CN1296868A - Casting technology and apparatus for producing die-cast ingot, castings and conticast billet - Google Patents

Casting technology and apparatus for producing die-cast ingot, castings and conticast billet Download PDF

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CN1296868A
CN1296868A CN 00132650 CN00132650A CN1296868A CN 1296868 A CN1296868 A CN 1296868A CN 00132650 CN00132650 CN 00132650 CN 00132650 A CN00132650 A CN 00132650A CN 1296868 A CN1296868 A CN 1296868A
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alloy
metal
agitator
melting point
low melting
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CN1112266C (en
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白荣铠
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白荣铠
白钢
白晶晶
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Abstract

A casting technology and equipment for producing cast ingot, casting and conticast billet features that the liquid-state metal or alloy with low melting point is used as heat conducting agent to conduct out the heat energy from the metal to be solidified, so it is solidified into ingot, billet or casting after semi-solid state to increase their quality, output rate and productivity and to recover heat energy.

Description

Be used to produce the casting technology and the device of ingot casting, foundry goods and continuous casting billet
This method includes non-ferrous metal and alloy and ferrous metal and the casting technique of alloy in pyrometallurgy and the transmission and the utilization of equipment and the heat energy of casting process own.
In liquid metals or alloy cooling, carry out fierce stirring, can prevent the generation tree dendrite, obtain a kind of solid phase particle and be uniformly distributed among the liquid phase, neither solid-state, neither be liquid, but have rheological characteristic or thixotropic metal mud or soft solid, claim semisolid.Because the microstructure and property that metal or alloy solidifies in mold (casting mold or crystallizer) than traditional full liquid state through the resulting ingot casting of semisolid process after coagulation (base) and THE STRUCTURE OF CASTINGS and performance is superior, and can improve the recovery rate of metal, so many countries are to the semi-solid-state metal process technology research experiment of the Metal and Alloy of coloured and black.Current, behind pyrometallurgy acquisition liquid metal or alloy, mainly take following method to obtain semi-solid metal slurry:
Mechanical mixing method: in the cooling procedure of liquid metal or alloy, impose mechanical agitation, make the solid phase of separating out not generate dendritic structure, and be suspended among the liquid metal, become semisolid with homodisperse particle.Mechanical mixing method refractory material commonly used is made agitator and teeter chamber, to aluminium alloy and the lower metal or alloy of Bi Qi temperature, also useful ferrous materials manufacturing agitator and teeter chamber.Mechanical mixing method can obtain very high shear rate, helps forming tiny spherical microstructure.Solid phase components can reach 60% when mechanical mixing method was produced semisolid, but had the low problem of polluting semi solid slurry that reaches of stirrer life, was not used in suitability for industrialized production at present.
Electromagnetic stirring method: in the cooling procedure of liquid metal or alloy, with rotating excitation field metal fluid is produced and stir, produce semi-solid-state metal.Electromagnetic stirring method has been removed mechanical agitator from, compact conformation, simplified control, with the mechanical mixing method ratio, increase with solid phase percentage and apparent viscosity, its shear rate can descend, and solid phase components now can have been produced diameter and reach the aluminium alloy of 150mm and the blank ingot that is used for semi-solid processing of magnesium alloy generally all below 30% when electromagnetic stirring method was produced semi-solid-state metal.
The cut roll paddling process of internal water cooling revolving roll: be provided with the groove that the backboard of refractory material and side plate and roller formation are held motlten metal on the roll surface of rotatable water cooled rolls next door, motlten metal is subjected to the cooling and the shear agitation effect of roller therein, form semisolid, the method can be produced the slurry of solid phase components higher (40%-50%).But also be not used in suitability for industrialized production at present.
Observe the tissue of semi-solid-state metal, the cut roll paddling process of internal water cooling revolving roll is the most tiny, secondly is mechanical mixing method, and electromagnetic stirring method is the thickest.But in the several method, have only electromagnetic stirring method on the blank that supplies aluminium alloy and magnesium alloy semi solid state extrusion casint to use, to obtain commercial Application.The semi-solid-state metal process technology develops rapidly in the U.S., Europe and Japan, and current mainly is aluminium alloy and the magnesium alloy auto semi-solid processing manufacturing of parts in addition what produce the acquisition application greatly, and semisolid die casting produced in USA reached 7,000 ten thousand approximately in 1997.In China, the researcher is numerous, transforms to industrial production.Though both at home and abroad the achievement in research of relevant semi-solid-state metal is a lot, on ingot casting, foundry goods and the large-scale continuous casting machine of the Metal and Alloy of large-scale or super-huge coloured and black, also there is not productive application.
Process of setting in the big industrial production of heavy castings, ingot casting and the continuous billet casting of existing coloured and ferrous metal and alloy, do not exist because of can not find that solid phase interface causes for overcoming the high undercooling degree that interface energy occurs, so influencing the principal contradiction of liquid metal or alloy crystallization is the release of crystallization latent heat, and these process of setting, the mode of the direction of speed that the heat transfer type to process of setting that can't be artificial, crystallization latent heat discharge or efficient, hot-fluid, the size of first particle and the amount of separating out and distribution thereof, crystal growth etc. is carried out good control.
Though, adopt computer to simulate and calculate to the process of setting of large-scale ingot casting (except directional solidification and the electric slag refusion ingot), design is ingot mould more reasonably; The liquid towards metal or alloy carries out vacuum refining and vacuum casting; Adopting many stoves to close according to the segregation rule of large-sized casting ingot waters; Strict control chemical composition; Force down the cast temperature of liquid metal or alloy as far as possible; Use electrical heating riser head etc., but, since the release of huge crystallization latent heat need through the base shell that solidified and and die wall between air gap, conduct again to die wall and go heat radiation, it is very long that the time that makes large-sized casting ingot all solidify drags, want 47 hours as the 250T steel ingot, the 500T-600T steel ingot needs 4 days ability to solidify fully, so, traditional ingot casting, all the time do not break away from by the chill band, the column crystal zone of horizontal growth, the solidification law of the common three band crystallizations of forming of thick center equiax crystal band, bring many defectives that are difficult to avoid for traditional ingot casting (particularly large-scale ingot casting), as: shrinkage cavity, the cavity, loose, gas and non-metallic inclusion are concentrated, crystal grain inhomogeneous serious (and thick especially crystal grain occurring), component segregation is serious etc.These geneogenous defectives still can not thoroughly be eliminated through pressure processing and heat treatment, it is inhomogeneous to make metal material high-low time tissue occur, as gross segregation, crystal grain inequality occur mixed crystal, the thick inequality of ledeburite steel primary carbide, hypereutectoid steel proeutectoid carbide netted serious, the sub-eutectoid steel ferrite is banded seriously with pearlite, degradation problem under the increase of structural alloy steel temper brittleness, impact and the fracture toughness.Thermoplasticity when the thick column crystal of horizontal growth also makes pressure processing in the ingot casting degenerates, and occurs crackle easily, reduces lumber recovery.For eliminating the birth defects that process of setting forms, improve the performance of metal material, have to take: the hydrogen diffusion annealing of ingot casting; Ingot casting normalizing or High temperature diffusion are handled; Increase ratio of forging reduction or repeatedly pier pull out; Adopt deformation techniques such as forging of V-type anvil and JTS forging; For guaranteeing the quality of large forgings, increase cutting head cutting tail, even remove the bad part that is equivalent to ingot casting heart portion by punching or boring; To the blank after the pressure processing, improve performance by adjusting Technology for Heating Processing.As seen, the formed birth defects of traditional process of setting are brought great burden for the pressure processing and the heat treatment at rear portion, and are had influence on the metal material final properties.
Large-scale or the super-huge foundry goods of gravitational casting, for improving the quality of foundry goods inside, the measure of taking at present has: vacuum refining or application of vacuum motlten metal, improve degree of purity; With Computing and simulation process of setting, instruct consecutive solidification technology, design is running gate system, rising head and external chill (as the rolling-mill housing of 300T 140T external chill) more reasonably; Strict control cast temperature; Adopt rising head after-teeming and exothermic riser or electrical heating riser head; Implement strict heat treating castings technology, as: diffusion dehydrogenation, annealing or normalizing.But, the still transmission direction and the efficiency of transmission of crystallization latent heat because of can not effectively change heavy castings and solidify the time; Can not effectively control size, shape, quantity and the distribution of first solid phase particle (or free brilliant); Casting solidification is chronic, and the thick defective such as inhomogeneous of loose, the segregation of appearance, crystal grain makes casting quality can not satisfy the technical conditions requirement that improves day by day.
The various large-scale continuous casting machines current, that metallurgical industry is used, for example the conticaster of steel all is to make metal or alloy enter the copper crystallizer of flowing water cooling with full liquid phase, pulls out crystallizer behind the formation base shell, through direct water spray cooling it is all solidified again.For improving continuous casting billet quality and efficient, taked: refining and application of vacuum, the degree of purity of raising liquid metal or alloy; Reduce the liquid metal of injection crystallizer or the overtemperature of alloy as far as possible; The liquid level of liquid metal or alloy in the accurate crystallization control device; Design more rational conical degree of crystallizer and shape; Use helps the high-quality covering slag that the base shell is lubricated and conduct heat; Improve mould vibration device, and improve and shake frequently, reduce amplitude; At crystallizer and two cold-zones electromagnetic agitation is set, strengthens stirring and heat convection in the process of setting; With the computer simulation process of setting and control two cold-zones water sprays intensity of cooling and casting speed.But, although taked above-mentioned measure, because existing solidification mode is: when liquid metal or alloy form the base shell of 10-20mm in crystallizer after, base shell band the liquid core pull out crystallizer, not solidified liquid core (is commonly called as: half congealed core) mainly remove a large amount of crystallization latent heat by powerful secondary water spray cooling, strand is all solidified.When the strand cross section is big, when pulling rate was fast again, then the base shell was thin, half congealed core very long (as the 200mm of continuous casting steel * 200mm square billet time, it is long that half congealed core can reach 10M).Therefore, the bulge deformation of square billet off-square and slab very easily takes place, and since a large amount of crystallization latent heat in two cold-zones with the rapid heat radiation of vertical strand axis direction, the column crystal that causes strand radially to be grown is very flourishing, inner and outside crackle in length and breadth such as centre burst, corner crack very easily appears in strand, and defective such as shrinkage cavity.Though, add electromagnetism in crystallizer and two cold-zones and stir and can reduce above-mentioned defective, can not change crystallization latent heat and must carry out heat conducting heat transfer type through the base shell, simultaneously, the shear action of electromagnetic agitation is limited, and some defectives still can not be escaped by luck fully.In addition, thin base shell and long half congealed core and fierce two cold-zones water spray cooling, make the solid-liquid phase line temperature range very wide and the big alloy of transformation stress, be difficult to adapt to as martensite, ledeburite shaped steel, the alloy of some trades mark can not be produced with conticaster so far.
Aspect the extra-large cross-section conticaster, Japan is is researching and developing the semicontinuous conticaster of extra-large cross-section of intending replacing the 6-40T static ingot, the continuous casting billet cross section of test is: 700mm * 700mm and 700mm * 1400mm, adopt complete vertical-type semicontinuous casting machine, captain 4.2M, ladleful 20T, the casting steel grade is: the carbon steel that contains C=0.45%, the overtemperature of casting is: 30-50 ℃, and pulling rate 0.05M-0.10M/min, the casting later stage is established exothermic riser on crystallizer top.Result of the test shows: the ingot casting suitable with cross section and weight compared, and be on the spacing of the size of reverse V-shaped segregation, center segregation, oxide inclusions and quantity and secondary dendrite arm, all superior than ingot casting.But huge crystallization latent heat is how safer to be transmitted rapidly and breaks away from traditional continuous casting and solidifying rule owing to do not solve, so pulling rate is quite slow, efficient is low, and the grade of steel of adaptation is few.
Over past ten years, pay attention to the sheet blank continuous casting of research and development steel both at home and abroad, purpose is to omit slabbing mill, even roughing mill, realizes energy-efficient CSP, produces SPHC.The crystallizer of sheet blank continuous casting has funnel type and plate two kinds, all uses the copper coin manufacturing, and the flowing water cooling for adapting to sheet blank continuous casting, has improved submersed nozzle; Improved the vibrating device (raising is shaken frequently, reduces amplitude) of crystallizer; On crystallizer, can make the molten steel stream burst speed of injection weaken, make the electro-magnetic braking device of liquid level stabilizing in the crystallizer by dress; Use the hollow granular protecting cinder that is fit to sheet blank continuous casting; Be to improve the sheet billet internal soundness, measure such as taked that also band liquid core is depressed.The thick 70mm that reaches of base of crystallizer outlet now, the wide 1600mm that reaches of base produces and draws scooter 4.5M/min.Owing to fundamentally do not break away from the solidification law of existing sheet billet continuous casting, not innovation in the derivation of crystallization latent heat, so, some mass defects of common sheet billet continuous casting still appear in the sheet billet of continuous casting, and surface quality is not as good as existing slab, the automobile deep-drawing board that some quality requirements are high, enamelled pressed steel and coat of metal steel plate etc. all can not be produced, and kind is lacked half approximately than existing sheet billet continuous casting.
In Japan, the eighties has just proposed semi-solidification is applied to the sheet blank continuous casting of steel, but fails to be used for big production so far.Analyzing one of reason wherein, is not have solution how in limited spatial volume, transfers out huge crystallization latent heat how safety quickly; The key issue of being recycled simultaneously.
In a word, existing continuous casting (comprising: square billet, garden base, slab, the special-shaped base of H; Vertical casting machine, vertical with bending type continuous casting machine, camber conticaster, horizontal caster etc.) owing to fundamentally do not change consistent solidification law, do not resolve methods and the unified relation of the contradictory between the crystallization process that crystallization latent heat is derived, so, make and realize that high efficiency continuous casting and near net shape continuous casting run into great difficulty.
Though the semi-solid-state metal process technology is liquid metal or solidification of Al, from traditional restive inevitable solidification law, be advanced to the stage that to control, and in producing, the semisolid extrusion casint of aluminium alloy and Mg alloy castings obtained application, but because to more substantial non-ferrous metal and alloy and higher ferrous metal and the alloy of Bi Qi temperature, under liquid state and semisolid, how in limited spatial volume, with less heat exchange area, pass out phase transformation heat energy that take place, that the unit volume heat content is very high safely, rapidly, efficiently; And recycled, lack effective method, more do not have the transmission of this heat energy and the sustainable development of utilization and pyrometallurgy are interrelated, so, on large-scale ingot casting and heavy castings and large-scale continuous casting machine, fail to obtain to use.And the method and apparatus of researching and solving is exactly purpose of the present invention and task.
As everyone knows, all liquid metals or alloy all have: the little 0.003-0.07 of Prandtl number; Coefficient of heat conduction height; In sizable temperature range, exist with liquid state; Suitable viscosity and low steam pressure are arranged; Coefficient of heat convection is big, and (as: Na is 131KW-325KW/m 2K. *) characteristics such as.Be a kind of important more special heat-transfer fluid, in fields such as the directional solidification of metal bath heat treatment, precision castings, float glass, nuclear submarine reactor, fast neutron reactor nuclear power station, application arranged.The present invention is exactly the heat-transfer character that will utilize liquid metal or alloy, use is done hot transduction agent by low melting point liquid metal or alloy, the agitator that the circulation cooling is made with heat resisting steel or heating resisting metal, adopt mechanical mixing method, by compulsory heat convection, derivation is solidified liquid sensible heat and the partially crystallizable latent heat in (i.e. casting) metal or alloy, make the Metal and Alloy of a large amount of liquid coloured and black be frozen into ingot casting again through the semisolid process, foundry goods or continuous casting billet, to increase its kind, improve the quality and recovery rate and production efficiency, reclaim the heat energy of deriving simultaneously, develop high efficiency continuous casting and near net shape continuous casting with this, and be a large amount of required blank (comprising the part metals based composites) of semi-solid-state metal processing supply of the Metal and Alloy of coloured and black, make pyrometallurgy energy-saving and cost-reducing, reduce environmental pollution, meet the policy of sustainable development.
The primary structure feature of apparatus of the present invention is: by low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic agitator of the hot transduction agent of alloy and control and jacking system, the circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy, recuperative heat exchanger and corresponding circulation line that hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy and water (or steam, or medium such as air) carry out heat exchange, valve, instrument, the teeter chamber, the rheology section, mold, the chassis, casting mold, external chill, crystallizer, compositions such as cold bed make the Metal and Alloy of the coloured or black that liquid state is cast all be frozen into ingot casting again through the semisolid process, continuous casting billet or foundry goods; And the special arrangement of recovery section heat energy.Be applied in the production of large-scale ingot casting, foundry goods and continuous casting, reach the described purpose of invention.
Low with fusing point, the boiling point height, under operating temperature, meeting air does not burn, meet water and do not produce fierce chemical reaction, non-severe toxicity, inexpensive and in liberal supply, can be under the also high operating temperature of specific pressure water, with low system pressure, high convective heat-transfer coefficient, the low melting point liquid metal or the alloy that circulate are done heat transfer medium, make the hot transduction agent circulation of low melting point liquid metal or alloy cooling and be solidified the inwall of heat exchanging segment that the contacted outer wall surface of metal or alloy fluid is coated with the metal agitator of refractory coating by circulating pump, be solidified in the process of producing semi-solid-state metal or alloy pulp that metal or alloy constantly carries out shear agitation and cooling at the heat exchanging segment liquid towards that utilizes agitator, the liquid metal or alloy that is solidified is subjected to stirring and cooling, when emitting sensible heat and partially crystallizable latent heat, therefrom separate out solid phase particle (crystallization) and be dispersed in and form the semisolid fluid in the liquid phase of metal or alloy.This under strong agitation and shear action, fierceness between the metal or alloy fluid that heat exchanging segment wall by agitator takes place, strengthen, the convective heat exchange that phase transformation takes place is arranged, and (side is liquid low-melting-point metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy that is circulating, opposite side is the fluid that is solidified metal or alloy that has phase transformation to take place), has higher convection transfer rate, when the temperature and pressure of both sides are also very big, just can be in the unit interval, in less limited spatial volume, with less heat exchange area, a large amount of Metal and Alloys liquid coloured or black is being become semi-solid while, safety, successfully pass out a large amount of heat energy.The hot transduction agent of heated low melting point liquid metal or alloy is delivered to dividing wall type convection recuperator (as: is the shell-and-tube steam generator of heat medium with low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy) through pipeline, carry out heat exchange with water or other liquid or gas, the heat energy that the heat energy that carries is converted into be convenient to utilize is (as producing HCS, can be used for generating or heat supply), the hot transduction agent of cooled low melting point liquid metal or alloy is delivered to agitator again through circulating pump and pipeline and circulates.
Requirement to low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy: select fusing point low; Boiling point height (forcing down) at the operating temperature range inner vapor; The chemical property torpescence is difficult for taking place fierce oxidation and burning in air; Do not select to have slightly just leak with steam generator or heat exchanger in steam or water fierce chemical reaction takes place, even the low melting point liquid metal or the alloy (as K, Na) that explode; Do not select to have slightly just to leak acutely to act on, the low melting point liquid metal or the alloy of explosion danger arranged with being solidified metal (or alloy); Do not having reliably, effectively to protect under the measure of environment, easily environment is being caused the low melting point liquid metal or the alloy (as Hg, Cd) of very big pollution when not being chosen in work; Select to store easily and transportation, easily can does not need (as the need argon gas, helium is protected) low-melting-point metal or alloy of special protection and protection; Selection does not have strong corrosiveness to equipment, or takes certain measure just can prevent its etching apparatus, low melting point liquid metal or the alloy of avoiding equipment to lose efficacy in advance; Selection is difficult for making valve or the low melting point liquid metal or the alloy of the metal parts generation self-brazing of the rotation of sliding, soldering (maybe can adopt an effective measure and prevent); The low melting point liquid metal that helps reducing pumping power (or alloy) that the specific heat capacity of selection unit's volume or Unit Weight is higher; Select under the normal temperature that intensity is low, extension is with plasticity is good, coefficient of friction is little, surface tension is bigger when liquid, help sealing and the low melting point liquid metal or the alloy that lubricate; Selection commercial offers abundance, low melting point liquid metal cheap and easy to get or alloy.This law selects Pb, Bi, composition low-melting alloys such as Sn, Zn to make heat transfer medium, with low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulating pump of alloy, by pipeline it is constantly circulated between semisolid producing device (as agitator) and steam generator (or other heat exchanger), by the heat convection of strengthening, in the smaller volume space, with less heat exchange area, safe and reliable a large amount of thermal energy transfer that will be solidified in the metal (or alloy) come out and are convenient to recycle, to adapt to the extensive casting of metal or alloy.
For preventing that selected low melting point liquid metal of this law or the hot transduction agent of alloy from producing chemical combination dissolving, mass transfer, hot dip, erosion, soldering, self-brazing effect to the steel metal structures such as agitating device, pipeline, pump, valve, measuring instrument, crystallizer, mold, chassis, external chill, cold bed, steam generator or other heat exchanger of being flowed through, take following measure: note the operating temperature of control low melting point liquid metal or alloy, operating temperature is not more than 500 ℃; With low melting point liquid metal or the contacted metal structure surface of the hot transduction agent of alloy, take the method for steam treated, generate fine and close oxide-film, on oxide-film, apply (or dipping) grease (or liquid wax) again, through the heating coking, on oxide-film, cover the carbonaceous rete; As not taking steam treated and coated carbon plasma membrane layer, can protect with spray metal Mo, W on low melting point liquid metal or the contacted steel metal structure surface of the hot transduction agent of alloy or anti-material every; Use Mo, W or carbon material manufacturing and low melting point liquid metal or the contacted parts of the hot transduction agent of alloy.
Use the low melting point liquid metal of this law or the points for attention of the hot transduction agent of alloy: remain liquid state in the circulatory system, maximum temperature is not more than 500 ℃, maintains more than the fusing point by insulation when not working; Be equipped with measuring instruments such as liquid level, temperature, flow, monitor and the control heat transfer; Can produce oxidation because of meeting air, the oxide of generation can influence heat transfer, accelerates the wearing and tearing and the inefficacy of mechanical seal, stops up circulatory flow, take measures such as gas shield and air-isolation; Want the variation of compositions such as oxygen content and iron in the hot transduction agent of periodic analysis low melting point liquid metal or alloy, chromium, nickel, silicon, manganese, check regularly at hang in the circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy identical, test piece that surface treatment method is consistent with equipment material, whether produce hot dip with the equipment of making regular check on and match, judge corrosion situation equipment with corrosion.
Feature with low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic agitator of the hot transduction agent of alloy is: with heat resisting steel or heating resisting metal manufacturing, have on the agitator not immerse to be solidified the section of controlling of bearing the agitator motion in the metal or alloy and partly to immerse the non-heat exchanging segment of not bearing shear agitation and cooling effect that is solidified in the metal or alloy and all immerse and be solidified the heat exchanging segment that plays shear agitation and cooling effect in the metal or alloy, be with the refractory sleeve brick in the outside of non-heat exchanging segment, the outer surface of heat exchanging segment promptly be solidified the side that metal or alloy contacts, be coated with the anti-high-quality working lining of anti-material that is solidified the metal or alloy fluid erosion, being to mix the transition zone that spray with the spray metal by different component by anti-material under the working lining, is the Ni that contains that is sprayed on the heat exchanging segment metallic walls under the transition zone, Cr, AL, Y's can metal back layer married with it.Because working lining is not with to be solidified the metal or alloy fluid moistening, again because the thermal boundary effect and the thermograde function of heat exchanging segment face coat, the diabatic process that makes the temperature of heat exchanging segment outer surface and taken place adapts with the process that is solidified metal or alloy formation semisolid fluid, make the solid phase of in high degree of agitation, separating out (crystallization), under shearing force and action of centrifugal force, can not form dendrite, and dissociated rapidly, be evenly distributed among the fluid, this approximate spherical solid phase particle is surrounded by liquid phase, be suspended in the liquid phase, formation has non-Newton fluid characteristic (as: thixotropy; Rheological characteristic; Thixotropy; Extrusion swelling; Spinnability etc.) semi-solid-state metal or alloy.The central tube concentric with it arranged in agitator, the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is through the heat exchanging segment of the through agitator of central tube, with be solidified metallic walls and the refractory coating of metal or alloy and carry out compulsory heat convection by heat exchanging segment, the hot transduction agent of heated low melting point liquid metal or alloy flows through from the gap between central tube and the agitator, after leaving agitator, enter with low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy recuperative heat exchanger (for example steam generator) as heat medium, after being cooled, conveying through low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulating pump of alloy, enter the central tube of agitator again, continuing the exchange hot arc cools off, derive heat energy, and make agitator under condition of work, keep due rigidity.Agitator can rotate; Can not rotate yet and take to rock, swing, move back and forth or vibrate; Agitator can be vertical, level or inclination in the position in space; Can carry out with shear agitation and the various forms and the structure that are cooled to main effect being solidified the metal or alloy fluid.
Heat exchange area S (the m of agitator heat exchanging segment 2) computing formula: S = Q α × ( t 1 - t 2 )
The heat flow that Q-heat exchanging segment per hour transmits in the formula (KW);
The total coefficient of heat transfer (KW/m of α-heat exchanging segment 2* ℃);
T1-be solidified metal (or alloy) fluid mean temperature (℃);
The mean temperature of t2-low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy (℃);
(t1-t2)-be between heat exchanging segment wall two side liquids mean temperature difference (℃).
The calculating of the heat flow Q that the agitator heat exchanging segment per hour transmits (KW):
Q=D*(Cp*ΔT+Lf*g%)
The weight that is solidified the metal or alloy fluid (Kg/h) of D in the formula-per hour cooled off by heat exchanging segment;
Cp-the be solidified liquid mean heat capacity (KJ/Kg* ℃) of metal or alloy;
Δ T-liquid state be solidified metal or alloy overtemperature (℃);
Lf-the be solidified crystallization latent heat (KJ/Kg) of metal or alloy;
G%-be solidified solid phase components percentage (%) in the metal or alloy semisolid fluid.
Be solidified between the hot transduction agent of metal or alloy fluid and low melting point liquid metal or alloy, carry out total coefficient of heat transfer α (KW/m of convective heat exchange by the heat exchanging segment wall 2* ℃) be: 1 1 α 1 + 1 α 2 + R
Convective heat-transfer coefficient (the KW/m of the metal or alloy fluid of α 1 in the formula-be solidified 2* ℃);
Convective heat-transfer coefficient (the KW/m of α 2-low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy 2* ℃);
Thermal resistance R=R1+R2+R3+R4 (the m that R-wall is total 2* ℃/KW);
Thermal resistance (the m of R1-heat exchanging segment metal wall 2* ℃/KW);
Oxidation film layer thermal resistance (the m that makes through steam treated of R2-on the heat exchanging segment metal wall of low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent one side of alloy 2* ℃/KW);
Carbon layer thermal resistance (the m of R3-on the oxidation film layer of the heat exchanging segment metal wall of low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent one side of alloy, cover 2* ℃/KW);
The anti-coating entire thermal resistance that is solidified the metal or alloy fluid erosion of making through plasma spraying of R4-on the heat exchanging segment metal wall that is solidified metal (or alloy) fluid one side promptly comprises the thermal resistance (m of working lining, transition zone, metal back layer 2* ℃/KW).
The computing formula of the total coefficient of heat transfer of steam generator: H = 1 1 h 1 + 1 h 2 + R
The total coefficient of heat transfer (the KW/m of H-steam generator in the formula 2* ℃);
Convective heat-transfer coefficient (the KW/m of h1-low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy 2* ℃);
Convective heat-transfer coefficient (the KW/m of h2-press water 2* ℃);
Entire thermal resistance R=R1+R2+R3 (the m of R-steam generator heat exchange tube wall 2* ℃/KW);
Thermal resistance (the m of R1-steel pipe walls 2* ℃/KW);
Oxidation film layer thermal resistance (the m that R2-on the steel pipe walls surface of low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent one side of alloy makes through steam treated 2* ℃/KW);
Carbonaceous layer thermal resistance (m on the steel pipe walls surface of R3-cover low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent one side of alloy on the oxide-film that steam treated is made 2* ℃/KW);
Annotate: (a) during the accurate Calculation entire thermal resistance, add the spontaneous oxide-film thermal resistance of water side steel pipe walls and the thermal resistance of incrustation scale.(b) during the convective heat-transfer coefficient of accurate Calculation press water, segmentation to calculate, i.e. the convective heat-transfer coefficient of preheating section, evaporator section, superheat section.
Quality after the property relationship of semi-solid-state metal or alloy fluid all solidifies to metal or alloy, the technological parameter that influences semi-solid-state metal or alloy fluid property has:
Shearing rate: reflect the power of shear agitation, influence pattern, the size of solid phase particle, can change the viscosity (being shear shinning) of semisolid fluid, the convection transfer rate of metal or alloy fluid is had certain influence.The teeter chamber is made the average shear rate that ring-type is sheared, can be calculated as follows: Y ave = 2 Ω 0 ( 1 - k 2 ) × k
Y Ave-average shear rate;
The ratio of the radius of turn of k-heat exchanging segment and the radius of teeter chamber;
Ω o-angular speed.
As can be known, after the radius of turn and the ratio of the radius of teeter chamber of heat exchanging segment were determined, the rotating speed that changes heat exchanging segment can change angular speed, and then changes the average shear rate from relational expression.
Solid phase components percentage: it shows the crystallization latent heat that has discharged equivalent amount.By the be solidified heat of metal or alloy fluid deriving of measurement unit's time, deduct the sensible heat of liquid overtemperature, just crystallization latent heat of deriving as can be known and solid phase components percentage correspondingly from Unit Weight.When metal is not simple metal or eutectic alloy, the percentage of solid phase components is corresponding to a specified temp between this alloy liquid phase line and the solidus, the temperature difference of available this alloy liquid phase line and solidus and the corresponding relation between the solid phase components percentage calculate, and help the solid phase components percentage that reaches expection by measurement and control to this alloy semisolid fluid temperature (F.T.).Solid phase components percentage influences the viscosity of semisolid fluid, and under the constant situation of shearing rate, with the increase of solid phase components percentage, the viscosity of fluid strengthens.Variation by measuring agitator torque (or the d.c. motor electric current of transmission and the variation of power), judge the viscosity of semisolid fluid according to the relation (shearing stress=viscosity * shear velocity) of shearing stress and viscosity, according to the relation curve of viscosity and solid phase percentage, corresponding as can be known solid phase percentage.
Cooling velocity: metal or alloy is constantly stirred and is cooled to contain the semisolid fluid of certain solid phase components percentage from liquid state, and its cooling velocity is represented with average cooldown rate.Common alloy is calculated as follows:
Solidification temperature range/the local solidification time of average cooldown rate=alloy (promptly from beginning to separate out the solid phase particle, to the time of predetermined solid phase components percentage) V ave = ΔT s t f That is: V ave = ΔT s ( gs ) t f ( gs )
V Ave-average cooldown rate
The solidification temperature range of Δ Ts-alloy (liquidus temperature-solidus temperature);
Tf-local solidification time;
First solid phase particle percentage in gs-semisolid fluid;
Δ Ts (gs)-liquidus temperature and exit, teeter chamber fluid temperature (F.T.) poor;
Tf (the gs)-mean residence time of alloy in the teeter chamber.
This formula can only be used to have the alloy of solidification temperature range, can not be used to have only the simple metal and the eutectic alloy of definite melting point, and the freezing range difference of different-alloy, and this average cooldown rate can only be fit to this alloy.Because cooldown rate is directly connected to the size of separating out the solid phase particle from liquid, so it will be argued that, use the unit interval, the crystallization latent heat quantity that derives when separating out required solid phase percentage from Unit Weight liquid represents that cooldown rate is more definite.
The granular size of solid phase particle: generally be approximately garden shape, available quantitative metallography determines equivalent diameter.In the identical semisolid fluid of solid phase percentage, under the also identical situation of shearing rate, the viscosity that the solid phase particle is little is lower; As-cast structure after all solidifying is also corresponding thinner.The principal element that influences solid phase particle granular size is average cooldown rate.
The viscosity of semisolid fluid: viscosity is directly connected to the moment of torsion and the transmission power of shear agitation; Influence the rheological characteristic and the mold-filling capacity of semisolid fluid.By measuring moment of torsion and the electric current and the power of transmission d.c. motor, the pairing solid phase components percentage under this shearing rate as can be known of agitator.Domestic and international research shows that solid phase components is when 25% (or 30%) is following, and the flowability of semisolid fluid is similar to the flowability of the metal or alloy of full liquid state, and promptly viscosity is with liquid approximate.When solid phase components surpasses 30% between 50% the time, the viscosity of semisolid fluid has obvious variation (increase) with the increase of solid phase components, is sticking machine oil shape.When solid phase components is equal to or greater than after 60%, semi-solid-state metal or alloy are the soft solid shape, and similar solid can be carried.So when utilizing deadweight and potential energy to carry out semi-solid rheological casting (or continuous casting), solid phase components is not greater than 50%.In addition, the viscosity height is unfavorable for the eliminating of gas and field trash.
The shearing rate that stirs by control and be solidified intensity of heat exchange between the hot transduction agent of metal or alloy fluid and low melting point liquid metal or alloy and the quantity of institute's transporting heat energy controls solid phase particle percentage and solid phase particle size and the viscosity that is solidified the metal or alloy fluid, obtain the semisolid fluid of required feature, and then make it solidify, reach the crystallization control process, improve the purpose of existing cast sturcture.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing embodiments of the invention are described in further detail.
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of the high efficiency continuous casting machine of semi-solid rheological continuous casting black or coloured Metal and Alloy square billet, garden base and slab;
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of semi-solid rheological casting black or coloured Metal and Alloy large-sized casting ingot;
Fig. 3 inserts the schematic diagram that agitator makes it to be frozen into through the semisolid process large-scale solid ingot casting behind full liquid phase cast black or the coloured Metal and Alloy;
Fig. 4 is the cutaway view along A-A line among Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 inserts the schematic diagram that makes it to be frozen into through the semisolid process large hollow ingot casting as the agitator of fuse behind full liquid phase cast black or the coloured Metal and Alloy;
Fig. 6 is by the schematic diagram before the demoulding of Fig. 5 method manufacturing large hollow ingot casting;
Fig. 7 is the schematic diagram of semi-solid rheological casting black or coloured Metal and Alloy heavy castings;
Fig. 8 is the cutaway view along A-A line among Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 inserts the schematic diagram that agitator makes it to be frozen into through the semisolid process heavy castings behind full liquid phase cast black or the coloured Metal and Alloy;
Figure 10 is a casting mold top view of removing agitating device for key diagram 9;
Figure 11 is the cutaway view along A-A line among Fig. 9;
With embodiment the present invention is described below in conjunction with accompanying drawing:
The high efficiency continuous casting machine of embodiment 1 semi-solid rheological continuous casting black or coloured Metal and Alloy square billet, garden base and slab
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of the high efficiency continuous casting machine of semi-solid rheological continuous casting black or coloured Metal and Alloy square billet, garden base and slab.Adopt low melting point liquid metal or alloy to do hot transduction agent, circulation cooling and stirring device, pass through the teeter chamber, the metal or alloy of a large amount of continuous castings is made the semisolid fluid, under the effect of the potential energy of fluid and pressure differential and strand tractive force, flow out from the slide gate nozzle of bottom, teeter chamber, enter crystallizer through the rheology section, owing on freezing mechanism, have essence different with the continuous casting that existing full liquid state enters crystallizer, the free crystalline substance of crystallization latent heat that key factor-release that influence is solidified is a large amount of and the numerous dispersions of formation, in semisolid manufacturing process, obtained artificial control, after so strand goes out crystallizer, there is not the long like that liquid core (half congealed core) of present continuous casting billet, the crystallization latent heat that does not need to rely on a large amount of water sprays to take away in the liquid core solidifies strand fully, need not establish powerful electromagnetic mixing apparatus at crystallizer and two cold-zones yet, can continuous casting the special steel of more difficult continuous casting now, the big alloy of solid-liquid phase linear distance particularly, not only improved slab quality, and can reduce the conticaster height and length, improve pulling rate, reduce the fluxion of existing conticaster, energy-conservation and recovery section heat energy can be realized high efficiency continuous casting and near net shape continuous casting and continuous casting and rolling.Can be used for the continuous casting production of ferrous and nonferrous metals such as steel and cast iron and alloy, except that supply has the blank of rolling and forging usefulness now, can supply the blank that is used for thixotropic forming (as semisolid extrusion casint) in a large number, promote the development of the sector new technology with semisolid characteristic.Describe this apparatus and method in detail below in conjunction with Fig. 1.
Capital equipment structure and characteristics:
Tundish 15 collects from what the submersed nozzle 14 of big bag injected and is supplied with teeter chamber's 18 making semi-solid-state metal or alloys by the liquid metal of continuous casting or alloy 17.Storing liquid metal or alloy 17 can reduce the impact of liquid and splash and stir the vortex that causes in the tundish 15, help gas and floating foreign in liquid metal or the alloy 17, and give semi-solid-state metal or the certain pressure of in teeter chamber 18, making of alloy fluid, help the rheology continuous casting.On multiple-strand caster, tundish 15 can play shunting action.When sequence casting, tundish 15 can store the liquid metal of some or alloy 17 to guarantee not interrupt continuous casting when changing big bag.Can take gas shield or liquid covering slag 16 to prevent oxidation and air-breathing to liquid metal or alloy 17 in the tundish 15.
On the table top of semi-solid rheological continuous casting car 60, tundish bearing support 24 is installed, tundish 15, the teeter chamber 18 that anti-material is made, slide gate nozzle 27, the rheology section 23 that anti-material is made, with low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent 37 hydronic steel crystalliser 51 of alloy and agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, control transverse arm 8 and the column 9 of liftable rotation and the hydraulic cylinder 10 that the column lifting is rotated of agitator, the table top of their energy and semi-solid rheological continuous casting car 60 moves together, semi-solid rheological continuous casting garage walk motor 25 and semi-solid rheological continuous casting car gearbox 26 drive semi-solid rheological continuous casting car wheels 28 along rail 29 with the perpendicular horizontal rail of throwing center line on move, open water before, semi-solid rheological continuous casting car 60 carries the tundish 15 that assembles, teeter chamber 18, slide gate nozzle 27, rheology section 23, crystallizer 51, agitator mobile jib 11, control the transverse arm 8 of agitator, liftable Rotary cloumn 9 and the hydraulic cylinder 10 that the column lifting is rotated, reach by the nozzle 52 of air-water mixing cooling device and the roller-way 53 of air-water mixing cooling device, straightening machine 54, cutting machine 55, before the throwing line that rollgang 56 and dummy ingot 58 are formed, aim at the throwing center line, and dummy ingot 58 is sent into crystallizer 51.Straightening machine 54 will select to draw the straightening machine that stops pushing away the mode throwing, and the roller-way 53 of air-water mixing cooling device, rollgang 56 and straightening machine 54 all are contained on the basis 61 of roller-way and straightening machine.
Teeter chamber 18 and tundish 15 are splits, combine as a whole through assembling.Teeter chamber 18 is the positions that make the semisolid fluid on the semi-solid rheological conticaster, because will in teeter chamber 18, carry out shear agitation and cooling to the metal or alloy fluid, liquid metal or alloy 17 is made required semisolid fluid, teeter chamber 18 will bear the metal or alloy fluid etch of high temperature and wash away, and is made by the anti-material of high-quality.In order to regulate or keep the temperature and the heat energy of continuous casting of metals in the teeter chamber or alloy fluid, teeter chamber's yoke 19 that the water-cooled copper 20 of 18 arranged outside teeter chamber induction coil and silicon steel sheet are made in the teeter chamber, be connected with intermediate frequency power supply (comprising the capacitor group) with water-cooled cable, the power that can regulate the IGCT inverter as required heats the metal or alloy in the teeter chamber 18 17 or is incubated.The cavity shape of teeter chamber 18 is generally the garden tubular, and slide gate nozzle 27 need be installed 18 bottoms by the teeter chamber, and the inner chamber bottom makes funneling so that and slide gate nozzle 27 butt joints.Teeter chamber 18 and the heat exchanging segment 13 common composition preparation semi-solid-state metals of agitator or the working portions of alloy fluid (being slurry).
Agitator and transmission device are made of jointly the turning joint 30,31 on the hot transduction agent circulation line of outlet 2, low melting point liquid metal or alloy of the inlet tube 1 of the hot transduction agent 37 of mechanical seal 3, low melting point liquid metal or alloy of the heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, agitator and agitator bearing group 4, the gear 5 that drives the agitator rotation, gearbox 6, d.c. motor 7, the transverse arm 8 of controlling agitator, the column 9 of liftable rotation, the hydraulic cylinder 10 that makes column lifting rotation, agitator and low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy etc.Be with high-quality refractory material sleeve brick 12 on the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11.The heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator and continuous casting of metals or the contacted surface of alloy 17 fluids have the working lining of anti-material of plasma spraying.Agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 by d.c. motor 7 through gearbox 6 and gear 5 driven rotary; The moment of shear agitation metal or alloy 17 fluids changes with the variation of semi-solid solid phase components and semisolid fluid properties, by the reflection of electric current (or power) instrument and the feedback of d.c. motor 7.The power supply of d.c. motor 7 usefulness thyristor supplies is pressed desired parameters control or adjustment by control system.Agitator drives lifting by the transverse arm 8 of controlling agitator, and the lifting of transverse arm 8 is finished with the column 9 that horizontally rotates by the liftable rotation.The heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator is in the operating position among Fig. 1, promotes the upper edge that surpasses tundish 15 when not stirring, and also can horizontally rotate ready position again, so that carry out Maintenance and Repair or preheating insulation.The central tube of agitator is that the inlet tube 1 of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is non-rotary, the outlet 2 of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy links with the mechanical seal 3 of agitator, the pair of friction components of mechanical seal 3 can be with graphite to the stellite of built-up welding or graphite to the pottery magnet ring.Do lifting and horizontally rotate etc. when mobile at transverse arm 8,, do not influence its motion, also do not leak because the circulation line of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy is provided with turning joint 30,31.Turning joint 30,31 can be made up of simple mechanical seal or bellows.
This method is made solid phase components with the liquid metal of continuous casting or alloy 17 and is not more than 50% semi-solid-state metal or alloy pulp in teeter chamber 18, be semi-solid-state metal or the alloy fluid that viscosity can not surpass sticking oily, utilize its flowability or rheological characteristic to enter crystallizer 51 then, carry out the semi-solid rheological casting, for making from the teeter chamber 18 semi-solid-state metals that come out or alloy fluid keep semi-solid characteristic, carry out continuous casting so that enter the crystallizer 51 of different size and shape smoothly, below teeter chamber 18 (when teeter chamber outlet is provided with slide gate nozzle, below slide gate nozzle 27), the rheology section 23 that refractory material is made is set, and the rheology section yoke 22 that is equipped with rheology section induction coil water-cooled copper 21 and makes of silicon steel sheet, by intermediate frequency power supply the metal or alloy in the rheology section 23 are heated in case of necessity or be incubated, allow the semisolid fluid under the comprehensive function of potential energy and pressure differential and strand tractive force, finish from the teeter chamber 18 export to smoothly transitting between the crystallizer (as: expansion of runner bore or cross section with dwindle; Change cross sectional shape; Turn round or shunt), enter with low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 hydronic steel crystalliser 51 of alloy, after forming solid-state base shell, continuous casting billet 57 is pulled out crystallizer 51 by straightening machine 54, pass through the roller-way 53 of air-water mixing cooling device again, be subjected to the further cooling of the nozzle 52 of air-water mixing cooling device, continuous casting billet 57 is all solidified, pass straightening machine 54 back continuous casting billets and on roller-way 56, be cut machine 55 cuttings, the continuous casting billet 58 that has after the cutting of semisolid inherent cause is sent to cooling on the cold bed 59,52,53,54,55,56 are installed on the basis 61 of roller-way and straightening machine.Rheology section 23 selects the anti-material of high-quality to make according to service condition, and shape and size are according to the kind of semi-solid-state metal or alloy; Solid phase components percentage and solid phase particle size; Lose the viscosity after the shear agitation; The size (as the thrust of heat exchanging segment 13 convection cells) of fluid suffered static pressure and external force in the teeter chamber; Comprehensive Design such as the intensity of variation of teeter chamber 18 (or slide gate nozzle 27) outlet and crystallizer 51 entrance cross-sections and relative tertiary location.Anti-material one end of rheology section 23 docks with teeter chamber 18 (or slide gate nozzle 27) outlet, and the other end docks with crystallizer 51 inlets, will lean on the fixing three of steel construction to fit together with bolt or pin, and be fixed on the table top of semi-solid rheological continuous casting car 60.
Be equipped with the purposes of eddy-current heating: before the continuous casting, agitator is proposed, put into graphite core or carbon lump, the inner chamber of anti-material wall to teeter chamber 18 and rheology section 23 carries out eddy-current heating, make anti-material impaired because of violent thermal shock when avoiding beginning continuous casting, and avoid crossing the low scull that forms because of the chamber wall temperature, influence smooth continuous casting.After not inserting or proposing agitator, can the metal or alloy in the teeter chamber 18 be heated or be incubated, even the metal or alloy fusing of having solidified in the teeter chamber 18 also can be helped the insulation of liquid in the tundish 15; Help sequence casting and handle the fault of tundish 15 and teeter chamber 18.To the metal or alloy in rheology section 23 chambers, the needs according to the semi-solid rheological casting can heat or be incubated, even the metal or alloy fusing of having solidified in the rheology section 23 can be helped sequence casting and handles the fault that takes place in rheology section 23.Since in the teeter chamber 18 and rheology section 23 to be equipped with specific power big, the eddy-current heating of kelvin effect is arranged, make semi-solid rheological operation of casting tolerance big, be convenient to adjust operating procedure.Because adopted the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, solved much larger than the release problem of the crystallization latent heat of liquid sensible heat, can further improve pulling rate, needn't need the temperature of liquid metal in the strict control tundish or alloy 17 with existing continuous casting like that, the various heating systems that can save existing continuous casting tundish are (as the tundish eddy-current heating; Iso ionic Heating of Tundish etc.).In the teeter chamber 18 and rheology section 23 when not carrying out eddy-current heating, this induction power supply can be by being located at the induction coil power supply on hot transduction agent 37 circulation lines of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, this heat-carrying agent is heated or is incubated, prevent its frozen plug, help keeping the unimpeded of this circulatory system.At the preparation station place of agitator in non-continuous casting state, can utilize the induction coil of setting, the heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator is heated.For example, after the anti-material coating on its surface is etched attenuation, it is soaked the extension coating of anti-the material, make it dry with eddy-current heating; Graphite (or carbon element) cover that also can be by being enclosed within heat exchanging segment 13 outsides carry out eddy-current heating, makes the coating of anti-material sintering method heat-agglomeratings such as (or spray anti-material) also available certainly flame, flame passes in order to next continuous casting.Also can be during semi-solid rheological conticaster complete machine be made, after the circulatory system of agitator and low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy is finished substantially, the intermediate frequency power supply that utilization is chosen, inductor and anti-material, be assembled into induction furnace, carry out portion of hot examination more targetedly, the relevant data of checking design is for complete machine heat trial throw product is laid a solid foundation.Induction heating power also can be used for fusing preparation low-melting alloy, satisfies this casting machine needs.Use induction heating power (a tractor serves several purposes); melt the solid slag for preparing with black-fead crucible; the tundish 15 of liquid covering slag 16 directly being supplied with the semi-solid rheological continuous casting uses; replace the present solid-state covering slag that generally uses; because liquid metal or alloy 17 are subjected to the influence of agitator than existing continuous casting bigger motion to be arranged in the tundish, use liquid covering slag 16 or inert gas shielding can avoid because of using the carburetting pollutions such as (as the continuous castings of steel) of solid-state covering slag generation.Bigger when teeter chamber 18 with rheology section 23 sizes, during the anti-material products of the moulding that difficult employing sinters, adopt anti-material knotting, use eddy-current heating carbonaceous (or metal) core (or filling block) that the working lining on anti-material surface is carried out using behind the sintering then.The intermediate frequency power supply frequency of eddy-current heating is selected, as: the aluminium alloy of non-ferrous metal, optional 300-1000HZ.Ferrous metal, the optional 1000-8000HZ of steel and cast iron (adjustable is best, the nonadjustable 2500HZ-4000HZ that selects).From security, the choosing of the output voltage of intermediate frequency power supply is better smaller or equal to 600V (as: controllable silicon parallel circuit).The power output of intermediate frequency power supply is held specific heat, the heat of solution of the kind of metal or alloy and weight, solid phase and liquid phase, the programming rate of requirement according to the inner chamber of teeter chamber 18, rheology section 23; Calculate and select with reference to the relevant design of middle frequency furnace.Intermediate frequency power supply and capacitor group and induction coil are complementary, the yoke that induction coil has silicon steel sheet to make outward, and the power factor height, heating power is concentrated.By adjusting the angle of flow of controllable silicon (IGCT), can regulate heating power flexibly.IGCT, capacitor group, induction coil and water-cooled cable all are equipped with cooling water recirculation system.An intermediate frequency power supply can respectively be joined with rheology section 23 by teeter chamber 18, and intermediate frequency power supply can a tractor serves several purposes.
The semi-solid rheological continuous casting, be to make by the liquid metal of continuous casting or alloy 17 in teeter chamber 18, to discharge whole liquid sensible heats and can reach 50% crystallization latent heat, form with the semisolid fluid, under the comprehensive function of potential energy and pressure differential and throwing tractive force etc., enter crystallizer 51 through rheology section 23, this enters crystallizer with the metal or alloy of existing continuous casting with full liquid state has big different, should, crystallizer 51 has not been to undertake the alleged cooling device of quilt tradition that metal or alloy 17 solidifies, make the heart status of crystallizer 51 from conticaster, made way for teeter chamber 18, the thermic load of crystallizer 51 alleviates significantly, be difficult for adhesion with continuous casting billet 57, crystallizer wall is not yielding yet, and the life-span of crystallizer 51 prolongs in the time of injecting than full liquid state.Semi-solid-state metal or alloy enter crystallizer 51 backs and are cooled off with surperficial contact of wall, liquid phase part wherein solidifies, form the solid-state base shell of one deck along crystallizer wall, compare, under all identical condition of crystallizer and pulling rate with existing continuous casting, when going out crystallizer 51, the base shell is thicker, and intensity is higher, is containing the semi-solid-state metal or the alloy that lose shear agitation in the base shell, soft yolk than existing continuous casting billet is short and small, and heat content is few.Because the solidification shrinkage of semi-solid-state metal or alloy forms the contraction of base shell than full settable liquid and is out of shape for a short time, crystallizer 51 can design back draught, helps throwing.Because the thermic load of crystallizer 51 alleviates significantly, crystallizer 51 can cool off without copper or copper alloy manufacturing and water, the available steel plate manufacturing of being convenient to weld, in order to reclaim more thermal energy, adopt with the circulatory system of shared low melting point liquid metal of agitator or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy and come cooler crystallizer 51.The import of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy on crystallizer 51 is 49, and the outlet of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy on crystallizer 51 is 50.For the wearability that improves crystallizer 51 working faces and the coefficient that reduces friction, but the spraying abrasion-proof layer.The runner of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy in the crystallizer 51 is made vapor-phase oxidation handle, and, prevent the erosion damage of 37 pairs of crystallizer walls of the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy coated with the carbonaceous rete that generates through coking.Crystallizer 51 is connected with rheology section 23, join together through assembling, and be fixed on the table top of semi-solid rheological continuous casting car 60, make crystallizer 51 and rheology section 23, teeter chamber 18, tundish 15 grades can be carried out integral level together and laterally be moved and aim at the throwing center line, the vibration throwing mode of the straightening machine of using except that the horizontal caster that adopts Fig. 1, also can take to allow the outlet of rheology section 23 be contained in crystallizer 51 interior tens millimeters, and leave glade plane space, make crystallizer 51 make double vibrations along the throwing axis, because metal or alloy comes out from rheology section 23 with semisolid, the full liquid state much higher (several magnitude is arranged) that its ratio of viscosities is overheated, be subjected to the cooling of crystallizer 51 again, as long as glade plane space is suitable, can creep into the slit and hinder throwing, this mold oscillation; The non-vibrating throwing mode of strand, its vibrating device and Blank drawing machine are all comparatively simple, can reduce investment outlay.
The circulatory system of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is born from agitator heat exchanging segment 13 and is derived continuous casting of metals or the whole liquid sensible heat of alloy 17 and the crystallization latent heat suitable with solid phase percentage; Derive a part of crystallization latent heat and the part solid phase sensible heat that continuous casting billet 57 continues to emit from crystallizer 51; And (send cold bed) as required and derive a part of solid phase sensible heat of strands from cold bed 59 as non-heat; By recuperative heat exchanger (helix tube, U-shaped pipe or shell and tube), as: shell-side is that the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, pipe side are the steam generators 34 of water or steam, allow the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy carry out convective heat exchange with water (or steam), through preheating section C, evaporator section B and superheat section A heat energy is converted into steam, is recycled.
Circulating pump motor 40, bearing group 41, mechanical seal 42, liquid wheel 44 and axle 38, pump inlet 47, pump discharge 48 by low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy are formed low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 of alloy jointly.Low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of the hot transduction agent of alloy sent by circulating pump 43, a part is behind the heat exchanging segment 13 of the turning joint 30 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulation line of alloy and low melting point liquid metal on the agitator or the hot transduction agent inlet tube 1 cooling and stirring device of alloy, between inlet tube 1 and agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, mechanical seal 3 through the agitator top, by low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 2 of alloy through the turning joint 31 and 30 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulation line of alloy again with the converging in the threeway 32 that flows to steam generator 34 of cooler crystallizer 51 from exporting 50 another part low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agents 37 of alloy that come out through turning joint 31, enter the shell-side of steam generator 34 again from the low melting point liquid metal of steam generator 34 or the hot transduction agent inlet 39 of alloy, carry out convective heat exchange with the water (or steam) in the pipe side, to become steam from the demineralized water of demineralized water inlet tube 36, emit from vapor outlet port pipe 35, and the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal that is cooled or alloy is flowed out by the outlet 46 of evaporimeter shell-side, pump from pump discharge 48 again through low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent pump inlet 47 of alloy, then, a part is removed cooling and stirring device heat exchanging segment 13, another part through low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent flow control valve 45 of alloy and turning joint 30 from low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy the import 49 on crystallizer 51 remove cooler crystallizer 51.For improving the efficient that reclaims heat energy, prevent that the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy from resulting in blockage because of solidifying, must take insulation measure (conventional method is a lot, omits) to the circulatory system that exposes at room temperature.Can to select fusing point be 98 ℃ Pb-Bi low-melting alloy or do hot transduction agent with lower liquid alloys of composition fusing point such as Pb, Bi, Sn, Zn at this.Preferably select the manufacturing of Austenitic chromium nickel heat-resisting steel for use with the relevant position of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 contacted agitators of alloy, circulating pump 43, pipeline, turning joint 30,31, flow control valve 45, instrument, crystallizer 51, steam generator 34 etc., also can select pearlite type heat resisting steel to replace for reducing manufacturing cost, the operating temperature height that the former allows, firm note of the ancient Chinese of oxidation film layer through steam treated is close, but Austenitic chromium nickel heat-resisting steel thermal conductivity factor is lower, take all factors into consideration and select.The friction pair of mechanical seal 3 also will be selected the material manufacturing of the hot transduction agent 37 of anti-low melting point liquid metal or alloy.The circulating pump 43 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy is selected the type and the material of pump according to the operating temperature of the loss in head of the composition of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, flow velocity, flow, circulation line, pump and the efficient of operating condition, pump continuously.On the large-scale continuous casting machine of iron and steel production, use, should select centrifugal pump or axial-flow pump, and do not select electromagnetic pump, can select, order with reference to the Pb pump (using in the zinc metallurgy production) and the liquid metal coolant circulating pump of nuclear energy use that delivering liquid metal in the existing industrial production uses.The outside of agitator heat exchanging segment 13 walls is fluids of continuous casting of metals or alloy 17, the structure of wall is followed successively by: the high-quality working lining of anti-the material (as usefulness plasma spray zirconia (PSZ)+8% yittrium oxide, or aluminium oxide), the anti-material of high-quality mixes the transition zone (as using plasma spraying nickel bag zirconia or nickel package alumina) that sprays to become to have concentration gradient and change with metal by different proportion, the metal back layer of plasma spraying (as being mainly siderochrome aluminium or siderochrome aluminium ytterbium), agitator metallic walls (can be SUS304), the oxidation film layer that in the time of 550 ℃, forms on the agitator metal wall surfaces through steam treated, attached to the carbonaceous layer on the oxidation film layer through coking formation; In the inboard of wall, contacted with carbonaceous layer is low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy that is circulating.The fluid of continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 is subjected to the shear agitation of agitator heat exchanging segment 13 in teeter chamber 18, pass the forced convertion heat exchange that fierceness is carried out in agent 37 with the low melting point liquid metal that is circulating or the alloy heat of heat exchanging segment 13 wall opposite sides, will be in limited space, when obtaining the higher shear rate, for making teeter chamber 18 that more area of passage be arranged, and make heat exchanging segment 13 that bigger heat exchange area also be arranged, the wall profile of heat exchanging segment 13 can not adopt simple garden cylindricality, and adopt splined shaft shape or mace shape, even adopt worm screw or spiral-shaped (can increase the ability that full-bodied semi-solid-state metal or alloy under the high solid fraction are discharged from teeter chamber 18).The speed that the gap of the geomery of agitator heat exchanging segment 13 and teeter chamber 18, the rotating speed of agitator, unit interval continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 flow, continuous casting of metals or the alloy 17 by teeter chamber 18 is cooled and from the teeter chamber 18 quantity that pass out crystallization latent heat have determined solid phase percentage and the shape of solid phase particle and the viscosity of size and semisolid fluid of semisolid fluid, they influence the tissue of the continuous casting billet 57 after the semisolid fluid all solidifies and again eddy-current heating form the performance of carrying out thixotropic forming after the semisolid.And concerning only produce the continuous casting billet of using for conventional edging through the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, then loose many on technology than the blank of production semi-solid processing special use.
For energy-conservation, reclaim the energy and cooling through heated low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agents 37 of alloy such as agitator heat exchanging segment 13 and crystallizers 51, can take to allow itself and gas or liquid carry out the method for dividing wall type convective heat exchange, be used for technology heating or heating.(Fig. 1) adopts low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy to carry out heat exchange with demineralized water in the steam generator 34 of shell-and-tube in the present embodiment, produces steam, is used, as goes into the steam pipe network; For application of vacuum; Heating; Generating etc.The liquid level of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy and atmospheric pressure maintain an equal level in the steam generator 34, are free surface.Allow the circulatory system of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy under lower pressure, move, help reducing the transmission power that leaks and alleviate the circulatory system.For the oxidation that prevents the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy with to the pollution of atmosphere, feed inert gases from the low melting point liquid metal of steam generator 34 shell-sides or the protection against oxidation gas feed 33 of hot transduction agent 37 free surfaces of alloy top.
Air water mixing cooling device: because the liquid superheat (liquid sensible heat) of continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 and suitable with solid phase percentage, a part of crystallization latent heat that process of setting is had the greatest impact discharges in teeter chamber 18, after semi-solid-state metal or alloy fluid are subjected to crystallizer wall again by crystallizer 51 time continuation cooling produces and has the solid-state strand shell of certain intensity and thickness, continuous casting billet 57 is constantly pulled out from crystallizer 51, the liquid core of its base shell heart portion and existing continuous casting (half congealed core) is different, be semi-solid-state metal or the alloy that contains a lot of solid phase particles, or else be that liquid metal (or alloy) is being contained in high temperature billet shell (the general thick 10-20mm) lining that approaches, need to lean on powerful water spray to cool off and take away remaining crystallization latent heat up to 70%-80%, its heat content is low more than existing continuous casting billet, so compare with the secondary cooling of existing continuous casting billet, under the identical situation of pulling rate, semi-solid rheological continuous casting billet 57 goes out the required cooling capacity in crystallizer 51 backs, intensity of cooling can greatly reduce, can adopt more weak relatively air water mixed atomizing cooling, even can in air, cool off, help the very wide alloy of the solid liquidus curve distance of continuous casting, as ledeburite and the martensite steel and the cast iron of high-carbon high-alloy.The continuous casting billet 57 that adopts the semi-solid rheological continuous casting to produce, can not form and the perpendicular column crystal of strand axis, defective such as help reducing or prevent that the normal surface longitudinal crack that occurs of existing continuous casting billet and transverse crack, centre burst, corner crack and shrinkage cavity from loosening, improve slab quality, increase some trades mark that existing conticaster is not suitable for continuous casting.
Adopt the semi-solid rheological continuous casting and use rheology section 23, crystallizer 51 can horizontal positioned.Because metal or alloy enters crystallizer 51 with the semisolid flow-like, can be without eseparation ring.As taking crystallizer just needn't adopt the comparatively throwing mode of complexity of existing level conticaster pull-stop-push along the mode of throwing axis vibration and structure again, the mechanism of corresponding hydraulic servo or DC servomotor be can remove from, but straightening machine and common cold shut and the oscillation mark defective of elimination of level continuous casting billet simplified.Owing to be the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, go out the incomplete liquid half congealed core in crystallizer 51 backs, bulge and distortion vertical or that arc machine continuous casting billet is such can not appear yet, can save the device of accordingly strand gently being depressed, so comparable existing circular-arc type continuous casting machine of straightening machine and horizontal caster is simple, improves reliability.Can choose or make with reference to the straightening machine of existing conticaster, but the pulling rate adjusting range when noting continuous casting to strengthen, as improving nearly one times than the normal pulling rate of on average working of existing conticaster.
Dummy ingot 58 and storing unit (simplifying in Fig. 1) can be identical with existing continuous casting.
The cutting equipment of continuous casting billet 57 can be identical with existing conticaster, and cutting machine 55 is flame cutting machines, is applicable to the cutting of iron and steel, and aluminium alloy then adopts and flies sawing and cut.Middle light section continuous casting billet also can adopt machinery or hydraulic cutting device.
The strand gathering-device can be identical with existing continuous casting.Cold bed 59 can adopt the steel construction of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 hydronic wall-type heat exchanges of alloy, the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy can be connected with crystallizer 51, the common recycle system, reclaiming needs just to supply the strand waste heat of step operation down after the cooling.Optionally, strand also can adopt air cooling or slow cooling mode.
Because the comparable existing continuous casting of pulling rate of semi-solid rheological continuous casting improves a lot, temperature drop is little, the inside and outside quality of strand is good, needn't be cooled to finishing again behind the normal temperature, can realize high efficiency continuous casting, help direct heat pressurization pressure processing (forging rolling or extruding), be connected and mate with pressworking equipment than existing continuous casting is easier, realize continuous casting and rolling, can be supporting through the high alloy less-deformable steel (or alloy) of semi-solid rheological continuous casting with precise forging machine etc., shorten and become a useful person the cycle, reduce production costs.
In the instrument and control system of semi-solid rheological continuous casting, main detection content and corresponding instrument:
Sequence number Detect content Instrumentation
1 The temperature of liquid continuous casting of metals or alloy in the tundish Thermocouple and digital instrument
2 Liquid covering slag temperature and liquid level in the tundish Infrared or photoelectric figure instrument
3 That stirs has a related parameter The voltage of the d.c. motor of transmission agitator, electric current, power, rotating speed, digital instruments such as the rotating speed of agitator and moment of torsion
4 The temperature of middle part, teeter chamber and exit metal or alloy fluid Thermocouple and digital instrument
5 The temperature of rheology section middle part and exit metal or alloy fluid Thermocouple and digital instrument
6 Crystallizer exit casting blank surface temperature Infrared or photoelectricity thermometric digital instrument
7 Temperature and the flow of the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy each point in the circulatory system: a. agitator out temperature and flow b. crystallizer out temperature and flow c. cold bed out temperature and flow d. evaporimeter out temperature and flow Thermocouple and temperature digital instrument and digital flowmeter
8 The hot transduction agent circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or alloy The digital instrument of the voltage of pump motor, electric current, power, rotating speed and the digital flowmeter of pump
9 The liquid level of the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy in evaporimeter Liquid level designation number instrument
10 The temperature and pressure of steam generator vapor outlet port place steam Steam temperature and pressure on the number instrument
11 Temperature, pressure, the flow of the import of steam generator demineralized water The digital instrument of the temperature of measurement demineralized water, pressure, flow
12 Enter the preceding casting blank surface temperature of straightening machine Infrared or photoelectricity thermometric digital instrument
13 Carbonated drink is mixed intensity of cooling The pressure of compressed-air actuated pressure, traffic figure instrument water, traffic figure instrument
14 The duty of straightening machine The digital instrument of throwing mode, throwing stroke and casting speed
15 Strand is to the preceding surface temperature of cold bed Infrared or photoelectricity thermometric digital instrument
16 Teeter chamber's eddy-current heating working condition The digital instrument of voltage of intermediate frequency, electric current, frequency, power factor and heating power
17 Rheology section eddy-current heating working condition The same
The major control object of semi-solid rheological conticaster PLC and control function The preparation and the refining of liquid metal or alloy before the continuous casting:
No matter be iron and steel or be the non-ferrous metal of representative with the aluminium alloy, semi-solid rheological continuous casting and existing continuous casting are in the requirement to liquid metal before the continuous casting or alloy, and be basic identical.Concrete preparation and refining are also basic identical.Only owing to adopted the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, the principal contradiction of having caught influence to solidify, fundamentally change and controlled the process of setting of continuous casting, many quality difficult problems that continuous casting billet occurs in existing big the production have been solved, also, seem too harsh from nonprincipal contradiction aspect requirement and the measure of taking with regard to making existing conticaster for solving these quality difficult problems.
To evenly and in the stability requirement of the temperature of the liquid metal of continuous casting or alloy and temperature; Continuous casting as existing steel, because release and derivation to crystallization latent heat in crystallizer are give free rein to (crystallizer has only part improvement effect after adding the electromagnetism stirring) substantially, overtemperature and fluctuation range in the time of can only forcing down liquid metal or alloy as far as possible and enter crystallizer, so overtemperature and fluctuation range to liquid metal or alloy in big bag and the tundish, that limits is very narrow, takes temperature adjustment and measures such as employing eddy-current heating or plasma heating on tundish when ladle refining for this reason.Belgium Centre De Recherches Metallurgiques (CRM) and Abbe moral factory (Arbed) also adopted the submersed nozzle that water cooling heat exchanger is housed, and the temperature that makes molten steel enter crystallizer is controlled on the liquidus curve 6-10 ℃ new technology, and (see: Shi Zhenxing edits.Practical continuous casting metallurgical technology.P89-133. the .1998.6 of metallurgical industry publishing house).But in a word, what the existing metal or alloy of real influence solidified is not liquid sensible heat, but crystallization latent heat, the effect that reduces cast temperature is limited.And for the semi-solid rheological continuous casting of this method, sensible heat just needs the part that reclaims, needn't make excessive demands to force down cast temperature and solve the quality problems of solidifying generation.
In the requirement to continuous casting of metals or alloy composition, the semi-solid rheological continuous casting can adapt to the metal or alloy that has more extensive chemical composition than existing continuous casting, because in the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, solid phase in the semisolid is that form with particle is by encirclement that liquid phase is cut apart, evenly be suspended in the liquid phase, metal or alloy enters crystallizer with the character of semisolid fluid (slurry), only in crystallizer, form thin solid-state base shell with the liquid metal or the alloy of existing continuous casting, after pulling out crystallizer, the secondaries of a large amount of water sprays of main dependence cool off finishes the process of setting difference, so in existing continuous casting, have peritectic reaction or solid liquidus curve distance is very wide and cooling procedure in the big steel of transformation stress or the alloy phenomenon that is prone to crackle, in the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, be not prone to.The semi-solid rheological continuous casting is particularly suitable for the big trade mark of continuous casting solid-liquid phase linear distance, because they are than simple metal or eutectic alloy and the little alloy easier control in the technological operation of semi-solid rheological continuous casting of solid-liquid phase linear distance.Promptly not only from of the reaction of semisolid fluid viscosity, can also judge pairing solid phase percentage, so that adjust process operation parameter such as casting speed from the temperature of semisolid fluid to agitator torque.The semi-solid rheological continuous casting is except the continuous casting billet quality that improves the existing description trade mark, be not suitable for continuous casting in can also the continuous casting existing big production of continuous casting, the quality requirement harshness, special metal or alloy, resemble the ledeburite steel and the cast iron of the high-carbon high-alloy in the iron and steel, high carbon martensite stainless steel and some easily go out carbide liquation and primary carbide inequality, the very large steel of solid-liquid phase linear distance, for example, contain 2%C, the mould steel of 12%Cr, high-speed tool steel, the 440C stainless steel, and stress Da Yi goes out the steel grade or the trade mark of crackle under the secondary water spray cooling condition of existing continuous casting.For the alloy that has a large amount of primary carbides (or ledeburite) to separate out, it is all solidified after the semisolid process again, can avoid producing the primary carbide that flourishing column crystal and thick herring-bone form perpendicular to the growth of continuous casting billet axial line distribute, can improve continuous casting billet and add the thermoplasticity in man-hour, reduce the inhomogeneities that primary carbide distributes in thermal pressure.On to some element controls that are unfavorable for existing continuous casting process, the semi-solid rheological continuous casting is because more superior than existing continuous casting on casting blank solidification mechanism, so require comparatively loose, as P (phosphorus), S (sulphur), the process of setting of existing continuous casting makes it to concentrate on easily the heart portion of strand, make segregation serious, for reducing the harm that the end product quality after strand and the processing is caused and reducing in the continuous casting sensitiveness to crackle, it is low more good more generally all to require, all carry out than the more strict inner quality standard of delivery technical conditions, and control Mn/S is equal to or greater than 20, when producing transformer, then need especially note the technological operation of continuous casting, in case the generation of defectives such as crack arrest line with steel and automatic steel.And through the strand of semi-solid rheological continuous casting, P (phosphorus), S element segregations such as (sulphur) are little, can significantly reduce the crack sensitivity of strand, and the trade mark of the metal or alloy that increase can continuous casting enlarges the chemical composition scope of continuous casting billet.And for example, contain the very high nuclear power steel of B (boron), as the control rod material, existing general ingot casting or continuous casting billet are because the macrosegregation and the gathering of boron phase, be difficult to carry out thermal pressure processing (very easily going out the crackle waste product during forging rolling), employing semi-solid rheological continuous casting then can reduce the segregation and the gathering of B phase, improves the thermoplasticity of strand, reduce crack sensitivity, for the thermal pressure processing in back step is created congenital good condition with heat treatment.The experimental study of state such as the U.S. and Japan shows, the various steel and the pig iron, from the M2 high-speed steel to high temperature alloy, from the SUS304 austenitic stainless steel to the 440C martensitic stain less steel, and non-ferrous metals such as copper alloy and aluminium alloy, can carry out the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, and obtain the quality that is better than full liquid cast, these experimental studies provide crucial data to this law, and (grand the writing of aquatic yellow sound, metallurgical publishing house 1999 are thanked in semi-solid-state metal process technology and application thereof.)。This law is improved to outer surface with its stirring rod of making of anti-material in semi-solid-state metal or alloy experimental study have anti-material coating, the inner agitator of making the hydronic steel-tube construction of hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, make mechanical mixing method become the energy high efficiency from the small lot experimental study, produce the semi-solid-state metal or the alloy of the various trades mark on a large scale, can recycle simultaneously the big industrial process of heat energy, a large amount of blanks that solidify again through the semisolid process of producing, supply with the processing of conventional pressure processing and Semi-Solid Thixoforming and use, create conditions for further popularizing the semi-solid-state metal process technology.
To hydrogen in liquid metal before the continuous casting or the alloy, nitrogen, the requirement of oxygen and processing method, the semi-solid rheological continuous casting can be identical with existing black and coloured Metal and Alloy continuous casting, but owing to contain the semisolid fluid of 30-50% solid phase particle in the formation of teeter chamber's inner control, make and to separate out from metal or alloy that ratio is corresponding therewith, the hydrogen that descends and to emit because of solubility, and with its small amount of nitrogen of overflowing, their parts are discharged from fluid, a part is dispersed in the semisolid fluid, but can not resemble the bigger pore that occurs concentrating the common continuous casting, hole or more serious loosening, after passing through the pressure processing with the identical ratio of forging reduction of existing continuous casting billet again, can obtain being better than the high-quality material of existing continuous casting process.Carry out Semi-Solid Thixoforming processing as the blank that the semi-solid rheological continuous casting is provided, then can obtain being better than the foundry goods of liquid cast quality.For example the semi-solid rheological continuous casting of steel is compared with existing continuous casting, can reduce or stop the white point waste product and segregation is concentrated in the sheet material lamination defect that the slab thickness center causes with harmful element because of gas is mingled with.The semi-solid rheological continuous casting is the same with existing continuous casting; be not suitable for continuous casting boiling steel and semi-killed steel; but can continuous casting contain the very low deep-draw of Si and (be used for enamel with steel with the Al deoxidation; shell case; automobile) and cold pier steel; the one of the main reasons that influences deep drawability is that a large amount of aluminates is arranged; because during the semi-solid rheological continuous casting; use protective gas or liquid covering slag can reduce aluminate in the steel at tundish; the steel fluid constantly contacts with the heat exchanging segment surface in the teeter chamber; and cooled off; a part of field trash in the fluid can stick on the anti-material coating of high-quality on heat exchanging segment surface and on the high-quality wall of anti-material of teeter chamber and be reduced; remaining field trash is dispersed in the semisolid fluid under the effect of the shear agitation of heat exchanging segment, helps improving the deep drawability of sheet material.Equally, the semi-solid rheological continuous casting is fit to continuous casting and requires that oxygen content is low, the steel of high cleanliness, and as radial-ply tyre steel wire steel, automobile valve steel wire is with the very high steel to field trash very responsive (easy stress concentrated cause fracture) of steel and intensity.Because the strand of semi-solid rheological continuous casting is mingled with still less than existing continuous casting billet gas, crystal grain is more even tiny, as-cast structure more note of the ancient Chinese is close, can accept the quality inspection more stricter than existing continuous casting billet, as ultrasonic, eddy current, X-ray, gamma-radiation, sufur printing, metallographic, mechanical performance, etc. inspection.Through after application of vacuum and the refining, replace existing continuous casting with the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, can produce better quality, reliability higher, prior, the more black of the trade mark of purposes and non-ferrous metal (or alloy) material.
Preparation before the casting of semi-solid rheological conticaster:
The preparation of tundish 15: the working lining of tundish 15, can adopt the secondary high-alumina brick to build by laying bricks or stones, produce senior high-quality special steel or alloy because the semi-solid rheological continuous casting is normal, so do not adopt existing heat-insulating shield to build working lining.Tundish 15 important positions are junctions of the bag end and teeter chamber 18, can adopt the method for the moulding refractory brick socket of bag base brick and teeter chamber 18, teeter chamber 18 is suitable for reading to flush with the bag end, bore washing away and corroding of metal fluid under the shear agitation effect by the anti-material of the high-quality of teeter chamber 15.The assembly work of socket teeter chamber 15 with carry out again after being connected of rheology section 23 finishes.When the dress slide gate nozzle 27 of the 18 bottom outlet bottoms, teeter chamber of the anti-material of crucible type moulding that adopts the band bottom outlet, then finish slide gate nozzle 27 and teeter chamber 18 build by laying bricks or stones and with being connected of rheology section 23 after, again with tundish 15 in brick cup carry out the socket assembling.The mode of slide gate nozzle 27 is installed in employing for 18 times in the teeter chamber additional, helps opening casting and sequence casting, prevent just in case during the strand bleedout to the injury of the person and equipment.Baking before tundish 15 will be cast after finishing with being connected of teeter chamber 18, slide gate nozzle 27 and rheology section 23.The baking of tundish 15 can be with existing continuous casting.
The preparation of teeter chamber 18 (comprising the slide gate nozzle under the dress teeter chamber): the anti-material of teeter chamber 18 is wanted to bear the high temperature (can reach 1500 ℃ as mild steel) of continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 fluids and is acutely washed away and corrode, fluid motion speed can reach 5M/S, fluid makes anti-material skin temperature rapidly fair with fluid, convection current makes the metal or alloy 17 and the contact area of anti-material strengthen and bring in constant renewal in, as the unstable chemcial property of anti-the material, be very easy to fluid in active element reaction, constantly washing away down anti-material at fluid can be corroded and pollution metal or alloy 17 by serious, teeter chamber's 18 anti-materials were lost efficacy, require anti-material that high refractoriness and load softening point are arranged for this reason, chemical property is stable, anti-acutely washing away and erosion, resistance to thermal shocks is good.Should select than the senior shaping refractory of tundish 15 anti-materials, as sintering tubular behind isostatic compaction of electrically molten magnesia or electric melting magnesium aluminum spinel matter or there is the crucible shape refractory brick of bottom outlet to do teeter chamber 18.The moulding refractory brick of teeter chamber 18 is contained in 20 li of induction coils, induction coil 20 insulate with yoke 19 and is fixed together, the support top and the tundish 15 of yoke 19 are used Bolt Connection, the bottom connects with the framework of slide gate nozzle 27 with bolt, the support of yoke 19 can select for use austenitic stainless steel to make and attention prevents to form faradic loop, at induction coil 20 inboard pinner cottons, smash tightly with magnesia between asbestos cloth and teeter chamber's 18 bricks of anti-the material forming.The external metallization structure of slide gate nozzle 27 will be made of austenitic steel, and notes not forming the closed-loop path.Slide gate nozzle 27 is structures of three layers of brick, nozzle brick one side that is connected with teeter chamber 18 has tongue and groove to maintain static, nozzle brick one side that is connected with rheology section 23 anti-materials also has tongue and groove and maintains static, add fire clay between tongue and groove, the slit is less than 1mm, slide plate slides the metal structure Bolt Connection of the top of slide gate nozzle 27 external metallization structures and 18 bottoms, teeter chamber between two fixing bricks; The support Bolt Connection of bottom and rheology section yoke 22.
The preparation of rheology section 23: the anti-material of rheology section 23 is selected, continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 are after teeter chamber's formation contains the semisolid fluid of 25%-50% solid phase, under the comprehensive function of potential energy and pressure differential and strand tractive force, enter rheology section 23 anti-material chambeies through slide gate nozzle, with 18 compare in the teeter chamber, fluid motion speed is low, viscosity increases after losing shear agitation, Activity of Chemical Reaction weakens, the erosiveness of washing away to anti-material descends, so rheology Duan Naicai is except that the refractory brick that selects the electrically molten magnesia matter identical with the teeter chamber or aluminum-spinel matter sintering behind isostatic compaction, the moulding refractory brick of also optional vitreous silica matter or zircon stone, their thermal conductivity factors are relatively low, anti-rapid heat cycle, and be difficult for bringing into dystectic on-deformable field trash.The little whole special form brick of rheology section 23, big rheology section 23 can be used piecemeal composite profile brick.The cavity shape of rheology section 23 is very important, want to satisfy under solid phase percentage condition with higher, under the acting in conjunction by deadweight and the pressure of upper flow and throwing tractive force, flow to the porch of (or sliding to) crystallizer 51 smoothly, design and be fit to smooth rheology section 23 cavity shapes of soft solid, simultaneously for to make soft solid unhinderedly enter the porch of crystallizer 51, be not detained, do not stick in crystallizer 51 porch, and the smooth throwing of minimizing resistance of billet withdrawal, near 23 outlets of rheology section, design has one section (long as 50mm) basic identical with crystallizer 51 cavity shapes, and undersized is in the part (leaving the transition chamfering on the rheology section 23 anti-materials of noting simultaneously being connected with crystallizer 51) of crystallizer 51 inlet sizes.Induction coil fixing in rheology section yoke 22 is spread asbestos cloth for 21 li, puts into rheology section 23 refractory brick, inserts magnesia and tamping between the asbestos cloth of brick and induction coil 21.Smear fire clay on the tongue and groove on rheology section 23 tops, the tongue and groove with slide gate nozzle 27 bottoms aligns then, connects firmly with the metal structure of the outside of slide gate nozzle 27 with the metal structure (austenite steel) of bolt with rheology section 23 outsides again.Teeter chamber 18 is with after slide gate nozzle 27 and rheology section 23 connect, available flame baking or insert the carbon piece and toast with eddy-current heating.
For heavy in section square billet, slab or garden base continuous casting, make load and the simplification straightening machine that stops pushing away the mode throwing that draw for alleviating straightening machine clamping strand, the outlet of rheology section can be contained in a part in the crystallizer inlet, and leave glade plane space, remove from and draw the throwing that stops the mode that pushes away, the outlet that only makes crystallizer contain the rheology section to do the horizontal direction vibration, because the metal or alloy of this moment has different greatly with complete liquid rerum natura, glade plane space and suitable operation can not occur boring and hang, smoothly throwing.
The preparation of crystallizer 51: crystallizer 51 can utilize the copper water mold of existing continuous casting, but can not reclaim heat energy.Present embodiment adopts steel crystallizer 51, and a section surface of crystallizer 51 inlets sprays anti-material coating, in order to improve 51 life-spans of crystallizer and to reduce frictional resistance.The hot transduction agent 37 circulation coolings of crystallizer 51 usefulness low melting point liquid metals or alloy, the inwall of this crystallizer dew can not occur before casting, and the recyclable heat energy that utilizes, and reduces the cost of crystallizer.There is not relative motion between crystallizer 51 and the rheology section 23; Two parts are connected by flange with bolt, make tundish 15, teeter chamber 18, slide gate nozzle 27, rheology section 23, crystallizer 51 become a firm integral body, start semi-solid rheological continuous casting car before the continuous casting longitudinal axis of crystallizer 51 is overlapped with the longitudinal axis of throwing.Relative motion is arranged between crystallizer and the rheology section; Be that the crystallizer import is containing rheology section outlet reciprocating (mold oscillation), notice that the socket part of sliding is consistent with the throwing axis, glade plane space is suitable, and crystallizer slides freely.
The preparation of agitator: agitator can have multiple forms of motion, rotate, rock, up and down reciprocatingly, vibration etc.Fig. 1 is a rotary agitator; heat exchanging segment 13 is protected with the sleeve brick of anti-material the 12 with top; sleeve brick 12 is assemblied on the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11; with heat exchanging segment 13 rotations, this kind is simple in structure, makes easily and installs; shortcoming is that sleeve brick 12 and agitator rotate together; sleeve brick 12 is subject to washing away of liquid metal or alloy 17 and covering slag 16 and corrodes, and metal or alloy 17 liquid levels are easily exposed simultaneously, needs to use liquid covering slag 16 or inert gas shielding to prevent secondary oxidation.
The sleeve brick of anti-material the 12 of agitator mobile jib 11 outsides is immersed in the liquid metal or alloy 17 of tundish 15; require the erosion of anti-rapid heat cycle and liquid metal or alloy 17 and covering slag 16; sleeve brick 12 anti-materials will be selected the material that is not less than existing continuous casting tundish stopper or submersed nozzle for use, and safeguard easily and change.Two kinds of methods are arranged: one is to use the refractory brick of high-quality moulding to be combined into sleeve brick 12, being equivalent to has the garden tubular sleeve brick of tongue and groove vertically to cut open at two ends, tongue and groove is also arranged on the section, heat exchanging segment 13 at agitator has the spill tongue and groove that sprays anti-material with the position that sleeve brick 12 assembles, sleeve brick 12 tongue and grooves are smeared fire clay from up adorning here, vertical brickwork joint that neighbouring sleeve brick is 12 will stagger, sleeve brick 12 upwards assembles successively up to being higher than tundish 15, in being coated with slit between the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 of anti-material, sleeve brick 12 and surface insert the fire-resistant sand grains of thin drying then, again with the sleeve brick 12 bowl-shape parts of buckling a rim of a bowl heat-resisting steel down suitable for reading, push down with packing ring, use nut screwing clamping above.The 2nd, bread one deck asbestos cloth outside being coated with the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 of anti-material coating, assemble the mould of the plastic refractory material sleeve brick 12 of knotting then, between dies cavity and asbestos cloth, insert plastic refractory material of high-quality and tamping, remove mould after, after the baking more than 800 ℃, use.
The preparation of agitator heat exchanging segment 13: sandblast processing such as (or shot-peenings) is carried out on exchange hot arc 13 surfaces, remove the oxide skin and the dirt on heat exchanging segment 13 steel wall surfaces, carry out plasma spraying then, spraying earlier contains the metal back layer of Cr-Ni-Al-Y, nickel package alumina (or nickel bag zirconia) with different proportion on this layer sprays out transition zone, and spray aluminum oxide or the zirconia that contains 8% ytterbium oxide form working lining again on transition zone.Available gage measuring of the check of coating or metallographic method, x-ray method, ultrasonic method, method of magnetic, eddy-current method etc. are checked the thickness and the defective of coating.After the coating of heat exchanging segment 13 is used, when working lining is etched attenuate and need thickeies, adopt the method for plasma spraying or oxyacetylene torch spraying, spray the anti-material of working lining again to desired thickness.Also can be at the preparation station place of agitator, heat exchanging segment 13 immersed in the mud that contains the anti-material of working lining soak extension, dry then, behind baking or flame sintering, use (also can adopt brush or spray the mud of anti-the material replace soaking extension).Working lining is etched the main cause of attenuate; the one, the bad material of anti-the material need improve quality; the 2nd, the activity of oxygen is higher in the metal or alloy 17; the protection against oxidation of liquid continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 in deoxidation in the time of should carrying out metal or alloy 17 refinings and the tundish 15; strengthen the inspection of deoxidation situation, take measures necessary.When the working lining surface becomes blocked up because of sticking the non-metallic inclusion that suspends in continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 fluids; the method of attenuate can take abrasive grinding or chemical erosion method (soak in liquid flux or slag and rinse) to make it attenuate; in addition; want the refining operation of reinforced company's ingot metal or alloy 17 to make it clean to staticize (particularly reduce fusing point higher as alundum (Al; the secondary oxidation of metal or alloy when the non-metallic inclusion of difficult come-up such as titanium dioxide) also noting reducing continuous casting; to containing aluminium; titaniums etc. easily oxidation and the metal or alloy 17 that generates the higher non-metallic inclusion of fusing point will be taked inert gas shielding or 16 protections of liquid covering slag
The circulation heat-carrying system of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy and the preparation of residual neat recovering system: the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is after the equipment installation of semi-solid rheological conticaster, before perfusion low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, to carry out preheating to equipment and the parts that all low melting point liquid metals or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy will flow through or contact, when the use fusing point is 98 ℃ Pb-Bi alloy, be preheated to more than 150 ℃, the available resistance wire heating (or other heating means) in the outside of evaporimeter 34, vapor line in the evaporimeter 34 is connected outside steam pipe network, and steam pressure is not less than 0.5Mpa.After preheat temperature reaches requirement; circulation heat-carrying system to low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy charges into inert gas; under gas shield; pour into the liquid level that melts good low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy and reach appointment from evaporimeter 34 shell-sides; open the hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy then, make systemic circulation unimpeded, each position temperature equalization; check and the follow-up continuation of insurance temperature of handling failure, wait for continuous casting.The water of evaporimeter 34 and vapor system, from perfusion low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy warm-up phase before, till overhaul of the equipments emptying low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, remain steam pressure and be not less than 0.5Mpa, prevent that frozen plug from appearring in the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy in the circulatory system.Be the oxidation that prevents the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy and the oxidation of circulatory system inwall carbonaceous protective layer thereof; to its valve rod, agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, mechanical seal 3, turning joint 30,31 at the liquid level of evaporimeter 34 shell-sides and pump shaft 38, valve, etc. revolvable, gapped, position that can ingress of air, take in inert gas shielding or the air-isolation measures such as oxygen.Want the variation of compositions such as oxygen content and iron in the hot transduction agent 37 of periodic analysis low melting point liquid metal or alloy, chromium, nickel, silicon, manganese; Check regularly at hang in the circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy identical, test piece that surface treatment method is consistent, and whether produce hot dip and corrosion with the equipment of making regular check on and match and judge corrosion situation equipment with equipment material.
The preparation of liquid covering slag 16: when not possessing inert gas conditions and maybe need by the non-metallic inclusion in liquid covering slag 16 absorption and the dissolution liquid metal or alloy 17; can select the whole bag of tricks of fusing fluid covering slag 16, liquid metal or alloy 17 in the tundish 15 are carried out the melt cinder protection.The chemical composition of liquid covering slag 16; material, liquid covering slag 16 according to sleeve brick 12 on the chemical composition of continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 and the temperature in the tundish 15, tundish 15 and the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 wait in the viscosity under the operating temperature and select; not influence the chemical composition of continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 delivery technical conditions; not increasing non-metallic inclusion is principle, preferentially selects for use inexpensive and well-off slag charge to prepare burden and melt.For example for not containing Al, the Ti as alloying component, the grade of steel of B; can use batchings such as inexpensive lime, refractory brick blocks, fluorite, silicon stone; melt the not liquid covering slag of mainly forming of carbon containing, suboxides iron, low basicity or slant acidity by calcium oxide, silica, alundum (Al and calcirm-fluoride; this slag can make remaining Al and remaining Ti reduction in the steel; but lose effect that it is generally acknowledged crystal grain thinning; but the effect that makes whole continuous casting billet 57 cross section uniform crystal particles refinements that it can be brought by the semi-solid rheological continuous casting replaces.Melting method; the one, adopt the method for similar fusing glass-ceramic diabase; use water cooled furnace body; the carbonaceous cupola well; the oxygen of re-blowing before the slagging method of fusing slag charge rapidly that heats up is faced in coke air blast preheating, and its cost is low; be fit to melt the liquid covering slag of forming by calcium oxide, silica, alundum (Al and calcirm-fluoride, but will join corresponding smoke evacuation dust arrester with batchings such as lime, refractory brick blocks, fluorite, silicon stones.The 2nd, the method for employing electroslag furnace slag is used water cooled furnace body or carbonaceous furnace lining, melts slag charge with carbon element (or graphite) electrode, and advantage is the accurate melt cinders of the various compositions of fusible preparation, and can carry out refining to slag, and its cost is than the former height.The 3rd, adopt induction furnace to use the method for carbonaceous furnace lining fusing melt cinder; make full use of the intermediate frequency power supply that the semi-solid rheological conticaster is equipped with; the eddy-current heating that can be used for teeter chamber 18 and rheology section 23; also can be used for fusing protection slag charge; a tractor serves several purposes; the accurate liquid covering slag 16 of the various compositions of the fusible preparation of this method, and can carry out refining to slag.Because liquid covering slag 16 consumptions are little in the tundish 15, loss is also little, and near the change slag device that above method only need dispose small-sized the be located at tundish 15 just can provide liquid covering slag 16.
The operating process of semi-solid rheological conticaster: before big bag will arrive, stop tundish 15, teeter chamber 18, the baking of slide gate nozzle 27 and rheology section 23, close slide gate nozzle 27, semi-solid rheological continuous casting car 60 is reached the throwing axial location, make crystallizer 51 align and car is fixed with the roller-way 53 and the straightening machine 54 of gas one water mixing cooling device, start straightening machine 54 then and in crystallizer 51, insert dummy ingot 58, lift agitator maintains an equal level its bottom and tundish 15 upper edges, with big contracted affreightment near the top of the slag ladle the tundish 15, after the slide gate nozzle 14 of opening big bag is emitted filler and a small amount of liquid metal or alloy 17, close ladle slide gate in billet 14, to wrap greatly again and place tundish 15 top assigned addresses, in tundish 15, send into inert gas (nitrogen or argon gas), inject continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 to tundish 15 then, and simultaneously teeter chamber 18 is carried out eddy-current heating.As not using gases protection of tundish 15; then work as continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 and be injected into four/for the moment of tundish 15 degree of depth; in tundish 15, put into liquid covering slag 16; when continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 be injected into the tundish degree of depth 2/3rds the time; ladle slide gate in billet 14 is received stream; after the thermometric sampling; stop the eddy-current heating of teeter chamber 18; after the flow of the low melting point liquid metal of agitator or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy is transferred to setting value; the heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator is inserted into assigned address in the teeter chamber 18 rapidly; begin immediately then to stir; and the rotating speed of agitator is transferred to predetermined value; moment of torsion (or the electric current of d.c. motor when agitator; when power) reaching the reflection value of the semisolid fluid viscosity that is equivalent to contain the 25%-30% solid phase components; open the slide gate nozzle 27 of 18 bottoms, teeter chamber rapidly; simultaneously rheology section 23 is carried out eddy-current heating; compensation rheology section 23 surface of internal cavity are to the heat absorption of the semisolid fluid that just entered; making it to flow into smoothly crystallizer 51 is connected with dummy bar head; start straightening machine 54 throwings (using the mould vibration device that starts of crystallizer horizontal vibration device) then; in the continuous casting according to agitator torque (or the electric current of d.c. motor; power) heat that variation and measurement calculating low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy carry out from agitator heat exchanging segment 13; promptly according to the viscosity of continuous casting of metals or alloy 17; temperature; the states of matter of heat content etc. changes; adjust casting speed; make that solid phase components is controlled between the 30%-50% in the semisolid fluid when entering crystallizer 51, or near the predetermined desired value.After strand is pulled out crystallizer 51, enter air-water mixing cooling zone, the heat of being derived from agitator heat exchanging segment 13 and crystallizer 51 according to low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy is (by measuring the flow and the temperature rise of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, calculate entrained heat), continuous casting time and pulling rate, do not solidify the weight of part in the surface temperature of continuous casting billet 57 and the continuous casting billet that calculates 57, in conjunction with the relevant physical-property parameter of continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 (as liquid and solid-state specific heat, crystallization latent heat, thermal conductivity factor) and solidify the metallographic structure of back in continuous cooling process and change the air-water of controlling continuous casting billet 57 and mix intensity of cooling, make continuous casting billet 57 go out straightening machine 54 back before cutting position the time heart portion all solidify, begin cutting then, continuous casting billet 57 after the cutting is transported to by continuation cooling on the cold bed of low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent 37 coolings of alloy on demand or is gone slow cooling in the burial pit (case), because semi-solid rheological continuous casting billet 57 is compared with existing continuous casting billet, inside and surface quality are good, pulling rate also increases substantially, for advantage has been created in the processing of direct heat pressurization pressure, after going out straightening machine 54, through supplementary heating, get final product and plate; Pipe; Milling train such as rod and wire rod is supporting, carries out continuous casting and rolling, also can with precise forging machine; Forging roll; Rocker swaging machine; Equipment integrations of operation such as die forging machine are carried out various forms of forging processing until carrying out semi-solid-state metal processing.
Note controlling and keeping the vapor discharge pressure of evaporimeter 34 and the supply of demineralized water during continuous casting, help controlling and low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy between convective heat exchange, the pulling rate of the pressure of steam and flow and chemical composition, temperature and the continuous casting billet 57 of continuous casting of metals or alloy 17, temperature etc. are relevant.
Consistent when next stove with this stove chemical composition, allow to connect when watering, the big bag of containing this stove metal or alloy watered withdraw after, the big contracted affreightment of next stove replaced proceeds continuous casting.
When allowing next stove and this stove even to water but not being connected, the big bag of this stove watered withdraw after, when liquid metals or alloy 17 reduce the vortex aggravation gradually in the tundish 15, suitably reduce the rotating speed of agitator, extract agitator until stall, and reduction pulling rate, teeter chamber 18 and rheology section 23 are carried out eddy-current heating implement insulation, after treating continuous casting billet 57 pulled out crystallizer 51, close slide gate nozzle 27, stop eddy-current heating, do the preparation of next stove of continuous casting.
The control of important technical parameter during the semi-solid rheological continuous casting:
In the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, in order in limited space, to increase heat exchange area, so that reach higher pulling rate, the heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator is not a simple garden cylindricality, for example be designed to profile like the splined shaft, to increase shear agitation and heat exchange effect, after the shape of teeter chamber's 18 inner cavity sizes and agitator heat exchanging segment 13 and size are determined, can only change shearing rate by the rotating speed of adjusting agitator, when providing continuous casting billet 57, then should select higher shearing rate for the semi-solid-state metal process technology.
In the solid phase components percentage control of semisolid fluid, the big alloy of some solid-liquid phase line temperature distances can be learnt the solid phase components percentage corresponding with it by the temperature of direct measurement semi-solid alloy fluid.For all semisolid fluids, under the constant situation of shearing rate, can learn the respective change of solid phase components percentage from the variation of the operating current of the agitator torque measured and transmission d.c. motor and power, when solid phase components is less than or equal to 25%, because comparing, the viscosity during with full liquid state changes not quite, difference when the operating current of the moment of torsion of agitator and transmission d.c. motor or power are also with full liquid state at this moment is very little, when solid phase components reaches 30%, an obvious variation appears in the viscosity of semisolid fluid, and increase along with the increase of solid phase components, when solid phase components surpasses 60%, metal or alloy can be the soft solid state, so can judge in the teeter chamber 18 the residing scope of fluid solid phase components percentage and control according to the obvious variation of the operating current of the moment of torsion of agitator and transmission d.c. motor or power, put into practice after one period, sum up shearing rate and the solid phase components percentage of fluid and the relation curve between the viscosity of this equipment, controlling can be more accurate again.Simultaneously, calculate the solid phase components percentage that low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy went out continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 crystallization latent heat in 18 years from the teeter chamber percentage is judged fluid the teeter chamber 18 according to meter.In addition, by measuring the softness that loses the semisolid fluid of stirring itself in the rheology section 23, also can assist to judge solid phase components percentage.
Continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 are separated out the cooling velocity of first solid phase particle, influence the granular size of solid phase particle in the semisolid fluid, for the big alloy of solid liquidus temperature distance, temperature by direct measurement tundish 15 continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 temperature and teeter chamber's 18 exit semisolid fluids, time with the average stop in teeter chamber 18 of the two temperature difference, can get the cooling velocity under this solid phase components percentage this moment divided by continuous casting of metals or alloy 17.Can also keep under the constant situation of casting speed and solid phase components percentage by measuring to calculate, the quantity that the hot transduction agent 37 of unit interval low melting point liquid metal or alloy went out continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 crystallization latent heat in 18 years from the teeter chamber reflects cooling velocity.Change and adjust the measure of continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 cooling velocities, the one, the rotating speed of change agitator, it can change the viscosity of the Reynolds (Reynold's) criterion and the semisolid fluid of continuous casting fluid, and then influences coefficient of heat convection, changes cooling velocity.The 2nd, change the low melting point liquid metal of turnover agitator or the temperature of the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, change cooling velocity by the temperature and pressure that change heat exchanging segment 13 both sides convective heat exchange.The 3rd, change casting speed.The 4th, the heat radiation of teeter chamber 18 being carried out eddy-current heating or reinforcement teeter chamber 18 changes cooling velocity.Improve shearing rate and cooling velocity and can make the solid phase particles refinement of separating out.
The control method of semisolid fluid viscosity: the one, under the constant situation of other condition, change casting speed continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 flows by teeter chamber 18 are changed, cause the increase and decrease of solid phase components percentage in the fluid to change the semisolid fluid viscosity.The 2nd, under the constant situation of other condition, change shearing rate by the rotating speed that changes agitator, can change the viscosity of fluid.The 3rd, the situation too high to solid phase components percentage, that viscosity is excessive is taked to improve casting speed and rheology section 23 is carried out eddy-current heating and adjusts.The 4th, comprehensively use said method.In practical operation, mainly the moment of torsion (or d.c. motor electric current or power of transmission) according to agitator changes the viscosity of judging the semisolid fluid.
The slab quality level of present embodiment: the semi-solid rheological continuous casting of present embodiment on the mechanism of process of setting with existing continuous casting production in process of setting in essence difference is arranged.Changed the transmission means of crystallization latent heat, the main mode that relies on the heat conducting mode of base shell to become the forced convertion heat exchange, making the solid phase of separating out is not the traditional approach that forms scull and grow into a large amount of column crystals (when being furnished with electromagnetic agitation certain improvement can be arranged) thereon along the derivation direction of crystallization latent heat, but under the condition of strong agitation and cooling, make the solid phase of separating out as free brilliant, be dispersed in the liquid phase, become the semisolid fluid.Since can crystallization control latent heat discharge and the quantity that derives, the speed (being cooldown rate) and the shearing rate of derivation, just controlled the solid phase components percentage in the semisolid fluid and the viscosity of solid phase particles diameter and fluid.Forming the semisolid fluid that contains the 30%-50% solid phase in teeter chamber 18 flows out from slide gate nozzle 27, enter crystallizer 51 through rheology section 23, in crystallizer 51, form the profile of continuous casting billet 57, pull out and mix cooling through air-water again behind the crystallizer 51 and finish whole process of setting.On to the control of process of setting, qualitative leap is arranged than existing continuous casting, semi-solid rheological continuous casting as steel, can avoid bulge, off-square distortion and underbead crack that existing continuous casting causes because of soft yolk length (as centre burst, corner crack) and common deficiency such as gross segregation, can produce that existing conticaster is difficult for producing big as solid-liquid phase linear distance, a large amount of primary carbides, thermoplasticity steel bad, that transformation stress is big when solidifying or alloy arranged.It is higher than existing conticaster efficient (pulling rate), and the strand kind is more, better quality.So the strand of semi-solid rheological continuous casting can stand to require and quality inspection than existing continuous casting billet and more strict with the harsh technical conditions of ingot casting.
The safety of present embodiment and reliability:
Because liquid continuous casting of metals or alloy 17 18 have discharged the crystallization latent heat of 30%-50% through convective heat exchange in the teeter chamber, enter crystallizer 51 with semi-solid character and state from rheology section 23, the continuous casting billet 57 that goes out behind the crystallizer 51 is different with existing continuous casting billet, be not the metal or alloy liquid that has only the thick high temperature thin stock shell of 10-20mm containing to contain the wait that is equivalent to 80% strand weight and crystallization latent heat to solidify, but can obtain having at least 10-20mm thick than the former firm base shell and containing full-bodied semisolid fluid (or soft solid) less than strand 50% weight and crystallization latent heat.Existing continuous casting pulling rate is high more, and the base shell is thin more, and soft yolk is long more, the strand internal soundness is poor more, and kind is restricted more, and the easy more bleed-out accident that occurs, and the semi-solid rheological continuous casting can increase substantially the pulling rate of strand, and not be prone to the bleed-out accident when improving the quality and increasing kind.
Selecting Pb, Bi, Sn, Zn is main make up low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, replace chemical property active, in air or meet low melting point liquid metal such as K, Na that water just can cause burning, Li or alloy is made hot transduction agent, though inferior than it on heat transfer and pumping power, security is increased greatly.1750 ℃ of Pb boiling points, 1420 ℃ of Bi boiling points, 2690 ℃ of Sn boiling points, 907 ℃ of Zn boiling points are used their component alloys, and the vapour pressure of each element reduces in the time of all can be than simple substance.Low fusing point, higher boiling point, lower vapour pressure, high convective heat-transfer coefficient helps under conventional pressure, in the heat convection mode, in limited spatial volume, with less heat exchange area, high temperature and pressure, pass out and be solidified heat energy a large amount of in the metal or alloy (though the fusing point of Hg is very low, but boiling point is low, the steam severe toxicity from safety, will not be selected).Because boiled water will just can have under higher pressure and liquid metal or the approaching convective heat-transfer coefficient of alloy, as do the cooling agent of agitator, in case the appearance leakage is met and get along well mutually with the metal or alloy fluid of continuous casting and is caused heavy explosion, so selecting Pb, Bi, Sn, Zn is main make up low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, and be provided with the free surface that balances each other with atmospheric pressure, and the regulation maximum operating temperature is foolproof below 500 ℃.As low melting point liquid metal that is used for the semi-solid rheological continuous casting or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, because fusing point is low, under big working condition, accomplish insulation easily, can reduce the fault that occurs because of solidifying.
The agitator that low melting point liquid metal that this law is used or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy are flowed through, pipeline, circulating pump 43, flow control valve 45, steel metal structures such as steam generator 34 or other heat exchanger, taked to prevent the chemical combination dissolving, mass transfer, corrode, measure such as hot dip and soldering, Fe in the hot transduction agent 37 of periodic analysis low melting point liquid metal or alloy, Cr, Ni, Si, the variation of Mn equal size, make regular check on test piece and metal structure and have or not hot dip or corrosion phenomenon, come the operating position of judgment device, whether decision overhauls, and avoids the fault and the inefficacy of equipment.
The hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy under operating temperature can with airborne oxygen generation oxidation; the oxide influence that generates is conducted heat and the circulatory system is stopped up; on the low melting point liquid metal of steam vaporizer 34 or hot transduction agent 37 free surfaces of alloy, be provided with the protective gas that prevents its oxidation that balances each other with atmospheric pressure for this reason; and at the gas discharge outlet that communicates with atmosphere; also be provided with the device of adsorption filtration metal vapors, reduce pollution environment.Also taked the measure that prevents that low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy from contacting with oxygen in the air at mechanical seal 3 places of the turning joint 30,31 of circulating pump 43, flow control valve 45, pipeline and agitator.In addition, in the circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, can set up the bypass that purifies alloy, in case of necessity alloy be carried out purified treatment, reduce equipment fault.
In the circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, be equipped with instrument such as corresponding temperature, flow, revolution speed, pump power, and link with computer, detect, report to the police and control automatically.
Agitator is the critical component of semi-solid rheological continuous casting, with pearlite or austenitic heat-resistance steel manufacturing, steel wall outer surface at heat exchanging segment 13, the metal back layer that spraying is earlier formed with nickel chromium triangle aluminium ytterbium, then with nickel package alumina or nickel bag zirconium oxide spray coating transition zone, the working lining of last spray aluminum oxide or zirconia (containing 8% yttria).The main task of working lining is the erosion of anti-continuous casting of metals or alloy, and bottom and transition zone mainly are the thermal shock resistances that improves coating, and the thermal resistance of coating makes the steel wall outer surface of heat exchanging segment 13 be lower than the permission operating temperature of this material.Heat exchanging segment more than 13 to this section agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 of controlling device transverse arm 8 except that same coating is also arranged, simultaneously the high-quality sleeve brick of anti-material the 12 is housed in agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 outsides, agitator can at high temperature be worked reliably.
Mechanical seal and the dry lubrication mode of adopting leaked for preventing the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy in rotation position at agitator, and sealing ring can use the carbide alloy of built-up welding to graphite or ceramic to graphite, and dry lubricant can add molybdenum bisuphide with graphite powder.Because low melting point liquid metal that adopts or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy (as the Pb-Bi alloy etc.) be under low pressure to circulate, they are bigger than the surface tension of water and liquid K, Na and K-Na, and do not soak into sealing ring, are difficult for leaking under operating temperature.At normal temperatures, they are low-intensity low frictional factor materials, are not easy equipment is caused damage.
The bearing group 4 of agitator adopts can be at 350 ℃ of high-temperature bearings of working down, and take measures to prevent of the heat radiation of tundish 15 liquid to it, agitator can be worked reliably and with long-term, and moment of torsion detect the reliable and stable of data when not influencing agitator heat exchanging segment 13 shear agitation.
Make metal structure produce thermal stress issues rapidly for solving because of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy conduct heat, the cross section of agitator heat exchanging segment 13 walls is made tortuous profile, not only increase heat exchange area, strengthen stirring action, also help release stress.Steam generator 34 can adopt measures such as U type pipe or helical bundle to reduce thermal stress.The circulatory system of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy has preheating and insulation measure, and is provided with expansion arc or bellows, reserves the nargin of expanding with heat and contract with cold, and reduces the big ups and downs of Yin Wendu and the stress that produces.
In the semi-solid rheological continuous casting during outage suddenly, what rely on agitator controls device transverse arm 8 lifting columns 9 under the weight effect of the energy-storage system of hydraulic cylinder 10 or mechanical elevating, agitator is promoted to more than the tundish liquid level protection equipment and personal safety.
Present embodiment and existing continuous casting are at difference on the Technological Economy and good effect: on principle, the semi-solid rheological continuous casting is under modern crystallization theory instructs, break through from the freezing mechanism that changes existing continuous casting, this law by low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent 37 of alloy and continuous casting liquid metal or alloy 17 between 18 heat exchanges of carrying out forced convertion in the teeter chamber, make it to become in the semi-solid process, liquid sensible heat and a part of crystallization latent heat are derived, reach crystallization control process preferably, making the solid phase of separating out no longer is the traditional solidification law that forms scull earlier and grow a large amount of column crystals thereon along the derivation direction of crystallization latent heat, but under strong stirring and cooling, the solid phase of separating out is as free brilliant, be dispersed in the liquid phase, become the semisolid fluid.Because latent heat release of energy crystallization control and the quantity that derives, the speed (being cooldown rate) and the shearing rate of derivation, also just can control the viscosity of solid phase components percentage and the solid phase particles diameter and the fluid of semisolid fluid, the semisolid fluid that contains the 30%-50% solid phase that will form in teeter chamber 18 enters crystallizer 51 by slide gate nozzle 27 through rheology section 23, in crystallizer 51, form continuous casting billet 57 profiles, go out to mix cooling through air-water again behind the crystallizer 51 and finish whole process of setting.On to the control of process of setting, qualitative leap is arranged than existing continuous casting, semi-solid rheological continuous casting as steel, can avoid bulge, off-square distortion and underbead crack that existing continuous casting causes because of soft yolk length (as centre burst, corner crack) and common deficiency such as gross segregation, can produce that existing conticaster is difficult for producing big as solid-liquid phase linear distance, a large amount of primary carbides, thermoplasticity is bad, the solidified structure transformation stress is big special steel and alloy are arranged, can stand technical conditions requirement and quality examination more stricter than existing continuous casting billet and ingot casting and harshness.Owing to adopted domestic and international semi-solid-state metal Study on Processing Technology achievement, liquid metal thermal conduction study and application technology, mechanical sealing technology, the dry lubrication technology, plasma spraying technology, induction heating technique and modern continuous casting new technology, so, the semi-solid rheological continuous casting of present embodiment can increase the kind of continuous casting, improve continuous casting billet quality, reduce the loss of metal material, improve conticaster efficient, large quantities of blanks with semisolid feature are provided for development semi-solid-state metal process technology is concentrated, and in continuous casting, reclaim more heat energy, make the pyrometallurgy sustainable development, have important economic and social benefit.
Be that example is compared with existing continuous casting in the investment of increase and had with the steel: with agitator and the rotation and the jacking system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent cooling of alloy, the circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy and pipeline and valve and the corresponding insulation measure that the circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy is taked, shell-side is that low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent pipe of alloy side are the steam generator and the demineralized water water system (the demineralized water water system that existing conticaster is equipped with can be utilized) of demineralized water and steam, the teeter chamber of band eddy-current heating (comprises the IGCT inverter, induction coil, yoke, moulding refractory brick and the anti-material of diffusing shape), the rheology section of band eddy-current heating (comprises the IGCT inverter, induction coil, yoke, moulding refractory brick and the anti-material of diffusing shape), sliding nozzle device between teeter chamber and the rheology section, with low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic crystallizer of the hot transduction agent of alloy, new mould vibration device maybe can be carried out the straightening machine of pull-stop-push mode, corresponding instrument and control system, be full of the required low-melting-point metal or the alloy of the circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy, the inert gas of tundish (argon or nitrogen) protective device and protective gas (as using the melt cinder protection, then are miniaturization slag hearth and slag charge; When having the inert gas shielding facility, existing continuous casting then can make full use of).
With existing vertical; vertical bending type and camber conticaster compare can simplify or abridged investment in have: the eddy-current heating of tundish or plasma heating system; tundish stopper and nozzle brick or sliding nozzle device; the electromagnetic stirring system of crystallizer and two cold-zones; insert the submersed nozzle of crystallizer; the copper crystallizer and the vibrating device thereof of existing water-cooled; the TT﹠C system of mold liquid level (as the TT﹠C system of methods such as ray or eddy current); the solid protective slag that tundish uses; solid protective slag or rape seed oil that crystallizer uses; the anti-base shell distortion in crystallizer bottom or the sufficient roller or the grid that break; when identical, can shorten existing two cold-zones and omit the device that strand is gently depressed with existing conticaster pulling rate; replacement of semi-solid rheological conticaster or transformation with horizontal are existing vertical; vertical bending type and camber conticaster; reduce conticaster height and corresponding factory building height and can not install vertical; the semi-solid rheological conticaster is installed in the existing factory building of vertical bending type and camber conticaster is reduced investment.Compare with the existing level conticaster, can save expensive boron nitride eseparation ring, save the graphite cannula easy to wear of cooling strand, simplify complicated straightening machine system.
Present embodiment is used for the good effect of semi-solid rheological continuous casting ferrous metal or alloy: improve the quality of existing continuous casting billet, reduce waste product, improve recovery rate of iron, and save and reclaim the energy.Can be when improving the quality, improve pulling rate, and can stop the bleedout that existing conticaster occurs, realize high efficiency continuous casting, be development continuous casting and rolling (or and precise forging machine, roll forging, fast forgings waits the equipment integration of operation) the good condition of creation.Increase that many existing conticasters are difficult for that the chemical composition maybe can not produce is special, performance requirement is harsh, the crucial senior high-quality special steel of purposes and alloy, and multiple cast iron.Can produce the metal material of departments such as being used for nuclear power, thermoelectricity, water power, chemical industry, oil, machinery, automobile, Aeronautics and Astronautics, weapon, naval vessel, railway, building.Except that the specification that existing conticaster is produced, thin, the strand that is thick, thin, thick and especially big sectional plane of energy continuous casting, and make casting for shaped blank continuous and near net shape continuous casting obtain development.Because the semi-solid rheological continuous casting can really be broken through special steel continuous casting technology difficulty, can make the existing steel mill that produces general steel and low-alloy steel, after being equipped with refining furnace and adopting the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, also can produce the special steel of senior high-quality.Present embodiment can also be produced the blank with semisolid gene that is specifically designed to Semi-Solid Thixoforming processing (being semi-solid-state metal process technologies such as semisolid extrusion casint), the die casting factory of supply various places, realize the production in enormous quantities of semisolid die casting steel and iron machine part, develop few cutting of ferrous metal or do not have machining.Adopt the semi-solid rheological continuous casting technology, can reduce casting machine height and casting machine metallurgical length, save the factory building investment, and make horizontal and inclined continuous casting machine obtain development.On existing conticaster, suitably carry out part and improve, install the semi-solid rheological device of this law additional, can save investment, increase benefit, obtain new vitality.
Good effect when present embodiment is used for non-ferrous metal or alloy semi-solid rheological continuous casting (is example with the aluminium alloy): compare with existing continuous casting, can improve slab quality, increase strand description, enhance productivity, save and recovery section heat energy.The blank that can concentrate, a large amount of production supplies aluminium alloy semi-solid thixotroping processing (semisolid extrusion casint) usefulness is for the no machining of the few cutting of departments such as machinery, automobile, Aeronautics and Astronautics, light industry development creates conditions.Melting factory at electrolytic aluminium factory and secondary aluminium, concentrate and smelt various grade aluminium alloys, become to be specifically designed to the blank of Semi-Solid Thixoforming processing (semisolid extrusion casint) usefulness through the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, supply with each extrusion casint factory, Foundry Works is heated to the required softness of Semi-Solid Thixoforming processing with eddy-current heating rapidly with blank, carries out semisolid extrusion casint moulding.Improved the economic benefit (saved fine aluminium, recovery section heat energy producing the standardization continuous casting billet that the piece ingot makes to be directly used in Semi-Solid Thixoforming processing usefulness into, has increased value of the product) of electrolytic aluminium factory and secondary aluminium smelter on the one hand.Remove the operation such as batching, fusing, refining of each Foundry Works on the other hand from, reduce the consumption of the material and the energy, reduce the environmental pollution of Foundry Works, improve the working condition of casting industry, stablize the chemical composition (can dwindle its composition range) of foundry goods, after complete liquid die casting changed into semisolid extrusion casint, can increase substantially casting quality and qualification rate, make foundry goods can adapt to various Technologies for Heating Processing, improve its mechanical performance, can also improve the life-span of die casting, reduce casting cost, quicken the development of squeeze casting technology, help the transformation of conventional cast industry.In the pulping process of this law semi-solid rheological continuous casting, in the teeter chamber, add non-metallic particle or short fiber, behind the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, can be provided for the blank of semisolid extrusion casting metal base composite part.
The application of embodiment 2 on casting large-scale black or coloured Metal and Alloy ingot casting
Development along with all departments such as metallurgy, machinery, chemical industry, oil, electric power (comprising thermoelectricity, water power, nuclear power), weapon, naval vessel, Aero-Space, automobiles, can satisfy the black of various harsh conditions of work requirements or coloured Metal and Alloy forging increase in demand to large-scale high-quality, quality in order to ensure large forgings, improve using rate of metal, except adopting advanced smelting and Forging Technology technology, improve the quality of solidifying of large-scale black or coloured Metal and Alloy ingot casting, congenital good large-scale ingot casting is provided, has great importance.Be that example describes with casting large-scale high-quality steel ingot below.
With the liquid steel notes waterborne or the orthodox casting ingot of making a bet,, generally be that steel ingot is big more because huge crystallization latent heat is subjected to the restriction of limited area of dissipation, ingot mould weight and heat transfer efficiency; Setting time is long more; Dendrite reaches all the more; Inner quality problems are serious more.Subject matter has: there is hole in the ingot center; The various segregations of ingot (negative segregation is arranged at the ingot bottom, and segregation of A type and V-type segregation are arranged at top) are serious; The ingot body has the column crystal of flourishing vertical die wall growth; Steel ingot heart portion occurs thick unusually and is building up the equiax crystal of field trashes in a large number.For the special steel of some chemical compositions, as contain the SUS304 atomic energy steel of B 1.3%, common ingot casting is because the boride of separating out when solidifying is mutually thick and concentrated, and the non-constant of steel ingot plasticity is easily cracked during hot-working.The orthodox casting ingot since segregation with loose serious, not only cutting head cutting tail is many, also needs repeatedly upsetting pull, the bad part of heart portion is removed in the need punching that has, and has increased fiery time, has reduced production efficiency; Some large forgings crystal grain are uneven serious, occur thick crystal grain, reduced the forging mechanical property, when some forging are done nondestructive testing such as ultrasonic examination, can not satisfy the technical conditions requirement of harshness; These birth defects of steel ingot are brought white elephant to thermal pressure processing and heat treatment.
In order to improve the quality of large-scale steel ingot, both at home and abroad when refining, adopt such as ladle argon-blown; Steel spraying powder; Ladle synthesizes wash heat; Ladle application of vacuum (DH, RH, VD); Ladle refining furnace method refined molten steel such as (LF, SKF, VOD, VAD), evenly molten steel chemical composition and temperature are removed harmful element, accurately control the chemical composition scope, deoxidation, the degassing reduces steel inclusion.When ingot casting, adopt such as vacuum casting; Protection casting (gas shield casting, melt cinder protection casting, solid slag protection casting); Many stoves adjustment chemical compositions are closed and are watered large-scale steel ingot; Use the computer simulation process of setting, improve ingot mould; Improve the rising head shape and adopt rising head thermal insulation, heating, eddy-current heating, electric arc heated or electroslag heating; The casting hollow steel ingot, and with compressed air or irritate the method cooling inner core of casting low-melting alloy; Methods such as directional solidification.Adopt the large-scale steel ingot of electroslag remelting process production important use in addition.At present, the maximum steel ingot of casting is the 600T steel ingot that is used for nuclear power boiling-water reactor pressure vessel forging of the blue factory in Japanese chamber.In state-owned maximum in the world electroslag furnace, can produce the ESR ingot of 200T.
Above-mentioned measure all can be in various degree the quality of raising large-scale steel ingot, but change traditional process of setting from freezing mechanism, have only directional solidification and electroslag remelting.And the production electric slag refusion ingot, the production cycle is long, energy consumption is high, efficient is low.The using directed production large-scale steel ingot that solidifies also has certain limitation, and is very not general now.
For obtaining congenital good large-scale black or coloured Metal and Alloy ingot casting; The release and the utilization of control process of setting and heat energy are united, and the special following apparatus and method of proposition also are illustrated in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of semi-solid rheological casting black or coloured Metal and Alloy large-sized casting ingot; among Fig. 2; the metal or alloy 17 that liquid state is cast injects the tundish 15 that has teeter chamber 18 and slide gate nozzle 27 by the submersed nozzle 14 of big bag, prevents the secondary oxidation (or adopting the gas shield measure) of the metal or alloy 17 that liquid state is cast in tundish 15 with liquid covering slag 16.The 18 li agitator heat exchanging segments 13 that are inserted with low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent 37 coolings of alloy in teeter chamber, agitator is made up of the heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 and agitator, the outside of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 is with the sleeve brick of anti-material the 12, agitator bearing group 4 is housed on the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 and drives the gear 5 that agitator rotates, d.c. motor 7 makes the agitator rotation by gearbox 6 driven gears 5, the inlet tube 1 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy is housed in the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, the outlet 2 of the hot transduction agent 37 of agitator mechanical seal 3 and low melting point liquid metal or alloy is equipped with on the top of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, agitator is contained on the transverse arm 8 of controlling agitator, agitator is inserted teeter chamber 18 or proposes tundish 15 by transverse arm 8 by the hydraulic cylinder 10 that can make column 9 liftings rotation, and place the preparation station.Water-cooled copper coil 20 and the yoke 19 that is used for teeter chamber's eddy-current heating is equipped with in the outside of teeter chamber 18, and water-cooled copper coil 22 and the yoke 21 that is used for rheology section eddy-current heating is equipped with in the outside of the outlet section 79 of slide gate nozzle 27 (being suitable rheology section).The low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy that come out from the outlet 46 of the low melting point liquid metal of steam generator 34 shell-sides or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, (this pump 43 is by motor 40 to enter the circulating pump 43 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy through the import 47 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 of alloy, pump shaft 38, bearing group 41, mechanical seal 42, impeller 44, pump inlet 47, pump discharge 48 constitutes), under the effect of impeller 44, from low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy that pump discharge 48 comes out, the turning joint 30 of a part on low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulation line of alloy arrives the heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator from the inlet tube 1 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy; A part arrives the low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent import 69 of alloy on ingot mould chassis through the flow control valve 45 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, after chassis 68 cooled off, come out from the low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 70 of alloy on chassis, after the low melting point liquid metal of ingot mould or 66 pairs of ingot moulds 67 of the hot transduction agent import of alloy cool off, low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy through ingot mould export 65 suitable pipelines to threeway 62, with cooling and stirring device heat exchanging segment 13 after that part of low melting point liquid metal that the turning joint 31 on hot transduction agent outlet 2 of agitator mechanical seal 3 and low melting point liquid metal or alloy and low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulation line of alloy is come out or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy converge, get back to the shell-side of steam generator 34 again from the low melting point liquid metal of steam generator 34 or the hot transduction agent inlet 39 of alloy, the heat energy that carries and the water and the steam of managing in the side are carried out convective heat exchange, enter the water of pipe side through preheating section C from demineralized water import 36, evaporator section B and superheat section A are converted into steam with heat energy, are emitted by vapor outlet port pipeline 35 to be used again.For preventing the oxidation of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, be provided with protective gas import 33 at steam generator 34.The tundish 15 that teeter chamber 18 and slide gate nozzle 27 are housed places on vacuum chamber or the gas shield cover; seal between it by bellows 71; liquid cast metal or alloy 17 are subjected to agitator heat exchanging segment 13 in teeter chamber 18 shear agitation and cooling; wall by heat exchanging segment 13 and low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy carry out compulsory convective heat exchange; discharge liquid sensible heat and partially crystallizable device heat; the crystallization of separating out is dispersed in and forms semi-solid metal or alloy fluid 63 in the remaining liquid phase; when agitator torque (or electric current of d.c. motor 7 and power) is compared when liquid when significant change occurring with complete; open the slide gate nozzle 27 of 18 bottoms, teeter chamber; with the aluminium film on vacuum chamber or gas shield cover fusing, inject place in vacuum chamber or the gas shield cover by chassis 68; in the casting mold that ingot mould 67 and insulated feeder 64 are formed.Ingot mould 67 can be whole, also can be combined with low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 hydronic ingot mould pieces of alloy by many, also can use the cast iron mold and the chassis of always continuing to use.Rising head 64 can be continued to use existing rising head, also can adopt the rising head (making full use of the induction heating power to teeter chamber and the outfit of rheology section) of eddy-current heating.Behind the enough height of 63 cast of the metal or alloy fluid in the rising head 64, close ladle slide gate in billet 14 and remove big bag; Stop to stir and immediately agitator heat exchanging segment 13 is proposed tundish 15 and be threaded to the insulation of preparation station; Closing slide gate nozzle 27 moves to casting surplus ingot mould place (or melting down) with tundish 15 to put in the clean bag residual metallic or alloy 17 and liquid covering slag 16 backs standby; The metal or alloy 17 that does not solidify fully in the rising head 64 is implemented insulation (can adopt existing technology), use the utilization of eddy-current heating rising head to give the induction heating power heat tracing of teeter chamber and the outfit of rheology section; After all solidifying, the ingot body stops again rising head 64 insulations are obtained the ingot casting that solidifies fully again after the semisolid process.Contrasting with Fig. 1, all is semi-solid rheological castings, and only Fig. 1 is the rheocasting continuous casting billet, and Fig. 2 is a caststeel ingot in the rheology, from two width of cloth figure as can be seen, except that slide gate nozzle 27 with the difference of lower part, all the other are identical.
Tundish 15 needs to use the anti-material of high-quality to build by laying bricks or stones owing to be subjected to washing away of liquid metal or alloy 17 more serious than the tundish of common cast usefulness.Working lining is built by laying bricks or stones with second-class high-alumina brick during as cast steel.
Teeter chamber 18 will bear the fierceness of metal or alloy 17 and wash away, and preferably adopts sintering tubular behind isostatic compaction of electrically molten magnesia or electric melting magnesium aluminum spinel matter during cast steel or has the crucible shape refractory brick of bottom outlet to do teeter chamber 18.Use the anti-material tamping of shape of loosing between teeter chamber 18 and the induction coil 20.
Slide gate nozzle 27 is selected in existing anti-material, and the outlet section 79 of slide gate nozzle 27 promptly is equivalent to the rheology section.
The intermediate frequency power supply of teeter chamber 18 and rheology section (outlet section of slide gate nozzle) 79 eddy-current heating is selected with embodiment 1.This intermediate frequency power supply, but a tractor serves several purposes after being equipped with different inductors, can be used for melting preparation required low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy; Agitator heat exchanging segment and the low melting point liquid metal or the alloy circulatory system etc. are heated and are incubated; The melting liquid covering slag; The anti-material of rising head to knotting carries out sintering: the eddy-current heating of metal or alloy in the rising head; The mud of anti-material the to the coating of agitator heat exchanging segment is dried and sintering; Hot test condition (providing convenience for further improving) is provided; Heating condition (as simmering and bending of pipeline etc.) is provided in device fabrication and installation process.Can choose intermediate frequency power supply, inductor and yoke on demand.
Fig. 4 is the cross sectional representation of agitator heat exchanging segment 13.The work layer on surface of heat exchanging segment 13 is the anti-material coatings of high-quality, for improving its thermal shock resistance, at the metal surface of agitator heat exchanging segment elder generation spray metal bottom, spray transition zone again, the outermost layer spraying be do not soak into the metal or alloy fluid, the erosion resistant high-quality working lining of anti-the material.The maintaining method of its spraying method, coating structure, coating material, the coating all agitator heat exchanging segment 13 with embodiment 1 is identical.The sleeve brick of anti-material the 12 is equipped with in the outside that at the agitator heat exchanging segment does not need to carry out heat exchange more than 13 position is agitator mobile jib 11, and its material and installation method are with embodiment 1.
The hot transduction agent 37 hydronic ingot moulds 67 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, chassis 68 and circulation line, with pearlite or austenitic heat-resistance steel steel plate and steel pipe welding production, and can be made into knockdown ingot mould and chassis, both further shorten setting time, reclaimed heat energy; Ingot mould, chassis that one-tenth capable of being combined again is different; Life-span is long, the utilization rate height.
Selection, using method, the points for attention of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy and prevent measure to metal structure and component corrosion; All identical with embodiment 1.
The slagging method of the liquid covering slag 16 of the low melting point that tundish 15 uses and batching are all with to execute example 1 identical.
Used instrument:
Sequence number Detect content Instrumentation
1 The temperature of liquid cast metal or alloy in the tundish Thermocouple and digital instrument
2 Liquid covering slag temperature and liquid level in the tundish Infrared or photoelectric figure instrument
3 The duty of agitator rotation The voltage of the d.c. motor of transmission agitator, electric current, power, rotating speed, digital instruments such as the rotating speed of splash bar itself and moment of torsion
4 The temperature of middle part, teeter chamber and exit metal or alloy fluid Thermocouple and digital instrument
5 The temperature of rheology section middle part (being the slide gate nozzle outlet section) metal or alloy fluid Thermocouple and digital instrument
6 The temperature and the flow of the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy each point in the circulatory system: a. agitator out temperature and flow b. ingot mould, chassis out temperature and flow c. evaporimeter out temperature and flow Thermocouple and temperature digital instrument and digital flowmeter
7 The hot transduction agent circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or alloy duty The digital instrument of the voltage of pump motor, electric current, power, rotating speed and the digital flowmeter of pump
8 The liquid level of the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy in evaporimeter Liquid level designation number instrument
9 The temperature and pressure of steam generator vapor outlet port place steam Steam temperature and pressure on the number instrument
10 Temperature, pressure, the flow of the import of steam generator demineralized water The digital instrument of the temperature of measurement demineralized water, pressure, flow
11 Teeter chamber's eddy-current heating working condition The digital instrument of voltage of intermediate frequency, electric current, frequency, power factor and heating power
12 Rheology section eddy-current heating working condition The same
The control system that is equipped with:
Sequence number The control object Control loop The control function
1 Agitator speed The direct current generator transmission Adjust by the rotating speed of setting
2 The motion of agitator transverse arm Hydraulic drive Control makes the hydraulic cylinder of column lifting and rotation that agitator is placed operating position or ready position
3 The slide gate nozzle of bottom, teeter chamber Electronic or hydraulic actuating mechanism The control of mouth of a river switch and flow
4 The eddy-current heating of teeter chamber and rheology section The power adjusting loop of induction heating power Regulate the induction heating power of teeter chamber and rheology section
5 The circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy Direct current or alternating-current variable frequency motor transmission Adjust rotating speed and change flow and pressure
6 The hot transduction agent distributing valve of low melting point liquid metal or alloy Motor or hydraulic drive The low melting point liquid metal between adjustment agitator and ingot mould, the chassis or the assignment of traffic ratio of the hot transduction agent of alloy
7 Steam generator The electric operator of valve Control flow of inlet water control vapor outlet port temperature, pressure and flow
8 Master-control room Network The shearing rate of semisolid fluid, solid phase percentage, cooldown rate
Preparation before the casting: when lifting, the rotation of the rotation of agitator and transverse arm normal; The circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy and residual neat recovering system are in the insulation stand-by state, and the agitator heat exchanging segment coating is intact and that installed sleeve brick is threaded to the preparation station of ingot mould one side.Using low melting point liquid metal or hydronic ingot mould of the hot transduction agent of alloy and chassis, assemble complete before casting and start circulation, is the life-span and the Ingot Surface Quality on raising ingot mould and chassis, but stenciling coating.Also can use the ingot mould and the chassis of existing cast iron.The use high quality refractory brick is built by laying bricks or stones or the anti-material of the shape high-quality of loosing is tied a knot after the rising head of sintering.As adopt the rising head (induction coil has framework and yoke outward) of eddy-current heating then to connect water-cooled cable, connect the induction coil cooling water.As use electric arc heated or electroslag heating, and install electrode, place the other ready position of rising head, and checked the control appliance of electrode.Using gases protection casting, protective cover is installed and is prepared appropriate source of the gas.Use liquid covering slag protection casting, melt, insulation, standby.Vacuum pouring, after assembling ingot mould and rising head, close lid and vacuumize.
In the preparation and refining of molten steel, compared following characteristics with existing production technology: comparatively loose in liquid steel temperature control, needn't worry the higher or on the low side various harm that cause to the ingot solidification tissue of cast temperature.Needn't take to control Si, Mn for the chemical composition segregation that solves the big ingot of structural alloy steel and serious crystal grain are uneven and all be not more than 0.02%; P, S all are not more than 0.002% high-purity method, and this contains for production, and to contain the higher steel grade of P, S significant as the steel grade of alloying element Si and Mn and for improving cutting ability.Needn't take the molten steel of many stoves refining different chemical composition to close the method for watering for the segregation that solves large-scale steel ingot.This law can be produced the kind of the large-scale ingot casting that is not suitable for casting, high boron steel kind of using as the ledeburite of the very wide alloy of solid-liquid phase linear distance, high-carbon high-alloy or martensite steel, nuclear energy etc.Because stirring cooling in the teeter chamber produces in the process of semi-solid-state metal or alloy fluid (slurries), help the effusion of gas (hydrogen, nitrogen), and reduce and the dispersion non-metallic inclusion, use the molten steel of existing working condition refining, this law can obtain, kind more large-scale steel ingot more superior than existing ingot casting, and be the pressure processing and the good condition of heat treatment creation at rear portion, improve end properties.
In the preparation and refining of liquid aluminium (or aluminium alloy), can same prior art.But comparatively loose in temperature control, needn't worry the higher or on the low side various harm that cause to the ingot solidification tissue of cast temperature (as thick dendrite, serious crystal grain inequality, serious macroscopic view and microsegregation.More pore etc.)。Use the liquid aluminium (or aluminium alloy) of existing working condition refining, this law can obtain, kind more large-sized casting ingot more superior than existing ingot casting, and be the pressure processing and the good condition of heat treatment creation at rear portion, the raising end properties.
The technological operation main points of semi-solid rheological direct casting under vacuum: before the casting, the appropriate ingot mould 67 of assembling and chassis 68 and rising head 64 in vacuum chamber, can be existing, also can use the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy 37 hydronic ingot mould 67 and chassis 68, and start circulation.Rising head also can be selected the rising head of eddy-current heating or electric arc, electroslag heating.After vacuumizing, vacuum chamber charges into protective gas; the baked tundish 15 that has teeter chamber 18 and slide gate nozzle 27 is placed the top of vacuum casting chamber; slide gate nozzle 27 is aimed at the aluminium film of vacuum chamber casting gate, carries out sealing with bellows 71 between the outside of slide gate nozzle 27 and the vacuum chamber.To check that good agitator is threaded to the top of tundish 15 from the outside of tundish 15, and aim at teeter chamber 18 and start low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy circulates, close slide gate nozzle 27.Because liquid metal or alloy 17 are subjected to the influence of agitator in the tundish 15; produce certain motion; be not suitable for adopting solid protective slag; for steel, particularly can not use the solid protective slag of carbon containing; need to adopt inert gas shielding or 16 protections of liquid covering slag; the protection of tundish 15 using gases, get inflatable cover and source of the gas ready.Tundish 15 uses 16 protections of liquid covering slags, can select induction furnace slag, electric arc or the electroslag furnace slag of black-fead crucible according to condition, or uses method such as coke air blast oxygenation gasification slag, is ready to liquid covering slag 16.Shifting to an earlier date to tundish 15 of using gases protection feeds protective gas.When big bag is put into liquid metal or alloy 17 by slide gate nozzle 14 beginnings toward tundish 15; induction coil 20 power supplies to teeter chamber 18; arrive tundish two/for the moment at liquid metal or alloy 17; insert agitator; make agitator heat exchanging segment 13 enter teeter chamber 18; stop power supply simultaneously to induction coil 20; and begin rotation and stir; adopt liquid metal in the liquid covering slag 16 protection tundish 15 or alloy 17 liquid levels; after inserting agitator, in tundish 15, put into liquid covering slag 16 immediately and protect.When agitator torque (or electric current of d.c. motor and power) is compared when liquid when significant change occurring with complete, open the slide gate nozzle 27 of 18 bottoms, teeter chamber, the sealed aluminum film that fusing is opened on the vacuum chamber carries out direct casting, in casting cycle, when agitator speed is constant is that shearing rate is when constant, solid phase components percentage in the semi-solid slurry is directly proportional with viscosity change, can adjust the opening degree of slide gate nozzle 27 according to the size (or the electric current of d.c. motor and watt level) of agitator torque, keep the agitator torque (or the electric current of d.c. motor and power) under the required solid phase percentage constant, for the wide alloy of solid-liquid phase line temperature distance, also can according to semisolid fluid temperature (F.T.) in the teeter chamber 18 between the solid-liquid phase line the position and the moment of torsion of agitator judge solid phase components percentage together, and obtain the semi solid slurry of required solid phase percentage ranges by the opening degree of control slide gate nozzle 27.If the outlet section 79 of slide gate nozzle 27 (being the rheology section) is when occurring sticking phenomenon because of fluid viscosity is too high, immediately outlet section 79 is implemented eddy-current heating, and the intensity of cooling of adjustment slide gate nozzle 27 flows and 13 pairs of cast metals of heat exchanging segment or alloy 17, rheocasting is carried out smoothly.Big bag constantly replenishes liquid metal or alloy 17 to tundish 15 in casting cycle; in whipping process, remain the liquid metal in the tundish 15 or the liquid level of alloy 17 and be not less than 1/2nd of tundish 15 degree of depth; up to the full ingot body of semisolid fluid 63 castings; after rising enters rising head 64; stop to stir; the preparation station place of agitator to tundish 15 proposed; and it is rising head 64 castings are full; as capacity suitable; then liquid metal or alloy 17 and liquid covering slag 16 in the tundish 15 can have been watered entirely; if any affluence; after rising head 64 castings are full; close slide gate nozzle 27, tundish 15 is moved on to the slag ladle place, open slide gate nozzle 27 and put net surplus liquid metal or alloy 17 and liquid covering slag 16.Rising head 64 can adopt the rising head of adiabatic rising head or eddy-current heating, electroslag heating, electric arc heated.But note not using exothermic riser and riser compound commonly used, to prevent pollution to ingot casting.After the ingot body all solidifies, stop insulation to rising head 64, metallographic structure and isothermal transformation curve according to this trade mark normalized condition, the cooling velocity of ingot casting after intensity of cooling by control low melting point liquid metal or 37 pairs of ingot moulds 67 of the hot transduction agent of alloy and chassis 68 and the control demould time and the demoulding reaches the control ingot structure, reduces stress, prevents the purpose of crackle.
Under atmosphere, carry out the technological operation main points of semi-solid rheological direct casting: because contain the solid phase particle in the semi-solid metal or alloy fluid 63; sensible heat when also not having liquid state; in casting cycle, then easily produce the viscosity shell that depends on oxide-film as air; cold shut and skull patch defective appear in ingot casting easily; cast so in ingot mould 67, add the method for a small amount of cleanser (as boric anhydride) when adopting gas shield casting or gas shield, also can adopt in ingot mould 67 to add low-melting liquid covering slag and annotate on carrying out.The baked tundish 15 that has teeter chamber 18 and slide gate nozzle 27 is placed ingot mould rising head 64 tops, the protection of tundish 15 using gases, install the gas shield cover, be ready to source of the gas.Adopt melt cinder to protect in tundish 15 and the ingot mould 67, changed melt cinder and heat preservation for standby use.Existing ingot mould and chassis can be used in ingot mould and chassis, also can adopt the hot transduction agent 37 hydronic ingot moulds 67 and chassis 68 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, and start circulation preheating ingot mould 67 and chassis 68.Adopt gas shield in the mould and add a small amount of cleanser, be sprinkled into a small amount of cleanser (as boric anhydride) to chassis 68.Whether the low melting point liquid metal of inspection agitator or hot transduction agent 37 circulatory systems of alloy and agitator rotation and agitator lifting be normal, agitator is threaded to tundish 15 tops from tundish 15 outsides, aim at teeter chamber 18, but do not insert tundish 15, closed slide gate nozzle 27.Tundish 15 and ingot mould 67 use protective gas; feed inert gas; open ladle slide gate in billet 14 and inject liquid metal or alloy 17 to tundish 15; power to the induction coil 20 of teeter chamber 18 simultaneously; when liquid metal or alloy 17 reach tundish 1/2; insert agitator; make agitator heat exchanging segment 13 enter teeter chamber 18; stop power supply simultaneously to induction coil 20; and begin rotation and stir; employing melt cinder protection tundish 15 liquid metals or alloy 17 liquid levels, after inserting agitator, put into liquid covering slag 16 to tundish 15 immediately and protect.Compare when liquid when significant change occurring with complete when the moment of torsion (or electric current of d.c. motor and power) of agitator, open the slide gate nozzle 27 of 18 bottoms, teeter chamber and go up notes.Use the melt cinder protection to cast in the ingot mould 67; beginning when tundish 15 injects liquid metals or alloy 17; runoff notch from ingot mould 67 lower sides injects the liquid covering slag of low melting point to mould; stifled then good this hole; in the casting cycle; big bag constantly injects liquid metal or alloy 17 to tundish 15; keep being no less than 1/2 of the tundish degree of depth; variation according to the electric current of the moment of torsion of agitator or d.c. motor and power is (wide as solid-liquid phase line temperature range; can be simultaneously with reference to the temperature of teeter chamber's 18 inner fluids) adjust the opening degree of teeter chamber's 18 bottom slide gate nozzles 27, solid phase components percentage carries out the rheology direct casting within the required range in the control semisolid fluid 63.In rheology direct casting process, if the outlet section 79 of slide gate nozzle 27 (being the rheology section) is when occurring sticking phenomenon because of fluid viscosity is too high, immediately outlet section 79 is implemented eddy-current heating, and adjust the flow of slide gate nozzle 27 and the intensity of cooling of 13 pairs of cast metals of heat exchanging segment or alloy 17, rheocasting is carried out smoothly.After semisolid fluid 63 waters full ingot body and begins to enter rising head 64, stop to stir and agitator being proposed tundish 15, when rising head 64 water full after, close slide gate nozzle 27, the stopping of using gases protection for protective gas.Rising head 64 can adopt adiabatic rising head, eddy-current heating rising head, electroslag to add hot riser, electric arc heated rising head.But note not using exothermic riser and riser compound commonly used, to prevent pollution to steel ingot.After the ingot body all solidifies, stop insulation to rising head 64, metallographic structure and isothermal transformation curve according to this trade mark normalized condition, the cooling velocity of ingot casting after intensity of cooling by control low melting point liquid metal or 37 pairs of ingot moulds 67 of the hot transduction agent of alloy and chassis 68 and the control demould time and the demoulding reaches the control ingot structure, reduces stress, prevents the purpose of crackle.
The method and the means of control ingot quality during the semi-solid rheological direct casting: change flow, under the constant situation of shearing rate and cooling condition, can control the solid phase components percentage of semisolid fluid by teeter chamber's 18 bottom slide gate nozzles 27.Variation by agitator torque (or the electric current of d.c. motor and power), the variation of the solid phase percentage in the semisolid under certain shearing rate as can be known, regulate the aperture of slide gate nozzle 27, make agitator torque (or the electric current of d.c. motor and power) remain on preset range, can obtain required semisolid fluid 63.For non-eutectic alloy, always have liquidus curve and solidus to exist, the big trade mark of both distances particularly, can be in teeter chamber 18 or the temperature that flows out the semisolid fluid 63 of slide gate nozzle 27 judge solid phase components percentage the semisolid.Pour into weight and the low melting point liquid metal of unit interval cooling and stirring device or the flow and the variation of temperature of the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy of semisolid fluids 63 in the ingot mould 67 time by measurement unit, calculate the solid phase percentage of learning semisolid fluid 63 rapidly.Change the size of teeter chamber 18 and the size and shape of agitator heat exchanging segment 13; Adjust the rotating speed of agitator; All can change shearing rate, influence convection transfer rate and heat transfer intensity, influence semisolid fluid 63 viscosity and solid phase particle size and uniformity coefficient.Induction heating power by the rotating speed of adjusting agitator, the flow of adjusting the flow by the slide gate nozzle 27 of 18 bottoms, teeter chamber, the low melting point liquid metal of adjusting the turnover agitator or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy and temperature, adjustment outlet section 79 (rheology section), the size and the pattern of solid phase percentage, viscosity, cooldown rate and solid phase particle in the time of can controlling semisolid fluid 63 and go out teeter chamber 18, match with adjusting the turnover ingot mould 67 and the low melting point liquid metal on chassis 68 or the flow and the temperature of alloy 37 again, can influence or control the solidified structure of ingot casting.The operator can also can be handled by the program of finishing the data that instrument provides by computer according to carrying out manual operation after the comprehensive judgement of instrument, automatically performs relevant operation.
Fig. 3 inserts the schematic diagram that agitator makes it to be frozen into through the semisolid process large-scale solid ingot casting full liquid phase is poured into a mould black or coloured Metal and Alloy in ingot mould after.Shown apparatus and method are by annotating or make a bet method on existing; pouring liquid black or coloured Metal and Alloy in ingot mould; after being poured into the rising head certain altitude; in ingot mould, insert and make the hydronic agitator of hot transduction agent with low melting point liquid metal or alloy; under the protection of gas or melt cinder; the agitator heat exchanging segment that anti-material coating is arranged by the surface; not solidified black or coloured Metal and Alloy are carried out shear agitation and cooling; through compulsory convective heat exchange; derive the liquid sensible heat and the partially crystallizable latent heat of black or coloured Metal and Alloy; the solid phase of separating out is because the shear agitation effect; can not generate dendrite; and be free in the liquid phase; along with continuous shear agitation and cooling; generate a large amount of approximate spherical solid phase particles; suspended dispersed is in fluid; remove and when beginning to cast, be subjected to metal die wall chilling; outside ingot surface forms the chill of thin equiax crystal; all be semi-solid character and feature; after its solid phase percentage or fluid viscosity reach pre-provisioning request; stop to stir; agitator is proposed; rising head is incubated or eddy-current heating (but also electric arc; the electroslag heating); after the ingot body solidifies entirely; stop insulation, obtain the high-quality large-sized casting ingot rising head.This fluid by being cast metal or alloy and the forced convertion heat exchange between low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy in ingot mould, liquid metal that is cast or alloy are made the method for solidifying again after the semi-solid slurry, changed and cast the orthodox casting ingot before and can only rely on die wall and the chassis formed solidification law that dispels the heat.By shearing rate, cooldown rate and the solid phase components percentage of control semisolid fluid, reach the process of setting of control semisolid character, influence or control ingot casting.Owing to changed the condition of heat transfer, mass transfer and the crystalline growth of process of setting, quantity and distribution that realization is derived mode, derived quantity, derivation speed and separate out solid phase crystallization latent heat, and effective control of solid phase particles size, changed the solidified structure of the ubiquitous three band crystallizations of general ingot casting, the major defect of having avoided existing large-scale steel ingot to exist.Owing to do not have serious segregation, can omit the High temperature diffusion Technology for Heating Processing of ingot casting; Because perpendicular to the thick column crystal of die wall, the thermoplasticity of ingot casting does not improve, can reduce the crackle when forging; Because the densification of heart portion, do not have the especially big crystal grain of orthodox casting ingot again, can reduce upsetting pull number of times and fire, for congenital good condition is created in pressure processing and heat treatment.Owing to used low melting point liquid metal or alloy to make the circulatory system of hot transduction agent, will shorten the ingot solidification time, improve ingot quality and organically combine with recycling heat energy.This method ingot is heavy can be unrestricted, for example can cast the super-huge steel ingot heavier than 600T.
Among Fig. 3, the agitator mobile jib steel pipe of being made by pearlite or austenitic heat resisting steel with low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 hydronic agitators of alloy 11 and the heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator are formed.The outside of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 is with the sleeve brick of anti-material the 12, agitator bearing group 4 is housed on agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 and drives the gear 5 that agitator rotates, d.c. motor 7 drives agitator swing pinion 5 by gearbox 6 and makes the agitator rotation, the inlet tube 1 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy is housed in the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, the outlet 2 of the hot transduction agent 37 of agitator mechanical seal 3 and low melting point liquid metal or alloy is equipped with on the top of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, agitator is contained on the transverse arm 8 of controlling agitator, motion 86 control transverse arms 8 by transverse arm 8 are done lifting on column 87, rotation is with flexible, make agitator heat exchanging segment 13 can insert or extract the ingot body smoothly and shift out the space on rising head 64 tops and can be suspended in any locus in the ingot body, the position 90 of agitator shown in dotted lines in the ingot mould 67.The casting mold of ingot casting is made up of chassis 68, ingot mould 67 and insulated feeder 64.68 low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent import 69 of alloy enter from the chassis for a part of low melting point liquid metal sent here from low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 of alloy or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, after chassis 68 cooled off, come out from the low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 70 of alloy on chassis, low melting point liquid metal or 66 pairs of ingot moulds 67 of the hot transduction agent import of alloy of entering ingot mould 67 cool off, come out from the low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 65 of alloy of ingot mould 67, again and after the heated low melting point liquid metal that comes out from agitator top low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 2 of alloy or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy converge, remove shell-and-tube steam generator 34, after discharging entrained heat energy, through low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 of alloy, the hot transduction agent flow control valve 45 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, turning joint 30 on the circulation line of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, 31, threeway 62 grades on the pipeline are returned cooling and stirring device heat exchanging segment 13 again, chassis 68 and ingot mould 67 (the hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, the hot transduction agent flow control valve 45 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, steam generator 34, turning joint 30 on the hot transduction agent circulation line of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, 31, threeway 62 grades on the pipeline are seen Fig. 2; Omit among Fig. 3).Basic identical with the method and the pouring technology of existing full liquid phase cast black or the coloured large-scale ingot casting of Metal and Alloy before in the ingot body, inserting agitator heat exchanging segment 13, can adopt the top teeming process or the method for making a bet, the black of liquid state or coloured Metal and Alloy enter ingot mould from the tail brick hole, soup road on the chassis 68 when making a bet, the position the when center line 91 in tail brick hole, soup road is represented two soup roads of employing tail brick.When annotating on adopting, for reducing splashing of liquid metal or alloy, 68 centers, chassis should be provided with pit 92, and after the ingot casting demoulding, this redundance is with cut.Ingot mould 67 can be whole, also can be combined with low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 hydronic ingot mould pieces of alloy by many, also can use the cast iron mold and the chassis of always continuing to use.Though on annotate or make a bet and all do not use the solid protective slag of existing solid protective slag, particularly carbon containing, prevent to pollute ingot casting because of the stirring action of agitator.Fig. 3 represents to insert behind the full liquid pouring sight of agitator in ingot mould 67, be liquid covering slag 88 above the metal or alloy 89 in the rising head 64.Metal or alloy 89 in the rising head 64 is by rising head 64 refractory materials own and apply coverture insulation (agitator also can be selected to adopt eddy-current heating, electric arc heated or electroslag to add hot riser after removing).This law also is applicable to the ingot casting of vacuum pouring; in time broken empty (being installed in the vacuum chamber after cast as the big agitating device in vacuum chamber space; just insert agitator after the cast; stirring under vacuum or the protective atmosphere) open cover and in ingot mould 67, insert agitator rapidly and stir, take to put into the secondary oxidation that liquid covering slag 88 or protective gas prevent ingot casting simultaneously.
Fig. 4 is the cross sectional representation of agitator heat exchanging segment 13.The work layer on surface of heat exchanging segment 13 is the anti-material coatings of high-quality, for improving its thermal shock resistance, at the metal surface of agitator heat exchanging segment 13 elder generation spray metal bottom, spray transition zone again, the outermost layer spraying be do not soak into the metal or alloy fluid, the erosion resistant high-quality working lining of anti-the material.The maintaining method of its spraying method, coating structure, coating material, the coating all agitator heat exchanging segment 13 with embodiment 1 is identical.Agitator heat exchanging segment 13 can be made into different shape; It can rotate, and also can not rotate and adopts and rock, swing, move back and forth or vibrate; Agitator can be vertical or heeling condition during stirring; To adapt to the semisolid process of in the ingot body, carrying out needs to shearing rate, cooldown rate, solid phase percentage, solid phase particles size and viscosity.The sleeve brick of anti-material the 12 is equipped with in the outside that at the agitator heat exchanging segment does not need to carry out heat exchange more than 13 position is agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, and its material and installation method are with embodiment 1.
Hot transduction agent 37 hydronic ingot mould 67 and chassis 68 and the circulation lines of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, with pearlite or austenitic heat-resistance steel steel plate and steel pipe welding production, and can be made into knockdown ingot mould and chassis, not only further shorten setting time, reclaimed heat energy but also different ingot mould, the chassis of one-tenth capable of being combined, and the life-span is long, the utilization rate height.
Selection, using method, the points for attention of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy and prevent measure to metal structure and component corrosion; All identical with embodiment 1.
Use the slagging method of the liquid covering slag cast of low melting point and batching all with to execute example 1 identical.
As be equipped with the intermediate frequency power supply of eddy-current heating, but a tractor serves several purposes after being equipped with different inductors, can be used for melting preparation required low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy; Agitator heat exchanging segment and the low melting point liquid metal or the alloy circulatory system etc. are heated and are incubated; The melting liquid covering slag; The anti-material of rising head to knotting carries out sintering; The eddy-current heating of metal or alloy in the rising head; The mud of anti-material the to the coating of agitator heat exchanging segment is dried and sintering; Hot simulated test condition (providing convenience for further improving) is provided; Heating condition (as simmering and bending of pipeline etc.) is provided in device fabrication and installation process.Can choose intermediate frequency power supply, inductor and yoke on demand.Certainly also can select other heating means.
Compare the instrumentation of increase with existing die casting: the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is at the out temperature and the flow of agitator; The hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is at the out temperature and the flow of ingot mould; The hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is at the out temperature and the flow on ingot mould chassis; The hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is at the out temperature and the flow of steam generator shell-side; The rotating speed and the power of the hot transduction agent circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or alloy; The rotating speed of agitator and moment of torsion (or rotating speed of its transmission direct current generator, electric current, power); The allocation proportion of the hot transduction agent distributing valve of low melting point liquid metal or alloy; The liquid level indication of the low melting point liquid metal of steam generator shell-side or the hot transduction agent of alloy; The inflow temperature of steam generator tube side and flow; Instrument such as vapor outlet port temperature, pressure and the flow of steam generator tube side.The control system that increases:
Sequence number The control object Control loop The control function
1 Agitator speed The direct current generator transmission Can control and adjust by the rotating speed of setting
2 The motion of agitator transverse arm Motor or hydraulic drive Flexible, the lifting of agitator transverse arm and rotation
3 The circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy Direct current generator transmission or AC frequency conversion Adjust rotating speed and change flow and pressure
4 The hot transduction agent distributing valve of low melting point liquid metal or alloy Electronic or the hydraulic actuating mechanism of valve Adjust low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent assignment of traffic of alloy ratio between heat exchanging segment and ingot mould, the chassis
5 Steam generator The electric operator of valve Control flow of inlet water control vapor outlet port temperature, pressure and flow
6 Master-control room Network The shearing rate of semisolid fluid, solid phase percentage, cooldown rate etc.,
Preparation before the casting: when flexible, the lifting and the rotation of the rotation of agitator and transverse arm normal; The circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy and residual neat recovering system are in the insulation stand-by state, and the agitator heat exchanging segment coating is intact and that installed sleeve brick is threaded to the preparation station of ingot mould one side.Using low melting point liquid metal or hydronic ingot mould of the hot transduction agent of alloy and chassis, assemble complete before casting and start circulation, is the life-span and the Ingot Surface Quality on raising ingot mould and chassis, but stenciling coating.The use high quality refractory brick is built by laying bricks or stones or the anti-material of the shape high-quality of loosing is tied a knot after the rising head of sintering.As adopt the rising head (induction coil has framework and yoke outward) of eddy-current heating then to connect water-cooled cable, connect the induction coil cooling water.As use electric arc heated or electroslag heating, and install electrode, place the other ready position of rising head, and checked the control appliance of electrode.Using gases protection casting, protective cover is installed and is prepared appropriate source of the gas.Use liquid covering slag protection casting, melt, insulation, standby.Vacuum pouring, after assembling ingot mould and rising head, close lid and vacuumize.
In the preparation and refining of molten steel, compared following characteristics with existing production technology: comparatively loose in liquid steel temperature control, needn't worry the higher or on the low side various harm that cause to the ingot solidification tissue of cast temperature.Needn't take to control Si, Mn for the chemical composition segregation that solves the big ingot of structural alloy steel and serious crystal grain are uneven and all be not more than 0.02%; P, S all are not more than 0.002% high-purity method, and this contains for production, and to contain the higher steel grade of P, S significant as the steel grade of alloying element Si and Mn and for improving cutting ability.Needn't take the molten steel of many stoves refining different chemical composition to close for the segregation that solves large-scale steel ingot waters.This law can be produced the kind of the large-scale ingot casting that is not suitable for casting, as the ledeburite steel of the very wide alloy of solid-liquid phase linear distance, high-carbon high-alloy, the high boron steel kind that nuclear energy is used.Because stirring cooling in mold produces in the process of semi-solid-state metal (or alloy) slurries, the effusion and minimizing and the dispersion non-metallic inclusion that help gas (hydrogen, nitrogen), use the molten steel of existing working condition refining, this law can obtain, kind more large-scale steel ingot more superior than existing ingot casting.
In the preparation and refining of liquid aluminium (or aluminium alloy), can same prior art.But comparatively loose in temperature control, needn't worry the higher or on the low side various harm that cause to the ingot solidification tissue of cast temperature (as thick dendrite, serious crystal grain inequality, serious macroscopic view and microsegregation.More pore.)。Use the liquid aluminium (or aluminium alloy) of existing working condition refining, this law can obtain, kind more large-sized casting ingot more superior than existing ingot casting, and be the pressure processing and the good condition of heat treatment creation at rear portion, the raising end properties.
The pouring technology main points: agitator begins rotation after will waiting heat exchanging segment 13 to insert in liquid metal in the ingot mould 67 or the alloy fully again, and agitator is that the rotating speed of heat exchanging segment 13 is looked the situation of rising head 64 fluid movement and the needs of shearing rate are adjusted.When rotation is stirred, also can on column 87, do lifting, rotation and flexible by the motion 86 control transverse arms 8 of transverse arm 8, agitator heat exchanging segment 13 is moved in the ingot body by required track, strengthen the cooling effect of shear agitation and heat convection, derive the liquid sensible heat and the partially crystallizable latent heat of cast metal and alloy, and make the solid phase of separating out be difficult to form dendrite, become numerous solid phase particles that are dispersed in the liquid phase, ingot body skim-coat is that surplus is the semisolid fluid outside the brilliant solidified shell that constitutes of Quench.In the whipping process, note controlling low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy each outlet temperature on agitator, ingot mould 67 and chassis 68 is not more than 500 ℃; The minimum temperature of each import will remain on low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent 37 liquidus temperatures of alloy more than 30 ℃.By selecting the size and shape of agitator heat exchanging segment 13; Change the rotating speed and the movement locus in the ingot body of heat exchanging segment 13, can change shearing rate fluid in the ingot body.By selecting the anti-material coating material and the coating layer thickness of heat exchanging segment 13; The low melting point liquid metal of control cooling and stirring device heat exchanging segment 13 or the out temperature and the flow of the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy; Control cooling ingot mould 67 and the low melting point liquid metal on chassis 68 or the out temperature and the flow of the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy; Reach the purpose of control cast metal or alloy fluid cooldown rate.By measuring the temperature of semi-solid alloy fluid in the ingot body, learn the solid phase components percentage of this moment from the position between its solid-liquid phase line of living in; By measuring hot transduction agent 37 each temperature and the flow imported and exported of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, calculate the crystallization latent heat of deriving, learn solid phase components percentage; Significant change and stable gradually increasing appear in the electric current (or power) of the direct current generator by agitator or the moment of torsion of agitator, judge the solid phase components percentage (between 30% to 50%) of semisolid fluid in the ingot body; Rule of thumb the agitator direct current generator electric current of Zong Jieing, power (or agitator torque) are judged solid phase components percentage with the relation curve of solid phase components percentage; When stirring is cooled to predetermined solid phase components percentage or fluid viscosity, stop to stir proposition agitator heat exchanging segment 13, rising head 64 is implemented insulation, and continue to keep the circulation on low melting point liquid metal or 37 pairs of ingot moulds 67 of the hot transduction agent of alloy and chassis 68 to cool off.After the ingot body all solidifies, stop insulation to rising head, metallographic structure and isothermal transformation curve according to this trade mark normalized condition, the cooling velocity of ingot casting after intensity of cooling by control low melting point liquid metal or 37 pairs of ingot moulds 67 of the hot transduction agent of alloy and chassis 68 and the control demould time and the demoulding reaches the control ingot structure, reduces stress, prevents the purpose of crackle.
Fig. 3 is different with the method for Fig. 2, and Fig. 2 method is fit to go up to be annotated, and annotates and makes a bet on Fig. 3 method and all can.The method of Fig. 3 is not established the teeter chamber of band eddy-current heating, be in ingot mould, to implement to stir with cooling to produce the semisolid process, at shearing rate, solid phase percentage, cooldown rate and solid phase particle size and shape and on the ingot solidification Microstructure Control, not as Fig. 2 method.Fig. 2 method is more complicated than Fig. 3 method in equipment and technological operation.
Fig. 5 is behind full liquid phase cast black or coloured Metal and Alloy, in ingot mould, insert with low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic agitator of the hot transduction agent of alloy as the hollow ingot fuse, liquid metal or the alloy that is cast carried out shear agitation and cooling, make it to be frozen into again the schematic diagram of large hollow ingot casting through the semisolid process.Among Fig. 5,, form by the agitator mobile jib steel pipe made from pearlite or austenitic heat-resistance steel 11 and the agitator heat exchanging segment 13 of inverted frustum shape with low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic agitator of the hot transduction agent of alloy.The outside of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 is with the sleeve brick of anti-material the 12, agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 is equipped with bearing group 4 and drives the gear 5 of agitator rotation, d.c. motor 7 makes the agitator rotation by gearbox 6 driven gears 5, the hot transduction agent inlet tube 1 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is housed in the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, mechanical seal 3 and the low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 2 of alloy of agitator is equipped with on the top of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, agitator is contained on the transverse arm 8 of controlling agitator, can on column 87, do lifting by the motion 86 control transverse arms 8 of transverse arm 8, rotation is with flexible, make agitator heat exchanging segment 13 can insert or extract the ingot body smoothly, and shift out the space on rising head 64 tops; And can be suspended in any locus in the ingot body, as the position 90 of a represented agitator of with dashed lines in the ingot mould among Fig. 5 67.The casting mold of ingot casting is made up of chassis 68, ingot mould 67 and rising head 64.68 low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent import 69 of alloy enter from the chassis for a part of low melting point liquid metal sent here from low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulating pump of alloy or the hot transduction agent of alloy, after chassis 68 cooled off, come out from the low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 70 of alloy on chassis, low melting point liquid metal or 66 pairs of ingot moulds 67 of the hot transduction agent import of alloy through ingot mould 67 cool off again, converge back inflow pipe shell-type steam generator from the low melting point liquid metal of ingot mould 67 or hot transduction agent outlet 65 low melting point liquid metals that come out of alloy or the hot transduction agent of alloy and the low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy that come out from agitator top low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 2 of alloy, return cooling and stirring device heat exchanging segment 13 again after discharging entrained heat energy, chassis 68 and ingot mould 67 (the hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 of low melting point liquid metal herein or alloy, the hot transduction agent flow control valve 45 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, steam generator 34, turning joint 30 on the hot transduction agent circulation line of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, 31, threeway 62 grades on the pipeline are all identical with Fig. 2, slightly).Before in the ingot body, inserting agitator, identical with the method for existing full liquid phase cast black or coloured Metal and Alloy large-scale solid ingot casting, can adopt and annotate or make a bet, the black of liquid state or coloured Metal and Alloy enter casting mold from the tail brick hole, soup road on the chassis when making a bet, the position the when center line 91 in tail brick hole, soup road is represented two soup roads of employing tail brick.When annotating on adopting, for reducing splashing of liquid metal or alloy, the center on chassis 68 is provided with pit 92, and behind ingot solidification, this redundance is with cut.Ingot mould 67 can be whole, also can combine the cast iron mold and the chassis of always continuing to use in the time of can also using the cast solid ingot with low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic ingot mould of the hot transduction agent of alloy by many.Though on annotate or make a bet and all do not use the solid protective slag of existing solid protective slag, particularly carbon containing, prevent to pollute ingot casting because of the stirring action of agitator.The solid line of Fig. 5 partly represents to insert behind the full liquid pouring sight of agitator in ingot mould; it above the metal or alloy fluid 89 in the rising head 64 liquid covering slag 88; constantly carry out shear agitation and cooling by the metal or alloy fluid 89 that is immersed in the 13 pairs of ingot moulds of agitator heat exchanging segment in the metal or alloy fluid 89; the profile of heat exchanging segment 13 is exactly the core shape of hollow ingot; can be designed to inverted frustum shapes circle or many ribs (handle promptly is equipped with the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 of the sleeve brick of anti-material the 12) of handle; so that after ingot casting integral body is solidified it is extracted; when stirring, notice that the bottom of heat exchanging segment 13 and the distance on 68 surfaces, chassis are not less than 50mm; top is not exposed at the surface of metal or alloy fluid 89; heat exchanging segment 13 is except that the rotation of place, ingot mould axle center is stirred; also can make heat exchanging segment 13 leave place, ingot mould axle center by the motion 86 control transverse arms 8 of transverse arm 8; be rotated stirring by required movement locus, improve the effect that stirs with cooling.The solid phase components of metal or alloy fluid 89 increases gradually in casting mold, the viscosity of the semi solid slurry that forms is along with increasing, compare during at the electric current (or power) of d.c. motor 7 and obvious variation to occur with approximate full liquid phase, be that the moment of torsion of agitator is when being significantly increased, stop the rotation of agitator, agitator heat exchanging segment 13 is hovered over assigned address on the ingot casting axial line, and (the maximum position that is about to the frustum cross section is exposed on the metal or alloy fluid 89, as shown in Figure 6) and fixing, the metal or alloy fluids 89 in the rising head 64 all solidify up to the ingot body by rising head 64 refractory materials own and the coverture insulation that applies.Fig. 6 is by the schematic diagram before the large hollow ingot casting demoulding of Fig. 5 method manufacturing.After ingot casting all solidifies, extract agitator heat exchanging segment 13, make the blind hole of ingot casting bottom into through hole (or when forging, disposing) with cutting methods such as flames after the demoulding.This law also is applicable to the ingot casting of vacuum pouring, and in time broken sky is opened cover after cast, inserts agitator heat exchanging segment 13 rapidly and stir in ingot mould, puts into liquid covering slag 88 simultaneously or uses protective gas to prevent the secondary oxidation of ingot casting.Big as the vacuum chamber space, agitating device is installed in the vacuum chamber, and agitator is inserted in the cast back, stirs under vacuum or protective atmosphere.
Among Fig. 5, the work layer on surface of agitator heat exchanging segment 13 is the anti-material coatings of high-quality, for improving its thermal shock resistance, at the metal surface of agitator heat exchanging segment 13 elder generation spray metal bottom, spray transition zone again, outermost layer spraying be do not soak into the metal or alloy fluid, the erosion resistant high-quality working lining of anti-the material.The maintaining method of its spraying method, coating structure, coating material, the coating all agitator heat exchanging segment 13 with embodiment 1 is identical.More than 13, do not need to carry out the position of heat exchange at the agitator heat exchanging segment, promptly the sleeve brick of anti-material the 12 is equipped with in the outside of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, and its material and installation method are with embodiment 1.
The hydronic ingot mould 67 of the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy and chassis 68 and circulation line, with pearlite or austenitic heat-resistance steel steel plate and steel pipe welding production, and can be made into knockdown ingot mould and chassis, not only further shorten setting time, reclaimed heat energy but also different ingot mould, the chassis of one-tenth capable of being combined, and the life-span is long, the utilization rate height.
The selection of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy, using method, points for attention and prevent measure to metal structure and component corrosion; All identical with embodiment 1.
Use the slagging method of the liquid covering slag cast of low melting point and batching all with to execute example 1 identical.
As be equipped with the intermediate frequency power supply of eddy-current heating, but a tractor serves several purposes after being equipped with different inductors, can be used for melting preparation required low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy; Agitator heat exchanging segment and the low melting point liquid metal or the alloy circulatory system etc. are heated and are incubated; The melting liquid covering slag; The anti-material of rising head to knotting carries out sintering; The mud of anti-material the to the coating of agitator heat exchanging segment is dried and sintering; Hot simulated test condition (providing convenience for further improving) is provided; Heating condition (as simmering and bending of pipeline etc.) is provided in device fabrication and installation process.Can choose intermediate frequency power supply, inductor and yoke on demand.Certainly also can select other heating means.
Compare the instrumentation of increase with existing die casting: the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is at the out temperature and the flow of agitator; The hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is at the out temperature and the flow of ingot mould; The hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is at the out temperature and the flow on chassis; The hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is at the out temperature and the flow of steam generator shell-side; The rotating speed and the power of the hot transduction agent circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or alloy; The rotating speed of agitator and moment of torsion (or rotating speed of its transmission direct current generator, electric current, voltage, power); The allocation proportion of the hot transduction agent distributing valve of low melting point liquid metal or alloy; The liquid level indication of the low melting point liquid metal of steam generator shell-side or the hot transduction agent of alloy; The inflow temperature of steam generator tube side and flow; Instrument such as vapor outlet port temperature, pressure and the flow of steam generator tube side.
The control system that increases:
Sequence number The control object Control loop The control function
1 Agitator speed The direct current generator transmission Can control and adjust by the rotating speed of setting
2 The motion of agitator transverse arm Motor or hydraulic drive Flexible, the lifting of agitator transverse arm and rotation
3 The circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy Direct current generator transmission or AC frequency conversion Adjust rotating speed and change flow and pressure
4 The hot transduction agent distributing valve of low melting point liquid metal or alloy Electronic or the hydraulic actuating mechanism of valve Adjust low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent assignment of traffic of alloy ratio between heat exchanging segment and ingot mould, the chassis
5 Steam generator The electric operator of valve Control flow of inlet water control vapor outlet port temperature, pressure and flow
6 Master-control room Network The shearing rate of semisolid fluid, solid phase percentage, cooldown rate etc.,
Preparation before the casting: when flexible, the lifting and the rotation of the rotation of agitator and transverse arm normal; The circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy and residual neat recovering system are in the insulation stand-by state, and the agitator heat exchanging segment coating is intact and that installed sleeve brick is threaded to the preparation station of ingot mould one side.Using low melting point liquid metal or hydronic ingot mould of the hot transduction agent of alloy and chassis, assemble complete before casting and start circulation, is the life-span and the Ingot Surface Quality on raising ingot mould and chassis, but stenciling coating.The use high quality refractory brick is built by laying bricks or stones or the anti-material of the shape high-quality of loosing is tied a knot after the rising head of sintering.Using gases protection casting, protective cover is installed and is prepared appropriate source of the gas.Use liquid covering slag protection casting, melt, insulation, standby.Vacuum pouring, after assembling ingot mould and rising head, close lid and vacuumize.
In the preparation and refining of molten steel, compared following characteristics with existing production technology: comparatively loose in liquid steel temperature control, needn't worry the higher various harm that cause to the ingot solidification tissue of cast temperature; Needn't take to control Si, Mn for the chemical composition segregation that solves the big ingot of structural alloy steel and serious crystal grain are uneven and all be not more than 0.02%; P, S all are not more than 0.002% high-purity method, and this contains the steel grade of Si, Mn as alloying element for production and to contain the higher steel grade of P, S significant in order to improve cutting ability; Needn't take the molten steel of many stoves refining different chemical composition to close the method for watering for the segregation that solves large-scale steel ingot; Can produce the kind of the large-scale die casting hollow ingot that is not suitable for casting, as the martensite steel of the very wide alloy of solid-liquid phase linear distance, high-carbon high-alloy, the high boron steel kind that nuclear energy is used; In the process of producing semi-solid-state metal or alloy slurry, help emitting and the minimizing and the dispersion of non-metallic inclusion of gas in the steel (hydrogen, nitrogen), reduce forging white-spot defects, reduce the rank of total oxygen and field trash; Use the molten steel of existing working condition refining, this law can obtain, kind more large-sized hollow steel ingot more superior than existing die casting hollow ingot.
In the preparation and refining of liquid aluminium (or aluminium alloy), can same prior art.But comparatively loose in temperature control, needn't worry the higher or on the low side various harm that cause to the ingot solidification tissue of cast temperature (as thick dendrite, serious crystal grain inequality, serious macroscopic view and microsegregation.More pore.)。Use the liquid aluminium (or aluminium alloy) of existing working condition refining, this law can obtain, kind more large hollow ingot casting more superior than existing ingot casting, and be the pressure processing and the good condition of heat treatment creation at rear portion, the raising end properties.
The pouring technology main points: agitator begins rotation after will waiting heat exchanging segment 13 to insert in liquid metal in the ingot mould 67 or the alloy fully again, and agitator is that the rotating speed of heat exchanging segment 13 is looked the situation of rising head 64 fluid movement and the needs of shearing rate are adjusted.When rotation is stirred, heat exchanging segment 13 is except that place, the axle center rotation of ingot mould 67 is stirred, also can on column 87, do lifting, rotation and flexible by the motion 86 control transverse arms 8 of transverse arm 8, agitator heat exchanging segment 13 is moved in the ingot body by required track, strengthen the cooling effect of shear agitation and heat convection, derive the liquid sensible heat and the partially crystallizable latent heat of Metal and Alloy, and make the solid phase of separating out be difficult to form dendrite, become numerous solid phase particles that are dispersed in the liquid phase, ingot body skim-coat is that surplus is the semisolid fluid outside the brilliant solidified shell that constitutes of Quench.When stirring, notice that the bottom of heat exchanging segment 13 and the distance of chassis surface are not less than the surface that 50mm, top are not exposed at metal or alloy fluid 89, in the whipping process, note controlling low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy each outlet temperature on agitator, ingot mould 67 and chassis 68 is not more than 500 ℃; The minimum temperature of each import will remain on low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent liquidus temperature of alloy more than 30 ℃.By selecting the size and shape of agitator heat exchanging segment 13; Change the rotating speed and the movement locus in the ingot body of heat exchanging segment 13, can change shearing rate fluid in the ingot body.By selecting the anti-material coating material and the coating layer thickness of heat exchanging segment 13; The low melting point liquid metal of control cooling and stirring device heat exchanging segment 13 or the out temperature and the flow of the hot transduction agent of alloy; Control cooling ingot mould 67 and the low melting point liquid metal on chassis 68 or the out temperature and the flow of the hot transduction agent of alloy; Reach the purpose of control metal or alloy fluid 89 cooldown rates.By measuring the temperature of semi-solid alloy fluid, learn the solid phase components percentage of this moment from the position between its solid-liquid phase line of living in; By measuring each temperature and flow of importing and exporting of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy, calculate the crystallization latent heat of deriving, learn solid phase components percentage; Significant change and stable gradually increasing appear in the electric current (or power) of the direct current generator by agitator or the moment of torsion of agitator, judge the solid phase components percentage (between 30% to 50%) of semisolid fluid; Rule of thumb the relation curve of agitator direct current generator electric current (or agitator torque) of Zong Jieing and solid phase components percentage is judged solid phase components percentage; When stirring is cooled to predetermined solid phase components percentage or fluid viscosity, stop the rotation of agitator, agitator heat exchanging segment 13 is hovered over assigned address on the ingot casting axial line, and (expose on metal or alloy fluid 89 at the maximum position that is about to the frustum cross section, as shown in Figure 6) fixing, and continue to keep low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy that the circulation on ingot mould 67 and chassis 68 is cooled off.Metal or alloy 89 in the rising head 64 all solidifies up to the ingot body by the refractory material of rising head itself and the coverture insulation that applies.Metallographic structure and isothermal transformation curve according to this trade mark normalized condition, the cooling velocity of ingot casting after intensity of cooling by the hot transduction agent exchange of control low melting point liquid metal or alloy hot arc 13, ingot mould 67 and chassis 68 and the control demould time and the demoulding reaches the control ingot structure, reduces stress, prevents the purpose of crackle.
The application of embodiment [3] on casting large-scale black or coloured Metal and Alloy foundry goods
Fig. 7 is the schematic diagram of semi-solid rheological casting black or coloured Metal and Alloy heavy castings, is example with the die hammer anvil block steel-casting of casting gross weight 140T, and this method and apparatus is described.Fig. 7 and Fig. 2 (schematic diagram of semi-solid rheological casting black or coloured Metal and Alloy large-sized casting ingot) are in that to make the method and apparatus that semi-solid slurry pours into a mould identical; Tundish; the guard method of metal or alloy liquid level in the tundish; the teeter chamber; the eddy-current heating of teeter chamber; slide gate nozzle; rheology section (or the outlet section at the mouth of a river); the eddy-current heating of rheology section; the lifting of agitator transverse arm and rotary system; the rotating actuator of agitator; the structure of agitator; the low melting point liquid metal of forming by the circulating pump of agitator heat exchanging segment and steam generator and low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy and corresponding pipe valve and turning joint or the circulatory system of the hot transduction agent of alloy; instrument and control system etc. are identical, and these devices are identical with Reference numeral on Fig. 2 at Fig. 7.The difference of Fig. 7 and Fig. 2 is that Fig. 2 is a semi-solid rheological casting large-scale ingot casting; Fig. 7 is a semi-solid rheological casting large-scale foundry goods; Fig. 2 has used the ingot mould and the chassis of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent cooling of alloy; Fig. 7 has used the external chill (or casting mold) of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent cooling of alloy.
Among Fig. 7; the metal or alloy 17 that liquid state is cast injects the tundish 15 that has teeter chamber 18 and slide gate nozzle 27 by the submersed nozzle 14 of big bag, prevents the secondary oxidation (or adopting the gas shield measure) of the metal or alloy 17 that liquid state is cast in the tundish 15 with liquid covering slag 16.The 18 li agitator heat exchanging segments 13 that are inserted with low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent 37 coolings of alloy in teeter chamber, agitator is made up of the heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 and agitator, the outside of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 is with the sleeve brick of anti-material the 12, bearing group 4 is housed on agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 and drives the gear 5 that agitator rotates, d.c. motor 7 makes the agitator rotation by gearbox 6 driven gears 5, the hot transduction agent inlet tube 1 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is housed in the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, the hot transduction agent outlet 2 of agitator mechanical seal 3 and low melting point liquid metal or alloy is equipped with on the top of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, agitator is contained on the transverse arm 8 of controlling agitator, agitator is inserted teeter chamber 18 or proposes tundish 15 by transverse arm 8 by the hydraulic cylinder 10 that can make column 9 liftings rotation, and place the preparation station.Water-cooled copper coil 20 and the yoke 19 that is used for teeter chamber's eddy-current heating is equipped with in the outside of teeter chamber 18, and water-cooled copper coil 22 and the yoke 21 that is used for outlet section 79 (being suitable rheology section) eddy-current heating is equipped with in the outside of the outlet section 79 of slide gate nozzle 27 (being suitable rheology section).Low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent outlet 46 low melting point liquid metals that come out of alloy or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy from steam generator 34 shell-sides, (this pump 43 is by motor 40 to enter the circulating pump 43 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy through the import 47 of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 of alloy, pump shaft 38, bearing group 41, mechanical seal 42, impeller 44, pump inlet 47, pump discharge 48 constitutes), under the effect of impeller 44, from low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy that pump discharge 48 comes out, the turning joint 30 of a part on the circulation line of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy arrives the heat exchanging segment 13 of agitator from low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent inlet tube 1 of alloy; A part is delivered to the low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent import 77 of alloy of casting mold external chill 76 through low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent flow control valve 45 of alloy, external chill 76 is cooled off, and then through the low melting point liquid metal of external chill 76 or the hot transduction agent outlet 78 of alloy along pipelines to threeway 62, with cooling and stirring device heat exchanging segment 13 after that part of low melting point liquid metal that the turning joint 31 on hot transduction agent outlet 2 of agitator mechanical seal 3 and low melting point liquid metal or alloy and low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulation line of alloy is come out or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy converge, get back to the shell-side of steam generator again from the low melting point liquid metal of steam generator 34 or the hot transduction agent inlet 39 of alloy, the heat energy that carries and the water and the steam of managing in the side are carried out convective heat exchange, enter the water of pipe side through preheating section C from demineralized water import 36, evaporator section B and superheat section A are converted into steam with heat energy, emit by vapor outlet port pipeline 35, be used again.For preventing the oxidation of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, be provided with protective gas import 33 at steam generator 34.The tundish 15 that teeter chamber 18 and slide gate nozzle 27 are housed places casting mold 81 tops to adopt the top of the rising head 72 of eddy-current heating, liquid cast metal or alloy 17 are subjected to agitator heat exchanging segment 13 in teeter chamber 18 shear agitation and cooling, wall by heat exchanging segment 13 and low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy carry out compulsory convective heat exchange, discharge liquid sensible heat and partially crystallizable device heat, the crystallization of separating out is dispersed in the remaining liquid phase, when agitator torque (or electric current of d.c. motor 7 and power) is compared when liquid when significant change occurring with complete, open the slide gate nozzle 27 of 18 bottoms, teeter chamber, the semi-solid-state metal or the alloy fluid 75 of the suitable pouring cast part that forms are poured into casting mold 81, for reducing the casting defect that metal or alloy splashes and produces, be provided with the bottom at the position that casting mold 81 bottom beams impact and be the pit 80 of dome-type.11 on casting mold, have been used with low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 hydronic external chills 76 of alloy, adopt mode in parallel to be connected respectively with from the pipeline of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent flow control valve 45 of alloy and the pipeline that flows to threeway 62 between them, so that further control the cooling of foundry goods and reclaim more thermal energy.Adopt the rising head 72 (making full use of induction heating power) of eddy-current heating to teeter chamber and the outfit of rheology section.Can reduce the metal or alloy weight in the rising head 72, can heat by the copper pipe 74 of rising head induction coil and the metal or alloy in 73 pairs of rising heads of yoke 72.Behind metal or alloy fluid 75 enough height of cast in the rising head 72; close ladle slide gate in billet 14 and remove big bag; stop to stir; immediately tundish 15 is proposed agitator heat exchanging segment 13; and be threaded to preparation station insulation; close slide gate nozzle 27 then; tundish 15 is moved to casting surplus ingot mould place put in the clean bag residual metallic or alloy 17 and liquid covering slag 16 backs standby (or melt down it); the metal or alloy that does not solidify fully in the rising head 72 is implemented heat tracing (also can adopt existing adiabatic rising head); after all solidifying, the foundry goods body stops insulation again to rising head 72; and according to the metallographic structure and the isothermal transformation curve of this trade mark normalized condition; intensity of cooling control cooling velocity of casting by control low melting point liquid metal or 37 pairs of external chills 76 of the hot transduction agent of alloy; reach control foundry goods tissue; reduce stress; prevent the purpose of crackle, obtain the foundry goods that after the semisolid process, solidifies fully again.Fig. 8 is the cutaway view along A-A line among Fig. 7.
Tundish 15 needs to use the anti-material of high-quality to build by laying bricks or stones owing to be subjected to washing away of liquid metal or alloy 17 more serious than the tundish of common cast usefulness.Working lining is built by laying bricks or stones with second-class high-alumina brick during as cast steel.
Teeter chamber 18 will bear the fierceness of metal or alloy 17 and wash away, and preferably adopts sintering tubular behind isostatic compaction of electrically molten magnesia or electric melting magnesium aluminum spinel matter during cast steel or has the crucible shape refractory brick of bottom outlet to do the teeter chamber.Use the anti-material tamping of shape of loosing between teeter chamber 18 and the induction coil 20.
Slide gate nozzle 27 is selected in existing anti-material, and outlet section 79 promptly is equivalent to the rheology section.
The intermediate frequency power supply of the outlet section 79 of teeter chamber 18 and slide gate nozzle 27 (promptly being equivalent to the rheology section) eddy-current heating is selected with embodiment 1.This intermediate frequency power supply, but a tractor serves several purposes after being equipped with different inductors, can be used for melting preparation required low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy; Agitator heat exchanging segment and the low melting point liquid metal or the alloy circulatory system etc. are heated and are incubated; The melting liquid covering slag; The anti-material of rising head to knotting carries out sintering; The eddy-current heating of metal or alloy in the rising head; The mud of anti-material the to the coating of agitator heat exchanging segment is dried and sintering; Hot simulated test condition (providing convenience for further improving) is provided; Heating condition (as simmering and bending of pipeline etc.) is provided in device fabrication and installation process.Can choose intermediate frequency power supply, inductor and yoke on demand.
Adopt the cross section of agitator heat exchanging segment 13 shown in Figure 4.The work layer on surface of heat exchanging segment 13 is the anti-material coatings of high-quality, for improving its thermal shock resistance, at the metal surface of agitator heat exchanging segment elder generation spray metal bottom, spray transition zone again, the outermost layer spraying be do not soak into the metal or alloy fluid, the erosion resistant high-quality working lining of anti-the material.The maintaining method of its spraying method, coating structure, coating material, the coating all agitator heat exchanging segment 13 with embodiment 1 is identical.The sleeve brick of anti-material the 12 is equipped with in the outside that at the agitator heat exchanging segment does not need to carry out heat exchange more than 13 position is agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, and its material and installation method are with embodiment 1.
Hydronic external chill 76 of the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy and circulation line, with pearlite or austenitic heat-resistance steel steel plate and steel pipe welding production, replace common solid external chill with it, though inconvenience is arranged, but help the drying and the insulation of casting mold, and can further shorten the casting solidification time, reclaim more thermal energy.
Selection, using method, the points for attention of the hot transduction agent 37 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy and prevent measure to metal structure and component corrosion; All identical with embodiment 1.
The slagging method of the low-melting-point liquid covering slag 16 that tundish 15 uses and batching all with execute example 1 identical (also can adopt gas shield).
The instrument of using:
Sequence number Detect content Instrumentation
1 The temperature of liquid cast metal or alloy in the tundish Thermocouple and digital instrument
2 Liquid covering slag temperature and liquid level in the tundish Infrared or photoelectric figure instrument
3 The duty of agitator rotation The voltage of the d.c. motor of transmission agitator, electric current, power, rotating speed, digital instruments such as the rotating speed of agitator itself and moment of torsion
4 The temperature of middle part, teeter chamber and exit metal or alloy fluid Thermocouple and digital instrument
5 The temperature of rheology section middle part (being the slide gate nozzle outlet section) metal or alloy fluid Thermocouple and digital instrument
6 The temperature and the flow of the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy each point in the circulatory system: a. agitator out temperature and flow b. external chill out temperature and flow c. evaporimeter out temperature and flow Thermocouple and temperature digital instrument and digital flowmeter
7 The hot transduction agent circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or alloy duty The digital instrument of the voltage of pump motor, electric current, power, rotating speed and the digital flowmeter of pump
8 The liquid level of the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy in evaporimeter Liquid level designation number instrument
9 The temperature and pressure of steam generator vapor outlet port place steam Steam temperature and pressure on the number instrument
10 Temperature, pressure, the flow of the import of steam generator demineralized water The digital instrument of the temperature of measurement demineralized water, pressure, flow
11 Teeter chamber's eddy-current heating working condition The digital instrument of voltage of intermediate frequency, electric current, frequency, power factor and heating power
12 Rheology section eddy-current heating working condition The same
The control system that is equipped with
Sequence number The control object Control loop The control function
1 Agitator speed The direct current generator transmission Adjust by the rotating speed of setting
2 The motion of agitator transverse arm Hydraulic drive Control makes the hydraulic cylinder of column lifting and rotation that agitator is placed operating position or ready position
3 The slide gate nozzle of bottom, teeter chamber Electronic or hydraulic actuating mechanism The control of mouth of a river switch and flow
4 The eddy-current heating of teeter chamber and rheology section The power adjusting loop of induction heating power Regulate the induction heating power of teeter chamber and rheology section
5 The circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy Direct current or alternating-current variable frequency motor transmission Adjust rotating speed and change flow and pressure
6 The hot transduction agent distributing valve of low melting point liquid metal or alloy Motor or hydraulic drive The low melting point liquid metal between adjustment agitator and the external chill or the assignment of traffic ratio of the hot transduction agent of alloy
7 Steam generator The electric operator of valve Control flow of inlet water control vapor outlet port temperature, pressure and flow
8 Master-control room Network The shearing rate of semisolid fluid, solid phase percentage, cooldown rate
Preparation before the casting: when lifting, the rotation of the rotation of agitator and transverse arm normal; The circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy and residual neat recovering system are in the insulation stand-by state, and the agitator heat exchanging segment coating is intact and that installed sleeve brick is threaded to the preparation station of tundish one side.The slide gate nozzle of bottom, tundish teeter chamber is aimed at the pouring position of casting mold.Use low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic external chill of the hot transduction agent of alloy, before casting, assemble complete and start circulation (also can use existing external chill).Use the rising head that high quality refractory brick is built by laying bricks or stones or the anti-material of the shape high-quality of loosing is tied a knot.That adopts the eddy-current heating rising head then connects water-cooled cable, connects the induction coil cooling water.As use electric arc heated or electroslag to add hot riser, and install electrode, place the other ready position of rising head, and checked the control appliance of electrode.Casting mold and the protection of tundish using gases, protective cover is installed and is prepared appropriate source of the gas.Tundish uses liquid covering slag protection casting, melts, insulation, standby.
In the preparation and refining of molten steel, compared following characteristics with existing production technology: comparatively loose in liquid steel temperature control, needn't worry the higher various harm that cause to the casting solidification tissue of cast temperature.Needn't take low Si, Mn for the chemical composition segregation that solves the large scale structure steel casting and serious crystal grain are uneven; The high-purity method of low P, S, production is contained the steel grade of Si and Mn for this and to contain the higher steel grade of P, S significant in order to improve cutting ability.Needn't take the molten steel of many stoves refining different chemical composition to close for the segregation that solves heavy castings waters.This law can be produced the kind of some heavy castings that are not suitable for casting, as the martensite steel of the very wide alloy of solid-liquid phase linear distance, high-carbon high-alloy, the high boron steel kind that nuclear energy is used.Because stirring cooling in the teeter chamber produces in the process of semi-solid-state metal or alloy fluid (slurries), help the effusion of gas (hydrogen, nitrogen), and reduce and the dispersion non-metallic inclusion, use the molten steel of existing working condition refining, this law can obtain than existing superior, the more large-scale steel-casting of kind, and be the machining and the good condition of heat treatment creation of foundry goods, improve end properties.In addition, use the various cast iron water of existing working condition melting, this law can cast out the ironcasting of large-scale high-quality, particularly because shortened the setting time of large-sized iron casting greatly; And because the stirring action of this law has reduced nodularization and the decay that breeds.
In the preparation and refining of liquid aluminium (or aluminium alloy), can same prior art.But comparatively loose in temperature control, needn't worry the higher or on the low side various harm that cause to the ingot solidification tissue of cast temperature (as thick dendrite, serious crystal grain inequality, serious macroscopic view and microsegregation.More pore etc.)。Use the liquid aluminium (or aluminium alloy) of existing working condition refining, this law can obtain than existing superior, the more heavy castings of kind, and is the machining and the good condition of heat treatment creation at rear portion, improves end properties.
Under atmosphere, carry out the technological operation main points of semi-solid rheological teeming: because contain the solid phase particle in the semi-solid metal or alloy fluid 75; sensible heat when also not having liquid state; in casting cycle, then easily produce the viscosity shell that depends on oxide-film as air; cold shut and skull patch defective appear in foundry goods easily, cast so add the method for a small amount of cleanser (as boric anhydride) when will adopt gas shield casting or gas shield in casting mold 81.The casting mold of metal also can adopt in casting mold and to add low-melting liquid covering slag and annotate on carrying out in this way.The baked tundish 15 that has teeter chamber 18 and slide gate nozzle 27 is placed the top of casting mold rising head 72, the protection of tundish 15 using gases, install the gas shield cover, be ready to source of the gas.Adopt melt cinder to protect in tundish 15 and the casting mold (metal mold), changed melt cinder and heat preservation for standby use.External chill can use existing external chill, as adopting low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 hydronic external chills 76 of alloy, then starts circulation.Adopt gas shields in the casting mold 81 and add a small amount of cleanser, be sprinkled into a small amount of cleanser (as boric anhydride) to the casting mold bottom.Whether the circulatory system of inspection agitator low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy and agitator rotation and agitator lifting be normal, agitator is threaded to tundish 15 tops from tundish 15 outsides, aim at teeter chamber 18, but do not insert tundish 15, closed slide gate nozzle 27.Tundish 15 and casting mold 81 use protective gas; feed inert gas; open ladle slide gate in billet 14 and inject liquid metal or alloy 17 to tundish 15; power to the induction coil 20 of teeter chamber 18 simultaneously; when liquid metal or alloy 17 reach tundish 1/2; insert agitator; make agitator heat exchanging segment 13 enter teeter chamber 18; stop power supply simultaneously to induction coil 20; and begin rotation and stir; adopt liquid metals in the liquid covering slag 16 protection tundish 15 or alloy 17 liquid levels, after inserting agitator, put into liquid covering slag 16 to tundish 15 immediately and protect.Compare when liquid when significant change occurring with complete when the moment of torsion (or electric current of d.c. motor 7 and power) of agitator, the slide gate nozzle 27 of opening 18 bottoms, teeter chamber carries out teeming.Use the melt cinder protection to cast in the metal mold, when tundish 15 injects liquid metals or alloy 17, inject the liquid covering slag of low melting point in the metal pattern in beginning.In the casting process, big bag constantly injects liquid metal or alloy 17 to tundish 15, keep being no less than 1/2 of tundish 15 degree of depth, variation according to the moment of torsion (or the electric current of d.c. motor 7 and power) of agitator is (wide as solid-liquid phase line temperature range, can be simultaneously with reference to the temperature of teeter chamber's 18 inner fluids) adjust the opening degree of teeter chamber's 18 bottom slide gate nozzles 27, solid phase components percentage carries out the semi-solid rheological teeming within the required range in the control semisolid.In the rheocasting process, if the outlet section 79 of slide gate nozzle 27 (being the rheology section) is when occurring sticking phenomenon because of fluid viscosity is too high, immediately outlet section 79 (being the rheology section) is implemented eddy-current heating, and adjust by the flow of slide gate nozzle 27 and the intensity of cooling of 13 pairs of cast metals of heat exchanging segment or alloy 17, rheocasting is carried out smoothly.After semisolid fluid 75 waters full casting mold 81 bodies, begins to enter rising head 72, stop to stir, and agitator heat exchanging segment 13 is proposed tundish 15.After rising head 72 waters completely, close slide gate nozzle 27, what using gases was protected stops for protective gas.To induction coil 74 power supplies, the metal or alloy heat tracing in the rising head 72 also can adopt adiabatic rising head, electroslag to add hot riser, electric arc heated rising head.But note not using exothermic riser and riser compound commonly used, to prevent pollution to foundry goods.After the foundry goods body solidifies, stop insulation to rising head 72, and according to the metallographic structure and the isothermal transformation curve of this trade mark normalized condition, intensity of cooling by control low melting point liquid metal or 37 pairs of external chills 76 of the hot transduction agent of alloy is controlled cooling velocity of casting, reaches control foundry goods tissue, reduces stress, prevents the purpose of crackle.
Casting mold in vacuum chamber carries out the technological operation main points of semi-solid rheological teeming: before the casting, and appropriate casting mold of assembling and rising head in vacuum chamber, use low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic external chill of the hot transduction agent of alloy, start circulation.Charge into protective gas after vacuum chamber vacuumizes, the baked tundish that has teeter chamber and slide gate nozzle is placed the top of vacuum casting chamber, the aluminium film of vacuum chamber casting gate is aimed at the mouth of a river, carries out sealing with bellows between the outside, the mouth of a river and the vacuum chamber.To check that good agitator is threaded to the top of tundish from the tundish outside, aim at the teeter chamber and start low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulation of alloy, close slide gate nozzle.Because liquid metal or alloy are subjected to the influence of agitator in the tundish; produce certain motion; be not suitable for adopting solid protective slag; for steel, particularly can not use the solid protective slag of carbon containing; need to adopt inert gas shielding or liquid slag protection; the protection of tundish using gases, get inflatable cover and source of the gas ready.Tundish uses the liquid slag protection, can select induction furnace slag, electric arc or the electroslag furnace slag of black-fead crucible according to condition, or uses method such as coke air blast oxygenation gasification slag, is ready to the liquid covering slag.Shifting to an earlier date to tundish of using gases protection feeds protective gas.When unwrapping the beginning greatly toward tundish when putting into liquid metal or alloy; power to teeter chamber's induction coil; arrive tundish two/for the moment at liquid metal or alloy; insert agitator, make the agitator heat exchanging segment enter the teeter chamber, stop power supply simultaneously teeter chamber's induction coil; and begin rotation and stir; employing melt cinder protection tundish liquid metal or alloy liquid level, after inserting agitator, put into the liquid covering slag to tundish immediately and protect.When agitator torque (or electric current of d.c. motor and power) is compared when liquid when significant change occurring with complete, open the slide gate nozzle of bottom, teeter chamber, the sealed aluminum film that fusing is opened on the vacuum chamber carries out teeming, in casting cycle, when agitator speed is constant is that shearing rate is when constant, solid phase components percentage in the semi-solid slurry is directly proportional with viscosity change, can adjust the opening degree of slide gate nozzle according to the size (or the electric current of d.c. motor and power variation) of agitator torque, keep the agitator torque (or the electric current of d.c. motor and power) under the required solid phase percentage constant, for the wide alloy of solid-liquid phase line temperature distance, also can judge solid phase components percentage together, and obtain the semi solid slurry of required solid phase percentage ranges by the opening degree of control slide gate nozzle according to the position of semisolid fluid temperature (F.T.) between the solid-liquid phase line and the moment of torsion of agitator (or the electric current of d.c. motor and power) in the teeter chamber.If the outlet section of slide gate nozzle (being the rheology section) is when occurring sticking phenomenon because of fluid viscosity is too high, immediately the rheology section is implemented eddy-current heating, and adjust slide gate nozzle flow and heat exchanging segment the intensity of cooling of cast metal or alloy, rheocasting is carried out smoothly.Big bag constantly replenishes liquid metal or alloy to tundish in casting cycle, the liquid metal or the alloy liquid level that remain in whipping process in the tundish are not less than 1/2nd of the tundish degree of depth, up to the full casting mold body of semisolid fluid casting, after rising enters rising head, stop to stir, the preparation station place of agitator to tundish proposed, and it is the rising head casting is full, as capacity suitable, then liquid metal in the tundish or alloy and slag can have been watered entirely, if any affluence, after the rising head casting is full, close slide gate nozzle, tundish is moved on to the slag ladle place, open slide gate nozzle and put net surplus liquid metal or alloy and slag.Rising head can adopt the rising head of adiabatic rising head or eddy-current heating, electroslag heating, electric arc heated.But note not using exothermic riser and riser compound commonly used, to prevent pollution to foundry goods.After the foundry goods body solidifies, stop the heating of rising head, and according to the metallographic structure and the isothermal transformation curve of this trade mark normalized condition, by control low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy the intensity of cooling of external chill is controlled cooling velocity of casting, reach control foundry goods tissue, reduce stress, prevent the purpose of crackle.
The method and the means of control casting quality during the semi-solid rheological direct casting: change flow, under the constant situation of shearing rate and cooling condition, can control the solid phase components percentage of semisolid fluid 75 by teeter chamber's 18 bottom slide gate nozzles 27.Variation by agitator torque (or the electric current of d.c. motor 7 and power), the variation of the solid phase percentage in the semisolid under certain shearing rate as can be known, regulate the aperture of slide gate nozzle 27, make moment of torsion (or the electric current of d.c. motor 7 and power) remain on preset range, can obtain required semisolid fluid 75.For non-eutectic alloy, always have liquidus curve and solidus to exist, the big trade mark of both distances particularly, can be in teeter chamber 18 or the temperature that flows out the semisolid fluid 75 of slide gate nozzle 27 judge solid phase components percentage the semisolid.Pour into weight and the low melting point liquid metal of unit interval cooling and stirring device or the flow and the variation of temperature of the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy of semisolid fluids 75 in the casting mold 81 time by measurement unit, calculate the solid phase percentage of learning semisolid fluid 75 rapidly.Change the size of teeter chamber 18 and the size and shape of heat exchanging segment 13; Adjust the rotating speed of agitator; All can change shearing rate, influence convection transfer rate and heat transfer intensity, influence viscosity and the solid phase particle size and the uniformity coefficient of semisolid fluid 75.In a word, in operation, by adjusting agitator speed, adjust flow by the slide gate nozzle 27 of 18 bottoms, teeter chamber, adjust the low melting point liquid metal of turnover agitator or the flow and the temperature of the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, adjust the induction heating power of outlet section 79 (both rheology sections), solid phase percentage in the time of can controlling semisolid fluid 75 and go out teeter chamber 18, viscosity, the size of cooldown rate and solid phase particle and pattern, again with the low melting point liquid metal of adjusting turnover external chill 76 or the flow of the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy, temperature matches, and can influence or control the solidified structure of foundry goods.The operator can also can be handled by the program of finishing the data that instrument provides by computer according to carrying out manual operation after the comprehensive judgement of instrument, automatically performs relevant operation.
Fig. 9 inserts the schematic diagram that agitator makes it to be frozen into through the semisolid process heavy castings full liquid phase is poured into a mould black or coloured Metal and Alloy in casting mold after.It is an example with the die hammer anvil block steel-casting of casting gross weight 140T; this method and relative assembly are described; method shown in Figure 9 is by existing pouring procedure; pouring liquid black or coloured Metal and Alloy in casting mold; after being poured into the rising head certain altitude; in casting mold, insert with low melting point liquid metal or alloy from the rising head upper space and to make the hydronic agitator of hot transduction agent; under the protection of gas or melt cinder; the agitator heat exchanging segment that anti-material coating is arranged by the surface; not solidified black or coloured Metal and Alloy are carried out shear agitation and cooling; through compulsory convective heat exchange; derive the liquid sensible heat and the partially crystallizable latent heat of black or coloured Metal and Alloy; the solid phase of separating out is because the shear agitation effect; can not generate dendrite; and be free in the liquid phase; along with continuous shear agitation and cooling; generate a large amount of approximate spherical solid phase particles; suspended dispersed is in fluid; remove and when beginning to cast, be subjected to the mould wall chilling; outside cast(ing) surface forms the chill of thin equiax crystal; in the generous position of the residing foundry goods of agitator heat exchanging segment and other can be subjected to stirring the die cavity of flow disturbance influence of generation; all present semi-solid character and feature; after its solid phase percentage or fluid viscosity reach pre-provisioning request; stop to stir; the agitator heat exchanging segment is proposed; rising head is incubated or eddy-current heating (but also electric arc; the electroslag heating); after the foundry goods body solidifies, stop insulation to rising head, obtain the high-quality heavy castings.This fluid by being cast metal or alloy and the forced convertion heat exchange between low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy in casting mold, liquid metal that is cast or alloy are made the method for solidifying again after the semi-solid slurry, changed cast important heavy castings before can only dependence type wall and the external chill formed solidification law that dispels the heat.By shearing rate, cooldown rate and the solid phase components percentage of semisolid fluid in the control casting mold, reach the process of setting of control semisolid character, influence or control foundry goods.Owing to changed the condition of heat transfer, mass transfer and the crystalline growth of process of setting, effective control that realization is derived mode, derived quantity, derivation speed and separate out quantity and the distribution and the solid phase particles size of solid phase crystallization latent heat, changed the solidified structure of the ubiquitous three band crystallizations of general foundry goods, some major defects of having avoided existing heavy castings to exist.Because foundry goods does not have serious segregation, crystal grain is more tiny evenly than common foundry goods, does not have the coarse grain of common foundry goods, for heat treating castings and raising cast properties are created congenital good condition.Owing to used low melting point liquid metal or alloy to make the circulatory system of hot transduction agent, except cooling and stirring device heat exchanging segment, also can be used for circulating and cool off external chill, the setting time that shortens heavy castings, the quality that improves heavy castings and recycling heat energy are organically combined.Adopt this method, can cast the super-huge foundry goods heavier, thicker than existing foundry goods.
The heavy castings of Fig. 9 have used two agitators, and as example, introduced the agitator (can select the quantity and the motion mode of agitator in the application afterwards as the case may be) of two kinds of Different Exercise Mode, the agitator on right side is a rotary agitator, and the agitator in left side is the oscillatory type agitator.Two agitators all are with low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic agitator of the hot transduction agent of alloy, all agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 and the heat exchanging segment of being made by pearlite or austenitic heat-resistance steel 13 formed, outside at agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 all is with the sleeve brick of anti-material the 12, at the outer surface of heat exchanging segment 13 anti-material coating is arranged all.The rotary agitator on right side, bearing group 4 is housed on agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 and drives the gear 5 that agitator rotates, d.c. motor 7 makes the agitator rotation by gearbox 6 driven gears 5, the hot transduction agent inlet tube 1 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is housed in the agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, the hot transduction agent outlet 2 of agitator mechanical seal 3 and low melting point liquid metal or alloy is equipped with on the top of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, agitator is contained on the transverse arm 8 of controlling agitator, come the lifting agitator by hydraulic cylinder 10 that can make column 9 liftings rotation and the transverse arm 8 of controlling agitator, and forward it to ready position or operating position, they can make agitator heat exchanging segment 13 insert smoothly and be suspended in desired location in the casting mold carries out shear agitation and cooling to the metal or alloy fluid 81 of casting, or heat exchanging segment 13 is proposed casting molds and shift out the space on rising head 82 tops.The non-rotary oscillatory type agitator in left side, come the lifting agitator and forward it to ready position or operating position by the hydraulic cylinder 10 and the transverse arm 8 that can make column 9 liftings rotation, they can make agitator heat exchanging segment 13 insert smoothly and be suspended in desired location in the casting mold carries out shear agitation and cooling to the metal or alloy fluid 81 of casting, or heat exchanging segment 13 is proposed casting molds and shift out the space on rising head 82 tops.The hot transduction agent inlet tube 1 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is housed in agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 2 of alloy are equipped with in the top of agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11, the oscillatory type agitator is by being contained in agitator mobile jib steel pipe 11 on the transverse arm 8 under the drive of the motion 86 of transverse arm 8, do vibration up and down with transverse arm 8, make the agitator heat exchanging segment 13 that is immersed in the interior metal or alloy fluid 81 of casting mold carry out shear agitation and cooling it.All there is low-melting liquid covering slag 83 to prevent the oxidation of metal or alloy fluid (but also using gases protection) in two rising heads 82.This example has also used 10 to make the hydronic external chill 76 of hot transduction agent by low melting point liquid metal or alloy, between them in the serial or parallel connection mode with low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent cooling of alloy.A part of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy sent here through low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent flow control valve 45 of alloy from low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 of alloy, import 77 from external chill 76 enters, after absorption is cast heat in the metal or alloy, outlet 78 from external chill 76 is come out, converge in threeway 62 again and from heated low melting point liquid metal of another part or the hot transduction agent 37 of alloy that agitator top low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 2 of alloy come out through turning joint 31, the shell-side that enters steam generator 34 from the low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent import 39 of alloy of steam generator 34 then, carry out heat exchange with the water of pipe side, after discharging entrained heat energy, flow out from the low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent outlet 46 of alloy of steam generator 34, through low melting point liquid metal or hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 pumpings of alloy, a part is returned through low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent flow control valve 45 of alloy again and is cooled off external chill 76, and turning joint 30 and low melting point liquid metal or the alloy hot transduction agent inlet tube 1 of another part on low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulation line of alloy returns cooling and stirring device heat exchanging segment 13 again.(accompanying drawing 7 is seen in the turning joint 30,31 on hot transduction agent 37 of the hot transduction agent circulating pump 43 of low melting point liquid metal or alloy, low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent flow control valve 45 of alloy, steam generator 34, low melting point liquid metal or alloy and the circulation line, the threeway 62 on the pipeline etc.; Fig. 9 part omitted).Before in the ingot body, inserting agitator heat exchanging segment 13; the method of pouring into a mould black or coloured Metal and Alloy heavy castings with existing full liquid phase in casting mold is identical; can select during moulding to replace existing common external chill with low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic external chill 76 of the hot transduction agent of alloy; the black of liquid state or coloured Metal and Alloy enter casting mold from down gate 84 and ingate 85 among Fig. 9; after being cast to rising head 82 certain altitudes; in casting mold, insert with low melting point liquid metal or alloy from rising head 82 upper spaces and to make the hydronic agitator heat exchanging segment 13 of hot transduction agent; and put into liquid covering slag 83 (or protective gas) and prevent the metal secondary oxidation; start rabbling mechanism; not solidified black or coloured Metal and Alloy 81 are carried out shear agitation and cooling; after solid phase percentage or fluid viscosity reach pre-provisioning request in the formed semisolid fluid; stop to stir; agitator heat exchanging segment 13 is proposed; rising head 82 is incubated or eddy-current heating (but also electric arc; the electroslag heating); after the foundry goods body solidifies; stop insulation, obtain the high-quality heavy castings rising head 82.
Figure 10 is the casting mold top view that omits agitating device for the casting mold in the key diagram 9, and Figure 11 is the cutaway view along A-A line among Fig. 9, is example with the die hammer anvil block steel-casting of casting gross weight 140T, with Fig. 9, Figure 10, Figure 11 this law is illustrated.
The work layer on surface of heat exchanging segment 13 is the anti-material coatings of high-quality, for improving its thermal shock resistance, at the metal surface of agitator heat exchanging segment 13 elder generation spray metal bottom, spray transition zone again, the outermost layer spraying be do not soak into the metal or alloy fluid, the erosion resistant high-quality working lining of anti-the material.The maintaining method of its spraying method, coating structure, coating material, the coating all agitator heat exchanging segment 13 with embodiment 1 is identical.The sleeve brick of anti-material the 12 is adorned in the outside that at the agitator heat exchanging segment does not need to carry out heat exchange more than 13 position is agitator mobile jib 11, and its material and installation method are with embodiment 1.The shape of heat exchanging segment 13 and size are pressed the motion mode (rotation is vibration still) of agitator and the concrete condition of casting mold die cavity and are selected.
Hydronic external chill 76 of the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy and circulation line, with pearlite or austenitic heat-resistance steel steel plate and steel pipe welding production, replace common solid external chill with it, though inconvenience is arranged, but help the drying and the insulation of casting mold, and can further shorten the casting solidification time, reclaim more thermal energy.
The selection of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy, using method, points for attention and prevent measure to metal structure and component corrosion; All identical with embodiment 1.
Because the stirring action of agitator can cause the motion of cast metal in the rising head or alloy fluid; for guaranteeing the quality of foundry goods; steel-casting particularly; do not adopt solid protective slag (the particularly solid protective slag of carbon containing) and exothermic mixture, adopt liquid covering slag or protective gas to prevent the secondary oxidation of metal at rising head.But as be equipped with the intermediate frequency power supply a tractor serves several purposes of eddy-current heating; after being equipped with different inductors, be used to melt preparation required low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy; low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent circulatory system of alloy are heated and be incubated; the melting liquid covering slag; the anti-material of rising head to knotting carries out roasting; the eddy-current heating of metal or alloy in the rising head; the mud of anti-material the to the coating of agitator heat exchanging segment is dried and sintering; hot simulated test condition (providing convenience for further improving) is provided; heating condition (as the simmering and bending of pipeline) etc. is provided in device fabrication and installation process.Can choose intermediate frequency power supply, inductor and yoke on demand.Certainly also can select other heating and melting method.
Compare the instrumentation of increase with existing casting method: the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is at the out temperature and the flow of agitator; Temperature and flow that the hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is imported and exported at external chill; The hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal or alloy is at the out temperature and the flow of steam generator shell-side; The rotating speed and the power of the hot transduction agent circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or alloy; Rotating speed when using rotary agitator and moment of torsion (or rotating speed of its transmission direct current generator, electric current, voltage, power); Rotating speed, electric current, voltage, the power of the amplitude that vibrates when using the oscillatory type agitator and shake frequency and transmission direct current generator; The allocation proportion of the hot transduction agent distributing valve of low melting point liquid metal or alloy; The liquid level indication of the low melting point liquid metal of steam generator shell-side or the hot transduction agent of alloy; The inflow temperature of steam generator tube side and flow; Instrument such as vapor outlet port temperature, pressure and the flow of steam generator tube side.The control system that increases:
Sequence number The control object Control loop The control function
1 Agitator speed The direct current generator transmission Can control and adjust by the rotating speed of setting
2 The motion of transverse arm The direct current generator transmission The amplitude of flexible, the up-down vibration of transverse arm with shake frequently
3 Make the hydraulic cylinder of column lifting rotation Hydraulic drive Control column lifting rotation
4 The circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy Direct current generator transmission or AC frequency conversion Adjust rotating speed and change flow and pressure
5 The hot transduction agent distributing valve of low melting point liquid metal or alloy Electronic or the hydraulic actuating mechanism of valve The low melting point liquid metal between adjustment heat exchanging segment and the external chill or the allocation proportion of the hot transduction agent flow of alloy
6 Steam generator The electric operator of valve Control flow of inlet water control vapor outlet port temperature, pressure and flow
7 Master-control room Network The shearing rate of semisolid fluid, solid phase percentage, cooldown rate etc.,
Preparation before the casting: flexible, the lifting and the rotation of the rotation of agitator (or up-down vibration) and transverse arm are normal, and debugging is inserted the position of heat exchanging segment behind the casting mold near the thermal center of rising head bottom and foundry goods; The circulatory system of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy and residual neat recovering system are in the insulation stand-by state; The agitator heat exchanging segment coating is intact and that installed sleeve brick is threaded to the other preparation station of casting mold.Use low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic external chill of the hot transduction agent of alloy, assemble and start circulation after complete.Use the anti-material knotting of the shape that looses after the rising head of roasting then connects water-cooled cable as the rising head (induction coil has framework and yoke outward) that adopts eddy-current heating, open cooling water.As use electric arc heated or electroslag heating, and install electrode, place the other ready position of rising head, and checked the control appliance of electrode.Using gases protection casting, protective cover is installed and is prepared appropriate source of the gas.The rising head place uses the protection of liquid covering slag, melts, insulation, standby.The batching of low-melting-point liquid covering slag and slagging method are all with to execute example 1 identical.
In the preparation and refining of molten steel, compared following characteristics with existing production technology: comparatively loose in liquid steel temperature control, needn't worry the higher various harm that cause to the casting solidification tissue of cast temperature.Needn't take low Si, Mn for the chemical composition segregation that solves the large scale structure steel casting and serious crystal grain are uneven; The high-purity method of low P, S, production is contained the steel grade of Si and Mn for this and to contain the higher steel grade of P, S significant in order to improve cutting ability.Needn't take the molten steel of many stoves refining different chemical composition to close for the segregation that solves heavy castings waters.This law can be produced the kind of some heavy castings that are not suitable for casting, as the martensite steel of the very wide alloy of solid-liquid phase linear distance, high-carbon high-alloy, the high boron steel kind that nuclear energy is used.Because stirring cooling in casting mold produces in the process of semi-solid-state metal (or alloy) slurries, the effusion and minimizing and the dispersion non-metallic inclusion that help gas (hydrogen, nitrogen), use the molten steel of existing working condition refining, this law can obtain than existing superior, the more large-scale steel-casting of kind.In addition, with the various cast iron water of existing working condition melting, this law can cast out large-scale high quality cast iron spare, particularly because shortened the setting time of large-sized iron casting greatly; And because the stirring action of this law has reduced nodularization and the decay that breeds.
In the preparation and refining of liquid aluminium (or aluminium alloy), can same prior art.But comparatively loose in temperature control, needn't worry the higher various harm that cause to the ingot solidification tissue of cast temperature (as thick dendrite, serious crystal grain inequality, serious macroscopic view and microsegregation.More pore.)。Use the liquid aluminium (or aluminium alloy) of existing working condition refining, this law can obtain than existing superior, the more heavy castings of kind, and is the good condition of heat treatment creation at rear portion, improves end properties.
Pouring technology main points: wait heat exchanging segment 13 to insert in the liquid metal or alloy at die cavity 81 generous places; and when putting into low-melting-point liquid covering slag 83 or feeding protective gas; begin shear agitation again, the stirring intensity of heat exchanging segment 13 (as agitator speed or shake frequency, amplitude) looks the situation of rising head 82 fluid movement and the needs of shearing rate are adjusted.When stirring, also can be by the motion of transverse arm 8 and column 9, agitator heat exchanging segment 13 is moved in die cavity 81 by required track, strengthen the cooling effect of shear agitation and heat convection, derive the liquid sensible heat and the partially crystallizable latent heat of Metal and Alloy, and make the solid phase of separating out be difficult to form dendrite, become numerous solid phase particles that are dispersed in the liquid phase, make in die cavity 81 scopes that heat exchanging segment 13 influenced, the foundry goods skim-coat is that surplus is the semisolid fluid outside the brilliant solidified shell that constitutes of Quench.In the whipping process, note controlling low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy and be not more than 500 ℃ in each outlet temperature of agitator, external chill 76; The minimum temperature of each import will remain on low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent liquidus temperature of alloy more than 30 ℃.By the size and shape of selecting agitator heat exchanging segment 13, shear agitation intensity and the movement locus in die cavity 81 that changes heat exchanging segment 13; Can change shearing rate to metal or alloy fluid in the die cavity 81.By anti-material coating material and coating layer thickness, the low melting point liquid metal of control cooling and stirring device heat exchanging segment 13 or out temperature and flow, the low melting point liquid metal of control cooling external chill 76 or the out temperature and the flow of the hot transduction agent of alloy of the hot transduction agent of alloy of selecting heat exchanging segment 13; Reach the purpose of control cast metal or alloy fluid cooldown rate.By measuring the temperature of semi-solid alloy fluid, learn the solid phase components percentage of this moment from the position between its solid-liquid phase line of living in; By measuring each temperature and flow of importing and exporting of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy, calculate the crystallization latent heat of deriving, learn solid phase components percentage; The electric current (or power) of the direct current generator by measure stirring usefulness or the moment of torsion of agitator are compared during with full liquid phase, significant change occurs and when increasing gradually, judge the solid phase components percentage (between 30% to 50%) of semisolid fluid; Rule of thumb the direct current generator electric current (or agitator torque) of the stirring usefulness of Zong Jieing is judged solid phase components percentage with the relation curve of solid phase components percentage.When shear agitation, the solid phase components percentage that is cooled to be scheduled to or fluid viscosity, stop to stir, proposition agitator heat exchanging segment 13 is implemented insulation to rising head 82, and continues to keep low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy that the circulation of external chill 76 is cooled off.After the foundry goods body solidifies, stop insulation to rising head 82, and according to the metallographic structure and the isothermal transformation curve of this trade mark normalized condition, by control low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy intensity of cooling control cooling velocity of casting, reach control foundry goods tissue, reduce stress, prevent the purpose of crackle external chill 76.
Fig. 9 is different with the method for Fig. 7, the method of Fig. 9 is not established the teeter chamber of band eddy-current heating, be in casting mold, to implement shear agitation to produce the semisolid process with cooling, at shearing rate, solid phase percentage, cooldown rate and solid phase particle size and shape and on the casting solidification Microstructure Control, not as Fig. 7 method.Fig. 7 method is more complicated than Fig. 9 method in equipment and technological operation.

Claims (11)

  1. One kind in the process of setting of metal or alloy, the method and apparatus of producing semi-solid metal or alloy and being used to cast with mechanical mixing method, it is characterized in that: do hot transduction agent with low melting point liquid metal or alloy, the agitator that the circulation cool metal is made, the metal or alloy that is solidified to fusion stirs cooling, and the semi-solid-state metal or the alloy graining of order generation become ingot casting, foundry goods or continuous casting billet then; The hot transduction agent of heated low melting point liquid metal or alloy is delivered to the dividing wall type convection recuperator by the circulating pump of low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy through pipeline, carries out heat exchange with water or other liquid or gas, reclaims the heat energy that it carries; The hot transduction agent of low melting point liquid metal that is cooled or alloy turns back to agitator again, constantly circulation.
  2. 2. claim 1 is described does hot transduction agent with low melting point liquid metal or alloy, the agitator that the circulation cool metal is made, it is characterized in that: the heat exchanging segment that useful heat resisting steel or heating resisting metal are made on the agitator, the outer surface of heat exchanging segment promptly be solidified the side that metal or alloy contacts coating arranged, it is by the metal back layer that is sprayed on the heat exchanging segment wall with by the transition zone of the mixture spraying of anti-material and metal and all be that the working lining that the anti-material of high-quality sprays is formed; The heat exchanging segment outward appearance can be shapes such as excellent type, splined shaft type, screw type; The forms of motion of heat exchanging segment can rotate, and also can rock, swings or vibrate; Heat exchanging segment can be vertical, level in the position in space or tilt.
  3. 3. claim 1 described low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy, except that the agitator that the circulation cool metal is made, it is characterized in that: cooler crystallizer, mold, chassis, external chill and cold bed also can be used to circulate.
  4. 4. when the described method and apparatus of claim 1 being used for the solid ingot casting of Metal and Alloy of the coloured or black of full liquid pouring, it is characterized in that: upward notes that employing is conventional or following injecting method are filled with liquid metal or alloy and are had ingot mould now or make the hydronic ingot mould of hot transduction agent with low melting point liquid metal or alloy, after being poured into the rising head certain altitude, stop cast, to make the hydronic agitator of hot transduction agent with low melting point liquid metal or alloy immediately and insert the liquid metal or alloy that is watered downwards, and allow the heat exchanging segment of agitator that the metal or alloy in the ingot body is stirred cooling from the rising head upper end; Simultaneously take gas or melt cinder safeguard measure at rising head; After the viscosity of semi-solid-state metal or alloy in the ingot body or solid phase components percentage reach predetermined value, stop to stir, agitator is proposed, the metal or alloy in the rising head is implemented insulation; Use the continuation on the hot transduction agent circulation of low melting point liquid metal or alloy cooling ingot mould, chassis to keep circulation; All solidify until the ingot body.
  5. 5. when the described method and apparatus of claim 1 being used for the hollow ingot casting of Metal and Alloy of the coloured or black of full liquid pouring, it is characterized in that: upward notes that employing is conventional or following injecting method are filled with liquid metal or alloy and are had the ingot mould of cast solid ingot now or make the hydronic ingot mould of hot transduction agent with low melting point liquid metal or alloy, after being poured into the rising head certain altitude, stop cast, to make the hydronic agitator of hot transduction agent with low melting point liquid metal or alloy immediately and insert the liquid metal or alloy that is watered downwards, and allow the heat exchanging segment of agitator that the metal or alloy in the ingot body is stirred cooling from the rising head upper end; Simultaneously take gas or melt cinder safeguard measure at rising head; After the viscosity of semi-solid-state metal or alloy in the ingot body or solid phase components percentage reach predetermined value, stop to stir, to expose the liquid level of rising head inner fluid as the heat exchanging segment upper end of the inversed taper platform shape of hollow ingot core, fixing agitator is implemented insulation to the metal or alloy in the rising head then; Continue to keep the circulation of interior low melting point liquid metal of heat exchanging segment or the hot transduction agent of alloy; Use the also continuation on the hot transduction agent circulation of low melting point liquid metal or alloy cooling ingot mould, chassis to keep circulation; Treat to extract the agitator heat exchanging segment after ingot casting all solidifies, the blind hole of ingot body bottom is become through hole, obtain hollow ingot casting with flame cutting or the way of forging punching.
  6. 6. when the described method and apparatus of claim 1 being used for the Metal and Alloy foundry goods of coloured or black of full liquid pouring, it is characterized in that: pouring liquid cast metal or alloy in casting mold according to a conventional method, after its liquid level rises to the rising head certain altitude, stop cast, to make the hydronic agitator of hot transduction agent with low melting point liquid metal or alloy immediately inserts liquid metal or the alloy downwards from the rising head upper end, allow the heat exchanging segment of agitator that the metal or alloy of the generousest heat energy-saving position of foundry goods body is stirred cooling, simultaneously take gas or melt cinder safeguard measure at this rising head, after the viscosity of semi-solid-state metal or alloy or solid phase components percentage reach predetermined value, stop to stir, propose agitator, the metal or alloy in the rising head is implemented insulation; Use the continuation of low melting point liquid metal or alloy hot transduction agent circulation cooling external chill or casting mold to keep circulation; All solidify until foundry goods.
  7. 7. when the described method and apparatus of claim 1 being used for the Metal and Alloy ingot casting of the coloured or black of semi-solid rheological casting; it is characterized in that: adopt by the tundish that holds the liquid cast metal or alloy; the hydronic agitator of hot transduction agent is made with the slide gate nozzle that is positioned at teeter chamber's outlet and with low melting point liquid metal or alloy by the teeter chamber that connects body with tundish; the common device that is used for the semi-solid rheological casting of forming; carry out the semi-solid rheological ingot casting; the teeter chamber is made by high-quality refractory material; and load coil and yoke be housed; liquid metal or alloy are subjected to the stirring cooling of agitator heat exchanging segment in the teeter chamber; forming the semisolid fluid flows out from slide gate nozzle; inject ingot mould; in casting process; to carry out gas shield or melt cinder protection to the metal or alloy in tundish and the ingot mould; the cast back is incubated the metal or alloy in the rising head; all solidify until the ingot body, can use existing ingot mould during cast or adopt low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic ingot mould of the hot transduction agent of alloy; chassis or crystallizer carry out ingot casting.
  8. 8. when the described method and apparatus of claim 1 being used for the Metal and Alloy foundry goods of the coloured or black of semi-solid rheological casting; it is characterized in that: adopt by the tundish that holds the liquid cast metal or alloy; the hydronic agitator of hot transduction agent is made with the slide gate nozzle that is positioned at teeter chamber's outlet and with low melting point liquid metal or alloy by the teeter chamber that connects body with tundish; the common device that is used for the semi-solid rheological casting of forming; carry out the semi-solid rheological casting; the teeter chamber is made by high-quality refractory material; and load coil and yoke be housed; liquid metal or alloy are subjected to the stirring cooling of agitator heat exchanging segment in the teeter chamber; form the semisolid fluid; flow out from slide gate nozzle; inject casting mold; in casting process; to carry out gas shield or melt cinder protection to the metal or alloy in the tundish; metal or alloy in the casting mold is carried out gas shield; the cast back is incubated the metal or alloy in the rising head; all solidify until foundry goods, can use low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic external chill of the hot transduction agent of alloy or casting mold to cast during casting.
  9. 9. the described method and apparatus of claim 1 is used for the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, produce the continuous casting billet of the Metal and Alloy of coloured or black, it is characterized in that: adopt by the tundish that holds the liquid cast metal or alloy, connect the teeter chamber of body with tundish and be positioned at the slide gate nozzle of teeter chamber outlet and with low melting point liquid metal or the hydronic agitator of the hot transduction agent of alloy, form the device of producing the semisolid fluid that is used for the semi-solid rheological continuous casting, the teeter chamber is made by high-quality refractory material, and load coil and yoke be housed, liquid metal or alloy are subjected to the stirring cooling of agitator heat exchanging segment in the teeter chamber, form the semisolid fluid, from the slide gate nozzle rheology section that the refractory material that is equipped with load coil and magnetic to grip makes of flowing through, enter the crystallizer that joins with the rheology section, in crystallizer, be subjected to further cooling, pulled straight after forming solid-state base shell, mix to be cooled to fully through air water again and solidify, continuous casting billet is cut into scale after crossing the straightening machine, deliver to cold bed or the pressure processing of reducing phlegm and internal heat, in casting process, carry out gas shield or melt cinder protection to the metal or alloy in the tundish, the semi-solid rheological continuous casting of employing this law can be produced the heavy slab of the Metal and Alloy of coloured or black, sheet billet, bloom, little square billet, especially big square billet, big garden base, little garden base, special-shaped base; Be particularly suitable for continuous casting solid-the non-constant width of liquidus temperature distance, routine solidifies serious uneven, the routine of back chemical composition and solidified structure and solidifies the bad alloy designations of back hot-workability; Can be used for the transformation of existing vertical, vertical bending type, tilting, camber and horizontal caster and be applied to high efficiency continuous casting machine, near net shape continuous casting machine; Except that the continuous casting billet of the existing solid-state downforce processing of production and supply, the blank that can also use for the thixotropic forming of a large amount of coloured or ferrous metal of development semi-solid-state metal process technology supply and alloy.
  10. 10. described low melting point liquid metal of claim 1 or alloy are done hot transduction agent, it is characterized in that: select element such as Pb, Bi, Sn, Zn and alloy to do low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy.
  11. 11. for preventing the corrosion of right 10 described low melting point liquid metals or the hot transduction agent of alloy to the steels such as agitating device, pipeline, pump, valve, measuring instrument, crystallizer, mold, chassis, external chill, cold bed, steam generator or other heat exchanger of being flowed through, the measure of being taked is characterized in that: the maximum operating temperature of control low melting point liquid metal or the hot transduction agent of alloy is not more than 500 ℃; With the surface of low melting point liquid metal or the contacted steel of the hot transduction agent of alloy, take the method for steam treated, generate oxide-film, and on oxide-film, apply or organic matter such as dipping grease, after the heating coking, on oxide-film, cover the carbonaceous rete; Or directly protect at surperficial spray metal Mo, W or the anti-material of steel; And use Mo, W or carbon material to make parts.
CN 00132650 2000-11-21 2000-11-21 Casting technology and apparatus for producing die-cast ingot, castings and conticast billet Expired - Fee Related CN1112266C (en)

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CN102398005A (en) * 2011-11-18 2012-04-04 江苏大学 Built-in type electromagnetic stirring device and application method thereof
CN102568684A (en) * 2010-12-13 2012-07-11 天工爱和特钢有限公司 Electro-slag re-melting water-cooling cable
CN102802836A (en) * 2010-03-25 2012-11-28 西门子Vai金属科技有限责任公司 Method, casting tube, and continuous casting system for casting a melt made of liquid metal into a continuously cast product
CN102806322A (en) * 2012-08-20 2012-12-05 东北大学 Device and method for preparing large-size homogeneous steel ingot by stirring with self-consuming stirrer
CN102914173A (en) * 2012-11-16 2013-02-06 宁夏光合能源科技有限公司 Method and device for recovering and storing ferroalloy furnace molten iron waste heat to generate electricity
CN103008603A (en) * 2011-09-27 2013-04-03 苏州三基铸造装备股份有限公司 Preparation method and device for metal alloy semi-solid slurry
CN102019377B (en) * 2009-09-21 2013-05-29 宝山钢铁股份有限公司 Device and method for detecting the flow state of molten steel in crystallizer
CN103147120A (en) * 2013-04-01 2013-06-12 东方电气集团东方汽轮机有限公司 Directional solidification device of high-temperature alloy
CN103157957A (en) * 2012-03-05 2013-06-19 张连成 Metal component blank manufacturing method
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CN104942259A (en) * 2015-05-20 2015-09-30 江苏凯特汽车部件有限公司 Semi-solid forming visualization technology for automobile aluminum alloy wheel
CN105537552A (en) * 2016-02-02 2016-05-04 曹海平 Method and device for producing semi-solid slurry
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CN109465413A (en) * 2018-11-12 2019-03-15 莱芜钢铁集团银山型钢有限公司 A kind of non-equilibrium casting beam blank mould covering slag distributing method of single-point
CN109773166A (en) * 2019-03-27 2019-05-21 宁国市华成金研科技有限公司 A kind of liquid metal circulating cooling system and its cooling means
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CN110315040A (en) * 2019-08-20 2019-10-11 西峡县恒基冶材有限公司 A kind of high titanium abrasion-resistant stee continuous crystallizer protecting slag of high-carbon
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CN102019377B (en) * 2009-09-21 2013-05-29 宝山钢铁股份有限公司 Device and method for detecting the flow state of molten steel in crystallizer
CN102802836A (en) * 2010-03-25 2012-11-28 西门子Vai金属科技有限责任公司 Method, casting tube, and continuous casting system for casting a melt made of liquid metal into a continuously cast product
CN102568684A (en) * 2010-12-13 2012-07-11 天工爱和特钢有限公司 Electro-slag re-melting water-cooling cable
CN103008603A (en) * 2011-09-27 2013-04-03 苏州三基铸造装备股份有限公司 Preparation method and device for metal alloy semi-solid slurry
CN102398005B (en) * 2011-11-18 2014-03-12 江苏大学 Built-in type electromagnetic stirring device and application method thereof
CN102398005A (en) * 2011-11-18 2012-04-04 江苏大学 Built-in type electromagnetic stirring device and application method thereof
CN103157957A (en) * 2012-03-05 2013-06-19 张连成 Metal component blank manufacturing method
CN102806322A (en) * 2012-08-20 2012-12-05 东北大学 Device and method for preparing large-size homogeneous steel ingot by stirring with self-consuming stirrer
CN102806322B (en) * 2012-08-20 2014-04-30 东北大学 Device and method for preparing large-size homogeneous steel ingot by stirring with self-consuming stirrer
CN102914173A (en) * 2012-11-16 2013-02-06 宁夏光合能源科技有限公司 Method and device for recovering and storing ferroalloy furnace molten iron waste heat to generate electricity
CN103147120A (en) * 2013-04-01 2013-06-12 东方电气集团东方汽轮机有限公司 Directional solidification device of high-temperature alloy
CN103147120B (en) * 2013-04-01 2016-04-20 东方电气集团东方汽轮机有限公司 A kind of device for directionally solidifying of superalloy
CN103212675A (en) * 2013-05-03 2013-07-24 燕山大学 Steel ingot feeder head induction heating and electromagnetic stirring device
CN104942259A (en) * 2015-05-20 2015-09-30 江苏凯特汽车部件有限公司 Semi-solid forming visualization technology for automobile aluminum alloy wheel
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