CN1317052C - Low emission thermal plant - Google Patents

Low emission thermal plant Download PDF

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CN1317052C
CN1317052C CNB038175002A CN03817500A CN1317052C CN 1317052 C CN1317052 C CN 1317052C CN B038175002 A CNB038175002 A CN B038175002A CN 03817500 A CN03817500 A CN 03817500A CN 1317052 C CN1317052 C CN 1317052C
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co2
combustion chamber
gas
fraction
exhaust gas
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CNB038175002A
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CN1671463A (en
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托·克利斯坦森
克纳特·鲍赛斯
汉瑞克·弗雷斯切尔
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萨加斯公司
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K23/00Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids
    • F01K23/02Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids the engine cycles being thermally coupled
    • F01K23/06Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids the engine cycles being thermally coupled combustion heat from one cycle heating the fluid in another cycle
    • F01K23/08Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids the engine cycles being thermally coupled combustion heat from one cycle heating the fluid in another cycle with working fluid of one cycle heating the fluid in another cycle
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES
    • F23J2215/00Preventing emissions
    • F23J2215/50Carbon dioxide
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/30Technologies for a more efficient combustion or heat usage
    • Y02E20/32Direct CO2 mitigation
    • Y02E20/326Segregation from fumes, including use of reactants downstream from combustion or deep cooling

Abstract

我们描述一种从含碳燃料中产生电功率的方法,其中燃料是在燃烧室中增压的有氧环境下燃烧。 We describe a method for generating electrical power from a carbonaceous fuel, wherein combustion of the fuel in the combustion chamber is pressurized oxygen atmosphere. 燃烧后的废气被分离成富CO The combustion exhaust gas is separated into a CO-rich

Description

低排放热电厂 Low-emission thermal power plant

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及在燃烧产物膨胀到大气压之前调整增压的非绝热燃烧室内燃烧产物中CO2含量的方法,实施该方法的装置,和利用该方法的热电厂。 The present invention relates to a method of expanding combustion products in the atmospheric adjustment before non-adiabatic combustion chamber supercharged combustion products CO2 content, the apparatus implementing the method, and a thermal power plant using this method.

背景技术 Background technique

在过去150年中,大气中CO2的浓度增加近30%。 In the past 150 years in the atmosphere increased by nearly 30% CO2 concentration. 甲烷的浓度增加一倍,而氮氧化物的浓度约增加15%。 Doubling the concentration of methane, and the concentration of nitrogen oxides is increased by about 15%. 这增加了大气的温室效应,它导致以下的结果:·地球表面的平均温度在过去的100年中约提高0.5℃,且在过去的10年中有加速的趋势。 This increases the greenhouse effect, it leads to the following results: the mean temperature and the earth's surface in the past 100 years, increased by about 0.5 ℃, and accelerating trend in the last 10 years.

·在相同的周期内降雨约增加1%。 · Precipitation increased by about 1% over the same period.

·由于冰川融化和因水升温而膨胀使海平面升高15至20cm。 · Due to melting glaciers and warming water expands due to the rise in sea level of 15 to 20cm.

我们预期,温室气体的增长排放使气候将继续发生变化。 We expect growth in greenhouse gas emissions of the climate will continue to change. 在未来的50年中温度可以升高0.6℃至2.5℃。 In the next 50 years, the temperature may be raised to 0.6 ℃ 2.5 ℃. 学术界普遍认为,矿物燃料的增长利用使CO2的排放按指数方式增加,本质上已改变自然的CO2平衡,它是这种发展的直接原因。 Academics generally believe that growth in the use of fossil fuels CO2 emissions increase exponentially, CO2 balance of nature has changed in essence, it is the direct cause of this development.

重要的是,立即采取行动以稳定大气中的CO2含量。 It is important to take immediate action to stabilize CO2 levels in the atmosphere. 若收集热电厂中产生的CO2和安全地存放,这种情况是可以实现的。 If the CO2 generated in thermal power plants collect and safely stored, this can be achieved. 人们认为,收集CO2表示3/4的总成本用于控制CO2排放到大气中。 It is believed that collect CO2 represents 3/4 of the total cost for controlling CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

因此,我们需要一种从排放气体中去除大部分CO2的节能,低成本,耐用和简单的方法以缓解这种情况。 Therefore, we need a CO2 removal of most of the energy-saving, low-cost, durable and simple way from the exhaust gas in order to alleviate this situation. 若无需长期研究的不久将来可以实现这种方法是十分有益的。 If no long-term studies of the near future to implement this method is very useful.

热电厂排放的气体通常包含4%至10%体积比的CO2,其中燃气轮机通常有最低值,而在形成蒸汽的冷却时仅在燃烧室中达到最高值。 A gas power plant emissions generally comprise 4-10% by volume ratio of CO2, wherein the gas turbine is usually a lower value, and the highest value at the time of cooling steam is formed only in the combustion chamber.

有三种可以稳定大气中CO2含量的机会。 There are three opportunities for CO2 content of the atmosphere can be stabilized. 除了捕获CO2以外,可以利用诸如生物量的非污染能源,或可以开发非常有效的热电厂。 In addition to capturing CO2, you can use non-polluting energy sources such as biomass, or can develop very efficient thermal power plant. 捕获CO2是经济效果最好的。 CO2 capture is the best economic results. 然而,相对少的研发工作用于捕获CO2,至今实施方法的特征是低效率或需要十分长期和昂贵的研发工作。 However, relatively little research and development for capturing CO2, since the implementation of the method is characterized by low efficiency or need to be very long and expensive research and development. 所有捕获CO2的方法包含一个或多个以下的原理:·吸收CO2:在接近大气压下使燃烧后的废气与胺溶液接触。 All methods of CO2 capture comprising one or more of the following principles: CO2 Absorption: contacting the exhaust gas with an amine solution after burning at close to atmospheric pressure. 一些CO2在胺溶液中被吸收,通过加热可以再产生胺溶液。 Some CO2 is absorbed in the amine solution, amine solution may then produced by heating. 这种技术的主要问题是,在需要净化的气体中我们处理低的CO2分压,通常为0.04巴。 The main problem with this technique is that the gas to be purified in our treatment of low CO2 partial pressure, typically 0.04 bar. 能量消耗变得非常高(约高于净化1.5巴CO2分压的3倍)。 The energy consumption becomes very high (about 3 times higher than the purified CO2 partial pressure of 1.5 bar). 净化热电厂变得非常昂贵,而净化程度和热电厂规模是限制因素。 Purifying power plant becomes very expensive, and the degree of purification and scale thermal power plant is a limiting factor. 所以,研发工作集中到增大CO2的分压。 Therefore, research and development focus to increase the partial pressure of CO2. 另一种方案是,废气被冷却并通过燃气轮机再循环。 Alternatively, the exhaust gases are cooled and recycled through the gas turbine. 这种方案的效应由于燃气轮机的性质是非常有限的。 Effect of this approach because of the nature of the gas turbine is very limited. 另一种方案是,压缩需要冷却的废气,再次冷却,例如,利用胺溶液净化,在二次燃气轮机中加热升温和膨胀,由它驱动二次压缩机。 Alternatively, the compression of the exhaust gas needs to be cooled, again cooled, e.g., using purified amine solution, heated up and expanded in a secondary gas turbine which drives the secondary compressor. 按照这种方式,可以升高CO2的分压,例如,升高到0.5巴,使净化变得更有效。 In this manner, the partial pressure of CO2 may be raised, e.g., increased to 0.5 bar, the purified more effectively. 重要的缺点是,废气中氧的分压也变高,例如,1.5巴,而胺通常在氧的分压高于0.2巴下迅速地退化。 Important drawback is that the partial pressure of oxygen in the exhaust gas becomes higher, e.g., 1.5 bar, while amines typically higher oxygen partial pressure of 0.2 bar being rapidly degraded. 此外,我们需要成本很高的额外设备。 In addition, we need costly additional equipment. 存在一次和二次热电厂的其他组合。 There is a combination of secondary and other thermal power plants.

·空气分离:把进入燃烧装置的空气分离成氧和氮,在热电厂中可以利用循环的CO2作为气态推进剂。 · Air separation: separating means into the combustion air into oxygen and nitrogen, may be utilized in the CO2 cycle power plant as a gaseous propellant. 不利用氮稀释形成的CO2,废气中的CO2就有相对高的分压,接近于1巴。 Diluted with nitrogen is formed without using CO2, CO2 in the exhaust gas will have a relatively high partial pressure close to 1 bar. 于是,可以相对简单地分离燃烧后的过量CO2,从而可以简化CO2的收集装置。 Thus, the excess may be relatively easily separated CO2 after combustion, thereby simplifying the CO2 collecting device. 然而,这种系统的总成本变得相对地高,因为除了热电厂以外我们还需要有生产氧的庞大工厂。 However, the total cost of such a system becomes relatively high, because in addition to the thermal power plant, we also need to have a huge factory producing oxygen. 纯氧的生产和燃烧是对安全性的重大挑战,而且对材料有很大的要求。 The production of pure oxygen and combustion is a major challenge for the security, but also a great material requirements. 这还可能非常需要开发新的涡轮机。 It may also be highly desirable to develop new turbines.

·燃料转换:碳氢化合物燃料在称之为为重整炉的增压处理装置中被转换(再生成)氢和CO2。 · Fuel Conversion: hydrocarbon fuels are converted (regenerated) in hydrogen and CO2 pressurization processing apparatus called reformer furnace. 重整炉的产品包含高分压的CO2,因此,可以分离和存放CO2或按照其他的方式使用。 Reformer products containing high partial pressure of CO2, therefore, CO2 can be separated and stored or used in other ways. 氢用作燃料。 Hydrogen as a fuel. 总的热电厂厂变得复杂和成本昂贵,因为它包含氢生产工厂和热电厂。 The total thermal power plant becomes complicated and expensive, because it contains hydrogen production plants and thermal power plants.

从热电厂捕获CO2各种方法的共同特征是,它们都是在实施净化操作的处理装置中追求高的CO2分压。 Various methods of CO2 capture from power plant common feature is that they are operated in the embodiment of the processing apparatus in the pursuit of the purification a high CO2 partial pressure. 此外,其他一些方法的特征是长期,昂贵和危险的开发工作,典型的期限是15年的研究以及在获得工作经验之前需要5至10年以上的时间。 In addition, other methods are characterized by long, costly and risky development work, the typical period of 15 years of research and the need for more than 5-10 years before to get work experience. 对于没有净化设备的热电厂,预期的电效率高达56%至58%,而乐观地估计有净化设备的热电厂为45%至50%。 No purification equipment for thermal power plant, expected electrical efficiency of up to 56-58%, and optimistic estimate purification equipment for power plants is 45-50%.

延长的开发期限对环境是非常不利的。 Extend the deadline for the development environment is very unfavorable. 在2002年秋季的联合国欧洲经济委员会(UNECE)会议上,着重强调“迫切需要解决全球性CO2排放的连续指数方式增长”,并使用诸如“尽可能快”和“需要超出京都议定书规定的目标”的词语。 At the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) in the fall of 2002, he emphasized "the urgent need to address the continuous exponentially CO2 emissions of global growth", and words such as "as soon as possible" and "Target needs to go beyond the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol" words.

因此,我们需要能够克服上述问题的热电厂,它有以下的特征:·不需要长期研发的可实现方案,最好是利用已测试合格的旋转设备。 Therefore, we need to be able to overcome the above problems of heat and power plant, which has the following characteristics: Does not require long-term research and development program can be achieved, the best is the use of rotating equipment has been tested.

·适合于足够的CO2分压,从而可以有效地利用常规的吸收装置,这意味着CO2分压高达1.5巴。 · Suitable for enough CO2 partial pressure, which can effectively utilize conventional absorption device, which means that CO2 partial pressure up to 1.5 bar.

·捕获CO2的最低废气流体积。 · Minimum exhaust gas flow volume capture CO2.

·氧的分压下降到捕获CO2的0.2巴,从而使吸收剂的退化减至最小。 · Oxygen partial pressures down to 0.2 bar CO2 capture, so that the absorbent to minimize the degradation.

·可以有效地净化NOx,净化操作通常是在300至400℃的温度范围内实施。 · Can effectively purify NOx, the purification operation is usually implemented at a temperature in the range of 300 to 400 deg.] C. 增压系统中的净化操作是最佳的。 Purification operating a pressurized system is optimal.

·与同类系统一致的效率。 · Efficiency and consistent with similar systems.

·可以有高于400MW的庞大装置。 • You can have a huge apparatus of the above 400MW.

·不需要利用二次发电系统,重整炉,制作氧气过程或燃料转换过程。 It does not require the use of a secondary power generation system, the reformer, the production process of oxygen or fuel conversion process.

·在浮动结构的船坞上建造热电厂,可以实现成本优势的小型和耐用热电厂。 · The construction of thermal power plants on the floating dock structure, it is possible to achieve cost advantages of small and durable thermal power plant. 这就可以在海上装置上使用。 This can be used on offshore installations.

发明内容 SUMMARY

按照本发明,提供一种从含碳燃料中产生电功率的方法,其中燃料是在燃烧室中增压的有氧环境下燃烧。 According to the present invention, there is provided a method of generating electrical power from a carbonaceous fuel, wherein the fuel combustion in the combustion chamber under pressurized oxygen atmosphere. 燃烧后的废气被分离成富CO2馏分和贫CO2馏分,对富CO2馏分进行处理,使它不排放到周围环境中,而在贫CO2馏分排放到周围环境之前,使它通过一个或多个涡轮机发生膨胀,用于其他过程的运行和/或产生电能,其中在通过汽轮机膨胀产生蒸汽时,燃烧室中的温度下降,而汽轮机连接到产生电能的发电机。 The combustion exhaust gas is separated into a CO2 rich fraction and a fraction lean CO2, the CO2-rich fraction to be treated, so that it is not discharged into the surrounding environment, while the CO2 depleted fraction before discharge to the surrounding environment, passing it through one or more turbine occurs expanded, used to run other processes and / or generating electrical energy, wherein the generation of steam during expansion through the turbine, the temperature of the combustion chamber decreased, while the steam turbine connected to a generator for generating electrical energy. 如上所述,在燃烧室中压力下的燃烧具有很大的优点,在燃烧产物中可以得到高的CO2分压和低的氧气分压,而无须气体的再循环并且没有燃烧产物的异常高温。 As described above, the combustion pressure in the combustion chamber has the great advantage can be obtained with high CO2 partial pressure and low oxygen partial pressure in the combustion products, the gas is recirculated and does not need an abnormally high temperature combustion products.

例如,从燃烧室内燃烧中取出大于50%,最好大于60%,更好大于70%,或大于80%的蒸汽形式热能。 For example, the combustion from the combustion chamber is taken out more than 50%, preferably greater than 60%, more preferably greater than 70%, or greater than 80% of the thermal energy in the form of steam. 在取出的大部分能量是蒸汽形式情况下,可以减小效率与重要装置的依赖关系,例如,高温增压热交换器(600℃以上),并把这种装置的使用减至最小。 In most of the energy is withdrawn in vapor form, the dependency can be reduced and the efficiency of the device is important, for example, high temperature pressurized heat exchangers (above 600 deg.] C), and the use of such devices is minimized. 这是通过大大减小这种装置上负荷实现的。 This is achieved by greatly reducing the load on such a device.

最好是,在通过涡轮机膨胀之前,利用与贫CO2馏分的热交换冷却燃烧室中的废气以加热贫CO2馏分。 Preferably, prior to the expansion through the turbine, the combustion chamber using the exhaust gas cooled CO2-lean fraction and the heat exchange to heat the CO2-depleted fraction. 这导致增大的效率,它是利用废气中的热能驱动涡轮机。 This leads to increased efficiency, it is the use of thermal energy in the exhaust gas driving the turbine.

最好是,水和/或空气添加到净化的贫CO2馏分以增大贫CO2馏分从燃烧室的热废气中吸取热量的能力。 Preferably, water and / or air added to the CO2-depleted fraction to increase the ability of the purified fraction lean CO2 absorbs heat from the hot exhaust gas of the combustion chamber.

类似地,在燃料馈送到燃烧室之前最好对它加热。 Similarly, the fuel fed to the combustion chamber before it is preferably heated. 我们发现,这可以增大总过程的效率,即,燃料中尽可能多的化学能转换成电能。 We have found that this can increase the efficiency of the overall process, i.e., as many fuel chemical energy into electrical energy.

最好是,通过与空气压缩机中部分蒸汽流的热交换使燃料加热,且其中热交换之后冷却的压缩空气流提供给贫CO2馏分以增大它的热容量。 Preferably, the CO2-lean fraction is supplied to the air compressor through the heat exchange portion of the fuel vapor stream is heated, and wherein the cooled compressed air stream after heat exchange to increase its thermal capacity.

与这种方式进行组合,可以提供大量“廉价”的低压蒸汽,即,没有明显地影响再生产吸收剂的热电厂效率。 Combined with this embodiment, can provide a large power plant efficiency "cheap" low pressure steam, i.e., does not significantly affect the reproduction of the absorbent. 与此同时,可以使大部分这种低级能以及一连串压缩CO2的冷却器中低级能返回的可能性增大,这是对产生电功率的有用贡献。 At the same time, it can make the most of this low-energy as well as the possibility of a series of compressed CO2 coolers can lower return increases, which is a useful contribution to generate electrical power. 收集低级能用于能量生产的细节包括在热电厂的适当位置上使用增压空气-水混合物,它可以使水蒸发,从而在远远低于现有压力的水沸点温度下取出更多的能量。 Lower energy can be used to collect the details of production include the use of pressurized air in place of the power plant - water mixture, it can evaporate the water, so that more energy is withdrawn far below the boiling temperature of water existing pressure.

这些特征的组合可以实现竞争效率在43.5%至46%范围内的热电厂,或更取决于优化程度和CO2净化程度。 The combination of these features may be implemented in a range of competitive power plant efficiency from 43.5 to 46%, or more depending on the degree of optimization and degree of purification of CO2. 应当可能达到90%或更高的净化程度。 It should be possible to achieve the 90% purification degree or higher.

此外,我们描述一种含碳燃料,最好是碳氢化合物的热电厂,包括:燃烧室,其中燃料是在增压的有氧环境下燃烧;排气管,用于引导燃烧室中燃烧后废气到接触装置,使冷却之后的废气与吸收剂接触,其中大部分CO2被吸收,而废气中的其他气体没有被吸收;气管(14),用于接触装置中的未吸收气体;再加热装置,用于重新加热贫CO2馏分气体流;膨胀装置,在排放到周围环境之前膨胀这种加热的贫CO2馏分气体流;和运送装置,用于从接触装置运送有吸收的CO2的吸收剂到堆放处或到吸收剂再生装置,用于循环到接触装置,其中燃烧室包括:提供蒸汽的装置和管路,用于馈送蒸汽到汽轮机进行膨胀。 In addition, we describe a carbonaceous fuel, preferably a hydrocarbon thermal power plant, comprising: a combustion chamber, where the fuel is burned in the pressurized oxygen atmosphere; an exhaust pipe for guiding the combustion exhaust gas in the combustion chamber the contact means in contact with the absorbent after the exhaust gas and cooling, most of the CO2 is absorbed, while other gases in the exhaust gas is not absorbed; pipe (14), means for contacting the unabsorbed gas; reheating means, CO2-lean fraction for re-heating the gas stream; expansion means expands the CO2 lean gas stream of this fraction is heated before being discharged into the surrounding environment; and conveying means for conveying the CO2 absorbent from the contact absorption device to dump or the regeneration of the absorbent means, means for recycling to the contact, wherein the combustion chamber comprises: providing a vapor conduit and means for feeding steam to the steam turbine expander.

最好是,热电厂包括:冷凝室,用于废气中水的凝结,它安排在接触装置之前。 Preferably, the power plant comprising: a condensation chamber for condensation of water in the exhaust gas, which is arranged before the contact device. 按照这种方式,可以去除废气燃烧后产生的水分。 In this manner, the water produced may be removed after the combustion exhaust gas. 水在净化过程中是多余的,因为它可以损伤/破坏吸收剂。 Water is superfluous in the purification process, because it can damage / destruction absorber.

最好是,热电厂包括:提供装置,用于提供冷凝室中凝结的水给贫CO2馏分以增大这种馏分的热容量。 Preferably, the power plant comprising: providing means for providing the condensed water condensed in the chamber to the CO2-depleted fraction to increase the heat capacity of this fraction.

最好是,燃烧室包括:外壳和内壳,在外壳与内壳之间流动冷却剂,并且安排用于覆盖燃烧室内表面的管道,以及通过管道循环水的装置。 Preferably, the combustor comprising: a housing and an inner shell, between the shell and the inner shell in the flow of the coolant, and a combustion chamber arranged to cover the surface of the pipe, and by means of water circulating pipes.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

现在参照优选实施例和附图更详细地描述本发明,其中:图1是简化的流程图,它表示按照本发明燃气热电厂的基本实施例;图2是具有增大效率的另一个实施例;图3是增压燃烧室的实施例,其中借助于循环CO2气体和循环锅炉用水保护外壳以抵挡燃烧产物的温度。 Referring now to the embodiments and preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in more detail with the accompanying drawings, wherein: FIG. 1 is a simplified flowchart showing the basic embodiment of a gas power plant in accordance with the present invention; FIG. 2 is another embodiment with increased efficiency; FIG 3 is an embodiment of the pressurized combustion chamber, wherein by means of the circulating CO2 gas and circulating boiler water and protect the housing to withstand the temperature of the combustion products.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

首先描述图1所示的基本配置。 Described first basic configuration shown in FIG. 流程图与热电厂的规模无关,但是此处描述的是指400MW的热电厂。 Scale thermal power plant has nothing to do with the flow chart, but described here refers to the thermal power plant of 400MW.

含氧气体,例如,空气,富氧空气或氧气,在以下的描述和权利要求书中都称之为“空气”,它沿空气管路1进入热电厂,和在压缩机2,2′中被压缩。 An oxygen-containing gas, e.g., air, oxygen enriched air or oxygen, in the following description and claims are referred to as "air", it enters the power plant along the air line 1, and is in the compressor 2, 2 ' compression. 压缩机可以是一级,但最好是,压缩机2是串联的两个或多个压缩机,最好是在压缩机2与2′之间有空气的冷却,如两个压缩机之间冷却管路3′中空气的热交换器45。 The compressor may be a one, but preferably, the compressor 2 is two or more compressors in series, preferably in the compressor 2 and 2 'between the cooling air, as between the two compressors 3 'of the air in the cooling circuit heat exchanger 45. 图1所示的压缩机2,2′最好是在本发明有利的工作压力下,约为16巴。 The compressor 1 shown in FIG. 2, 2 'is preferably at the operating pressure of the present invention advantageously about 16 bar. 进入的空气在压缩机2′中被压缩到约4巴。 Incoming air is compressed to about 4 bars in 2 'of the compressor. 压缩的空气从压缩机2′通过管路3′被引入到压缩机2。 The compressed air from the compressor 2 'via line 3' is introduced into the compressor 2. 在引入到压缩机2之前,管路3′中的空气是在两个压缩机之间的热交换器45中被冷却。 Prior to introduction into the compressor 2, the air line 3 'is cooled in heat exchanger 45 between the two compressors. 在压缩机2中,空气进一步压缩到约16.7巴的压力。 In the compressor 2, the air is further compressed to a pressure of about 16.7 bar. 在这种热电厂中,燃烧所需的空气约为400kg air/s。 In this power plant, the air required for combustion is about 400kg air / s.

压缩的空气从压缩机2通过管路3被引入到燃烧室6。 The compressed air from the compressor 23 is introduced into the combustion chamber 6 through the line. 空气的压力调整到燃烧室中的工作压力,从而使空气进入燃烧室。 Air pressure is adjusted to the operating pressure in the combustion chamber, so that the air entering the combustion chamber. 此处,压力必须在燃烧室的工作压力之上,例如,在0.5巴至1巴之间,如0.7巴。 Here, the pressure must be above the operating pressure of the combustion chamber, e.g., between 0.5 to 1 bar, such as 0.7 bar.

含碳或碳化合物的燃料,例如,诸如煤气或汽油的碳氢化合物通过燃料供给管9馈送到燃烧室6。 Carbon-containing fuel or carbon compound, e.g., a hydrocarbon such as gasoline or gas through the fuel supply pipe 9 is fed to the combustion chamber 6. 将要进入到燃烧室6的燃料被泵(未画出)等装置压缩到这样大的压力,迫使该燃料进入燃烧室。 The fuel to enter the combustion chamber 6 is compressed by a pump (not shown) or the like means to such large pressure forces the fuel into the combustion chamber. 因此,此时的压力必须在燃烧室的工作压力之上,例如,在0.5巴至1巴之间,如0.7巴。 Therefore, at this time the pressure must be above the operating pressure of the combustion chamber, e.g., between 0.5 to 1 bar, such as 0.7 bar. 在使用天然气的情况下,这种热电厂利用约19kg gas/s的天然气。 In the case of natural gas, such a power plant using natural gas to about 19kg gas s /.

由于排放这种气体的环境警报特征,最好是使用给出废气中低NOx含量的喷燃器。 Since the alarm features of this emission gas environment is preferable to use the exhaust gas of the burner is given a low NOx content. 利用这种喷燃器,来自低NOx喷燃器的锅炉中NOx减小至50ppm以下。 With such a burner, boiler from low NOx burners to reduce NOx are below 50ppm. 按照已知的测试技术,利用净化装置(未画出)中的NH3(),可以去除其余的NOx。 In accordance with known test techniques, using a purification device (not shown) in the NH3 (), can be removed the remaining NOx. 这种净化操作在大气压下可以有高达90%的效率,但在16巴下可以有更高的效率。 Such purification may be operated at atmospheric pressure up to 90% efficiency, but the bar 16 may have a higher efficiency. 所以,可以净化到5ppm。 So, you can purify to 5ppm. 采用热交换器,该气体可以达到这种过程中最佳的温度。 Using a heat exchanger, such that the gas may reach the optimum process temperature. 还存在没有NH3的其他方法,与NH3相关的方法给出一些NH3“下降”。 There is no other way of NH3, NH3-related methods give some NH3 "fell."

燃烧室6中的燃烧发生在从大气压至超大气压的压力下,例如,从1.5巴至30巴,从5巴至25巴,和从10巴至20巴。 Combustion in the combustion chamber 6 takes place at from atmospheric pressure to superatmospheric pressures, e.g., from 1.5 bar to 30 bar, from 5 bar to 25 bar, and from 10 to 20 bar. 根据随后净化和CO2分离的要求以及燃气轮机和空气压缩机的操作经验,约16巴的压力是特别合适的。 The CO2 separation and subsequent purification requirements and operating experience of the gas turbine and the air compressor, a pressure of about 16 bars is particularly suitable. 在此处给出的例子中,燃烧是在约16巴压力下进行的。 In the example given here, the combustion is carried out at a pressure of about 16 bar.

燃烧的总热量约为900MW。 Total calories burned is about 900MW.

控制含氧气体和燃料的供给,使燃烧室中废气的剩余含氧量是在1%至10%之间,最好是在1.5%至6%之间,更好的是在2%至4%之间。 Controlling the supply of oxygen-containing gas and fuel, the remaining oxygen content in the exhaust gas combustion chamber is between 1% to 10%, preferably between 1.5 to 6%, more preferably 2% to 4 %between. 这远远低于燃气轮机中的含氧量,燃气轮机中废气通常包含约15%的氧。 This is far lower than in a gas turbine, the gas turbine exhaust gas typically contains about 15% oxygen.

在燃烧中,通过水管4提供的水被加热以产生蒸汽,借助于蒸汽出口5馈送并通过汽轮机53膨胀。 In combustion, provided the water is heated by the pipe 4 to generate steam, and fed by means of a steam outlet 5 through the expansion turbine 53. 此后,从汽轮机53膨胀的蒸汽借助于管路4′引入到燃烧室6中被再次加热。 Thereafter, the steam from the turbine expander 53 by means of line 4 'is introduced into the combustion chamber 6 to be heated again. 再加热的蒸汽沿管路5′离开燃烧室,它被引入到汽轮机54中发生膨胀。 Reheated steam along line 5 'leaving the combustion chamber, it is introduced into the expansion turbine 54 occurs.

来自汽轮机54的蒸汽沿管路56引入到低压涡轮机57,在其中再发生膨胀。 Steam from the steam turbine 54 along the line 56 is introduced into the low-pressure turbine 57, where it is expanded again. 汽轮机53,54和低压涡轮机57最好安排在共同的轴55上,轴55驱动发电机58以产生电能。 Turbine 53, 54 and the low pressure turbine 57 is preferably arranged on a common shaft 55, the shaft 55 drives a generator 58 to produce electrical power.

来自低压涡轮机57的大部分膨胀蒸汽/凝结水通过管路59引入到热交换器60,利用外部冷却水使凝结水进一步冷却。 Most of the expanded steam from the low pressure turbine 57 / condensate is introduced via line 59 to heat exchanger 60, the use of external cooling water to condensate further cooled. 在冷却/完全凝结之后,管路59中的水借助于泵61泵升到所需的压力作进一步循环。 After cooling / complete condensation, the water conduit 59 by means of a pump 61 pumps the required pressure rise to further cycles. 这种相对冷的水可用于维持热电厂中各个位置处的低温能量,它可以与需要冷却的较暖蒸汽流进行热交换。 This relatively cold water can be used to maintain a low temperature energy at various locations in the power plant, it may be necessary to cool the warmer vapor stream by heat exchange. 这就可以利用/维持低温热能,它对于良好的能源经济是十分重要的。 This allows use / maintain the low temperature thermal energy, it is for good energy economy is very important.

此处所示的热交换器62使管路59中的冷蒸汽流与管路63中的较暖蒸汽流进行热交换。 The heat exchanger 62 is shown here that the warmer vapor stream in line 59 and a cold vapor stream in line 63 by heat exchange. 管路63中的蒸汽流是从低压涡轮机中没有完全膨胀的蒸汽中取出的蒸汽流。 Steam flow line 63 from the low pressure turbine is not fully expanded steam withdrawn vapor stream. 管路63中的蒸汽流借助于泵64被再次泵升到进一步循环所需的压力。 Vapor stream in line 63 is pumped by means of a pressure pump 64 is further raised to the required cycle again. 管路59和63中的蒸汽流沿管路65聚合在一起,它们在热交换器67中与废气管路41中燃烧产生的废气进行热交换,在水馈送到水箱66中之前吸取剩余的热量。 Lines 59 and 63 along the vapor stream in line 65 coming together, their combustion exhaust gas generated in the heat exchanger 41 with the exhaust conduit in the heat exchanger 67, drawing the residual heat before the water is fed into the tank 66 .

可以沿管路68取出管路59中部分冷却水流,并通过热交换进行加热,在管路68中的水引入到水箱66之前,最初可能是在热交换器69中与管路41中的部分冷却废气进行热交换,此后与管路3′中的热空气进行热交换。 Can be taken along section line 68 in the cooling water conduit 59, and heated by heat exchange prior to introducing water into the tank 66 in line 68, may initially be part of the heat exchanger 69 and conduit 41 cooling the exhaust gas heat exchanger, and thereafter subjected to heat exchange with the hot air 3 'of the conduit.

水箱66中的水通过管路70引入到泵71,其中水被泵升到所需的压力。 The water tank 66 is introduced into the pump 71 through line 70, wherein the water is raised to the required pump pressure. 来自泵71的水沿管路70引入到热交换器17,其中利用与管路41中的温暖废气进行热交换使水加热。 Water from the pump 71 along conduit 70 into heat exchanger 17, wherein the conduit 41 with the use of warm waste water is heated by heat exchange. 理想的是,分别从管路72的汽轮机53和管路73的汽轮机54中取出少量的蒸汽流,这些蒸汽流与管路70中蒸汽流的侧边蒸汽流热交换,如管路76所示,并利用这些蒸汽流使水加热。 Ideally, each line from the line 73 and the steam turbine 53 turbine 54 is taken out of a small amount of vapor stream 72, stream 70 in heat exchange steam side of the steam flow and steam flow conduit such as conduit 76 shown in FIG. and the use of these water vapor stream is heated. 来自热交换器17和74中加热的水分别引入到管路4和用于燃烧室的冷却。 74 from heat exchanger 17 and heated water are introduced to the line 4 and for cooling the combustion chamber.

利用这种生产蒸汽的方法冷却燃烧室6中的气体,因此,燃烧室中的工作温度可以保持在700℃至900℃的范围内,通常是在800℃至850℃的范围内。 6 gas using such a method to produce steam cooled combustor, therefore, the combustion chamber operating temperature may be maintained in the range of 700 deg.] C to 900 deg.] C, usually in the range of 800 deg.] C to 850 deg.] C. 从燃烧室的燃烧中取出大于50%,最好大于60%,更好大于70%的热能作为燃烧室冷却的热蒸汽。 Removed from the combustion of the combustion chamber is greater than 50%, preferably greater than 60%, more preferably greater than 70% of the heat as the heat of the steam cooled combustor.

从燃烧室中去除非常大的热量保证,可以利用空气中的大部分氧气,而不会使温度变得不可接受的高。 Very large heat removal from the combustion chamber to ensure that may be utilized most of the oxygen in the air, without the temperature becoming unacceptably high. 这能够使废气中有高的CO2浓度,相对于产生的能量消耗少量的空气,从而获得重要的优点,只须净化相对小体积的废气流。 This enables the exhaust gas has a high concentration of CO2, the energy produced with respect to consume a small amount of air, so as to obtain an important advantage for purifying exhaust gas stream only in a relatively small volume. 当大部分的电能是在有效燃汽轮机中产生时,可以大大减轻重要气体-气体热交换器8上的热负荷,从而使它有较小的尺寸和较简单的结构。 When most of the energy is produced in efficient gas turbine, the gas can greatly reduce important - the thermal load on the gas heat exchanger 8, so that it has a smaller size and a simpler structure. 低温和减轻的热负荷还意味着,与较高的温度和热负荷比较,我们遇到的热膨胀和腐蚀问题就较小。 Low temperature and reduce the heat load also means that, compared with the higher temperatures and thermal loads, thermal expansion and corrosion problems we encounter is small. 从而可以降低热电厂成本和维护费用,与此同时,产生较多的能量和简化废气的净化操作,而没有电效率的巨大损失。 Which can reduce the cost of thermal power plants and maintenance costs, at the same time, produce more energy and to simplify the purification of exhaust gas operations, without great loss of electrical efficiency.

参照图1,燃烧室6中的废气被引导通过废气管10,通过一个或多个气体-气体热交换器8,11和调温冷却器12,其中输出废气在引入到接触装置13之前被冷却,接触装置13使废气与吸收剂接触。 Referring to FIG. 1, the exhaust gas in the combustion chamber 6 is led through an exhaust pipe 10, through one or more gas - Trim Cooler gas heat exchanger 8, 11 and 12, wherein the output of the exhaust gas prior to introduction into the contact device 13 to be cooled , the contact means 13 into contact with the exhaust gas absorbent. 接触装置13中的压力接近燃烧室6中的压力,因为压力的减小仅仅相当于通过热交换器8,11和调温冷却器12的压力下降。 The contact pressure device 13 close to the pressure in the combustion chamber 6, because merely reducing the pressure drop through the pressure corresponding to the heat exchanger 8, 11 and 12 of the Trim Cooler.

燃烧室6中燃烧产生和在废气通过热交换器冷却时凝结的水在接触装置13之前的脱水器50中被分离。 In the combustion chamber 6 and the combustion exhaust gas condensed by the heat exchanger when the cooling water is separated in dehydrator 13 before the contact device 50. 水可以稀释或损坏接触装置中的吸收剂。 It may be diluted in water or absorbent damage the contact means.

在附图中,热交换器8,11是串联连接的两个热交换器。 In the drawings, the heat exchanger 8, 11 are two heat exchangers connected in series. 热交换器的数目和这些热交换器的尺寸取决于实际热电厂的实际规模和设计,因此它随不同的热电厂而变化。 The number and size of heat exchangers of the heat exchanger depends on the actual size and design of the actual thermal power plants, it varies with the power plant. 典型的热电厂包含串联连接的两个至四个热交换器。 A typical power plant comprises a series of two to four heat exchangers. 接触装置13中的温度取决于吸收剂,因此,它是给出高溶解度的较低温度与促进吸收过程相关反应的较高温度之间折衷。 The contact means 13 depending on the temperature of the absorbent, therefore, it is given a relatively low temperature and a high solubility to promote a compromise between the higher temperature reactions related to the absorption process. 典型的温度是,水在20℃以下,胺为50℃,而利用诸如碳酸钾的无机溶液为80至100℃。 Typically the temperature is below the water 20 ℃, amine 50 ℃, utilize inorganic such as potassium carbonate solution 80 to 100 ℃.

优选的吸收剂是诸如水,胺溶液或无机水溶液的液体,例如,碳酸溶液,它在高压和高的CO2分压下可以吸收相对大量的CO2。 The absorbent is preferably a liquid such as water, an amine or an inorganic aqueous solution, e.g., carbonated water, it can absorb a relatively large amount of CO2 at high pressure and high CO2 partial pressure. 接触装置13中的吸收剂最好使废气的很大内表面逆流减小。 The absorbent means 13 is preferably in contact with the inner surface of the exhaust gas is greatly reduced backflow.

接触装置最好工作在增高的压力下,例如,大于8巴,更好的是在10巴以上。 Contact means is preferably operated at elevated pressure, e.g., greater than 8 bar, more preferably at least 10 bar. 该压力还可以更高,例如,高于15巴或20巴。 The pressure may also be higher, e.g., greater than 15 bar or 20 bar.

没有被溶剂吸收的废气中的气体从接触装置引导通过气管14,通过热交换器11,8,其中该气体在涡轮机15,15′中膨胀之前被加热,因此,该能量能够用作以后过程中热的高压气体。 After the device is not in contact with the exhaust gas guided from the solvent absorbed by the gas pipe 14, through heat exchangers 11,8 where the gas is heated prior to expansion 'of the turbine 15, 15, and therefore, the energy can be used during the hot high pressure gas. 最好是,从脱水器50通过管路52取出的水被泵51泵浦,并与净化气体一起引入到管路14。 Preferably, the pump 51 from the pump 50 is withdrawn through line 52 water dehydrator, and the purge gas into the conduit 14 together. 水在净化气体的加热时被蒸发,并给气体提供水凝结和净化中去除的部分质量,从而增大气体的热容量。 The water is evaporated upon heating purge gas, and to provide water purification and removal of condensed portion to the gas mass, thereby increasing the heat capacity of the gas.

在接触装置13与热交换器11,8之间管路14中插入压缩机也可以提高效率。 In the contact device insertion conduit 14 between the compressor may also increase the efficiency of the heat exchanger 11, 8 and 13. 这种压缩可以加热气体,随后可以再取出热量,从而使热交换器中有更大的压力差,因此,在较小的面积上可以得到更好的热交换,从而可以利用较廉价的热交换器。 Such compressed gas may be heated, heat can then be withdrawn again, so that the heat exchanger has a greater pressure difference, therefore, on a small area can be better heat exchange, thereby utilizing less expensive heat exchanger device.

在从管路3取出的小压缩气体流中馈送蒸汽,还可以补偿由于去除CO2而减小的质量流,冷却这种气体,例如,通过预热图2所示的燃烧气体9,可以使热量不损失,并在热交换器11之前引入它进入净化的气体。 Feeding steam from the compressed gas stream withdrawn small line 3, it is also possible to compensate for the removal of CO2 due to the reduced mass flow, this gas is cooled, for example by preheating the combustion gas shown in FIG. 9, the heat can be without loss, and it is introduced into the purge gas before the heat exchanger 11. 最好是,该气体与管路14中的气体有大致相同的温度,所以,应当按照这种气体估算冷却。 Preferably, gas 14 in the gas line have substantially the same temperature, so this should be estimated in accordance with the cooling gas.

最好是,涡轮机15是多个涡轮机,例如,串联连接的两个涡轮机15和15′,其中管路14′引导涡轮机15中部分膨胀的气体到涡轮机15′。 Preferably, the turbine is a plurality of turbine 15, for example, two series-connected turbines 15 and 15 ', in which the lines 14' in the guide portion 15 of the turbine expanded gas to the turbine 15 '.

最好是,压缩机2′和涡轮机15′安排在共同的轴40′上和估算压缩机2′和涡轮机15′,使涡轮机15′的动能正好足够驱动压缩机2′。 Preferably, the compressor 2 'and turbine 15' arranged on a common shaft 40 'and the estimated compressor 2' and turbine 15 ', the turbine 15' just enough kinetic energy to drive the compressor 2 '. 涡轮机15与压缩机2和发电机16一起安排在轴40上。 2 and the compressor turbine 15 and the generator 16 arranged on the shaft 40 together. 来自涡轮机15的动能大于驱动压缩机2所需的动能,因此,剩余的动能可用在相同轴上放置的发电机16以产生电能。 Kinetic energy from the turbine 15 is greater than the kinetic energy needed to drive the compressor 2, thus remaining available kinetic energy generator disposed on the same axis 16 to generate electrical energy. 发电机在起动热电厂时作为电动机。 Generator as a motor when starting power plant. 如果需要,这种动能当然也可用于其他的目的,例如,吸收剂的循环泵,锅炉水的循环泵,真空泵,富CO2馏分的压缩机,或这些装置的组合。 If desired, the kinetic energy of course also be used for other purposes, e.g., a combination of the absorbent circulation pump, boiler water circulation pumps, vacuum pumps, compressors CO2-rich fraction, or combinations of these devices.

从涡轮机15开始,涡轮机15中膨胀输出的气体引导通过热交换器17,其中气体的剩余热量可用在热电厂的适当设备中。 15 starts from the turbine, the gas turbine 15 is directed through the output expansion heat exchanger 17, wherein the residual heat of the gas in a suitable apparatus may be used in thermal power plants. 在所示的实施例中,这种热量用于加热管路14中的水。 In the embodiment shown, this heat for heating the water in the conduit 14.

在所示的装置中,通过管路19,借助于热交换器20和解吸装置18内的膨胀装置(未画出),从接触装置13馈送含CO2的溶剂。 In the apparatus shown, via line 19, and expansion device 20 (not shown) in the desorption device 18 by means of a heat exchanger, fed from the contact means 13 of the CO2-containing solvent. 解吸装置18中的压力取决于吸收剂的选择,吸收的CO2量和热量回收的要求。 Pressure desorption device 18 is dependent on the choice of absorbent, CO2, and an amount of absorbed heat recovery requirements. 其压力通常低于接触装置13中的压力,它一般是在周围环境压力之上的0.2巴与1巴之间。 The pressure is generally lower than 13 in the contact pressure device, which is generally above ambient pressure between 0.2 bar and 1 bar.

为了增大从解吸装置的吸收剂中排放的吸收气体,通常在解吸装置底部去除部分的吸收剂,并引导它通过循环加热器22的循环管道44,其中吸收剂是在返回到解吸装置18之前被加热。 In order to increase the absorption of the gas from the absorbent in the desorption device discharged, desorption is usually removed at the bottom portion of the absorber means, and guide it through the circulation pipe 22 of the heater circulation 44, wherein before the absorbent is returned to the desorption device 18 It is heated. 可以从热电厂的另一个位置取出给循环加热器22的热能,例如,从低温涡轮机57取出合适压力和温度的蒸汽流,并在管路76中引入到热交换器22,循环管道44中的蒸汽流被管路76中较热的蒸汽流加热。 Power plant can be taken out from another location to thermal cycling of the heater 22, e.g., vapor stream 57 taken from a suitable low pressure and temperature of the turbine, and is introduced to the heat exchanger 22 in line 76, the steam in the circulation duct 44 flow line 76 is heated hotter vapor stream. 从管路76中取出的蒸汽在热交换器中凝结,并借助于泵77再泵浦到水箱66。 Withdrawn from the line 76 the vapor condensed in a heat exchanger, by means of a pump 77 and then pumped into the tank 66. 例如,在管路76中可以取出温度为200℃和压力为2.4巴的30kg steam/s。 For example, line 76 can be taken out in a temperature of 200 ℃ and a pressure of 30kg steam 2.4 bar / s.

当接触装置13是在输入气体中高的CO2分压下驱动时,这种循环加热器的能量要求减至最小。 When the contact means 13 is input in the high partial pressure of CO2 in the driving gas, this cycle of the heater power requirements minimized. 与此同时,使用的蒸汽有低值,因为它已经通过高压涡轮机53和中压涡轮机54部分地发生膨胀。 At the same time, the steam used are low, as it has been expanded part 54 occurs through a high pressure turbine 53 and the intermediate pressure turbine.

从它的顶部去除解吸装置18中排放的富CO2气体,最好是,引导它通过凝结器23进行冷却,并在引导通过CO2管道25之前,作为液体分离器24中的富CO2气体流。 Removing CO2 rich gas desorption device 18 is discharged from its top, preferably, the guide it is cooled by condenser 23 and directed through the CO2 pipeline 25 before, as the liquid separator CO2 rich gas stream 24. 液体分离器24中分离出的液体通过液体传输管26返回到解吸装置。 Liquid separator 24, the separated liquid through the liquid transfer tube 26 is returned to the desorption device.

从解吸装置18底部去除再生的吸收剂,并泵浦通过循环管道43,在它返回到吸收装置13之前,在热交换器20中冷却,还可能在另一些热交换器中冷却。 Regenerated absorbent is removed from the bottom of the desorption device 18 and pump 43 before it returns to the absorbing means 13, in the heat exchanger 20 is cooled by the circulation duct, it may also be cooled in a heat exchanger other.

来自液体分离器24的富CO2气体流通过CO2传输管道25引入到压缩机系统28,所述压缩机系统包含若干个压缩步骤,其中按照这样的方式压缩气体,它可以安全地储存,运输,堆放或出售。 CO2 rich stream from the gas liquid separator 24 is introduced through conduit 25 to CO2 transmission system of the compressor 28, the compressor system comprises a number of compression steps in which gas is compressed in such a manner that it can be safely stored, transported, stacked or sold. 这种压缩机系统中的部件和结构是普通型,在此不对它作进一步的描述。 Such a compressor system components and structures are common type, it will not be further herein described. 根据热电厂的设计和控制参数,这种富CO2气体流通常包含燃烧后总CO2的约80-95%,最好是大于90%。 The power plant design and control parameters, the CO2 rich gas stream typically contains about 80 to 95% of the total post-combustion CO2, preferably more than 90%.

从接触装置13通过管道14引出的气体有低的CO2含量,通常是燃烧后总CO2的约10%。 It has a low content of CO2 gas through the duct 13 from contacting the lead means 14, typically about 10% of the total post-combustion CO2. 如上所述,通过管路52给这种气体提供从废气中已去除的水,在通过涡轮机15,15′膨胀之前,利用与热交换器11和8中热废气进行热交换对它进行加热。 As described above, the water has been removed from the exhaust gas to this gas via line 52, prior to 'the turbine expander 15, 15 by using a heat exchanger 11 performs heat exchange with its heating and hot exhaust gases 8.

本方法和装置的重要特征是,从燃烧室6的燃烧后取出的大部分热能是作为用于驱动汽轮机53,54和57的蒸汽。 Important feature of the method and apparatus is that most of the heat energy removed from the post-combustion as the combustion chamber 6 for driving the steam turbine 53, 54 and 57. 取出的大部分热能是作为蒸汽,其特征是,它与常规的方法有很大的不同,燃烧室中的温度和燃烧室中废气的温度是适当的,并适合于燃气轮机的运行,且燃烧室的压力壳层进一步被冷却,尽管几乎充分利用空气中的氧含量,仍然产生高的CO2分压。 Most of the heat is removed as a vapor, characterized in that, with conventional methods it is very different in the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber temperature exhaust gas temperatures are appropriate and suitable for the operation of the gas turbine, and a combustion chamber the pressure shell is further cooled, while almost full use of the oxygen content in the air, still produces a high CO2 partial pressure. 这导致相当低的负荷和对热交换器8的要求,这是热电厂的微弱部分,其中大部分的热能是从在燃烧后废气驱动的燃气轮机中取出。 This leads to relatively low loads and requirements of the heat exchanger 8, which is the weak part of the thermal power plant, most of the heat energy is extracted from the combustion exhaust gas after driving the gas turbine. 这在表1中给予说明,表1给出按照本发明热电厂的一些重要测量值。 This explanation is given in Table 1, Table 1 gives a number of important measurements of thermal power plant in accordance with the present invention.

表1:400MW热电厂中不同装置/不同位置的压力,温度,数量和效应。 Table 1: Pressure 400MW thermal power plant means different / different positions, temperature, and quantity effects.

在不偏离本发明思想的条件下,按照图1所示本发明热电厂的中配置可以随热交换器,泵等而变化。 Without departing from the spirit of the present invention, may vary depending on the configuration of the heat exchanger, pumps and other power plant according to FIG 1 of the present invention shown in FIG. 此处利用符号表示的元件可以是类似元件或不同元件的组合,它们给出所需和描述的功能。 Element herein using notation similar elements or may be a combination of different elements, which give the desired and described function. 因此,我们描述的热交换器可以是热交换器的组合。 Therefore, we describe the heat exchanger can be a combination of the heat exchanger. 同样地,这种热电厂能够包括此处没有描述的其他元件,例如,交换少量能量的热交换器,泵或调整某些元件压力的减压阀,等等。 Again, this power plant can include other elements not described herein, e.g., a heat exchanger to exchange a small amount of energy, pumps or pressure reducing valve to adjust the pressure of some of the elements, and the like.

类似地,在特定热电厂的工程和优化期间,我们能够偏离描述的质量和能量流的细节。 Similarly, during the engineering and optimization of specific thermal power plant, we are able to describe the deviation from the quality and detail energy flow.

通过组合可以大大提高效率,其中燃气被预热,与此同时,增加的冷却空气量提供到热交换器11的冷侧面。 Efficiency can be greatly improved by the combination, wherein the gas is preheated, at the same time, the increased amount of cooling air supplied to the cold-side heat exchanger 11. 可以从需要冷却的不同位置取出加热这种气体的能量,或可以从图2所示的压缩机2,2′中取出。 Heat energy can be removed from different locations of such gases requiring cooling, or may as shown in FIG. 2 from the compressor 2 'removed. 例如,从气体流3中取出约45kg air/s的空气。 For example, approximately 45kg air air / s 3 withdrawn from a gas stream. 借助于热交换器80,增加的空气量引入到管路7,它与管路9中15℃的19kg/s的输入燃气进行热交换,使燃气加热到约240℃,而空气冷却到约60℃。 By means of a heat exchanger 80, increasing the amount of air introduced into the pipe 7, it exchanges heat with the gas input conduit 9 of 15 deg.] C 19kg / s, so that the gas is heated to about 240 deg.] C, and the air is cooled to about 60 ℃. 管路7中的冷却空气引入到管路14,把它添加到废气中以给出较大的气体流体积和较大的质量,从而增加该气体吸取热量的能力,并借助于热交换器8,11冷却管路10中的废气。 The cooling air introduced into the conduit 7 line 14, add it to the exhaust gas stream to give a larger volume and a larger mass, thereby increasing the gas suction capacity of the heat, and the heat exchanger 8 by means of , 1110 in the exhaust gas cooling line. 根据计算,图2所示的这种预热可以提高热电厂中燃烧后热能转换成电功率的效率约1%。 According to calculations, shown in Figure 2 this preheating can enhance the conversion of thermal energy into electric power in the power plant combustion efficiency of about 1%.

若我们没有利用压缩空气中的热量与燃料进行热交换,则可以直接从压缩机2,2′或从分开的压缩机(未画出)中提供空气给管路7。 If we do not exchange heat with the fuel by heat of compressed air, it may be 'or from a separate compressor (not shown) direct the air provided from the compressor to the line 2, 2 7.

高温和高压对热元件的结构和材料选择提出很高的要求。 High temperature and pressure make high demands on the structure and material of the heat element of choice. 元件的构造,例如,高压和高温的燃烧室和热交换器是复杂和昂贵的。 Construction elements, e.g., high pressure and temperature of the combustion chamber and the heat exchanger is complicated and expensive. 传统的优选压力燃烧室需要选取昂贵的材料。 Preferably conventional combustion chamber pressure required to select expensive materials. 在燃烧室壁是由互相套合的两个或多个壳层构成情况下,其中外壳是受压壳层,且外壳的温度可以保持在350℃以下,最好是在300℃以下,可以降低燃烧室的结构成本和脆弱性。 In the combustion chamber wall is constituted by two or more shells nested in each case, wherein the housing shell is pressurized, and the temperature of the housing can be kept below 350 deg.] C, preferably below 300 ℃, can be reduced cost structure and vulnerability of the combustion chamber.

图3表示这样一种燃烧室100,包括:外壳101,内壳102,可以在外壳与内壳之间流动的冷却剂,例如,CO2。 Figure 3 shows a combustion chamber 100, comprising: a housing 101, inner housing 102, the housing between the housing and the inner coolant flow, e.g., CO2. 可以通过冷却剂管道106添加CO2。 106 can be added CO2 through the coolant conduit. 取出加热的CO2,并借助于CO2的冷却管路(未画出)进行循环。 Remove the heated CO2, and the CO2 is circulated by means of a cooling circuit (not shown). 最好是,来自热CO2的热能添加到需要热量过程的蒸汽流中,借助于管路(未画出)传输到图1和图2所示的一些热交换器,或未画出的热交换器。 Preferably, the heat from the hot CO2 is added to the flow of steam required in the process of heat, by means of a conduit (not shown) and transferred to a number of the heat exchanger shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, heat exchange or drawn device.

燃料和含氧气体,例如,净化气体,富氧空气或空气,分别通过管路9和3提供给一个或多个喷燃器103。 The fuel and oxygen-containing gas, e.g., purge gas, enriched air or air, are supplied to one or more burners 103 via a line 9 and 3.

如图3所示,CO2还可以作为烟道气围绕管道107从燃烧室顺向流动到热交换器,它还可用作热交换器中的冷却剂。 As shown in FIG. 3, CO2 may also be about the duct 107 flows forward from the combustion chamber to the heat exchanger, it can be used as a coolant in the heat exchanger flue gas. 调整内壳与外壳之间循环的CO2量,使外壳101的温度不超过350℃,最好不超过300℃。 The amount of CO2 is circulated between the inner and outer housings to adjust the temperature of the housing 101 does not exceed 350 deg.] C, preferably not more than 300 ℃. 保持外壳的温度在350℃以下,我们就可以利用相对廉价的材料,因此,与经受较高温度的外壳比较,生产就变得较简单和廉价。 Maintaining the temperature of the housing below 350 deg.] C, we can use relatively inexpensive material, therefore, is subjected to a higher temperature compared with the housing, production becomes more simple and cheap.

内壳102安排在外壳101内,内壳102是利用耐热材料制成。 The inner shell 102 arranged in the housing 101, the inner shell 102 is made of a heat-resistant material. 最好是,内壳的内侧面与外侧面之间没有压力差或仅仅很小的压力差,从而使它没有大的压力负荷。 Preferably, the inner side surface of the inner casing and the outer side surface between no pressure difference or only a small pressure difference, so that it is not a large pressure load. 如果需要,燃烧室壁可以包含两个以上的壳层。 If desired, the combustion chamber wall may comprise two or more shells.

燃烧室的内壁,即,内壳102的内侧面,覆盖一个或多个管道104,它们是沿内壁排列的一个或多个螺旋管。 The inner wall of the combustion chamber, i.e., the inner side surface 102 of the inner shell, cover one or more ducts 104, which are one or more coil arranged along the inner wall. 最好是,螺旋管104覆盖内壳的整个内表面,并保护内表面以抵挡燃烧室内的燃烧产物,与此同时,它降低燃烧室和燃烧室内壁102的温度。 Preferably, the inner coil 104 covers the entire surface of the inner shell, and protects the inner surface of the combustion products in order to withstand the combustion chamber, at the same time, it reduces the temperature of the inner wall 102 of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber. 螺旋管104使锅炉水的蒸汽流温度不超过300℃至350℃,它可以抵挡外部压力壳层的温度。 Coil 104 so that the flow of steam boiler water temperature does not exceed 300 deg.] C to 350 ℃, which can withstand the temperature of the external pressure shell. 给螺旋管104中水添加的这种热量可以对锅炉水进行预热,借助于热交换器循环增压的气体,其中这些热量用于需要加热到相关的温度的管路中。 This coil 104 to heat the water may be added to the boiler water preheater, the heat exchanger by means of circulating a pressurized gas, wherein the heat required for heating the tubing to the relevant temperature.

利用热螺旋管105还降低燃烧室中的温度,热螺旋管105是安装在燃烧室内部几个热螺旋管的组合。 By heat coil 105 also reduces the temperature of the combustion chamber, the heat coil 105 is a combination of several mounted inside the combustion chamber of the hot coil. 热螺旋管105是通过管路4和4′和/或直接来自管道104提供水/蒸汽的热螺旋管。 Heat coil 105 through lines 4 and 4 'and / or the conduit 104 directly from the heat coil to provide water / steam.

高温热交换器不应当重复地降温和升温,如果它还有作为压力容器的功能。 High temperature heat exchanger should not repeatedly cooling and warming, if it has a function as a pressure vessel. 所以,最好是,热的热交换器,即,蒸汽流温度高于350℃的热交换器,它是由外部受压壳层和内壳构成,在两个壳层之间流动诸如CO2或氮气的冷却剂,其方式类似于燃烧室。 Therefore, preferably, the heat exchanger, i.e., the heat exchanger 350 is higher than the temperature of the vapor stream deg.] C, which is constituted by an external pressure shell and the inner shell, such as between two shell flow or CO2 nitrogen coolant in a manner similar combustion chamber. 或者,热交换器周围的容器可以利用锅炉水作为冷却剂直接或间接地冷却。 Alternatively, the container around the heat exchanger can be used as a coolant is directly or indirectly cooled by boiler water. 另一种方案是在增压燃烧室内部构造热交换器,此时它不再具有压力容器的功能。 Another solution is the pressurized combustion chamber of an internal structure of the heat exchanger, when it no longer has a function of the pressure vessel.

对于一些元件,实施其他的特定结构调整也是适宜的,具体地说,改进操作安全性,降低制造成本,和减小磨损和相关差错的危险。 For some elements, other specific embodiments structural adjustment also suitable, in particular, to improve operational safety, reduced manufacturing costs, and reduce the risk of wear and associated errors. 因此,可以利用诸如CO2的冷却气体冷却燃烧室6的壳层和诸如热交换器的其他的热元件,例如,热交换器8。 Thus, the shell 6 may be utilized and other elements, such as a heat exchanger such as a cooling gas for cooling the combustion chamber of CO2, e.g., the heat exchanger 8. 冷却气体中的这种热能可以提供给热交换器,用于可以利用低级能的过程中位置上加热,具体地说,这涉及燃烧室的水预热。 Such cooling gas may be provided to the heat exchanger, the process can be used for low-energy heating position, in particular, it relates to a water preheating of the combustion chamber. 增压燃烧室和增压热交换器冷却到低于350℃的壳层温度,可以实现利用高张力,低合金和非昂贵钢质量的机会。 Pressurized combustion chamber and pressurized heat exchanger for cooling the shell to a temperature below 350 deg.] C, the opportunity to use a high-tensile, low-alloy steel and non-expensive quality can be achieved. 该系统还可用于热电厂起动之前加热这些元件。 The system may also be used for heating of these elements before start power plant. 这样做可以减小热张力和降低压力壳层和管道破裂的危险。 This minimizes thermal stresses and reduce the risk of rupture of the duct and the pressure shell.

Claims (10)

1.一种从含碳燃料中产生电能的方法,其中燃料是在燃烧室中增压的有氧环境下燃烧,燃烧后的废气被分离成富CO2馏分和贫CO2馏分,对富CO2馏分进行处理,使它不排放到周围环境中,而在贫CO2馏分排放到周围环境之前,使它通过一个或多个涡轮机发生膨胀,用于其他过程的运行和/或产生电能,其中在产生通过汽轮机膨胀的蒸汽期间,燃烧室中的温度被降低,而汽轮机连接到产生电能的发电机。 CLAIMS 1. A method of generating electricity from a carbonaceous fuel, wherein combustion of the fuel is pressurized under aerobic conditions in the combustion chamber, the combustion exhaust gas is separated into a CO2 rich fraction and a fraction lean CO2, the CO2-rich fraction to be treated , it does not discharge into the surrounding environment, while the CO2 depleted fraction before discharge to the surrounding environment, it expands through one or more turbines for operation of other processes and / or generating electrical energy, which is generated by the expansion turbine during the steam, the temperature of the combustion chamber is reduced, while the steam turbine connected to a generator to generate electrical energy.
2.按照权利要求1的方法,其中从燃烧室的燃烧中取出大于50%,或大于60%,或大于70%,或大于80%的蒸汽形式的热能。 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the combustion chamber is taken out from the combustion greater than 50%, or greater than 60%, or greater than 70%, or greater than 80% of the thermal energy in the form of steam.
3.按照权利要求1或2的方法,其中在通过涡轮机膨胀之前,利用与贫CO2馏分的热交换冷却燃烧室中的废气以加热贫CO2馏分。 3. The method according to claim 1 or claim 2, wherein prior to expansion through a turbine, cooling the combustion chamber using the exhaust gas heat exchanger to the CO2-depleted fraction is heated CO2 lean fraction.
4.按照权利要求3的方法,其中水和/或空气添加到净化的贫CO2馏分中,以增大贫CO2馏分从燃烧室的热废气中吸取热量的能力。 The method according to claim 3, wherein the water and / or air added to the purified fraction lean CO2, CO2-depleted fraction to increase the ability to draw heat from the hot exhaust gas of the combustion chamber.
5.按照以上权利要求中任何一个的方法,其中在燃料馈送到燃烧室之前对它加热。 5. According to the above prior method of any of claims, wherein the fuel fed into the combustion chamber it is heated.
6.按照权利要求5的方法,其中通过与空气压缩机中部分蒸汽流的热交换使燃料加热,且其中热交换之后冷却的压缩空气流提供给贫CO2馏分以增大它的热容量。 6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the air compressor is heated by the heat exchange portion of the vapor stream of the fuel, and wherein the cooling after heat exchange with the compressed air flow supplied to the CO2 depleted fraction to increase its heat capacity.
7.一种实施权利要求1的一种从含碳燃料中产生电能的方法的热电厂,包括:燃烧室(6),其中燃料是在增压的有氧环境下燃烧;气管(10),用于引导燃烧室(6)中的燃烧废气到接触装置(13),使冷却之后的废气与吸收剂接触,其中大部分CO2被吸收,而废气中的其他气体大部分没有被吸收;气管(14),用于接触装置中的未吸收气体;再加热装置,用于重新加热贫CO2馏分气体流;膨胀装置,在排放到周围环境之前膨胀所述加热的贫CO2馏分气体流;和运送装置,用于从接触装置运送有吸收的CO2的吸收剂到堆放处或到吸收剂再生装置(18),用于再循环到接触装置,其中燃烧室(6)包括:提供蒸汽的装置和管路5,5′,用于引导蒸汽到汽轮机(53,54,57)进行膨胀。 7. A method as claimed in embodiment 1 requires a method for generating electric energy from thermal power plants carbonaceous fuel, comprising: a combustion chamber (6), wherein the fuel is burned in the pressurized oxygen atmosphere; pipe (10), with guiding the combustion exhaust gas in the combustion chamber (6) to the contact means (13), the exhaust gas after cooling and contacting the absorbent, most of the CO2 is absorbed, while the majority of the other gases in the exhaust gas is not absorbed; pipe (14 ), means for contacting the unabsorbed gas; reheating means for reheating the CO2 lean gas flow fraction; expansion device, the expansion of the heated CO2 lean gas stream fraction prior to discharge to the surrounding environment; and a transport device, for conveying the absorption of CO2 from the contact device to the dump or to the absorbent regeneration of the absorbent means (18) for recycling to the contact device, wherein the combustion chamber (6) comprising: means supplying steam line 5 and , 5 ', for guiding steam into the steam turbine (53,54,57) is expanded.
8.按照权利要求7的热电厂,包括:冷凝室(50),用于废气中水的凝结,它安排在接触装置(13)之前。 8. The power plant as claimed in claim 7, comprising: a condensation chamber (50) for water condensation in the exhaust gas, which is arranged prior to contacting means (13).
9.按照权利要求8的热电厂,包括:装置(51,52),用于添加冷凝室(50)中凝结的水到贫CO2馏分以增大该馏分的热容量。 9. The power plant as claimed in claim 8, comprising: means (51, 52) for adding a condensation chamber (50) to the water condensed CO2-depleted fraction to increase the heat capacity of this fraction.
10.按照权利要求7或8的热电厂,其中燃烧室(100)包括:外壳(101)和内壳(102),在外壳与内壳之间流动冷却剂并且安排有用于覆盖燃烧室(100)内表面的管道(104),以及通过管道(104)循环水的装置。 10. A power plant according to claim 7 or 8, wherein the combustion chamber (100) comprising: a housing (101) and an inner housing (102), between the housing and the inner housing and the coolant flow arrangement for a combustion chamber cover (100) , and the inner surface of the conduit means (104) through line (104) of the circulating water.
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