lee sheet motion search to find the best matching position of image information to recover lost, error recovery can achieve good results, but its usefulness due to the high computational complexity is limited.

空域差错隐藏技术:这类技术在细节较多的图像部分往往会产生明显的“块效应”,其图像恢复效果不令人满意。 Spatial error concealment techniques: These techniques tend to produce obvious "blockiness" in more detail part of the image, its image restoration effect is not satisfactory.

本发明的目的在于,为克服已有技术的不足之处,提出一种新的视频差错隐藏方法,可以相对较小的计算复杂度实现有效的差错图像恢复,从而提高地面数字电视广播系统中视频传输的可靠性。 Object of the present invention is to overcome the shortcomings of the prior art, a new method of video error concealment, can be relatively small computational complexity effective image restoration error, thereby improving the terrestrial digital television broadcasting system video transmission reliability.

本发明提出的一种地面数字电视广播系统中的视频差错隐藏方法,其特征在于,在接收端视频解码发现差错时,进行差错隐藏,包括以下步骤:1)当前帧或参考帧中的时域补偿:根据当前帧错误宏块周围的正确宏块的运动矢量,或者参考帧中与错误宏块相同位置及其周围位置的正确宏块的运动矢量,来预测错误宏块的时域补偿矢量,得到预测的时域补偿矢量以及在参考帧中相应的补偿位置;2)参考帧中的块匹配搜索:将上一步得到的补偿位置作为起始位置,在参考帧的一定范围内对错误宏块上方或下方的宏块进行块匹配搜索,得到匹配矢量以及相应的匹配位置;3)错误宏块隐藏:将上一步得到的匹配矢量作为错误宏块的匹配矢量,将参考帧中相应匹配位置的宏块拷贝到当前帧中来替代错误宏块。 Video error concealment method for a digital terrestrial television broadcasting system proposed by the present invention, wherein, at the receiving end video decoding error is detected, error concealment, comprising the steps of: 1) the current frame or reference frame in the time domain compensation: the correct motion vector of a macroblock motion vector of the same position as the macro block of the current frame macroblock around a macroblock correct the error, or the error in the reference frame and around the location, time domain compensation vectors to predict erroneous macroblock, obtain the predicted time domain compensation vector and the corresponding position in the reference frame compensation; 2) in the reference frame search block matching: the compensated position obtained in the previous step as the start position, within a certain range of the reference frame erroneous macroblock above or macroblock below the block matching search, is matched vector and the corresponding matching position; 3) erroneous macroblock HIDE: the match vector in the previous step was used as a match vector erroneous macroblock, the reference frames corresponding matched positions copy of the current macro block in the frame to replace erroneous macroblock.

本发明的效果是,在相对较低的计算复杂度下,提高了差错隐藏的效果,从而提高地面数字电视广播系统中视频传输的可靠性。 Effect of the present invention is that, at relatively low computational complexity, improved error concealment effect, thereby improving the reliability of the digital terrestrial television broadcasting system, video transmission.

附图简要说明:图1为本发明的视频差错隐藏算法流程图。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Video Error algorithm flow chart of FIG. 1 of the present invention to hide.

图2为本发明的时域补偿方法的示意图;其中,a为当前帧内,b为参考帧内图3为本发明的错误宏块隐藏方法的示意图。 2 is a schematic view of the present invention, time domain compensation method; wherein, a is the current frame, macro block diagram of an error concealment method b is a reference frame of the present invention FIG.

图4为采用本发明的视频差错隐藏算法的MPEG-2视频解码流程图。 FIG 4 is a video error present invention Hide MPEG 2-video decoding flowchart of an algorithm.

图5为本发明实施例中经过传输后的视频图像重建效果对比图。 FIG 5 Comparative effects of reconstructed video view of the embodiment of the present invention via the transmission.

下面结合各附图及实施例对本发明的原理进行详细说明。 Next, the principles of the present invention will be described in detail in conjunction with the drawings and embodiments.

本发明提出一种地面数字电视广播系统中的视频差错隐藏方法。 The present invention proposes a method for video error concealment terrestrial digital television broadcasting system. 首先在接收端视频解码过程中进行差错检测,一般来讲采用基于视频压缩码流的语法语义的差错检测方法,来判断视频码流中是否发生了错误。 First error detection at the receiving end of the video decoding process, using the general method of error detection based on video compression syntax and semantics of the code stream, the video stream to determine whether an error occurred. 如果发现码流中有错误,在接收端视频解码时依次进行以下的差错隐藏处理步骤(如图1所示):1)当前帧或参考帧中的时域补偿,预测得到错误宏块的时域补偿矢量及其在参考帧中相应的补偿位置;2)参考帧中的块匹配搜索,将上一步时域补偿中得到的参考帧中的补偿位置作为搜索范围的中心位置,在参考帧的一定搜索范围内对错误宏块上方或者下方的宏块进行块匹配搜索,得到匹配矢量;3)错误宏块隐藏,以第一步时域补偿得到的参考帧中的补偿位置为起点,将上一步块匹配搜索得到的匹配矢量指向的参考帧中匹配位置的宏块拷贝到当前帧来替代错误宏块。 If it is found an error in the code stream, in sequence of error concealment processing steps (FIG. 1) when receiving the video decoding end: 1) when the erroneous macroblock of the current frame or reference frame in the time domain compensation predicted its domain compensation vectors corresponding compensation position in the reference frame; 2) in the reference frame search block matching, the reference frame on the compensation position compensation step time domain obtained in a central position of the search range in the reference frame error macroblocks is above or below a certain search range block match search to obtain match vector; 3) hidden erroneous macroblock, a reference frame to compensate for the position of the first step in the time domain compensation obtained as a starting point, the upper frame matching reference macro block matching step vector points obtained in block matching position to replace the copy of the current frame erroneous macroblock.

所说的时域补偿是根据错误宏块(EMB)周围的正确宏块的运动矢量来预测错误宏块的时域补偿矢量,其计算方法如下,MVEMB=1k×Σi=1kMVi----(1)]]>其中MVEMB为错误宏块时域补偿矢量的预测结果,MVi为错误宏块周围正确宏块的运动矢量,k为周围采用帧间预测编码的正确宏块的数目。 He said time domain compensation is based on the erroneous macroblock motion vector of the right macro block (EMB) around the predicted error macro-block time-domain compensation vector, which is calculated as follows, MVEMB = 1k & times; & Sigma; i = 1kMVi --- - (1)]]> wherein the number of prediction error macroblock MVEMB time domain compensation vectors result, MVi correct error macroblock around a macroblock motion vector, k is around interframe prediction coded macroblock correct. 当错误宏块采用帧间预测编码时,选取当前帧内错误宏块周围不包括左右两侧的正确宏块,如图2a中的宏块1、宏块2、…、宏块6,k最大为6;当错误宏块采用帧内编码时,选取参考帧内包含当前位置及其周围的正确宏块,如图2b中的宏块0为参考帧中与错误宏块相同位置的宏块,而图2b中的宏块1、宏块2、…、宏块8为宏块0周围的8个宏块,k最大为9。 When an error macro block coded using inter prediction, an intra-select the current around the erroneous macroblock including incorrect macroblock right and left sides, as shown in FIG. 2a macroblock 1, the macroblock 2, ..., macroblock 6, k Maximum 6; when the erroneous macroblock using the intra-coded reference frame comprises selecting the correct position of the current macro block and its surrounding, in Figure 2b macroblock 0 reference frame block with the same position error macro block macros, and FIG. 2b macroblock 1, the macroblock 2, ..., 8 macroblock macroblock 8 macroblocks around 0, k is maximum 9. 预测得到MVFVB后,则相应得到参考帧内的补偿位置上的宏块。 After the predicted MVFVB, to give the corresponding macroblock in the reference frame of the compensation position.

所说的块匹配搜索是指在一定范围搜索内,对于各个位置上的N×N大小的宏块,按照平均绝对值误差准则(Mean Absolute Difference,MAD)进行如下匹配检测,MAD(x,y)=Σi=0n-1Σj=0n-1|Fc(k+i,l+j)-Fp(k+x+i,l+y+j)|----(2)]]>其中,Fc(.,.)为当前帧中位于错误宏块上方或下方的宏块中的像素值,Fp(.,.)表示参考帧中位于当前检测位置的宏块上方或下方的宏块中的像素值,(k,l)代表当前检测块左上角像素的坐标,(x,y)表示当前检测块相对于搜索起始位置的偏移,N为宏块的边长(像素点数)。 Said block matching search means searches within a certain range for the size of N × N macroblocks of the respective positions, according to the average absolute error criterion (Mean Absolute Difference, MAD) following match detection, MAD (x, y ) = & Sigma; i = 0n-1 & Sigma; j = 0n-1 | Fc (k + i, l + j) -Fp (k + x + i, l + y + j) | ---- (2)] ]> where, Fc (.,.) in the current frame the pixel value of the macroblock above or below the erroneous macroblock, Fp (.,.) denotes the reference frame in the current detected position of the macroblock above or below the pixel values ​​in the macro block, (k, l) representative of the current coordinates of the upper left pixel of the detection block, (x, y) represents a current detection block offset with respect to the search starting position, N is the length of the edge (macroblock of pixels points). 通过检测搜索范围内的全部位置,可以得到平均绝对值误差(MAD)最小的位置及相应的匹配矢量。 By detecting all of the positions within the search range, can be obtained mean absolute error (MAD) and a minimum position corresponding match vector. 也就是说,我们对当前帧中错误宏块上方或下方的宏块,在参考帧的一定范围内中进行匹配搜索得到匹配矢量。 That is, we erroneous macroblock above or below the current macroblock in the frame, matching search is performed within a predetermined range of the reference frame is matched vector. 这里的参考帧中的一定范围是指以上一步得到的补偿位置为中心的正方形区域,各边与中心的距离为W个像素点,W为整数,所以整个正方形区域的边长为(2×W+1)个像素点,共包含(2×W+1)2个像素点。 Here the reference frame must range is compensated position above step was obtained as the center of a square area, from each side of the center of the W pixels, W is an integer, the side length of the entire square regions (2 × W + 1) th pixel, contains (2 × W + 1) 2 pixels.

所说的错误宏块隐藏是指用参考帧中的一个宏块来替代当前帧中的错误宏块。 He said erroneous macroblock is hidden reference frame refers to a macro block to replace erroneous macroblock in the current frame. 如图3所示,首先以参考帧内与错误宏块(EMB)相同位置的宏块为起点,根据第一步时域补偿得到的补偿矢量而获得补偿位置,再以这个补偿位置为起点,根据上一步块匹配搜索得到的匹配矢量而获得匹配位置,这个匹配位置上的宏块就被用来替代当前帧中的错误宏块。 3, the same position as the macro first reference frame and the erroneous macroblock (EMB) block as a starting point, to obtain a compensated position in accordance with the compensation time domain compensation vectors obtained in the first step, and then to compensate for this position as the origin, the match vector search block matching obtained in the previous step is obtained matched positions, the macroblock was used to match the position of substitution on the erroneous macroblock in the current frame.

下面结合实施例对本发明作进一步的说明。 Below in connection with embodiments of the present invention will be further described.

表1. Table 1. 信源特征 Source Characteristics

在本实施例中,信源码流分组长度为188字节,信道误码造成的平均误分组率为3×10-2。 In the present embodiment, the channel length of the source stream packet is 188 bytes, the average channel error rate of packet error due to 3 × 10-2. 给定信源特性如表1所示,视频信源为MPEG-2标准视频序列,每个亮度帧的分辨率为720×576个像素点,色度格式为Y∶U∶V=4∶2∶2,信源编码帧速率为25帧/秒,信源编码比特率约为5M比特/秒。 Given source characteristics shown in Table 1, the source video to MPEG-2 standard video sequences, the resolution of the luminance of each frame is 720 × 576 pixel points, chroma format Y:U:V = 4:2 :2, source coding frame rate of 25 frames / sec, the source coding bit rate is approximately 5M bits / sec.

在本实施例中,采用的MPEG-2视频解码流程如图4所示。 In the present embodiment, MPEG-2 video decoding process shown in Figure 4 employed. 在解码过程中,对输入的视频压缩码流进行基于视频码流语法语义的差错检测,如果没有发现错误则进行正常的视频解码重建。 In the decoding process, compressed video input stream error detection code based on a video stream syntax and semantics, and if no errors are found then the normal video decoding reconstruction. 如果发现有错误,首先进行再同步,即跳过包含错误的整个视频图像层(Slice)的码流,找到下一个视频图像层码流的起始位置来恢复视频解码同步,继续对后面的视频码流进行解码;同时,在包含错误的视频图像层中包括了许多图像宏块,对于每个这样的图像宏块都认为是错误宏块,并对其进行差错隐藏处理。 If there are errors, first re-synchronization, i.e., skipping the whole codestream error-including video image layer (the Slice) to find the starting position of the next layer of the video image to restore the video stream decoding synchronization, continue on the back of the video decoding the code stream; Meanwhile, comprising a number of image macroblocks in a video image layer containing an error, for each such image macroblocks considered erroneous macroblock, and subjected to an error concealment process. 差错隐藏处理需要未发现错误的码流信息作为参考信息,其具体步骤已经在上面进行了描述,并将在下面作进一步说明。 No error concealment processing requires the error code stream information as reference information, and specific steps have been described above, will be explained further below.

在本实施例中,视频解码器会检测到许多发生错误的宏块,对于每个错误宏块都采用上面所描述的差错隐藏算法进行处理,来恢复丢失的图像宏块信息。 In the present embodiment, the video decoder detects the occurrence of many errors macroblock processed for each macroblock, error concealment algorithm using the error described above, to recover lost macroblock image information. 下面以对一个错误宏块进行的处理为例,来进一步说明本发明提出的差错隐藏方法。 Below a processing error macroblock is an example to further illustrate the proposed error concealment method of the present invention.

在本实施例中,所有宏块的边长均为16个像素点。 In the present embodiment, the side length of all macroblocks are 16 pixels. 选取的错误宏块在第二帧中,其左上角的像素点位于从上向下数第161行,从左向右数第145列,即其左上角像素位于第二帧中的(145,161)像素点位置。 Select the erroneous macroblock in the second frame, which is the number of pixels located downward from the upper left corner on line 161, the number of 145 from left to right, i.e. the top left corner pixel in the second frame (145,161) pixel location.

第一步进行时域补偿。 The first step in the time domain compensation. 由于该错误宏块采用帧间预测编码,所以采用当前帧内在它周围的6个正确宏块来预测时域补偿矢量,如图2左侧图中所示的宏块1、宏块2、…、宏块6,k=6,根据式1可以得到其时域补偿矢量为MVEMB=(20,0),则得到相应的时域补偿位置为参考帧中的(165,161)像素点位置。 Since the inter-frame prediction error macroblock encoding, the current frame using the six macroblocks around it correctly predicting the time domain compensation vectors, as shown in FIG. 2 on the left side of the macroblock 1, the macroblock 2, ... , macroblock 6, k = 6, formula 1 can be obtained as the time domain compensation vectors MVEMB = (20,0) according to the time domain to obtain respective compensation position (165,161) pixel positions in the reference frame.

第二步进行块匹配搜索。 The second step search block matching. 在这个实施例中对位于错误宏块上方的宏块进行块匹配搜索,选取以参考帧(165,161)像素点位置为中心,边长为5个像素点的正方形搜索区域,按照式2来计算MAD,即计算参考帧中左上角像素位于该正方形区域中的宏块正上方的宏块与错误宏块上方宏块间的平均绝对值误差(MAD),找到MAD最小的一个宏块位置。 The block in this embodiment, the macroblock in the wrong above macro block match search, select the reference frame (165,161) pixel position as a center, a side length of 5 pixels square search area is calculated MAD according to Equation 2 , i.e., calculation of the reference frame pixel located at the upper left corner of the square region and error macroblocks immediately above the mean absolute deviation (MAD) between the upper macroblocks, the minimum MAD to find a macroblock position. 实际结果是左上角像素位于参考帧(165,159)像素点位置的宏块上方的宏块为MAD最小的宏块,即匹配矢量为(0,-2),相应的错误宏块匹配位置为(165,159)。 The net effect is the upper left pixel located in the reference frame (165,159) pixel positions macroblock above the macroblock macroblock is the smallest MAD, i.e. matching vector (0, -2), the corresponding macro block matching error location (165,159 ).

第三步进行错误宏块替代。 The third step is performed erroneous macroblock alternative. 根据上面两个步骤得到的结果,用参考帧中左上角像素位于(165,159)的宏块拷贝到当前帧来替代错误宏块。 From the above results obtained in two steps, with the reference frame is located in the upper left pixel (165,159) a copy of the current frame macroblock to replace erroneous macroblock.

对于检测到的每个错误宏块,按照类似于上面的步骤进行处理。 For each error detected macroblock, according to process step similar to the above. 为了对本算法的效果进行客观评价,这里采用重建图像的峰值信噪比对本算法性能进行评估。 In order to effect this objective evaluation method, where the use of the reconstructed image PSNR evaluate the performance of the algorithm. 峰值信噪比(Peak Signal to Noise Ratio,PSNR)的定义为PSNR=10×log255×255i≤M,j≤N[Σ|f(i,j)-fr(i,j)|2]/(M×N)]]>其中,PSNR为图像的峰值信噪比,f(i,j)表示原始图像中各个像素点的像素值,fr(i,j)表示重建图像中各个像素值,M和N分别为图像的宽和高。 Definition of PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, PSNR) for PSNR = 10 & times; log255 & times; 255i & le; M, j & le; N [& Sigma; | f (i, j) -fr (i, j) | 2] / (M & times; N)]]> wherein, the PSNR is a PSNR of the image, f (i, j) represents a pixel value of each pixel in the original image, fr (i, j) represents each pixel value of the reconstructed image, M and N are the width and height of the image. 图5中是本实施例的重建视频图像的PSNR曲线。 FIG 5 is a graph PSNR reconstructed video images according to the present embodiment. 其中,最上面的曲线是视频编码器端重建的视频图像的峰值信噪比(Peak Signal to Noise Ratio,PSNR)曲线,也就是无误传输后在视频解码器端的重建视频图像的PSNR曲线;最下面的曲线是不进行差错隐藏时解码器端得到的重建视频图像的PSNR曲线;中间的曲线是采用上面的差错隐藏处理后解码器端得到的重建视频图像的PSNR曲线。 Wherein the top curve is the peak ratio of the video encoder side reconstructed video image (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, PSNR) curve, i.e. after the correct transmission PSNR curve reconstructed video images of the video decoder side; lowermost PSNR curve reconstructed video image when the curve is not the decoder error concealment obtained; middle curve is the use of the above error concealment PSNR curve reconstructed video post-processing image obtained by the decoder side. 这三条曲线的平均PSNR分别为27.6dB,24.0dB和26.9dB。 The average PSNR three curves were 27.6dB, 24.0dB and 26.9dB.

Claims (1)

1.一种地面数字电视广播系统中的视频差错隐藏方法,其特征在于,在接收端视频解码发现差错时,进行差错隐藏,包括以下步骤:1)当前帧或参考帧中的时域补偿:根据当前帧错误宏块周围的正确宏块的运动矢量,或者参考帧中与错误宏块相同位置及其周围位置的正确宏块的运动矢量,来预测错误宏块的时域补偿矢量,得到预测的时域补偿矢量以及在参考帧中相应的补偿位置;2)参考帧中的块匹配搜索:将上一步得到的补偿位置作为起始位置,在参考帧的一定范围内对错误宏块上方或下方的宏块进行块匹配搜索,得到匹配矢量以及相应的匹配位置;3)错误宏块隐藏:将上一步得到的匹配矢量作为错误宏块的匹配矢量,将参考帧中相应匹配位置的宏块拷贝到当前帧中来替代错误宏块。 Video error concealment method for terrestrial digital television broadcasting system, wherein, at the receiving end video decoding error is detected, error concealment, comprising the steps of: 1) the current frame or reference frame in the time domain compensation: the correct motion vector of the same macroblock macroblock motion vector of the current macroblock position around the right frame error macro block, or a reference frame and around the position error, to predict the time-domain compensation vectors erroneous macroblock, prediction obtained time-domain compensation vector and the corresponding position in the reference frame compensation; 2) in the reference frame search block matching: the compensated position obtained in the previous step as the start position, on the erroneous macroblock above or within a certain range of the reference frame macroblock below the block matching search, is matched vector and the corresponding matching position; 3) erroneous macroblock HIDE: matching vector in step obtained as an error macro block match vector for the macroblock in the reference frame corresponding to the matching location block copy of the current frame instead of the error macroblock.
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