CN1281846C - Method and appts. for stimulation of multiple formation intervals - Google Patents

Method and appts. for stimulation of multiple formation intervals Download PDF

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CN1281846C
CN1281846C CNB018049516A CN01804951A CN1281846C CN 1281846 C CN1281846 C CN 1281846C CN B018049516 A CNB018049516 A CN B018049516A CN 01804951 A CN01804951 A CN 01804951A CN 1281846 C CN1281846 C CN 1281846C
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wellbore
means
perforating
bha
fluid
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CN1416499A (en
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兰迪·C·托尔曼
劳伦斯·O·卡尔森
戴维·A·基尼森
克里斯·J·尼高
格伦·S·戈斯
威廉·A·索里姆
李·L·谢弗
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埃克森美孚上游研究公司
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/11Perforators; Permeators
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B23/00Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells
    • E21B23/14Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells for displacing a cable or cable-operated tool, e.g. for logging or perforating operations in deviated wells
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/10Sealing or packing boreholes or wells in the borehole
    • E21B33/12Packers; Plugs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/14Obtaining from a multiple-zone well
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/25Methods for stimulating production
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B23/00Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells
    • E21B2023/008Self propelling system or apparatus, e.g. for moving tools within the horizontal portion of a borehole

Abstract

本发明提供了一种用于对与井筒相交的一个或多个地下地层(86)的多个层段进行射孔和处理的装置和方法,它将具有射孔装置(134)和至少一个密封装置(120)的井底工具组合布置于所述井筒中。 The present invention provides an apparatus and method for wellbore intersecting one or more subsurface formations (86) for perforating a plurality of intervals and processed, it has a perforating means (134) and at least one seal means (120) of the downhole tool in combination arrangement within the wellbore. 射孔装置(134)用于对要被处理的第一层段进行射孔。 Perforating means (134) for a first interval to be treated perforating. 然后将井底工具组合定位于并筒内,使得当密封装置(120)启动后,在井筒中建立起液体密封,以正压驱动流体使之进入对应于要被处理的第一层段的射孔(230,231)。 The combination downhole tool is then positioned and the barrel, such that when the sealing means (120) after the start, to establish a liquid seal in the wellbore, so that positive pressure driving fluid into the exit section corresponding to the first layer to be treated holes (230, 231). 然后将处理液沿井筒向下泵送并使其流入在已射孔的层段中形成的射孔(230,231)中。 The treatment liquid was then pumped down the borehole and allowed to flow into perforations formed in the layer has been perforated section (230, 231) in the. 释放密封装置(120),然后按照所需的许多层段来重复上述步骤,而不从所述井筒中取出井底工具组合。 Releasing the sealing means (120), and in many interval required to repeat the above steps, and composition removed from the downhole tool in the wellbore.

Description

用于多地层层段的增产方法和装置 Stimulation method and apparatus for multi-stratigraphic sections

技术领域 FIELD

本发明总的来说涉及对地下地层进行射孔和处理以增加油气产量的领域。 The present invention generally relates to perforating a subterranean formation and treatment to increase oil and gas production. 特别是,本发明提供了一种用于对多地层层段进行射孔和处理的装置和方法,无需在各步骤或各处理级之间从井筒上拆除设备。 In particular, the present invention provides an apparatus and method for perforating multi-stratigraphic sections and processing, without removing the device from the wellbore between the various process steps or stages.

背景技术 Background technique

当含烃的地下储油层不具有足够的渗透性或者烃不具有足够的流动能力从而以经济的流量或以最佳速率流到地面上时,通常采用液力压裂或者化学增产(通常用酸)方法来提高流动能力。 When the hydrocarbon-containing subterranean reservoir does not have enough permeability or the hydrocarbon does not have sufficient ability to flow so that the flow rate in the economic optimal rate or flow to the ground, usually hydraulic fracturing or chemical stimulation (typically with an acid ) methods to increase flow capacity. 穿过地下地层的井筒通常由用水泥封装在原始钻孔中的金属管(套管)构成。 Subterranean formation through a wellbore with cement usually consists of the original borehole encapsulated metal pipe (casing). 还设置了孔(射孔)以穿过套管和环绕套管的水泥环,从而使烃流入井筒,并且如果需要的话,使处理液从井筒流到地层中。 It provided the hole (perforation) through the casing and cement annulus surrounding the casing, so that the hydrocarbons flow into the wellbore and, if desired, the processing solution flows from the wellbore formation.

液力压裂操作包括将流体(通常是粘稠的剪切稀释的非牛顿凝胶体或者乳化液)在高压和高速率下注入地层,使得储油岩石破裂并形成平面的通常是竖直的裂缝(或者裂缝网络),就象当楔子敲入原木中时穿过木头中延伸的裂缝。 Hydraulic fracturing operation comprising a fluid (usually viscous shear thinning, non-Newtonian gels or emulsions) into the formation at high pressure and high rate, and is formed such that the reservoir rock fracture is generally vertical plane fracture (or fracture network), as extending through cracks in the wood when the wood wedges typing. 颗粒状的支撑剂材料,例如砂子、陶瓷粒或者其他材料,通常随着压裂流体的后些部分而注射,以在释放压力后保持裂缝敞开。 The particulate proppant material, such as sand, ceramic particles, or other materials, usually with some portion of the fracturing fluid after injection and to keep the fracture open after the pressure is released. 储油层中增大的液流能力是通过裂缝中的支撑剂材料的颗粒之间留下的容易流通的路径来获得的。 Reservoir layer is easily increased flow capacity through the flow path between the particulate proppant material in the fractures to obtain the left. 在化学增产处理中,液流能力是通过溶解地层中的材料或者改变地层特性来提高的。 In chemical stimulation treatments, the flow capacity through the formation material to change the formation or dissolution characteristics improved.

应用上述液力压裂方法是应用于地层总的垂直厚度大约为60米(200英尺)的各个目标区域中的石油工业操作的常规步骤。 Application of hydraulic fracturing method described above is applied to the formation of the total vertical thickness of about 60 m (200 ft) in each target region of a conventional step petroleum industry operations. 当存在多层或者层叠的储油层需要被液力压裂时,或者碰到非常厚的含烃地层(超过大约60米)时,就需要采用其他的处理技术对整个目标区域进行处理。 When there is a multilayer or laminated reservoir to be hydraulically fractured, or encountered hydrocarbon containing formation (over about 60 meters), it requires the use of very thick other processing techniques for processing the entire target area. 在石油工业术语中,提高有效处理范围的方法通常被认为是“导流(diversion)”方法。 In the petroleum industry terminology, increase the effective range of the processing method is generally considered "diversion (Diversion)" method.

当通过液力压裂或者化学增产处理对多个含烃区域进行增产处理时,可通过注入多批处理级流体来获得经济和技术上的收益,这些处理级流体能够被多种装置导流(或隔离),包括机械装置,例如桥塞、封隔器、井下阀、滑动套管和导流板/塞子组合物;封堵球;颗粒物,例如砂子、陶瓷材料、支撑剂、盐、腊、树脂或其他化合物;或者通过替代的流体系统,例如粘稠流体、凝胶状流体、泡沫或其他化学配方的流体;或者使用限制进入(limited entry)的方法。 When by hydraulic fracturing or chemical stimulation of the plurality of hydrocarbon-containing regions stimulation may be obtained by economic and technical benefits batch processing multi-stage fluid injection, the fluid can be a variety of processing stages guider ( or isolation), including mechanical means, such as bridge plugs, packers, downhole valves, sliding sleeves, and baffle / plug combinations thereof; ball sealers; particulates, such as sand, ceramic material, proppant, salt, waxes, resins or other compounds; or by alternative fluid systems such as viscous fluids, gelled fluids, foams, or other chemically formulated fluids; or with restricted access (limited entry) method. 这里,这些以及所有其他用于暂时阻挡液流进入和流出给定组的射孔的方法和装置在本文中都被称为“导流介质(diversion agent)”。 Here, all these and other methods and devices for temporarily blocking flow into and out of perforating given set are herein referred to as "medium flow (diversion agent)".

在机械式桥塞导流中,例如,首先对最深的层段进行射孔和压裂增产,然后通常用电缆设置的桥塞隔离那一层段,并在下一个上方的层段重复进行处理工艺。 In mechanical bridge plug diversion, for example, the deepest interval is first to perforate and fracture stimulation, the cable bridge plug is then typically provided by the layer of spacer section, and a lower layer portion above the treatment process is repeated . 假设有十个目标射孔层段,在这种方式下,处理300米(1,000英尺)的地层通常需要10次作业,经过10天到2周的时间段,这不仅需要多次压裂处理,还要进行多次射孔和桥塞移动操作。 Suppose there are ten target perforation intervals, In this manner, process 300 meters (1,000 feet) of formation generally requires 10 operations, after 10 days to two weeks time, which requires not only multiple fracture treatments, also multiple perforating and bridge plug move. 在处理过程的结尾,还需要对井筒进行清洁处理,以去除桥塞并将油井投入生产。 At the end of the process, we also need to be cleaned wellbore to remove the bridge plug and oil wells into production. 采用桥塞或其他机械导流介质的主要优点是:具有处理了全部目标区域的很高的可信度。 The main advantage of using bridge plugs or other mechanical diversion media are: treatment with a high confidence of the entire target area. 主要缺点是由于多次下井和出井而使处理费用很高,并且由于在井中进行这么多操作,带来工艺复杂的风险。 The main disadvantage is that many times go down well and the high cost of treatment, and as a result of so many wells in operation, bringing sophisticated technology risk. 例如,桥塞可能卡在套管中,需要花费很多来将其钻碎。 For example, a bridge plug may be stuck in the box, it takes a lot to be drilled out. 另一个缺点是所需的清洗操作可能损坏某些已经压裂的层段。 Another disadvantage is that the required cleaning operation may damage some of the intervals have been fractured.

使用桥塞的一种替代形式是将对应于刚刚压裂的层段的油井部分填充压裂砂,通常称为松树岛(the Pine Island)技术。 Uses an alternative form of the bridge plug is partially filled with fracturing wells corresponding to the just fractured interval of sand, often referred Pine Island (the Pine Island) technology. 油井中的砂柱基本上塞住了已经压裂的层段,并且能对下一层段进行独立的射孔和压裂。 In the well layer of the sand column essentially plugs period has fractured, and can be independent of the perforating and fracturing of the next layer segment. 这种方法的主要优点是消除了桥塞所带来的问题和危险。 The main advantage of this approach is to eliminate the problems and dangers caused by the bridge plug. 缺点是砂塞并不能形成完美的液体密封,并且很难在所有压裂增产操作结束时从井筒中去除砂塞。 The disadvantage is that the sand plug does not form a perfect liquid seal, and difficult to remove from the wellbore at the end of all the fracture stimulation operations sand plug. 除非油井的产出流体很强大而从井中携带出砂子,否则仍需要采用修井设备或者挠性管装置来进行清洗。 Unless the produced fluids is very strong and well carried out of the sand from the well, or still need to use a flexible pipe or workover equipment cleaning apparatus. 如上所述,附加的油井操作增加了费用、增大了机械风险以及损坏压裂层段的风险。 As described above, an additional operation increases the cost of the well, increasing the risk of mechanical damage, and risk of fracture interval.

另一种导流方法包括采用颗粒材料,将固体颗粒置于处理液中以帮助导流。 Another method includes use of a particulate material flow, the solid particles are placed to help guide the treatment liquid. 当泵送流体时,颗粒也进入射孔,如果在液流中采用了足够高密度的颗粒,则会在接收流体的区域内形成暂时的堵塞。 When pumping fluid into the perforation particles may also, if a sufficiently high density of particles in the flow, will form a temporary blockage in the area receiving the fluid. 这种流动限制就会使流体导流到其他区域。 This will cause the fluid flow restriction to flow into other regions. 处理结束之后,用产生的地层流体或通过注入清洗液来清除颗粒,既可通过流体传输也可以通过溶解进行清除。 After the process, with a formation fluid produced or to remove the particles by injecting the cleaning liquid, it can be cleared either by dissolving fluid transmission. 通常,可用的颗粒导流材料包括苯酸、萘、岩石盐(氯化钠)、树脂材料、蜡和聚合物。 Typically, pellet diverter materials include benzoic acid, naphthalene, rock salt (sodium chloride), resin materials, waxes and polymers. 作为替换形式,也可以用砂、支撑剂和陶瓷材料作为颗粒导流材料。 As an alternative, sand can also be used, proppant, and ceramic material particles of the material flow. 其他特殊的颗粒也可被设计成以在处理过程中沉淀和成型。 Other special particles may also be designed to precipitate and molding process.

另一种导流方法包括采用粘稠流体、粘稠凝胶体或泡沫来作为导流介质。 Another method includes use of a viscous fluid flow, viscous gel or foam used as flow medium. 这种方法包括泵送导流流体并使之穿过和/或进入射孔层段。 This method comprises pumping fluid and allowed to flow through and / or into the perforated interval. 这些液流系统配置成由于粘稠度作用或者地层相对渗透性降低而暂时阻碍液流流入射孔中;还可以设计成在期望的时间上,流体系统破裂、衰弱或者溶解的形式(采用或不采用附加的化学物质或者其他添加剂来启动这种破裂或溶解),使得液流能够恢复流向射孔或从射孔中流出。 The system is configured to flow since the viscosity or formation relative permeability reducing effect temporarily impede the flow of the inflow aperture; may also be designed in a desired time, the fluid system is broken, weak or dissolved form (with or without use of additional chemicals or other additives to initiate such a rupture or dissolution) such that flow can be recovered from the effluent flow perforations or perforations in the. 这些液流系统可用于基岩化学增产处理和压裂处理的导流操作。 These streams may be used to guide the operating systems bedrock chemical stimulation and fracturing treatment. 有时也将颗粒导流材料和/或封堵球加入这些流体中以增强导流效果。 Sometimes the particulate material flow and / or added to these ball sealers to enhance the fluid flow effect.

另一种可行的工艺是限制进入导流方法,其中欲被处理的地层的整个目标区域都被射成具有很少量的射孔的形式,通常射孔直径很小,使得在泵送期间跨过这些射孔的压力降能够形成很高的内部井筒压力。 Another possibility is to restrict access to process flow method, wherein the entire target area of ​​the formation to be treated are to be emitted to have a very small amount in the form of perforation, perforation diameter is generally small, such that during pumping across these perforations are capable of forming a high pressure drop the internal wellbore pressure. 这种内部井筒压力足够高以使得所有的射孔层段都同时压裂。 This internal bore pressure is high enough to cause all of the perforated intervals are fractured simultaneously. 如果压力太低,则仅是地层的最弱部分被压裂。 If the pressure is too low, only the weakest portions of the formation to be fractured. 限制进入导流方法的主要优点是不会存在类似桥塞或砂等套管内部的障碍物,从而不会因它们而产生后续问题。 The main advantage of limiting the flow into the process is not an obstacle exists inside the sand and the like or bridge plug casing, so as not to generate subsequent problems due thereof. 缺点是对于很厚的层段,限制性的进入压裂方法通常不能很好的作业,这是因为最终的裂缝经常太窄(支撑剂不能完全地泵送到窄裂缝中而是滞留在井筒中),并且不能保持最初的高井压。 The disadvantage is that for very thick intervals, limiting entry fracturing often not work well, because the final crack which is frequently too narrow (the proppant can not be fully pumped into the narrow fracture but in the wellbore retention ), and can not maintain the initial pressure Takai. 当砂材料被泵送时,射孔直径经常很快地被侵蚀成较大的尺寸,从而降低了内部井压。 When the sand material is pumped, the perforation diameters are often quickly eroded to larger sizes, thereby reducing the pressure inside the well. 最终的结果是并非所有的目标区域都经过增产操作了。 The end result is that not all regions have been the target of stimulation operations. 另外需考虑的因素是,由于射孔数目少,这就限制了可能流入井筒中的液流能力。 Other factors to consider that, due to the small number of perforations, which limits the ability to stream may flow into the wellbore.

上述的由无法对整个区域进行增产操作所产生的问题,或者采用需要多次井筒操作的机械方法以及可能产生更大风险和更多费用的井筒进入方法所产生的问题,可以通过采用被封堵球导流的有限的、集中射孔层段来予以减少。 Can not be above the stimulation operations for the entire regional issues arising from, or using mechanical methods require multiple problems wellbore operation and wellbore may have a greater risk and more cost entry method produced, it can be blocked through the use of limited, concentrated perforated intervals diversion ball to be reduced. 欲被处理的区域可分成子区,射孔位于那些子区的每一个子区的大约中部,或者根据地层分析而将子区选择为期望的目标压裂位置。 The area to be treated can be divided into sub-regions, each sub-region perforation located in those sub-zone about the middle, or the sub-area selected as desired according to the analysis target formation fracturing location. 然后在每一级的末尾用封堵球导流,并泵送压裂级流体。 Then at the end of each block with a ball guide, and pumping the fracturing fluid level. 具体地,总厚度300米(1,000英尺)的地层可分为每层大约30米(大约100英尺)的10个子区。 Specifically, the total thickness of 300 m (1,000 feet) of each formation may be divided into about 30 meters (about 100 feet) of 10 sub-regions. 在每一个30米(100英尺)的子区的中央,可以以每米3个点的密度(1点/英尺)在套管上射出10个射孔。 In the center of each 30 m (100 ft) of the sub-regions, perforations 10 can be emitted on the sleeve at a density of 3 points per meter (1 point / ft). 然后通过泵送用含支撑剂的流体注入压裂级,跟随着所述含支撑剂流体的是10个或更多的封堵球,对于单独一个射孔组或者层段中的每一敞开射孔,至少有一个封堵球。 It is then injected by pumping a fracturing fluid containing a proppant stage, and follow the proppant-containing fluid is 10 or more ball sealers, for each individual in the group or a perforated interval is open exit hole, at least one ball sealers. 可以重复上述过程,直到所有的射孔组都压裂。 The above process may be repeated until all of the perforation sets were fractured. 这种系统在1999年4月6日颁布的美国专利5,890,536中进行了更详细地描述。 Such a system is described in more detail in the April 6, 1999, US Patent 5,890,536, issued in.

以前,要在采用封堵球作为导流剂的特定作业中进行处理的所有区域必须在泵送处理流体之前进行射孔,并且已经采用封堵球将处理液从已经压裂的区域导流,或者从在释放封堵球以前具有最大液流的区域导引到具有小液流或无液流的区域。 Before all areas, to be processed in a specific operation using ball sealers as the diversion agent must be perforated prior to pumping treatment fluids, and ball sealers have been employed from the process liquid flow area has been fractured, or from the area of ​​maximum flow guide in the previous release of the ball sealers to an area having a small flow or no flow. 理论上是根据相对的压裂压力或渗透性来一个区域一个区域地进行处理和密封,但是经常会碰到球过早地座落于目标层段之外的一个或多个敞开射孔中而使得有两个或多个区域被同时处理的问题。 And sealing theoretically processed according to the relative permeability or the fracture pressure of a region to be a region, but often encounter prematurely ball located in a layer other than the target segment or a plurality of perforations in the open there is a problem such that two or more regions to be treated simultaneously. 另外,这些技术假定每一射孔层段或子区都会在足够的压差下破裂和压裂使得每一处理级流体仅进入一组射孔。 Furthermore, these techniques assume that each perforation interval or sub-region will rupture such that each processing stage and fracturing fluids enter only one set of perforations at a sufficient pressure differential.

封堵球导流方法的主要优点是费用低并且产生机械问题的风险小。 The main advantage of ball sealers diversion method is low cost and low risk generate mechanical problems. 费用低是因为这一工艺通常在一个连续的操作过程内完成,通常仅在一天中的几个小时内完成。 Low cost because this process is usually completed within a continuous process operation, is usually complete within only a few hours of the day. 只有封堵球留在井筒中,封堵球或者随产生的烃流出,或者坠落在井底的被称为鼠(废料)洞的区域中。 Only the ball sealers area left in the wellbore, the ball sealers, or hydrocarbon effluent produced with or falling in the bottom of the mouse is called (scrap) in the hole. 主要缺点是不能确保每次只有一组射孔被压裂以使每次处理级末尾有正确数量的封堵球坠落。 The main disadvantage is not a time to ensure that only one set of perforations is fractured so that at the end of each treatment stage has the correct number of ball sealers fall. 实际上,该工艺的最大优点取决于一个压裂级流体仅通过一组射孔进入地层,而其他敞开的射孔在该处理级中仍保持基本上不受影响。 In fact, the biggest advantage of this process depends on a stage fracturing fluid enters the formation through only one perforation set, and the other open aperture remains substantially unaffected at the processing stage. 另一个缺点是不能确保在进行作业时所有的射孔层段都能经过处理以及按顺序处理这些层段。 Another drawback is that not ensure that all of the perforated intervals can be treated during operation and in order to deal with these intervals. 当区域处理的顺序是未知的或未受控制时,就不可能保证每一单独区域都受到处理,或者不能保证为目标区域设计单独的增产处理级最优。 When the processing order of the regions is unknown or when uncontrolled, it is impossible to ensure that each individual regions have been processed, the design can not be guaranteed or a separate processing stage optimal stimulation target area. 在某些情况下,可能无法控制处理操作以使各个处理区域在单一的处理级中被处理。 In some cases, the control process may not be operated to the respective processing region to be processed in a single process stage.

为了克服当采用泵送处理液之前对多个区域进行射孔的方法时可能发生在增产处理过程中的问题,已经研究出替代的机械导流方法,该方法包括采用挠性管增产系统来对多个层段依次以单独的处理操作进行增产处理。 In order to overcome the problem when a plurality of regions using the method of perforating before pumping the treatment liquid may occur stimulation treatments have been developed alternative mechanical flow, the method comprising using a flexible tube system for stimulation a plurality of stimulation intervals sequentially in a separate processing operation. 就象传统的封堵球导流方法,要被处理的所有层段都在泵送增产处理液之前进行了射孔。 All intervals as conventional ball sealer diversion methods, are to be treated was perforated prior to pumping stimulation treatments. 接着挠性管被下到井筒中,且其未端安装有一个机械“跨式双封隔器型”导流工具。 The flexible tube is then lower into the wellbore, and which is not attached to a mechanical end "straddle packer type" diversion tool. 该导流工具,当跨过射孔正确地放置并启动时,就在导流工具的上方和下方形成了流体隔离。 The diversion tool, across the perforation when properly placed and initiated, above and below the guide means forms a fluid isolation. 在导流工具被放置以及启动以隔离最深一组的射孔之后,将增产液沿挠性管的内部向下泵送,并从上部和下部密封元件之间的导流工具中的液流口排出。 After being placed and activated to isolate a set of deepest perforation, the internal stimulation fluids pumped downwardly along the flexible tube in the tool guide and the tool guide between the upper and lower sealing elements flow port discharge. 在进行完第一级处理之后,包含在导流工具上的密封元件停止作用或脱离啮合,并且挠性管被向上拉,以将导流工具定位于跨过第二组最深的射孔的位置上,并且继续上述工艺,直至所有的目标层段都经过增产处理或者由于操作失常而中止该工艺。 Performing a first stage after completing the processing, the sealing element comprises a stop on the deflector tool effects or disengaged, and the flexible tube is pulled up so as to flow across the second group of tools positioned at the deepest position of the perforation on, and the above process continues until all of the target interval have been stimulated or malfunction due to the operation of the process is aborted.

这种挠性管增产装置和方法已经用于对深度达大约8,000英尺的油井的多个区域进行液力压裂处理。 Such flexible tubes stimulation apparatus and method have been used for a plurality of regions of the well depth of about 8,000 feet of hydraulic fracturing treatment is performed. 但是,许多技术障碍,包括摩擦阻力损失、对密封件的损坏、深度控制、移动(running)速度和挠性管的潜在腐蚀都在现在限制了其在更深的井中的应用。 However, many technical obstacles, including friction losses, corrosion potential damage to the seal, depth control, movement (running) speed and a flexible tube are now limits its application in the deeper wells.

当以高速率通过较长的挠性管泵送增产液时,会产生过度的摩擦压力,特别是对于含支撑剂和/或高度粘稠的流体更是如此。 When at a high rate through a long flexible tube pump stimulation fluids, will produce excessive friction pressure, particularly for the proppant-containing and / or highly viscous fluid especially. 根据挠性管的长度和直径、流体粘度和最大可允许的地面设备作业压力,泵速率可限制在每分钟仅几桶;根据特定地下地层的特性,这不能在液力压裂处理期间形成有效的支撑剂安置,或者不能在酸增产处理期间形成有效的地层材料溶解。 The diameter and length of the flexible tube, the maximum allowable fluid viscosity and surface equipment operating pressure, the pump rate may be limited to only a few barrels per minute; this can not be formed during a hydraulic fracturing treatment in accordance with the characteristics of a particular subterranean formation effective proppant placement, or can not form an effective ground material is dissolved during an acid stimulation treatment.

当含支撑剂的流体以高速沿挠性管的内部向下泵送时,挠性管的腐蚀也是一个问题,包括仍然卷绕在地面卷轴上的挠性管部分。 When the proppant-containing fluid pumped down to a high speed along the inner flexible tube, the flexible tube corrosion is a problem, comprising a flexible tube portion still wound on the reel ground. 当含有支撑剂的流体冲击到与地面卷轴上的挠性管部分对应的“连续弯曲(continuous bend)”部分上时,腐蚀的影响更加严重。 When the fluid containing proppant impact on the "continuous curve (continuous bend)" portion of the flexible tube portion corresponding to the reel on the ground, the more severe effects of corrosion.

对于目前用在上述挠性管增产操作中的大多数密封元件(例如“杯形”密封技术)来说,当它们在深井的较高井温下移动经过大量射孔时,也可能在深井中产生密封问题或者密封失效。 For most current sealing element (e.g., "cup" seal technique) is used in the flexible tube for the stimulation operations, when they are moved through the large perforation can also occur in deep at the deep well temperature higher seal or seal failure problem. 由于密封件在与管壁接触或者仅留很小间隙的情况下移动,所以粗糙的管内表面和/或射孔毛刺会损坏密封元件。 Since the sealing member moves while contacting with the wall or leave only a small gap, so that the rough surface of the inner tube and / or damage to the sealing element perforation burrs. 现有的在跨式双封隔器型导流工具中采用的密封件是由弹性材料制成的,这种弹性材料可能无法承受深井中经常出现的高温。 Conventional seal used in the straddle packer type deflector tool is made of an elastic material, such an elastic material may not withstand the high temperatures often appear deep.

带有杯形密封件的已知系统的移动速度通常是:沿井身向下移动即下入为15至30英尺/分钟,沿井身向上移动即取出为30至60英尺/分钟。 Known systems with the moving speed of the cup seal is typically: move down into the wellbore i.e. 15 to 30 ft / min, i.e., upward movement of the extraction is from 30 to 60 ft / min along the wellbore. 例如,在较低的移动速度下,在增产操作开始之前,大约需要13小时才能到达12,000英尺的深度。 For example, at a lower movement speed, before the stimulation operation begins approximately 13 hours to reach a depth of 12,000 feet. 考虑到夜间操作的安全性,这种较慢的移动速度可能会使完成一个增产作业需要多天。 Taking into account the safety of nighttime operations, this slower movement speed may increase to complete a job requires many days. 如果在这种作业中碰到任何问题,由于很慢的移动速度要使总操作时间很长,所以将工具下到井中或从井中取出是非常费钱的。 If you encounter any problems in such operations, since the moving speed is slow to make the total operation time is very long, so the lower the tool into the well or withdrawn from the well is very costly.

对挠性管系统和分离式封隔器型导流工具的深度控制也随着深度的增加而更为困难,使得将工具定位到正确的深度以成功地实施增产操作变得困难。 Depth control system for a flexible pipe and separate-type flow packer tool also increases with increasing depth even more difficult, so that the positioning tool to the correct depth to the successful implementation of stimulation operations difficult. 由于在把挠性管系统下入井中之前进行射孔该问题变得更加严重。 As a result of this problem before perforating into the well in the flexible pipe systems become more serious. 射孔操作采用了不同的深度测量设备(通常是套管接箍定位器),而不是通常在挠性管系统中使用的设备。 Perforating operation takes a different depth measuring device (usually a casing collar locator), rather than the equipment typically used in the flexible tube system.

另外,上述挠性管方法还需要在泵送增产液作业之前在单独的射孔操作中将所有的射孔都设制于井筒中。 Further, the flexible tube method also requires prior stimulation fluid pumping operation in a separate perforating operation are provided all the perforations made in a wellbore. 由于存在着在导流工具上方的多个敞开的射孔组,这就产生了操作困难。 Because there are multiple perforations set at the top of the tool guide is open, which creates operational difficulties. 例如,如果来自当前区域的支撑剂裂缝垂直向上生长和/或在管道后面的水泥质量较差,则裂缝会与导流工具上方的射孔组相交贯穿,使得支撑剂会“倾泻”回导流工具顶部的井筒中并阻止工具进一步移动。 For example, if the proppant fracture from upward vertical growth of the current region and / or the quality of the cement behind the pipe is poor, cracks intersect with the perforations through the top of the tool guide in the group, so that the proppant will "dump" back flow the top of the wellbore tool in the tool and prevent further movement. 另外,如果在导流工具上方有多个射孔组敞开,则很难实施环流操作。 Further, if a plurality of perforation sets is open at the top diversion tool, it is difficult to implement circulation operation. 例如,如果环流压力超过在导流工具上方的敞开的射孔的开裂压力,环流就不能被保持,环流流体会意外地流失到地层中。 For example, if the pressure exceeds the open loop perforation tool at the top of the diversion of cracking pressure, circulation can not be maintained, circulating fluid will accidentally lost into the formation.

采用接头连接的油管(jointed tubing)和修井设备而不是挠性管系统也可以实施相同类型的增产处理。 Using linker tubing (jointed tubing) and workover equipment instead of the flexible tube system may also be implemented the same type of stimulation. 采用布置在接头连接的油管上的导流工具可使大直径油管减少摩擦阻力损失并提高泵送速率。 With the arrangement of guide means on the tubing linker may cause the loss of a large diameter tubing to reduce friction and increase the pumping rate. 另外,与挠性管系统相比,由于采用了更重的壁厚的连接油管,并且当在井筒中移动时,接头连接的油管不会发生塑性变形,所以可减少对腐蚀以及油管整体性方面的忧虑。 Further, as compared with the flexible tube system, the use of a heavier wall thickness of the pipe is connected, and when moved in the wellbore, pipeline joints not connected to plastic deformation, it is possible to reduce the corrosion of the tubing and the overall aspect of the concern. 但是,采用这种方法可能会增加操作的时间和费用,这是因为油管移动速度可能比挠性管速度低。 However, this approach may increase the time and cost of operations, because moving the tubing may be slower than the speed of the flexible tube.

为了克服由于要将设备多次下到井筒中或从井筒中取出以对地下地层进行射孔和增产操作等完井作业所带来的限制,已经提出了一种对井底工具串进行“单次起下作业”布置的方法,以能够将对区域进行压裂增产处理操作与射孔操作结合。 To overcome the apparatus a plurality of times in order to lower or remove the wellbore to the subterranean formation to limit the perforating operation completions and stimulation brought from the wellbore, it has been proposed a downhole tool string of "single since the operation time "method arranged to enable the region will fracture stimulation operations in conjunction with the perforating operation. 特别地,这些方法提出了能够减少所需井筒操作的次数和完成这些操作所需时间的操作方法,从而减少了增产处理费用。 In particular, these proposed methods can reduce the number of required wellbore operations and time required to complete the method for operating these operations, thereby reducing the stimulation treatment cost. 这些措施包括:1),在超平衡压力下进行射孔时将砂泥浆注入井筒;2)发射射孔弹时从泥浆筒中倾倒砂子;以及3)将砂子装到单独的爆炸释放的容器中。 These include: 1), at a pressure overbalanced perforating the sand slurry injected into the wellbore; 2) dumping sand from the slurry emitted when the shaped charge cartridge; and 3) attached to the individual sand blast release container. 这些措施都仅能在井筒周围形成少量的穿透裂缝,不适于这里所述的多级液力压裂需要。 These are only a small number of penetrating cracks formed around the well, is not suitable for multi-stage hydraulic fracturing required herein.

因此,需要提供一种改进的方法和装置,用于单独地对由井筒穿透的地层中的多个层段的每一层段进行处理,同时保持多级处理的经济效果。 Thus, a need to provide an improved method and apparatus for individually for each layer of a plurality of intervals of a section of the wellbore penetrating the subterranean formation is treated, while maintaining the economic effect of a multi-stage process. 还需要提供一种方法和装置,它们能够减少现有的增产处理操作中固有的风险,所述增产处理操作是用于带有多层或层叠储油层的含烃地层或厚度超过大约60米(200英尺)的地层的,上述方法和装置能同时保证借助机械导流介质而实施最佳的处理液充填分布,所述机械导流介质能够将处理级流体正向地引导到期望的位置。 Also desirable to provide a method and apparatus which reduce the risk of conventional processing operations inherent stimulation, the stimulation operation is a hydrocarbon containing formation or the thickness of the layers or laminated with the reservoir in excess of about 60 meters ( 200 ft) of the formation, the method and apparatus described above can be implemented while ensuring optimum distribution of the processing liquid is filled by mechanical flow medium, the medium can flow mechanical processing stage fluid guided forward to the desired position.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明提供了一种用于对与井筒相交的一个或多个地下地层的多个层段进行射孔和处理的装置和方法。 The present invention provides an apparatus and method for multiple intervals of one or more subterranean formations intersected perforating the wellbore and processed.

本发明的技术方案如下:一种用于对与井筒相交的一个或多个地下地层的多个层段进行射孔和处理的方法,所述方法包括:(a)采用布置装置把井底工具组合(“BHA”)布置在所述井筒中,所述BHA具有一个射孔装置和一个密封装置;(b)用深度控制装置将所述BHA定位在所述井筒中;(c)采用所述射孔装置对所述层段进行射孔;(d)启动所述密封装置,从而在所述井筒中建立起液体密封;(e)将处理液沿所述布置装置和所述井筒之间的环形空间向下泵送并使其流入由所述射孔装置形成的射孔中,而不必将所述射孔装置从所述井筒中取出;(f)释放所述密封装置;和(g)对于所述一个或多个地下地层的至少另一个层段重复进行步骤(b)至(f)。 Aspect of the present invention is as follows: A method of multiple intervals of one or more subterranean formations intersected perforating the wellbore and processed, the method comprising: (a) using the downhole tool apparatus is arranged combination ( "BHA") is disposed in said wellbore, said BHA having a perforating device and a sealing device; (b) with the BHA depth control means is positioned in the wellbore; (c) the use of perforating means for perforating segments of the layer; (d) activating the sealing means, thereby establishing a liquid seal in the wellbore; (e) the processing liquid are arranged along said means and between the wellbore pumped down the annular space and make the perforations formed by perforating device inflow, without having to remove the device from the perforations in the wellbore; (f) releasing said sealing means; and (g) repeating steps to at least one other layer of the one or more sections of the subterranean formation (b) to (f).

一种用于对与井筒相交的一个或多个地下地层的多个层段进行射孔和处理的增产处理系统,所述系统包括:(a)处理液;(b)步置在所述井筒中的布置装置;(c)井底工具组合(BHA),它适于用所述布置装置被布置在所述井筒中,所述BHA具有至少一个用于依次地对所述多个层段进行射孔的射孔装置和至少一个密封装置,所述BHA能够用深度控制装置被定位于所述井筒中,以使得所述射孔装置和所述密封装置被启动;(d)所述密封装置能够在所述井筒中建立起液体密封,还能够释放所述液体密封以使所述BHA能移动到所述井筒中的不同位置,从而使所述多个处理层段的每一个层段都用与所述其他处理层段隔离开的所述处理液来处理。 A method for a plurality of layers of one or more segments of the wellbore intersecting the subterranean formation is stimulated perforating system and processed, said system comprising: (a) the processing liquid; (b) step is set in the wellbore the arrangement means; (c) a combination of downhole tool (BHA), adapted by means of said arrangement is disposed in said wellbore, said BHA having at least one of the plurality of layers sequentially segments perforating means and at least one perforation sealing means, said BHA capable of being positioned in a depth control device of the wellbore so that the perforating means and said sealing means is activated; (d) said sealing means can establish a liquid seal in the wellbore, it is also capable of releasing the liquid seal to allow said BHA can be moved to a different location in the wellbore, such that each interval of said plurality of processing interval are used isolated from the treatment liquid with the other processing section to process the layer.

一种用于对与井筒相交的一个或多个地下地层的多个层段进行射孔和处理的装置,所述装置包括:(a)井底工具组合(BHA),它适于通过布置装置被布置在所述井筒中,并适于通过深度控制装置被定位在所述井筒中,所述BHA具有至少一个用于依次地对所述多个层段进行射孔的射孔装置和至少一个密封装置;以及(b)所述密封装置能够在所述井筒内建立起液体密封,还能够释放所述液体密封以使所述BHA移动到所述井筒中的不同位置,从而使所述多个处理层段的每一个层段都被与所述其他处理层段隔离开地处理。 A method for multiple intervals of one or more subterranean formations intersected wellbore and perforating means for processing, said apparatus comprising: (a) downhole tool combination (BHA), adapted by arranging means is disposed in the wellbore, and adapted to be positioned in the wellbore by a depth control means, said BHA having at least one of said plurality of layers sequentially perforating sections and at least one perforating means sealing means; and (b) said sealing means can establish a liquid seal in the wellbore, further capable of releasing the liquid seal to allow the BHA to move to a different location in the wellbore so that the plurality of each layer segment processing interval are processed with the other processing interval to isolate.

该装置包括布置装置(deployment means)(例如,挠性管,连接的油管,电线,电缆,井下牵引机等),该布置装置带有井底工具组合(bottom hole assembly)(“BHA”),所述井底工具组合至少由一个射孔装置和一个可重置的机械密封装置构成,所述密封装置可以通过一个或多个信号装置(例如,通过电缆传输的电信号;通过油管、环形空间、控制管缆传输的液压信号;拉伸或压缩载荷;无线电传输;光纤传输;板载BHA计算机系统等)而被单独地操纵。 The apparatus comprises means arranged (deployment means) (e.g., flexible tube connected to the tubing, wires, cables, a downhole tractor, etc.), which is arranged downhole tool apparatus having a combination (bottom hole assembly) ( "BHA"), the composition of at least one downhole tool and the perforating means a resettable mechanical seal configuration, the sealing means by means of one or more signals (e.g., electrical signals transmitted by cable; through the tubing, the annular space the control hydraulic umbilical signal transmission; tensile or compressive loads; radio transmission; optical transmission; BHA onboard computer systems, etc.) are separately manipulated.

该方法包括采用布置装置将BHA设置在井筒中的步骤,其中布置装置可以是油管柱、线缆或井下牵引机。 The method comprises the step of using means disposed BHA disposed in a wellbore, wherein the arrangement means may be a tubing string, a cable or a downhole tractor. 射孔装置位于靠近要被射孔的层段,并用于对该层段射孔。 Perforating means is located close interval to be perforated, and the perforations for the interval. 采用布置装置使BHA位于井筒中,并启动密封装置以建立液体密封,从而强制地导引沿井筒向下泵送的流体,使之进入射孔层段。 With the arrangement means that the BHA is located in the wellbore, and starts to establish a fluid-tight sealing means, thereby forcibly guided along the wellbore fluid pumped down, make it into the perforated interval. 释放密封装置。 Release of the sealing means. 然后,可以在一个或多个地下地层的至少一个另外的层段中重复这个过程,而不必从井筒中取出BHA。 Then, this process may be repeated in at least one further layer segments of the one or more subterranean formations, and without having to remove BHA from the wellbore.

布置装置可以是油管柱,包括挠性管系统或标准的接头连接油管、电缆、钢丝或线缆。 Arrangement means may be a tubing string, the system comprises a flexible tube or hose connected to standard connectors, cable, wire or cable. 除了油管或线缆布置装置,该布置装置还可以是安装在BHA上的牵引系统。 In addition to tubing or cable arrangement means that the device may also be arranged traction system mounted on the BHA. 牵引系统可以是自驱动的、计算机控制的,并带有板载(on-board)信号系统,使其不必安装线缆或油管以控制或启动BHA和/或牵引系统。 Traction system may be self-driven, computer-controlled, and with on-board (on-board) signaling system, it is not necessary to install a cable or tubing to control the start or BHA and / or traction system. 作为替换形式,牵引系统可由线缆或油管控制管缆控制和启动,这种牵引系统和BHA是通过采用控制管缆而向井底传送的信号控制和启动的。 As an alternative, the system may be a cable or a traction control umbilical tubing and start control, the traction control system and BHA and start signals are transmitted by using a downhole umbilical. 根据悬挂系统和BHA的特定元件,本发明可采用许多不同的实施例。 According to a particular element of the suspension system and BHA, the present invention may be employed in many different embodiments.

在本发明的第一实施例中,当布置装置是油管柱时,一旦一个层段被射孔,则BHA就可被移动并且使密封装置启动,从而在已射孔的层段的下方建立起液体密封。 In the first embodiment of the present invention, when the tubing string when the means is disposed, once the segment is a perforated layer, the BHA can be moved and the sealing device is activated in order to establish a layer beneath the perforated sections have liquid seal. 然后可将处理液沿油管柱和井筒之间的环形空间向下泵送并使其流入已射孔的层段。 Then the annular space between the tubing string and in the treatment liquid may be pumped down the wellbore and allowed to flow into the perforated interval has been. 并且第二处理液,例如氮,也可在第一处理液被沿油管柱和井筒之间的环形空间向下泵送的同时,被沿油管柱向下泵送。 And a second processing liquid, such as nitrogen, may be while the first treatment liquid to be pumped down along the annulus between the tubing string and the wellbore is pumped down the tubing string along.

在第二实施例中,当布置装置是油管柱时,一旦一个层段被射孔,则BHA就可被移动并且使密封装置启动,从而在已射孔的层段的上方建立起液体体密封。 In the second embodiment, when the apparatus is disposed when the tubing string, once the segment is a perforated layer, the BHA can be moved and the sealing device is activated in order to establish a liquid seal at the top thereof a layer has been perforated section . 然后可将处理液沿到油管柱向下泵送并使其流入已射孔的层段。 Then in the processing liquid may be pumped down the tubing string and allowed to flow into intervals already perforated.

在第三实施例中,当布置装置是油管柱时,BHA可以被移动并且使密封装置被启动,从而在已射孔的层段的上方和下方建立起液体密封(其中密封装置由两个隔开足够距离以跨过已经射孔的层段的元件组成)。 In the third embodiment, when the apparatus is disposed when the tubing string, BHA may be moved and the sealing means is activated, so as to establish a liquid seal (wherein the sealing means consists of two compartments are above and below the perforated interval apart a distance sufficient to straddle the perforation element has a composition interval). 在该第三实施例中,处理液可沿油管柱本身向下泵送,通过密封装置的两个密封元件之间的液流口并流入已射孔的层段。 In this third embodiment, the processing liquid can be pumped down along the tubing string itself, the flow opening between the two sealing elements the sealing means and into the perforated interval has been.

在本发明的第四实施例中,当采用电缆、钢丝或线缆将BHA布置在井筒中时,BHA就可被移动并且密封装置被启动,从而在要被处理的已射孔的层段的下方建立起液体密封,处理液将被沿电缆、钢丝或线缆和井筒之间的环形空间向下泵送。 In a fourth embodiment of the present invention, when using a cable, wire or cable disposed in a wellbore BHA, BHA is moved and the sealing means can be activated, so as to be processed has perforations layer segments establish a liquid seal under the process liquid to be pumped down the annular space between the cable, wire or cable and the wellbore.

在本发明的第五实施例中,“控制管缆”被布置作为附加装置来启动BHA元件。 In a fifth embodiment of the present invention, the "umbilical" is disposed as an additional means to start the BHA elements. 在最广的意义上,控制管缆可采取小直径油管或多条管道的形式,以提供与BHA元件的液压连通;和/或控制管缆也可采取线缆或多条线缆的形式,以提供与BHA元件的电或光电连通。 In the broadest sense, the control umbilical may take the form of small diameter tubing or pipeline to provide communication with the hydraulic BHA element; and / or umbilicals also take the form of a cable or a plurality of cables, to provide communication with the electrical or photoelectronic element BHA.

在本发明的第六实施例中,当布置装置是安装在BHA上的牵引系统时,BHA可被移动并且密封装置可被启动,从而在已射孔的层段的下方建立起液体密封。 In the sixth embodiment of the present invention, when the traction device is arranged mounted on the system when the BHA, BHA may be moved and the sealing means can be activated in order to establish a liquid seal at the bottom of the layer has been perforated sections. 处理液可被沿井筒向下泵送并流入已射孔的层段。 In the treatment liquid may be pumped down the wellbore and into the perforations have intervals.

在本发明的第七实施例中,采用了研磨流体喷射切割技术来射孔,并且BHA靠油管悬挂,使得BHA可以被移动并且使密封装置被启动,从而在已射孔的层段的下方建立起液体密封。 In a seventh embodiment of the present invention, using a milling fluid jet cutting techniques perforations, and BHA on the tubing hanger, so that the BHA may be moved and the sealing means is activated so as to establish a layer beneath the perforated sections have since the liquid seal. 然后处理液被沿油管和井筒之间的环形空间向下泵送。 Then treated liquid is pumped down the annulus between the tubing and the wellbore.

这种装置和方法的一个主要优点是BHA、包括密封装置和射孔装置,都不必在用处理液处理之前以及对多个地层区域或层段进行处理之间从井筒中被取出。 A major advantage of this apparatus and method are BHA, comprising sealing means and perforation means are not necessary in the region of the formation of a plurality of segments or layers are removed from the wellbore between treatment and treatment with the treatment liquid before. 这种装置和方法的另一个主要优点是都采用机械导流介质对每一处理级流体进行导流,这就能对处理导流过程进行精确控制,并使每一区域受到最佳的增产处理。 Another major advantage of this method and apparatus is to adopt a mechanical flow for each processing stage medium fluid flow, which can flow during processing of precise control, and each zone being optimal stimulation . 结果是通过减少对井筒中的多个层段进行射孔和增产处理的时间而明显节约了费用。 The result is a plurality of layers by reducing the time interval of the wellbore and perforating processes significantly increase the cost savings. 另外,当对井筒中的多个地层层段进行增产处理时,由于采用了机械导流介质而形成了精确控制的导流处理,所以提高了产量。 Further, when a plurality of stratigraphic wellbore segments stimulation, the use of a mechanical flow diversion process medium to form an accurately controlled, the yield is improved. 这样,与已有的方法和装置相比,由于井底工具组合提供了作为机械导流介质和射孔装置的双重功能,所以本发明方法和装置允许只需单独一次的井底工具组合的下入井筒以及后续的从井筒取出的操作就可以对多个区域进行射孔和增产处理,从而,本发明方法和装置在经济上具有显著的优点。 Thus, as compared with conventional methods and apparatus, since the downhole tool provides a dual function in combination as a mechanical perforating means and media flow, the method and apparatus of the present invention allows only a single one of the downhole tool in combination into the wellbore and perforating can be carried out subsequent processing on a plurality of regions and the stimulation removed from the wellbore operation, whereby the method and apparatus of the present invention provides significant economic advantages.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

参照下面的详细描述以及附图,将更好地理解本发明及其优点,其中:图1表示了一种可能的代表性井筒构造,其外围设备可用于支撑本发明所使用的井底工具组合。 Reference to the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings, the present invention will be better understood and the advantages thereof, wherein: Figure 1 shows a possible representation of the wellbore configuration, peripheral devices may be used in combination downhole tool used in the present invention, a support . 图1还表示了具有代表性的井底工具组合的储存井筒,它具有地面卡瓦,这些储存井筒可用于储存那些备用的或应急的井底工具组合。 1 also shows a representative reservoir wellbore downhole tool combination having ground kava, which can be used to store backup storage wellbore tool or a combination of those emergency downhole.

图2A表示了井底工具组合的第一实施例,使用挠性管将它布置在未射孔的井筒内,且它位于将要用第一组选择性发射的射孔弹进行射孔的深度位置。 FIG 2A shows a first embodiment of the downhole tool in combination, a flexible tube arranged within its non-perforated wellbore, the shaped charge and which is located in the first group to use a selective emitter perforating depth position . 图2A还表示了由射孔装置、可膨胀且可重置的封隔器、可重置的轴向卡瓦装置和附件构成的井底工具组合。 Figure 2A also shows by a perforating apparatus, the expandable and resettable packer, slip axially resettable devices and accessories made of a combination of downhole tools.

图2B表示了当第一组选择性发射的射孔弹被发射后的图2A所示的井底工具组合、挠性管和井筒,所述发射导致了射孔穿过生产套管以及水泥环并进入第一地层区域,使井筒和第一地层区域之间建立了液体连通。 FIG 2B shows a downhole tool when the combination shown in FIG selective emitter of a first set of shaped charges is transmitted. 2A, the flexible tube and the wellbore, resulting in the emission of perforations through the casing and cement production and into the first region of the formation, so that fluid communication is established between the wellbore and the formation of the first region.

图2C表示了当井底工具组合重新定位以及用多级液压支撑剂压裂处理的第一级处理操作对第一地层区域进行增产处理之后的图2B所示的井底工具组合、挠性管和井筒,其中压裂处理的第一级沿存在于挠性管和生产套管之间的井筒环形空间被泵送到井底中。 FIG 2C shows a downhole tool when the downhole tool and reposition composition shown in FIG combinations were stimulated after the formation of the first region with a first multi-stage hydraulic proppant stage processing operation processing 2B, the flexible tube and a wellbore, wherein a first stage in the fracturing treatment is present in the wellbore annulus between the coiled tubing and production casing is pumped into the bottom. 在图2C中,密封装置表示为处于未启动的位置,为了图示的目的,假定除了那些与第一区域相关的射孔外不存在其他射孔,因此,不需要为了处理第一区域而设置隔离。 In Figure 2C, the sealing means shown in a non-activated position, for purposes of illustration, it is assumed in addition to those associated with the first perforation region there are no other perforations, there is no need to process a first region provided isolation.

图3A表示了当井底工具组合重新定位以及第二组选择性发射的射孔弹发射后的图2C所示的井底工具组合、挠性管和井筒,所述发射导致了射孔穿过生产套管以及水泥环并进入第二地层区域,使井筒和第二地层区域之间建立了液体连通。 3A shows a downhole tool when the composition shown downhole tool and a second set of combinations to reposition the shaped charge selective emitter emitting 2C, the flexible tube and the wellbore, resulting in the emission of perforations through production casing and cement sheath and into the second formation region, so that fluid communication is established between the formation and a second wellbore region.

图3B表示了当井底工具组合重新定位在第二射孔组的最深射孔下方足够距离处之后的图3A所示的井底工具组合、挠性管和井筒,所述定位使得BHA能够稍微向上移动以设置那个可重置的轴向卡瓦装置,同时保持循环口的位置在第二射孔组的最底部射孔以下。 FIG 3B shows a downhole tool when the composition reposition view after a sufficient distance below the perforations of the second perforation deepest downhole tool group 3A combinations shown, the flexible tube and the wellbore, the positioning so that the BHA can be somewhat provided that axially upward movement of the slips in order to reset the device, while maintaining the position of the circular opening at the bottom of the perforations of the second perforation set.

图3C表示了当可重置的机械式卡瓦装置启动之后的图3B所示的井底工具组合、挠性管和井筒,所述启动后会防止向下的移动,以保证可膨胀且可重置的封隔器和可重置的机械式卡瓦装置能够定位于第一区域射孔和第二区域射孔之间。 3C shows the view after when the mechanical device is resettable slip start 3B downhole tool combination shown, the flexible tube and the wellbore after the start prevents downward movement, and may be expandable to ensure and resetting the packer slips mechanical device is resettable can be positioned between the first region and the second region perforating perforation.

图3D表示了当可膨胀且可重置的封隔器启动之后的图3C所示的井底工具组合、挠性管和井筒,所述启动后会形成一种阻挡,即阻止了可膨胀且可重置的封隔器正上方的井筒部分和可膨胀且可重置的封隔器正下方的井筒部分之间的液体流动。 Figure 3D shows a view after when the expandable and resettable packer downhole tool starts combinations shown 3C, the flexible tube and the wellbore after the startup form a barrier that prevents expandable and fluid flow between the wellbore portion resettable packer immediately above the wellbore and an expandable portion and a resettable packer immediately below.

图3E表示了当第二地层区域通过多级液压支撑剂压裂处理的第二级处理操作被增产处理之后的图3D所示的井底工具组合、挠性管和井筒,其中压裂处理的第二级流体被泵送到井底中存在于挠性管和生产套管之间的井筒环形空间中。 FIG 3E shows a downhole tool when in combination, a flexible pipe and wellbore shown in 3D processing operation of the second stage second formation region by a multi-stage hydraulic proppant fracture stimulation treatment after being treated diagram in which the fracturing treatment the second stage fluid is pumped downhole present in the wellbore annulus between the coiled tubing and production casing.

图3F表示了当可膨胀且可重置的封隔器停止作用之后的图3E所示的井底工具组合、挠性管和井筒,所述停止作用会在可膨胀且可重置的封隔器正上方的井筒部分和可膨胀且可重置的封隔器正下方的井筒部分之间再次形成压力连通。 FIG 3F shows a view after when the expandable packer and resettable stop functioning 3E downhole tool packer combination shown, the flexible tube and the wellbore, the stop action will be reset and the expandable and the positive portion of the wellbore above the expandable and resettable packer positive pressure communication between the well bore section below again. 可重置的机械式卡瓦装置仍然加电工作并继续防止挠性管和井底工具组合向井筒下方移动。 Resettable mechanical slip system remains powered and continues to work to prevent the flexible tube and moved downward downhole tool combination wellbore.

图4A表示了一种改进的井底工具组合,它与图2A至图2C以及图3A至图3F所述的井底工具组合相似,只是增加了一个可用选择性发射弹设置系统设置的机械式塞子,它位于一串射孔枪的下方。 4A shows a combination of an improved downhole tool which FIGS. 2A to 2C and combinations downhole tool according to FIGS. 3A to 3F is similar, but adds a projectile setting system available selective mechanical settings plug, which is located beneath a string of perforating guns. 图4A还表示了当附加的第三射孔和压裂增产操作已经进行之后的图3F所示的挠性管和井筒。 Figure 4A also shows an additional view after when the third perforation and fracture stimulation operations have been shown in the wellbore and the flexible tube 3F. 在图4A中,应该注意到只显示了第二和第三压裂和射孔组。 In FIG. 4A, it should be noted only shows the perforating and fracturing the second and third groups. 在图4A中所示的改进的井底工具组合被挠性管悬挂,使得桥塞位于最后一个已射孔层段的上方以及下一个要射孔层段的下方。 In the improvement shown in FIG. 4A is a combination of downhole tool suspended flexible tube, so that a bridge plug is located above the last layer and a lower section has a perforated section for perforating the underlying layer.

图4B表示了当机械式塞子已经以选择性发射弹设置的方式被设置在油井中并且当井底工具组合再次定位以及第一组选择性发射的射孔弹已经发射之后的图4A所示的井底工具组合、挠性管和井筒,上述操作会导致射孔穿过生产套管以及水泥环并进入第四地层区域,使井筒和第四地层区域之间建立了液体连通。 4B shows the embodiment when the mechanical plug has been provided to selectively projectile is disposed in the well and when the downhole tool of FIG. 4A and the first set of compositions repositioned selectively emitted after the emission of the shaped charge has shown combination downhole tool, the flexible tube and the wellbore, the above-described operation will cause perforations through the production casing and cement and into the formation of the fourth region, so that fluid communication is established between the wellbore and the formation of the fourth region.

图5表示了本发明的第二实施例。 FIG 5 illustrates a second embodiment of the present invention. 在该实施例中,悬挂装置是油管柱,并且一旦层段被射孔,BHA就可移动、密封装置也被启动以在已射孔层段的上方形成液体密封。 In this embodiment, the suspension means is a tubing string, and once been perforated interval, BHA can move, the sealing means is also activated to form a liquid layer over the perforated section has been sealed. 然后,处理液可沿油管柱被向下泵送并进入已射孔层段。 Then, the processing liquid can be pumped enters and is perforated intervals along the tubing string downwardly.

图6表示了本发明的第三实施例。 6 shows a third embodiment of the present invention. 悬挂装置是油管柱,并且BHA可以移动、密封装置也可被启动以在已射孔层段的上方或下方形成液体密封(其中密封装置由两个隔开足够距离以跨过射孔层段的密封元件构成)。 The suspension means is a tubing string and BHA can be moved, the sealing means may be activated to form a liquid layer above or below the perforated section has a seal (wherein the sealing means consists of two spaced apart a sufficient distance so as to cross the perforated intervals a sealing member configured). 在该第三实施例中,处理液能够通过位于密封装置的两个密封元件之间的流动口而沿油管柱本身向下泵送,并进入已射孔层段。 In this third embodiment, the processing liquid can be pumped down along the tubing string itself, and into the perforated interval has through flow port located between the two sealing elements of the sealing means.

图7表示了本发明的第四实施例。 7 shows a fourth embodiment of the present invention. 采用电缆(或钢丝或线缆)将BHA悬挂在井筒中。 Using a cable (or wire or cable) BHA is suspended in the wellbore. BHA将被移动并且密封装置被启动以在要被处理的射孔层段的下方形成液体密封,处理液将被沿电缆、钢丝或线缆和井筒之间的环形空间向下泵送。 BHA will be moved and the sealing means is activated to form a liquid below the perforated interval to be processed seal, the treatment liquid will be pumped down the annular space between the cable, wire or cable and the wellbore.

图8A和图8B表示了本发明的第五实施例,它采用了一个控制管缆管道,用于启动可重置的密封机构,该控制管缆管道设置在用作布置装置的油管的内部。 8A and 8B show a fifth embodiment of the present invention, which uses an umbilical conduit for the sealing mechanism can be reset to start, the umbilical conduit disposed inside the apparatus disposed as tubing.

图9表示了本发明的第六实施例,它采用了一个安装在BHA上的牵引装置,使得BHA能够被移动并且密封装置能被启动以在已射孔层段的下方形成液体密封。 9 shows a sixth embodiment of the present invention, which uses a traction device mounted on the BHA, BHA that can be moved and the sealing means can be activated to form a liquid layer beneath the perforated section has been sealed. 处理液可被沿井筒向下泵送并进入已射孔层段。 In the treatment liquid may be pumped down the wellbore and into the perforated interval has.

图10表示了本发明的第七实施例,它采用了用于射孔装置的研磨或腐蚀性流体喷射切割技术。 10 shows a seventh embodiment of the present invention, which uses abrasive or corrosive fluid jet cutting apparatus for perforating techniques. 采用连接的油管而将BHA悬挂在井筒中,BHA由一个机械压缩形变的可重置的封隔器、一个研磨或腐蚀性流体喷射射孔装置、一个机械式套管接箍定位器和附件组成。 Using tubing connected to the BHA is suspended in the wellbore, a BHA compression set by mechanically resettable packer, a perforating abrasive or corrosive fluid ejection apparatus, a mechanical casing collar locator and annexes . 在该实施例中,通过下面的方法形成射孔:使研磨流体沿连接的油管被向下泵送并且从位于BHA上的喷射工具中喷出,以便高压高速的研磨或腐蚀性流体射流被形成并被用来射穿生产套管和周围的水泥环以与期望的地层层段内建立液体连通。 In this embodiment, the perforations are formed by the following method: the abrasive fluid is pumped down the tubing connector and located on the BHA ejected from the ejection tool, grinding or high speed to high pressure fluid jet is formed corrosive and it is used to penetrate the production casing and surrounding cement sheath to establish the desired liquid communication with the stratigraphic section. 在将可重置的封隔器设置在要进行增产处理的区域的下方之后,可将增产处理剂沿位于油管柱和生产套管串之间的环形空间向下泵送。 After a resettable packer disposed below the area to be treated of stimulation, stimulation treatments may be positioned along the annular space between the tubing string and pumped down the production casing string.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

下面将参照优选实施例对本发明进行描述。 The present invention will now be described with reference to preferred embodiments. 但是,对于下面这些特别针对特定实施例或本发明的特别应用所进行的描述,仅仅是示意性的,并不构成对本发明范围的限制。 However, for particular applications, especially those described in the following examples or embodiments of the present invention is conducted for a particular, it is merely illustrative and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. 相反,本说明书意欲覆盖所有落入本文所附权利要求限定的本发明的精神和范围内的替换、改进和等同形式。 In contrast, the present specification is intended to cover all fall within the claims appended hereto alternatives falling within the spirit scope of the invention as defined and requirements, modifications and equivalents.

本发明提供了一种新的方法、新的系统和新的装置,用于对多个地层层段进行射孔和增产处理,使得每一单独区域都受到单个的处理级的处理,同时消除或者减少现有的挠性管或连接油管(jointedtubing)增产处理方法所存在的问题,并由此提供明显优于已知方法的经济和技术效益。 The present invention provides a new method, a new system and a new apparatus for perforating a plurality of stratigraphic sections and stimulation treatments, each individual region such that the individual processing stages are subject, while eliminating or reduce existing pipe or flexible tubing connection (jointedtubing) stimulation method the problems, and thus provide significant economic and technical benefits over the known methods.

特别地,本发明包括将井底工具组合悬挂在井筒中以逐个和顺序地射孔并处理期望的多个区域中的每一个区域,同时将多级增产处理剂泵送,并设置可重置的机械密封装置以使每一个单独的处理级流体能够受控导流。 In particular, the present invention includes a downhole tool suspended in a wellbore in combination and individually and sequentially perforating a plurality of regions each of the processing in the desired, while the multi-stage pumping stimulation treatment agent, and is provided to reset the mechanical seal device so that each separate processing stage fluid flow can be controlled. 为了该申请的目的,“井筒”应该理解为包括油井的地下密封元件以及所有的地上密封装备,例如井口、短管、防喷器和防喷管。 For purposes of this application, "wellbore" should be understood to include the well and all underground sealing element sealing the ground equipment, the wellhead e.g., short tube, BOP and lubricator.

新的装置包括布置装置(例如,挠性管,连接的油管,电线,电缆,牵引系统等),该布置装置带有井底工具组合,所述井底工具组合至少由一个射孔装置和一个可重置的机械式密封装置构成,所述密封装置可以单独地由地面设备通过一个或多个信号装置(例如,通过电缆传输的电信号;通过油管、环形空间、控制管缆传输的液压信号;拉伸或压缩载荷;无线电传输;光纤传输等)而被操纵,并设计成预先考虑井筒环境和载荷条件。 The new arrangement means comprises means (e.g., a flexible tube, is connected to tubing, wires, cables, traction systems, etc.), which is arranged downhole tool apparatus having a combination, the combination of at least one downhole tool and a perforating means resettable mechanical seal device configuration, the sealing means may be individually ground by the apparatus by means of one or more signals (e.g., electrical signals transmitted by cable; through the tubing, the annular space, the hydraulic control signals transmitted umbilical ; tensile or compressive loads; radio transmission; optical fiber transmission, etc.) is manipulated, and is designed to anticipate the wellbore environment and loading conditions.

在最广的意义上,术语“井底工具组合”用于指示一串元件,它由至少一个射孔装置和一个可重置的密封装置构成。 In the broadest sense, the term "downhole tool combination" is used to indicate a series of elements, which consists of at least one perforating means and a sealing means may be reset. 附加的元件包括但不局限于下述元件:打捞颈、剪切接头、冲洗工具、循环口接头、流动口接头、压力均衡口接头、温度计、压力计、电缆连接接头、可重置的机械卡瓦、套管接箍定位器、扶正器接头和/或连接器接头,它们也可以设置在井底工具组合上以使其他所需的辅属或者辅助操作以及可能在增产处理过程中需要进行的测量操作更容易实施。 Additional elements include, but are not limited to, the following elements: a fishing neck, shear joint, flushing tools, circulation port connector, a flow inlet fitting, a pressure equalizing port adapter, a thermometer, a pressure gauge, cable connectors, resettable mechanical card tile, casing collar locator, centralizer linker and / or a connector coupling, they may also be provided in combination in a downhole tool so that the metal or other desired adjuvants and auxiliary operations may be required in the process of stimulation measurement operation is easier to implement.

在最广的意义上,可重置的机械密封装置具有提供“液体密封(hydraulic seal)”的功能,其中液体密封定义为形成足够的液流约束或者堵塞,使得流体被迫向着与不受液流约束时其要流向的位置所不同的位置流动。 In the broadest sense, the resettable mechanical seal device provided with a "liquid seal (hydraulic seal)" function, wherein the liquid seal is defined as a sufficient liquid flow or blockage constraints, such that the fluid is not forced toward the liquid the different flow position to its flow position bound flow. 特别地,这种广义的“液体密封”定义还意味着包括:“完美的液体密封(perfect hydraulic seal)”,即所有的液流都向着与不受液流约束时其要流向的位置所不同的位置流动;以及“不完美的液体密封(imperfect hydraulic seal)”,即一部分可估计的液流向着与不受液流约束时其要流向的位置所不同的位置流动。 In particular, this generalized "liquid-tight" is defined further meant to include: "perfect liquid sealing (perfect hydraulic seal)", that is, all the flow will flow toward the position when not bound by its flow to the different flow position; and "imperfect fluid seal (imperfect hydraulic seal)", i.e., a portion of the flow toward the estimated position when it is not constrained to flow to the flow of the different positions of the flow. 尽管通常最好采用能够形成完美液体密封以获得最优增产处理的可重置的机械密封装置;但也可采用仅提供不完美的液体密封的密封装置,从而获得更为经济的处理,即使可能不会获得完美的导流增产处理。 Although generally preferable to use a liquid capable of forming a seal in order to obtain a perfect mechanical seal device reset optimum stimulation; however it may also be only imperfect sealing means sealing the liquid, resulting in a more economical process, even though it may We will not get the perfect diversion stimulation.

在本发明的第一实施例中,将挠性管用作布置装置,并且新的方法包括从整个完井层段的底部到顶部顺序地射孔然后对各个区域进行增产处理,将增产液沿生产套管和挠性管之间的环形空间向下泵送。 In the first embodiment of the present invention, as the flexible tube means are arranged, and comprises a new method for each region and from the bottom of stimulation to the entire completion interval sequentially perforating the top of the stimulation fluid along the production the annular space between the casing and pumped down the flexible tube. 如下面将要讨论的那样,该新装置和新方法的实施例比已知的挠性管和连接油管增产技术有实质性的改进,并能广泛地应用于各种井筒结构和增产处理设计中。 As will be discussed below, embodiments of the new apparatus and a new method for a substantial improvement over the known flexible pipe and the connector tubing stimulation techniques, and can be widely applied to various structures and the wellbore stimulation treatment design.

特别地,新方法和新装置的第一优选实施例包括布置系统、信号装置、井底工具组合以及下面将要详细讨论的操作,其中,仅为了描述的目的,各种元件、它们的布置取向和操作步骤都被选择为那些用于适合多层段液压支撑剂压裂增产的元件和操作相应。 In particular, the new method and a first preferred embodiment of the device arrangement system comprising, signal means, and combinations downhole tool operation will be discussed in more detail, wherein the purpose of describing various elements, their arrangement and orientation Procedure are selected for those respective multi-layer section for the hydraulic proppant fracture stimulation operations and elements.

在用于液压支撑剂压裂增产处理的第一实施例中,该装置由通过挠性管而布置在井筒中的BHA构成。 In a first embodiment of a hydraulic fracture proppant stimulation treatment, the device is made through a flexible tube disposed in the wellbore BHA configuration. 该BHA可包括一个射孔装置;可重置的机械密封装置;套管接箍定位器;循环口;和其他附件(下面将详细描述)。 The BHA may include a perforating means; resettable mechanical seal device; casing collar locator; circulation port; and other accessories (which will be described in detail below).

另外,在该第一优选实施例中,射孔装置可由选择性发射的射孔枪系统(采用聚能型射孔弹)构成;可重置的机械密封装置可由可膨胀且可重置的封隔器构成;可重置的机械式卡瓦装置设置后能够防止井底工具组合的向下的轴向移动;压力均衡口位于可膨胀且可重置的封隔器的上方或下方。 Further, in this embodiment a first preferred embodiment, the perforating gun system by means of selective emitter (using SHAPED shaped charges) configuration; resettable mechanical seal device may be an inflatable seal and a resettable packer configuration; after the mechanical device is provided to reset the slip can be prevented from a downward axial movement of the downhole tool in combination; above or below the pressure equalization port is located can be expanded and a resettable packer.

另外,在该第一优选实施例中,电缆被设置在挠性管的内部,并用于提供一信号装置,所述信号装置是用于启动选择性发射的射孔弹,以及与用于测量BHA深度的套管接箍定位器相关的电信号的传输。 Further, in this first preferred embodiment, the cable is disposed inside the flexible tube, and means for providing a signal, said signal means is used to initiate the shaped charge selective emission, and for measuring the BHA the depth of the transmission casing collar locator associated electrical signal.

现在参见图1,可用于第一优选实施例中的地面设备类型的实例可以是一套专用设备,它采用了很长的防喷管2,且挠性管注入头4由安装在起重机基座8上的起重臂6高高地悬挂在空中。 Referring now to FIG. 1, example embodiments may be used to ground the first preferred embodiment of the device type may be a dedicated device, which uses a long lubricator 2, 4 and the injection head by a flexible tube mounted on the crane base the boom 86 is suspended high in the air. 井筒通常包括:一定长度的表层套管78,它的一部分或者全部都位于水泥环80内;和一个生产套管82,它的一部分或者全部都位于水泥环84内,其中井筒的内壁由生产套管82构成。 Typically wellbore comprising: a length of the surface casing 78, a part or all of which are located within the cement sheath 80; and a production casing 82, a part or all of which are located within the cement sheath 84, wherein the inner wall of the wellbore by the production casing tube 82 is configured. 井筒的深度最好延伸到要被增产处理的最低层段的下方一定距离,以容纳将安装在挠性管106末端的井底工具组合的长度。 Preferably extends the depth of the wellbore to be a certain distance below the lowest segment of stimulation to accommodate the length of the downhole tool mounted in combination the flexible tube end 106. 使用挠性管注入头4和防喷管2将挠性管106插入到井筒内。 A flexible tube into the lubricator head 4 and the flexible tube 2 is inserted into the wellbore 106. 在防喷管2上还安装有防喷器10,在操作失常的情况下,防喷器10可被遥控操纵。 On 2 further lubricator 10 is attached to the blowout preventer, in the case of abnormal operation, BOP 10 may be remotely controlled. 起重机基座8、起重臂6、挠性管注入头4、防喷管2、防喷器10(及其相关的附属控制和/或启动元件)都是本领域技术人员公知的标准设备元件,适用于为了在压力下在井中安全地安装挠性管井底工具组合,以及后续的在压力下从井中拆除挠性管井底工具组合的方法和步骤。 Crane base 8, crane arm 6, the flexible tube injector head 4, lubricator 2, 10 (and its associated satellite control and / or actuation elements) BOP are well known to the skilled person standard device elements , suitable for safely installed in the well at a pressure of the flexible tube downhole tool combination and the subsequent steps of the method and the removal of the flexible tube under pressure from the well downhole combination tool.

根据这种易于安装的已知设备,从地面到挠性管注入头4的顶部的高度可大约为90英尺,“鹅颈(goose neck)”12(其中挠性管弯曲以垂直向下延伸到油井)高出地面接近约105英尺。 According to this known apparatus is easy to install, is injected into the vertically extending downwardly from the ground to the top of the head height of the flexible tube 4 may be about 90 feet, "gooseneck (goose neck)" 12 (wherein the flexible tube is bent well) close to about 105 feet above the ground. 起重臂6和起重机基座8将支撑注入头4、挠性管106的载荷,以及任何欲用于可能的打捞操作(振动和拖拉)所需的载荷。 Boom 6 and crane base 8 would support the injection head 4, the load of the flexible tube 106, as well as any possible salvage operation load required (drag and vibration) to be used.

通常,防喷管2的长度必须大于井底工具组合的长度,以使井底工具组合能够在压力下安全地布置在井筒中。 Typically, the length of the lubricator downhole tool 2 must be greater than the combined length of the downhole tool so that the combination can be safely disposed in the wellbore under pressure. 根据总长度要求以及根据为具体应用而进行的工程设计计算所确定的精确数值,为了使挠性管注入头4和防喷管2稳定,可在挠性管注入头4和防喷管2的不同位置上安装拉索14。 And calculating the total length requirements determined in accordance with engineering design for a particular application and the exact values ​​for the flexible tubing injector head 4 and a second stabilizing lubricator, and a head 4 may be injected in the lubricator flexible tube 2 cable 14 is mounted on different positions. 拉索14可以牢固地锚定在地面上,以防止挠性管注入头4和防喷管2过度的移动,使得用于保持压力的那些地面元件的整体性不会受到损害。 Cable 14 can be firmly anchored in the ground to prevent excessive movement of the flexible tube into the head 4 and a lubricator 2, so that the integrity of the ground element for maintaining the pressure is not compromised. 根据总长度要求,也可以采用其他的注入头/防喷管系统悬挂系统(挠性管设备或与目的相适应的完井/修井设备)。 The overall length requirements, may be employed in other injection head / lubricator system suspension systems (or flexible tube device fit for purpose completion / workover equipment).

再次参见图1,可采用多个不同的井口短节来控制设备安装操作、增产处理操作和设备拆卸操作期间的液流和流体隔离状况。 Referring again to FIG. 1, may employ a plurality of different short wellhead installation section to the flow control apparatus and a fluid separator operation conditions during disassembly operations, stimulation operations and equipment. 顶部阀(crown valve)16形成了用于将高于顶部阀16的部分与低于顶部阀16的部分隔离的装置。 Top valve (crown valve) 16 forms part of the means for isolating the portion above the top of the valve 16 and the valve 16 is lower than the top. 上部的主压裂阀18和下部的主压裂阀20形成了用于将其各自位置的上方和下方的井筒压力隔离的阀系统。 An upper portion of the main valve 18 and the lower frac frac main valve bore 20 formed in the valve system pressure above and below their respective locations for the isolation. 根据实际的特定的场地做法以及增产作业的设计,实际上并不是所有这些隔离式阀都是被需要或者采用。 The actual site specific practices and stimulation job design, in fact, not all of these isolation-type valves are needed or used.

图1所示的侧出口注入阀22提供了将增产液注入井筒的位置。 Side outlet injection valve 1 shown in FIG. 22 provides the location of the stimulation fluid injection wellbore. 从用于注入增产处理液的地面泵和储罐伸出的管子可用适当的装配接头和/或连接件安装在侧出口注入阀22上。 Injection stimulation treatments from surface pumps and tanks used for extended linker tubes can be made suitable mounting and / or connecting member is mounted on the side outlet injection valves 22. 增产处理液可通过这一液流路径被泵送到井筒中。 Stimulation treatments by liquid flow path that is pumped into the wellbore. 通过安装其他适当的液流控制装置,也可以利用侧出口注入阀22从井筒产出流体。 By installing other suitable flow control means, may also be used-side outlet injection valves 22 produced fluids from the wellbore. 应该注意到挠性管106的内部也可以用作将流体注入井筒的液流管道。 It should be noted that the flexible tube 106 may also be used inside the wellbore fluid into the fluid flow conduit.

图1所示的井底工具组合储存井筒24提供了用于存放备用的或者应急的井底工具组合27或者用于存放在先前操作中已经使用的井底工具组合的位置。 Downhole wellbore tool storage combination shown in FIG. 124 provides a downhole tool or emergency backup for storing 27, or a combination of a position for storing the previous operation downhole tools have been used in combination. 井底工具组合储存井筒24可钻成较浅的深度,使得可能包含射孔弹的井底工具组合能够用地面卡瓦26被安全地保持定位,使射孔弹位于地下,直到准备将井底工具组合安装到挠性管106上时为止。 Combination downhole tool 24 may be drilled wellbore storage shallower depths, such that the downhole tool may comprise a combination of shaped charge can be ground with the slips 26 is securely held in position, so that the shaped charges located on the ground, until ready to bottom combination of tools mounted on the flexible tube 106 is up. 井底工具组合储存井筒24可以被钻成能够适于放置用水泥或者不用水泥封固的套管柱的形式,或者干脆制成无套管的形式。 Downhole tool 24 may be a combination of stored drilled borehole can be adapted to form a casing string cemented in place or without cementing, or simply made uncased form. 特定操作所需的井底工具组合储存井筒24的实际数量是根据整个作业需要确定的。 The actual number of operations required for a particular combination of stored downhole wellbore tool 24 is to be determined according to the entire job. 井底工具组合储存井筒24可位于起重臂6能够到达的范围内,以在增产操作期间适于快速地换出井底工具组合,而无需使起重机基座8本体重新定位到其他位置。 Downhole wellbore tool storage composition may be in the range of 24 6 of the boom can reach, during stimulation operations adapted to rapidly change the combination of downhole tools, without taking the crane base body 8 relocated to another position.

现在参见图2A,挠性管106配备有可与剪切-释放(shear-release)/打捞颈结合接头112相连的挠性管连接件110,所述接头112包含剪切-释放机构和打捞颈,并允许压力流体和电缆102穿过。 Referring now to Figure 2A, the flexible tube 106 may be provided with a cut - release (shear-release) / fishing neck binding flexible pipe joint 112 connected to the connector 10, the connector 112 comprises a shear - and release mechanism fishing neck and allows the pressure fluid and the cable 102 therethrough. 剪切-释放/打捞颈结合接头112可与包含循环口接头114的接头连接,所述循环口接头114可提供从可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120的上方冲洗岩屑的流通路径,或者提供采用挠性管106向井下注入流体的流通路径。 Shear - release / fishing neck 112 may comprise binding linker linker linker circulation port 114, the joint 114 may provide a circulation port and a resettable packer 120 above the flow path of the flush cuttings from the inflatable, or to provide a flow path using a flexible tube 106 of the injection fluid downhole. 循环口接头114包含一个阀装置,该阀装置能够操纵循环口114和上部均衡口116。 A circulation port connector 114 comprises a valve means, the valve means can be manipulated circulation port 114 and the upper equalizing port 116. 上部均衡口116可借助油管通过可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120而连接到下部均衡口122。 An upper equalization port 116 can be connected to the lower pipe 120 through equalization port 122 can be expanded and a resettable packer means. 循环口114和上部均衡口116在“移动状态(runningposition)”上最好打开,从而使内部挠性管压力和套管环形空间侧的挠性管压力之间连通。 Circulation port 114 and an upper equalizing port 116 in the "movement state (runningposition)" best opened so that the internal pressure of the flexible tube and the sleeve communication between the pressure in the annular space of the flexible tube side. 在本文中,“移动状态”指的是下述状态,即井底工具组合的所有元件都具有一种结构构造形式,这种结构构造形式使其能够在井筒中进行不受阻碍地上下轴向移动。 As used herein, "movement state" means a state, i.e. all elements are combined downhole tool having a configuration in the form of structure, this structure makes it possible to form structure unhindered axially up and down in the wellbore mobile. 位于可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120下方的下部均衡口122总是打开的,并且通过均衡口的液流受到上部均衡口116的控制。 Resettable and is located in the inflatable packer 120 below a lower equalizing port 122 is always open, and an upper equalizer port 116 is controlled by the flow equalization opening. 通过在BHA上施加轻微的按压载荷,循环口和均衡口可同时关闭。 By applying a slight pressing load on the BHA, circulation port may be closed and balanced port simultaneously. 为了防止在移动状态上,当循环口114打开时可能发生的流体向挠性管的回流,可将地面压力施加在挠性管106上,使得循环口114中的压力超过正好在循环口114外侧的井筒压力。 In order to prevent the moving state, when the fluid cycle may occur when the opening of the return port 114 to the flexible tube, the ground pressure can be exerted on the flexible tube 106 so that the pressure circulation port 114 exceeds the outer circulation port 114 in exactly the wellbore pressure. 在移动状态上,可重置且可膨胀的封隔器120与内部挠性管压力液力隔离。 On the movement state may be reset and the swellable packer 120 isolate the hydrodynamic pressure of the flexible tube. 通过在BHA上施加轻微的按压载荷,可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120能够通过内部阀与内部挠性管压力相通。 By applying a slight pressing load on the BHA, and may reset the expandable packer 120 can be in communication with the interior of the valve via the flexible tube pressure. 机械启动的、可重置的轴向位置锁定装置,或者“卡瓦”124可设置在可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120的下方,以防止向井下移动。 Mechanically actuated, to reset the locking means the axial position, or "slip" 124 may be disposed below the expandable and resettable packer 120 to prevent movement downhole. 通过使轴向载荷在挤压和拉伸之间循环,机械卡瓦124可通过“连续的J(continuous J)″机构操纵。 By circulating between the axial load and extrusion stretch, mechanical slips 124 via a "continuous J (continuous J)" actuating mechanism. 电缆连接接头126位于套管接箍定位器128和选择性发射的射孔枪系统的上方。 Cable connector 126 is located above the casing collar locator perforating gun system 128 and the selective emitter. 枪连接接头130将套管接箍定位器128连接到选择性发射头152上。 The connection joint 130 gun casing collar locator 128 is connected to the selective emitter tips 152. 射孔枪系统可以根据目标区域中的含烃砂岩地层的已知数量、位置和厚度来设计。 Perforating gun system may be designed according to a known quantity, the position and thickness of hydrocarbon containing sandstone formations target region. 枪系统可为每一要处理区域包括一个枪装置(例如134)。 Gun system can be processed for each zone comprises a gun means (e.g. 134). 第一(最低)枪装置可由一个选择性发射头132和一个枪外壳134构成,所述枪外壳134将装载有射孔弹136以及选择性发射引爆系统。 The first (lowest) gun by means of a selective emitter tips 132 and the housing 134 constituting a gun, said gun housing 134 loaded with shaped charges 136 and selectively transmit firing system.

特具体地,新方法的实施例包括下述步骤,其中为了描述的目的,将增产作业选择成一种多级、液压、支撑剂压裂增产工艺。 Patent particular, embodiments of the novel method comprises the steps, wherein for the purpose of description, the stimulation job to select a multi-stage hydraulic proppant fracture stimulation process.

1.钻井并用水泥固定穿过要完井的层段的套管,如果需要,还可钻出一个或多个井底工具组合储存井筒并对其完井。 1. drilling through the casing and cemented to the completion of the interval, if desired, one or more downhole drilling tools and combinations thereof wellbore storage completion.

2.识别出(通常通过对裸井和已下套管的井的测井记录的组合)完井层段内的目标区域。 2. identified (usually by a combination of open-hole logs and have been cased well) of the target region within the completion interval.

3.根据目标区域中的含烃砂岩地层的已知数量、位置和厚度来设计井底工具组合(BHA)和将要布置在每一个在增产操作期间使用的BHA上的射孔枪装置。 The known quantity, the position and thickness of hydrocarbon containing sandstone formations target region to design a combination of downhole tool (BHA) and the perforating gun assembly to be arranged on each of the BHA during stimulation operations used.

4.制成一卷绕在卷轴上的挠性管使其具有上述优选实施例的BHA。 4. wound on the reel is made of a flexible tube so as to have the above-described preferred embodiment of the BHA. 该卷挠性管还制成包含电缆的形式,所述电缆用于提供启动射孔枪的信号装置。 The volume is made in the form of flexible pipe further comprises a cable, said cable means for providing a perforating gun actuation signal. 最好还制成有需要数量的适当结构的备用或应急BHA,并将其储存在井底工具组合储存井筒中。 Also preferably made of an appropriate amount of structure requires a standby or emergency BHA, downhole tools and stored in the combination storing wellbore. 可在将BHA安装到挠性管上之前或者之后,对挠性管预先加载流体。 After the BHA may be attached to the flexible tube before or fluid preloaded on the flexible tube.

5.如图1所示,通过一个防喷管2将带有BHA的挠性管106下到井中并且用起重臂6悬挂挠性管注入头4。 5. As shown in FIG. 1, the flexible tube 2 by a blowout preventer with the lower BHA in the well pipe 106 and the flexible tubing injector head 4 is suspended by the boom 6.

6.将挠性管/BHA下到井中,同时相对于与套管接箍定位器128的关系确定BHA的深度(图2A)。 6. The flexible pipe / BHA into the well at the same time to determine the depth of the BHA (FIG. 2A) with respect to the relationship with the casing collar locator 128.

7.将挠性管/BHA下到最低目标区域的下方,以保证在最低射孔下方有足够的井筒深度,以在压裂操作期间将BHA定位在第一组射孔下方。 7. Under the flexible tube / BHA below the minimum target region, to ensure sufficient depth in the wellbore below the lowest perforation, during the fracturing operation to be positioned below the first set of BHA perforations. 如图2A所示,可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120和可重置的机械操纵卡瓦124处于移动状态。 As shown in Figure 2A, and may be expandable packer 120 resets resettable and mechanical manipulation of the slips 124 in a moving state.

8.如图2B所示,挠性管/BHA上升到井筒中的一个位置,使得包含在选择性发射射孔枪系统的第一枪装置134中的第一组(最低)射孔弹136正好位于横跨最低目标区域的位置,其中可根据套管接箍定位器128和挠性管里程计系统(未表示)的读数来进行精确的深度控制。 8. As shown in FIG. 2B, the flexible pipe / BHA raised to a position in the wellbore, such that the first (lowest) in the first shot perforating charge 136 comprises means 134 selectively transmitting perforating gun system just located across a minimum target region, wherein the depth can be accurately controlled according to the reading casing collar locator odometer 128 and a flexible tube system (not shown). 将BHA向上移动到第一射孔层段的位置的动作将使机械卡瓦“连续的J形”机构(未表示)循环进入预锁状态,其中后续的下降运动将迫使可重置的机械卡瓦124进入锁定状态,从而防止继续向下运动。 The BHA moved up to the position of the first perforation intervals mechanical operation will slip "continuous J" mechanism (not shown) is recycled into a pre-locking state, wherein the subsequent lowering movement will force the resettable mechanical card W 124 enters the locked state, thereby preventing further movement downward. 应该注意到挠性管轴向载荷从挤压到拉伸以及返回的附加循环将使可重置的机械卡瓦返回到移动状态。 It should be noted that the flexible tube will cause axial load resettable mechanical slips to return from the stretching and squeezing of the additional loops back to the moving state. 通过这种方式,机械卡瓦的连续J形机构与通过悬挂装置(挠性管)而传递的挤压和拉伸载荷结合一起用于提供机械卡瓦的井底启动和停止作用的操作。 In this manner, the mechanical slips continuous J-shaped means by a suspension mechanism in combination with (flexible tube) is transmitted together with the tensile load and the pressing operation of the mechanical slips for providing start and stop action of the bottom.

9.第一组射孔弹136靠通过与第一选择发射头132连通的电缆102的遥控启动的作用而被选择性发射,以穿过套管82和水泥环84并通过产生的射孔230-231建立与地层86的液体连通。 9. The first set of shaped charges 136 are selectively emitted by action initiated by the remote control to select a first communication cable emitter tips 132 102 to 82 through the casing and cement sheath 84 and through the perforations 230 generated -231 to establish fluid communication with the formation 86. 应该理解到,如果需要,任何给定的射孔组可以仅是一个孔的组,尽管通常多个射孔可提供改进的处理效果。 It should be understood that, if desired, any given set of perforation holes may be only a group, although generally a plurality of perforations may provide improved treatment effect. 还应该理解到,如果需要,枪装置的一个以上的部分都可以发射,以获得目标数量的射孔,不管是补偿实际的或者可察觉的空射情况,还是仅为了增加射孔的数量。 It should also be understood that, if desired, at least a portion of the gun assembly may be emitted, to obtain a target number of perforations, either to compensate the actual air-launched or perceived situation, perforations or merely increase the number of. 还应该理解到,层段不必局限于单一的储油砂岩地层。 It should also be understood that not necessarily limited to a single layer segment sandstone reservoir. 采用适于与本发明方法同时布置在给定的处理级中其的他导流介质可以对多个砂岩地层作为单独级而进行射孔和处理。 Using the method of the present invention is arranged and adapted to simultaneously process at a given stage of his medium can flow therethrough a plurality of individual stages and as a sandstone formation and perforating process.

10.如图2C所示,挠性管可以被移动而使循环口114正好定位于该第一区域的最深射孔231下方的位置,以使支撑剂充满可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120上方的可能性减到最小,并使高速流动经过BHA的支撑剂液流减到最小。 10. 2C, the flexible tube can be moved so that circulation port 114 is just positioned in the deepest area of ​​the first position below the perforations 231, so that the support filled with an expandable agent and a resettable packer minimize the possibility of the top 120, and the high-speed flow flows through the proppant BHA minimized.

11.靠使少量的流体沿着挠性管106向下环流经过循环口114(通过正排量泵),压裂增产处理的第一级开始进行。 11 by a small amount of fluid through the circulation port 114, a first stage of the fracture stimulation process is started (by a positive displacement pump) circulating along the flexible tube 106 downwardly. 然后开始进行对增产液(stimulation fluid)的泵送操作,使增产液以压裂增产速率沿挠性管106和生产套管82之间的环形空间向下流。 Then start the pumping operation of the stimulation fluids (stimulation fluid), so that a rate of increase in the fracture stimulation fluid in the annular space 82 between the downstream flexible tube 106 and production casing. 沿挠性管106向下流的少量流体是用于使挠性管106内保持正压力,以阻止含有支撑剂的流体回流到挠性管106中,并防止压裂操作期间挠性管在受载荷下塌陷崩溃。 The flexible tube 106 downwardly along the small amount of fluid for holding the flexible tube 106 within the positive pressure to prevent fluid containing proppant flow back into the flexible tube 106, and to prevent fracturing during operation under load in the flexible tube under collapse collapse. 应该注意到,作为防止挠性管塌陷崩溃的替换方案,也可以采用一个内部阀结构来使循环口114保持在关闭位置,并采用地面泵将正压施加到挠性管106中。 It should be noted that, as an alternative, the flexible tube to prevent the collapse of the collapse, the inner valve may be employed a structure that the circulation port 114 in the closed position, and ground using a flexible tube pump 106 is applied to the positive pressure. 作为用于对含有烃气体的15-英亩大小的透镜状砂层增产的压裂处理设计的示意性实例,第一压裂级可由下述的“子级”构成:(a)5,000加仑(gallon)的2%KCl水;(b)2,000加仑的包含1磅/加仑的支撑剂的交联凝胶;(c)3,000加仑的包含2磅/加仑的支撑剂的交联凝胶;(d)5,000加仑的包含3磅/加仑的支撑剂的交联凝胶;(e)3,000加仑的包含4磅/加仑的支撑剂的交联凝胶,这样就使35,000磅的支撑剂置于第一区域中。 As illustrative examples of fracturing treatment design of the lenticular sands 15 contained acre yield of the hydrocarbon gas, the first stage may be below the fracturing "child" constitutes: (a) 5,000 gallons (Gallon ) of 2% KCl water; (b) 2,000 gallons of crosslinked gel comprising 1 lbs proppant / gallon; (c) 3,000 gallons of crosslinked gel comprising proppant 2 lb / gal; (d) 5,000 gallon crosslinked gel with 3 pounds of proppant / gallon; (e) 3,000 gallons of crosslinked gel containing four pounds of proppant / gallon, thus making 35,000 pounds of proppant placed in the first region in.

12.如图2C所示,第一压裂操作的所有子级都已经进行完毕,建立了第一支撑剂压裂裂缝232。 12. 2C, the first fracturing operation of all children have already been completed, to establish a first proppant fractures 232.

13.在增产处理的第一级末尾,如果井筒中的支撑剂阻止了挠性管/BHA立即移动;流体可被环流通过循环口11环冲洗和清除支撑剂,以清洁挠性管/BHA并使之能移动。 13. At the end of the first stage of stimulation, if wellbore proppant prevents the flexible pipe / BHA immediately moved; circulation fluid may be flushed and the ring 11 by clearing proppant circulation port, in order to clean the flexible tube / BHA and so that it can move.

14.如图3A所示,接着将挠性管/BHA沿井身向上提拉以稍高于第二最深目标区域,使包含于选择性发射射孔枪系统144中的第二组射孔弹146位于稍高于第二最深目标区域的位置,其中可根据套管接箍定位器128和挠性管里程计系统的读数来再次进行精确的深度控制。 14. As shown in FIG. 3A, then the flexible tube / BHA in the wellbore pulling up slightly higher than the second deepest in the target area, the second group 144 comprises a shaped charge perforating gun in a selective emitter system 146 is located slightly above the deepest position of the second target region, wherein the depth control for accurate readings again as a casing collar locator 128 and a flexible tube odometer system. BHA向上移动(直至稍高于要射孔的第二层段)的动作将使可重置的机械卡瓦“连续的J形”机构循环进入预锁状态。 BHA moved upwardly (up to slightly above the second perforation interval) to reset the operation of mechanical slips will be "continuous J" mechanism is recycled into a pre-lock state. 实施进一步的挤压/拉伸载荷的循环将使机械卡瓦的连续J形机构返回到移动状态。 A further embodiment of pressing / mechanical tensile load cycle slips will continuously return to the J-shaped mechanism movement state. 接着,挠性管/BHA向下运动,将包含于选择性发射射孔枪系统144中的第二组射孔弹146定位于正好横跨第二最深目标区域的位置,在所述区域中,可根据套管接箍定位器128和挠性管里程计系统的读数来再次进行精确的深度控制。 Next, the flexible pipe / BHA downward movement, contained in the perforating gun system 144 to selectively transmit the second set of shaped charge 146 is positioned at the deepest position of the second right across the target area, in the region, It can be performed according to precise depth control again reading casing collar locator 128 and a flexible tube odometer system.

15.第二组射孔弹136在经过第二选择性发射头142的遥控启动作用下被选择性发射,以穿过套管82和水泥环84并通过产生的射孔240-241建立与地层86的液体连通。 15. The second set of shaped charge 136 is selectively transmitted through the second selective actuation of the remote transmitter under the head 142 to pass through the casing 82 and cement annulus 84 and establishes the formation through perforations generated 240-241 86 fluid communication.

16.如图3B所示,可将挠性管沿井筒向下方移动,以使BHA定位于第二目标区域的最深射孔241下方的几英尺处。 16. As shown in FIG. 3B, the flexible tube along the wellbore can be moved downward, so that the second perforation BHA positioned deepest target area a few feet below 241. 后续的BHA沿井筒向上方的移动将使循环口114正好定位于该第二区域的最深射孔241下方,这将使可重置的机械卡瓦124循环进入预锁状态,其中后续的下降运动将迫使可重置的机械卡瓦124进入锁定状态,从而防止继续向下运动。 BHA will follow along the wellbore circulation port 114 located just upward movement in the deepest region of the second perforation 241 downward, which will reset the machine cycle slips 124 into a pre-locking state, wherein the subsequent lowering movement the mechanical force to reset the slips 124 into the locked state, thereby preventing further movement downward.

17.如图3C所示,向下的运动使得可重置的机械卡瓦124与套管壁82啮合,从而防止BHA的继续下移。 17. As shown in FIG. 3C, the downward movement causes the slips 124 resettable mechanical engagement with the casing wall 82, thereby preventing continued down the BHA. 接着,向挠性管施加压缩载荷,这一载荷将使循环口114和上部均衡口116关闭,并在可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120和内部挠性管压力之间建立压力连通。 Next, a compressive load is applied to the flexible tube, the load will circulation port 114 and the upper equalizing port 116 is closed, and to establish communication between the pressure and resettable inflatable packer 120 and the internal pressure of the flexible tube. 压缩载荷还将循环口114锁定到第二目标区域的最深射孔241的正好下方的位置(以使支撑剂充满可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120上方的可能性减到最小,并使流经BHA的高速度支撑剂液流最少),并且使可重置且可膨胀的封隔器120定位于第一和第二射孔层段之间。 Will cycle compression load lock port 114 to the deepest area of ​​the perforations 241 of the second target position below the right (so that the support and the possibility of agent 120 filled with an expandable upper resettable packer minimized, and speed proppant stream flowing through the minimum of the BHA), and the reset and swellable packer 120 is positioned between the first and second perforated intervals.

18.再向下对挠性管/BHA施加压缩载荷以检测可重置的机械卡瓦124,并保证附加的向下的力不会造成BHA沿井筒向下的继续移动。 18. A compressive load is applied to and then down the flexible tube / BHA to detect resettable mechanical slips 124, and to ensure that the additional downward force along the wellbore without causing BHA continues to move downward.

19.如图3D所示,通过对挠性管106施压而启动可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120,以在可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120的上方和下方形成液体密封。 19. As shown in FIG. 3D, is activated by an expandable flexible tube 106 and may be pressed to reset packer 120, to form a liquid seal above and below the inflatable packer and a resettable 120 . 在BHA上保持压缩载荷,以保持内部挠性管压力和可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120之间的压力连通,并且保持循环口114和上部均衡口116关闭,并保持可重置的机械卡瓦124处于锁定和工作状态。 BHA compressive load on the holding, to maintain the internal pressure of the flexible tube and the pressure between the inflatable packers 120 and may reset the communication and circulation port 114 and an upper holding equalization port 116 is closed, and holding resettable and mechanical slips 124 in the locked operating state. 通过借助地面泵系统来保持挠性管106中的压力,可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120保持在启动状态(应该注意到,作为替换形式,也可以通过采用内部阀锁住元件内的压力而使可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120保持在启动状态,所述内部阀由与其他BHA元件和其他现有的信号装置相容的信号装置从地面进行遥控)。 To maintain the pressure in the flexible tube 106 is ground by means of a pump system, and may be expandable to reset packer 120 remains in the activated state (It should be noted that, as an alternative form, the inner member may be locked by using the internal valves the pressure and resettable inflatable packer 120 remains in the activated state, said internal valve means remote from the ground by a signal compatible with the other BHA components and other conventional signaling means).

20.随着以压裂增产速率将流体沿挠性管106和生产套管82之间的环形空间向下泵送,对压裂增产处理的第二级开始进行,同时保持BHA上的压缩载荷以使循环口114和上部均衡口116保持关闭,并保持挠性管压力处于足够的水平以防止挠性管管柱塌陷崩溃,并保持可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120膨胀以及在压裂操作之前、之中和之后,封隔器上方的环形空间的压力和可膨胀且可重置的封隔器下方的密封井筒压力之间的液体密封。 20. As the rate at fracture stimulation fluid along the flexible tube 106 and the annular space between the production string 82 pumped down, the second stage of the fracture stimulation treatment starts, while maintaining the compressive load on the BHA so that the circulation port 114 and the upper equalizing port 116 remains closed, the flexible tube and the pressure maintained at a sufficient level to prevent collapse of the flexible tube collapse string, and holding the expandable and inflatable packer 120 may be reset and the press after cracking operations before, during and liquid-tight seal between the wellbore pressure below the pressure in the annulus above the packer and an expandable and resettable packer.

21.所有的压裂操作子级都被泵送后,在井筒中留下了最少量的欠冲洗的最后子级的含支撑剂的流体,以不对压裂增产处理裂缝过分顶替。 21. After all fracturing operations are pumping sub-stage, leaving the last sub-stage of proppant-containing fluid under a minimum amount of flushing in the wellbore to fracture stimulate the fracture does not excessively replacement. 如果在这一处理级阶段,认为可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120的密封整体性受到破坏,可在将可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120设置在无孔的空管内之后,暂时地停止进行处理级操作,以在最高(最浅)的已经存在的射孔(例如图3D中的射孔240)的上方检测封隔器的密封整体性。 If at this stage of processing stages, and that the inflatable seal integrity resettable packer 120 is destroyed, it can be reset, and after the expandable packer 120 disposed in the non-porous tube empty, temporarily stopping processing stages for performing operations to the highest (most shallow) perforation (e.g., perforations 240 in FIG. 3D) above the already existing detector packer seal integrity. 如果要进行密封整体性检测,最好进行环流/清洗操作,以保证在进行检测前,将可能存在于井筒中的任何支撑剂都循环排出井筒。 If the integrity of the seal to be detected, preferably circulation / purging operation, to ensure that any proppant before performing detection, may be present in the wellbore are discharged circulating the wellbore. 环流/清洗操作可以通过打开循环口114、然后沿挠性管106向下泵送循环液而将支撑剂循环排出井筒来实施。 Circulation / purging operation by opening circulation port 114, and the flexible tube 106 and along the circulating fluid is pumped down the wellbore proppant discharge cycle is implemented.

22.如图3E所示,第二压裂操作的所有子级都已经进行完毕,建立了第二支撑剂压裂裂缝242。 22. As shown, the second fracturing operation of all children have been completed for 3E, the establishment of the second proppant fractures 242.

23.当进行完第二级压裂操作并停止沿挠性管106和生产套管82之间的环形空间向下注入增产液后,向挠性管106施加小的拉伸载荷,同时保持内部挠性管压力。 After completion of the second stage 23. When the fracturing operation is stopped and the flexible tube 106 and along the annular space between the production casing 82 downwardly stimulation fluid is injected, a small tensile load applied to the flexible tube 106, while maintaining the internal The flexible pipe pressure. 施加的小拉伸载荷首先将可膨胀且可重置的封隔器压力与挠性管压力分隔,从而锁定可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120中的压力,从而保持正压密封并给予显著的阻力阻止可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120的轴向移动。 Small first tensile load applied to the expandable and resettable packer pressure separator pressure and the flexible tube, so that the pressure in the expandable locking and resettable packer 120, thereby maintaining a positive seal and give significant resistance and preventing inflatable packer resettable 120 of axial movement. 在同样的运动下,施加的拉伸载荷可使循环口114和均衡口116打开,从而使挠性管压力泄入挠性管106和生产套管82之间的环形空间,同时使可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120上方和下方的压力相等。 In the same motion, the applied tensile load can circulation port 114 and balanced port 116 opened to vent pressure in the flexible tube into the annular space 82 between the production casing and the flexible tube 106, while the expandable and 120 is equal to the pressure above and below the packer may be reset. 在井下压力均衡后,提供内部挠性管压力的地面泵系统可停止运转。 After the downhole pressure equalization, providing flexible tube pressure pump system ground to stop operating.

24.当挠性管中的压力、位于可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120上方由挠性管106和生产套管82形成的环形空间中的压力、位于可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120下方由BHA和生产套管82形成的环形空间中的压力都相等后,在把封在可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120中的压力释放泄入挠性管106之前,施加在挠性管上的压缩载荷将关闭循环口114和上部均衡口116。 When the pressure in the annulus 24. The pressure in the flexible tube, and may be located in an inflatable packer above the reset 120 by the flexible tube 106 and production casing 82 is formed, and located in an inflatable seal resettable after the spacer 120 are equal downward pressure by the BHA and the production casing annulus 82 formed in the seal pressure expandable and resettable packer 120 prior to the release of the flexible tube 106 into the drain, is applied compressive load on the flexible tube will be closed circulation port 114 and the upper equalizing port 116. 在没有跨过可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120的外部压差的情况下,如图3F所示,可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120的这种内部压力释放将使得可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120从生产套管壁上缩回,否则会产生可能损坏挠性管106或BHA的力以及移动。 In the absence of expandable and cross resettable packer external pressure 120, shown in Figure 3F, and may reset the expandable packer 120 such internal pressure release such that the expandable and resettable packer 120 is retracted from the production casing wall, and a moving force or will cause the flexible tube 106 may be damaged or the BHA.

25.一旦可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120复位,如图3F所示,则拖拉挠性管/BHA的拉力将使可重置的机械卡瓦124停止工作,从而使BHA能够自由移动并再次定位到井筒上部。 25. Once reset and may be expandable packer 120 is reset, as shown in FIG. 3F, the drag force of the flexible pipe / BHA will cause the resettable mechanical slips 124 is stopped, so that the BHA to move freely an upper portion of the wellbore and positioned again.

26.如果在增产处理的第二级末尾,井筒中的支撑剂阻止了挠性管/BHA立即移动,则流体可通过循环口114来循环冲洗和清除支撑剂,以使挠性管/BHA自由并允许BHA在释放可膨胀且可重置的封隔器之后向上移动。 26. If the end of the second stage of stimulation, wellbore proppant prevents the flexible pipe / BHA move immediately, and the fluid may be circulated throughout the proppant cleared by circulation port 114, so that the flexible pipe / BHA free BHA and allow upward movement after releasing the expandable and resettable packer.

27.重复上述步骤直到所有的计划区域都逐个地受到增产处理(图3A至3F表示了为三个区域增产操作而设计的BHA)。 27. Repeat the above steps are individually subjected to stimulation until all program areas (3A to 3F shows three regions stimulation operations designed BHA).

28.当完成这一增产处理过程后,BHA的元件返回到移动状态并且从井筒中将挠性管/BHA装置取出。 28. Upon completion of the process of this stimulation, BHA element returns to the moving state and remove it from the bore of the flexible tube / BHA apparatus.

29.如果所有期望的区域都被增产处理了,则油井可立即投入生产。 29. If all the desired areas have been stimulated, and the well can be put into production immediately.

30.如果希望增产处理其他的区域,则可制造带有如图4A所示的稍有改进的BHA的一卷挠性管。 30. If desired stimulation of other regions, a roll of the flexible tube can be manufactured with a slightly modified BHA shown in FIG. 4A. 在该井底工具组合中,与上述优选实施例中的BHA的唯一不同是增加了选择性发射设置的机械塞164或选择性发射设置的桥塞164,它位于图4A所示的最低选择性发射的枪装置的下方。 The downhole tool in combination with the above-described preferred embodiment the only difference in the BHA is provided a selective emitter increases the mechanical bridge plug 164 or plug 164 is provided a selective emitter, which is located in the lowest selectivity shown in Figure 4A below the gun emitting device. 通常,选择性发射设置的机械塞164既可以是桥塞,也可以是压裂挡板(fracture baffle)。 Typically, the mechanical stopper 164 provided selective emitter may be a bridge plug, the shutter may be fracturing (fracture baffle). 如果希望在增产作业之后立即同时产生由塞子分隔的区域,则通常最好采用压裂挡板。 If desired generation region separated by a plug simultaneously immediately after the stimulation operations, it is generally preferable to use fracturing baffle.

31.如图4A所示,改进的BHA由选择性发射的射孔枪系统(图4A表示了一种枪系统,它包括射孔枪174、184和194以及相应的射孔弹176、186和196,和选择性发射头172、182和192)、一个套管接箍定位器128、液流口114、116和122、一个可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120、一个可重置的机械式轴向卡瓦装置124和用选择性发射头162设置的选择性发射的桥塞164。 31. As shown in FIG. 4A, perforating gun system improved selectivity emitted by BHA (FIG. 4A showing a gun system comprising a perforating gun 174, 184 and 194 and the corresponding shaped charges 176, 186 and 196, and 172, 182 and the selective emitter tips 192), a casing collar locator 128, the flow ports 114, 116 and 122, and a resettable inflatable packer 120, a resettable mechanical axial slip means 124 and the selective emitter of the bridge head 162 is provided with a selective emitter plug 164. 改进的BHA通过由井口上方的起重机或钻架悬挂的防喷管和挠性管注入头而下到井中。 Improved BHA suspended from above by a crane or wellhead drilling rig lubricator injector head and a flexible tube down into the well.

32.挠性管/BHA被下入井中,同时用套管接箍定位器与深度的关系来确定深度。 32. A flexible pipe / BHA is run into the well, while the relationship with the depth collar locator to determine the depth of the sleeve.

33.如图4A所示,挠性管/改进的BHA被下入井中并使选择性发射的机械塞164定位于最后一个在先增产处理的区域252的上方的位置。 33. As shown in FIG. 4A, the flexible pipe / BHA improved selectivity and are emitted into the well of cams 164 positioned in a region over the previous last stimulation 252 position.

34.如图4B所示,选择性发射头162发射,以使选择性发射的机械塞164设置在最后一个先前增产处理的区域252的上方的位置。 34. As shown in FIG. 4B, the selective emitter tips 162 emission, so that the mechanical plug selective emitter 164 is disposed above the last position of a region 252 prior to stimulation.

35.当桥塞的选择性发射头162被触发以设置选择性发射桥塞164之后,挠性管/改进的BHA上升到井筒中下述位置,即,使得包含在选择性发射射孔枪系统中的第一(最低)组射孔弹176位于正好跨过要被射孔的下一最低目标区域,其中可根据套管接箍定位器128和位于地面设备上的挠性管里程计系统的读数来进行精确的深度控制。 35. When the bridge plug head selective emitter 162 is triggered to set after 164, the flexible pipe / BHA improved selective emitter rises into the wellbore below the bridge plug position, i.e., such that the selective emission gun system comprising the first (lowest) set of shaped charge 176 is located just across the target area to be next lowest perforation, wherein the collar locator 128 may be located on the flexible tube device odometer system according to the ground sleeve readings for accurate depth control. BHA向上移动到第一射孔层段的位置的动作将使可重置的机械卡瓦124循环进入锁定状态,并将要求挠性管轴向载荷从挤压到拉伸并且返回的循环操作才可使可重置的机械卡瓦回复到移动状态。 BHA moved upward to a position of the first perforation intervals will be reset operation of the machine cycle slips 124 enters the locked state, the flexible tube and the axial load required from the extrusion cycle of operation to stretch and return it mechanical slips can be returned to the reset moving state.

36.如图4B所示,改进的BHA上的第一组射孔弹176靠遥控启动作用通过第二选择性发射头172被选择性发射,并以射孔270和271穿透套管82和水泥环84,并通过产生的射孔270-271建立与地层86的液体连通。 36. As shown, a first set of shaped charge 176 by the remote start BHA improved by the action of a second selective 4B emitter tips 172 are selectively emitted, and is penetrating through the casing perforations 270 and 271 and 82 cement sheath 84, and through perforations generated 270-271 establish communication with the formation fluid 86.

37.如果在最后的先前设置的射孔250、251和下一组要被增产处理的射孔270、271的位置之间没有足够的空间以恰当地放置用于对下一组射孔270进行射孔、分隔、增产处理的BHA,则可将选择性发射的桥塞164设置在最后一个先前增产处理的射孔250、251的下方,并在第一增产处理操作期间采用可膨胀且可重置的封隔器,以将最上部的射孔270、271与先前增产处理的射孔250、251分隔。 37. If there is not enough space between the position of perforation 270, 271 250, 251 perforating the stimulation of the next group and to the last previously set properly positioned for the next set of perforations 270 perforating the partition, BHA stimulation process, it can selectively transmit the bridge plug 164 is disposed below the last one previous stimulation perforation 250 and 251, and can expand during the first use of the processing operations and may be re-stimulation packer opposite to the uppermost perforations 270, 271 and 250, 251 perforating the partition of the previous stimulation.

38.适当重复上述整个工艺直到所有的计划区域都逐个地被增产处理(图4A至4B表示了为另外三个区域增产处理操作而设计的BHA)。 38. Repeat the entire process suitable program until all regions are individually stimulation (FIGS. 4A-4B shows the process for another three stimulation areas designed to operate BHA).

本领域的技术人员应该认识到,在采用包含支撑剂的流体情况下,优选的悬挂方法是采用传统的接头连接油管或者挠性管,最好还带有一个或多个循环口,使得沉降在井筒中的支撑剂能够被很容易地循环排出井筒。 Those skilled in the art will recognize that, in the case of a fluid containing a proppant, a preferred method of suspension is to use a conventional header pipe or flexible tube, preferably including a cyclic one or more ports, so that the sedimentation wellbore proppant can be easily discharged circulation wellbore. 诸如酸性压裂或岩体酸化等处理操作也可以不需要这种功能,并且借助以诸如钢丝或电缆等线缆、或者以井底牵引系统为基础的布置系统很容易实施上述操作。 Such as acid rock fracturing or acidizing operations may not require such processing function, and is arranged by means of a cable system such as a wire or cable, or in a downhole traction system based on the above-described operation of the embodiment easily.

根据特定作业任务的目的,本领域的技术人员应该理解到,可采用不同的泵送系统,并且泵送系统可能包括以下操作:(a)沿线缆或油管(如果上述布置方法采用了线缆或油管)和套管壁之间形成的环形空间向下泵送流体;(b)如果悬挂方法包括采用挠性管或接头连接的油管,并且对于所考虑的井深来说,过度的摩擦和支撑剂腐蚀无太大的影响,则沿挠性管或接头连接的油管的内部向下泵送流体;(c)如果对于所考虑的井深来说,过度的摩擦和支撑剂腐蚀无太大的影响,则同时沿油管(如果上述布置方法采用了油管)和套管壁之间形成的环形空间以及油管的内部向下泵送流体。 The purpose of the particular job tasks, those skilled in the art will appreciate that different pumping systems may be employed, and the pumping system may include the following operations: (a) along the cable or tube (the above-described arrangement, if a cable Methods or the annular space formed between tubing) and pumping fluid down the casing wall; (b) if suspension methods include the use of flexible tubing or pipe joint connection and for the considered depth, the excessive friction and support corrosion agent without much impact, along the interior of flexible pipe or tubing pumped down fluid linker; (c) if, for the considered depth, the excessive friction and proppants corrosion without much impact , while along the pipe (the above-described arrangement, if the method employed tubing) and the inner annular space formed between the tubing and the fluids pumped down the casing wall.

图5表示了本发明的第二实施例,其中采用了挠性管作为布置装置,并且过度的摩擦无太大的影响,以及在作业时不泵送支撑剂或者不考虑支撑剂的使用。 FIG. 5 shows a second embodiment of the present invention, which uses a flexible tube is disposed as a device, and without undue influence too much friction, and not pumping operation when the proppant or proppant used is not considered. 图5表示了采用挠性管106来悬挂BHA和BHA元件。 FIG. 5 shows a BHA 106. BHA and suspension components using flexible tube. 在该实施例中,按序从较浅的井筒位置到较深的井筒位置对各个区域进行处理。 In this embodiment, each region is processed sequentially from the shallow to the deep wellbore location wellbore location. 在该实施例中,如图5所示,循环口114设置在可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120下方,使得处理液能够沿挠性管106的内部向下泵送,并从循环口114流出,并受正压力而进入目标射孔。 In this embodiment, as shown in FIG. 5, circulation port 114 is disposed below the expandable and resettable packer 120, such that the treatment liquid can be pumped down the interior of the flexible tube 106 and the circulation port 114 flows out and into the perforation under certain positive pressure. 作为显示那些操作的示意图,图5表示出可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120已经被启动并设置在射孔241下方,所述射孔241对应于先前的液压压裂区域242。 A schematic view of those operations, and Figure 5 shows a resettable inflatable packer 120 has been activated and is disposed below the perforations 241, the perforations 241 corresponding to the previous hydraulic fracture region 242 as a display. 可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120形成了流体隔离,使得当后续的处理液沿挠性管106向下泵送时,处理液被迫进入先前设置的射孔230和231中并形成新的液力压裂裂缝232。 The expandable and resettable packer 120 forms a fluid isolation such that when the subsequent processing liquid pumped down along the flexible tube 106, the treatment liquid is forced into the perforations 230 and 231 is previously set and form new hydraulic fractures 232. 接着,为了形成所需数量的地层区域和层段,适当地继续进行并重复这种操作。 Next, in order to form a region of the formation and the required number of intervals, and to appropriately continue This operation is repeated.

图6表示了本发明的第三实施例,其中采用了挠性管作为布置装置,并且过度的摩擦无太大影响,以及在作业时不泵送支撑剂或者支撑剂的使用无太大影响。 6 shows a third embodiment of the present invention, which uses a flexible tube is disposed as a device without too much friction and excessive impact, and not pumping the proppant or proppant used during work without too much impact. 图6表示了采用挠性管106来悬挂BHA和BHA元件。 Figure 6 shows a BHA 106. BHA and suspension components using flexible tube. 在该实施例中,能以任意的顺序对各个区域进行处理。 In this embodiment, each region can be processed in any order. 在该实施例中,如图6所示,采用了一个跨式双封隔器的可膨胀密封装置125作为可重置的密封装置,并且将循环口114设置在上部可膨胀密封元件121和下部可膨胀密封元件123之间。 In this embodiment, it is shown in Figure 6, using a straddle inflatable packer sealing means 125 as a sealing means may be reset, and the upper portion of the expandable sealing member 121 and the lower circulating ports 114 disposed between the sealing member 123 may be expandable. 当上部可膨胀密封元件121和下部可膨胀密封元件123启动后,处理液能够沿挠性管106的内部向下泵送并从循环口114流出,然后受正压力而进入目标射孔。 When the upper portion of the expandable sealing member 121 and a lower inflatable seal member 123 starts, the treatment liquid can be pumped along the flexible tube 106 downwardly and out of circulation port 114, then under positive pressure into the target aperture. 作为显示那些操作的示意图,图6表示出上部可膨胀密封元件121和下部可膨胀密封元件123已经被启动并设置成跨过射孔241,所述射孔241对应于将要被压裂的下一区域。 As those diagram showing the operation, the upper portion of FIG 6 shows an expandable sealing member 121 and the lower inflatable sealing member 123 has been activated and provided over perforations 241, the perforations 241 corresponding to the next to be fractured region. 可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120提供了流体隔离,使得当后续的处理液沿挠性管106向下泵送时,处理液被迫进入先前设置的射孔240和241中并建立新的液力压裂裂缝242。 The expandable and resettable packer 120 provides fluid isolation such that when the subsequent processing liquid pumped down along the flexible tube 106, the treatment liquid is forced into the perforations 240 and 241 is previously set and establish a new hydraulic fractures 242. 接着,为了形成所需数量的地层区域和层段,适当地继续进行并重复这种操作。 Next, in order to form a region of the formation and the required number of intervals, and to appropriately continue This operation is repeated.

图7表示了本发明的第四实施例,其中采用了电缆102作为布置装置来悬挂BHA和BHA元件。 7 shows a fourth embodiment of the present invention, which uses a cable 102 to a suspension element is arranged and BHA BHA apparatus. 在该实施例中,按序从较深的井筒位置到较浅的井筒位置对各个区域进行处理。 In this embodiment, each region is processed sequentially from the shallow to the deep wellbore location of the wellbore location. 在该实施例中,如图7所示,可将处理液沿电缆102和生产套管壁82之间的环形空间向下泵送,并使处理液受正压力而进入目标射孔。 In this embodiment, as shown in FIG. 7, the treatment liquid may be produced along the cable 102 and the annular space between the casing wall 82 is pumped down, and the treatment liquid by positive pressure into the target aperture. 在该实施例中,可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120还包括一个内部电动泵系统117,它由通过电缆传输到井下的电力驱动,以使用井筒流体而使可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120膨胀或收缩。 In this embodiment, the expandable and resettable packer 120 further includes an internal electric pump system 117, which is electrically driven downhole cable, the use of the expandable wellbore fluids and resettable packer 120 expands or contracts. 图7表示出可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120已经被启动并设置在射孔241的下方,所述射孔241对应于将要被压裂的下一区域。 FIG. 7 shows an expandable and resettable packer 120 has been activated and disposed below the perforations 241, the perforations 241 corresponding to the next area to be fractured. 可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120提供了流体隔离,使得当后续的处理液沿电缆102和生产套管82之间的环形空间向下泵送时,处理液被迫进入射孔240和241中并建立新的液力压裂裂缝242。 The expandable and resettable packer 120 provides fluid isolation such that when the subsequent treatment liquid along the cable 102 and the annular space between the production casing 82 pumped down, the process liquid is forced into the perforations 240 and 241 and create a new hydraulic fracture 242. 接着,为了形成所需数量的地层区域和层段,适当地继续进行并重复这种操作。 Next, in order to form a region of the formation and the required number of intervals, and to appropriately continue This operation is repeated.

本发明的第五实施例包括附加的油管柱或线缆的布置系统,后文称为在挠性管(或接头连接的油管)的内部和/或外部控制管缆。 The fifth embodiment of the present invention comprises an additional tubing string or cable arrangement system, hereinafter referred to as a flexible tube (pipe or linker) internal and / or external control umbilical. 如图8A和8B所示,图示的控制管缆104设置在挠性管106的内部。 8A and FIG, 8B illustrated umbilicals 104 disposed inside the flexible tube 106. 在该实施例中,控制管缆104与可重置的密封装置120相连,并且在该实施例中,可重置的密封装置120由通过控制管缆104传递的流体压力而启动。 In this embodiment, the umbilical 104 is connected to the sealing device 120 may be reset, and in this embodiment, may be reset by the sealing means 120 is activated by the fluid pressure in the control umbilical 104 transmission. 通常,可在挠性管的内部和/或挠性管和生产套管之间的环形空间中布置多个控制管缆。 Typically, a plurality of umbilical may be arranged in the annular space between the inner and / or flexible tube and a production casing of the flexible tube. 通常,可使用控制管缆进行多种不同的操作,包括但不限于以下操作:提供(a)液体连通以操纵各BHA元件,这些元件包括但不局限于密封装置和/或射孔装置;(b)用于向井底注入附加流体或者使附加流体循环的液流管道;(c)用于从井下测量装置获得数据。 Typically, umbilical may be used for a variety of different operations, including but not limited to the following operations: providing (a) each of the actuating fluid communicated to BHA elements, these elements including but not limited sealing means and / or perforating means; ( b) means for injecting additional fluid downhole or to additional fluid flow circulating pipe; (c) for obtaining data from the downhole measurement device. 应该注意到,如图8A所示,BHA还包括扶正器201、203和205,它们用于当BHA元件处于移动状态时,保持BHA在井筒中居中。 It should be noted that, as shown in FIG. 8A, BHA further comprising centralizers 201, 203 and 205, which are used when the element is in the moving state BHA, BHA remains centered in the wellbore.

控制管缆的使用使得可以独立于挠性管中的流体压力条件而使可重置的机械密封装置进行液压地啮合和/或脱离啮合。 Use umbilical flexible tube such that independent of the fluid pressure conditions may be performed to reset the mechanical seal device hydraulically engaged and / or disengaged. 这就使得该方法扩展到可采用那种为了操作而需要独立液压操纵的可重置的机械密封装置。 This makes the method can be extended to that required for operation of the mechanical seal device may be hydraulically operated independently resettable. 需要液压压力来选择性发射的射孔装置可通过控制管缆而启动。 Perforating means need to transmit the hydraulic pressure may be selectively activated by the control umbilical. 这可以使电缆-如果在挠性管和BHA中设置了电缆-被用作传输电信号的附加通道,就象获取井底工具组合上的测量仪器的数据时所需要的;或者用作启动其他的BHA元件,例如,启动为BHA元件提供旋转动力/扭矩的井下电驱动马达。 This allows the cable - if the cable is provided in the flexible pipe and the BHA - the auxiliary channel is used as the transmission of electrical signals, as required to obtain data on the measuring instrument downhole tool combinations thereof; or as other starting the BHA components, e.g., to provide rotational power to start the BHA element / electric drive motor torque downhole. 作为替换形式,控制管缆还可用于操纵那些用来启动不同井底元件的液压马达(例如,用于使可重置的密封装置啮合或者脱离啮合的液压马达)。 As an alternative, a control umbilical for operating those hydraulic motor can also be used to initiate various downhole elements (e.g., for a resettable sealing means engaging the engagement hydraulic motor or disengaged).

采用控制管缆还可以提供向井下的多个期望位置以精确控制方式注入或循环任何流体的能力。 Using umbilical may also be provided in a precisely controlled manner or the ability to inject any fluid circulating downhole to a plurality of desired positions. 例如,为了在流体支撑剂压裂处理期间减少沉淀附着在密封装置上的支撑剂,控制管缆可被布置并用于提供独立的连续或间歇清洗和环流操作,以防止支撑剂聚集在密封装置上。 For example, to reduce sediment adhering sealing means on the proppant in the proppant during fluid processing, umbilical and may be arranged to provide a separate continuous or intermittent circulation and cleaning operation to prevent the proppant pack with the sealing device . 例如,一个控制管缆可下到可重置的机械密封装置的正上方,同时用另一控制管缆可下到可重置的机械密封装置的正下方。 For example, a control umbilical may be directly over the mechanical seal device can be reset, while directly below the umbilical to the mechanical seal device can be reset by another control. 这样,象期望的那样,流体(例如氮)能被环流到井下的上述任一个或两个位置上,以从环绕密封装置的区域上清洗掉支撑剂,从而减少由于支撑剂聚集而使BHA卡住的可能性。 Thus, as expected, the fluid (e.g., nitrogen) can be any of the above or two loop positions of the downhole, to wash away the proppant from the area surrounding the seal means, thereby reducing the proppant due BHA card the possibility of living. 在流体循环的情况下,应该注意到,控制管缆的尺寸和流体应经过选择,以保证获得期望的速率,并且不会意外地受到控制管缆内的摩擦压力的限制。 In the case of fluid circulation, it should be noted that the size of the umbilical and the fluid should be selected to obtain a desired guaranteed rate, and not accidentally limited friction pressure in the control umbilical.

除了将由油管柱构成并在井下提供液体连通的控制管缆作为启动BHA元件的信号装置(或者可作为用于对井下仪器进行地面记录的信号传输装置)以外,通常,可在井筒中设置一条或多条电缆或光纤线缆,以作为启动BHA元件的信号装置(或者可作为用于对井下仪器进行地面记录的信号传输装置)在井下提供电连通或光电连通。 In addition to tubing string configured by a control umbilical and provides fluid communication downhole apparatus as a signal to start BHA element (or may be used as a signal transmission means for recording the downhole instrument ground) than, in general, may be disposed in a wellbore or a a plurality of cable or fiber optic cable, as a signal device is activated BHA element (or may be used as a signal transmission means for recording the downhole instrument ground) to provide electrical communication or optoelectronic communication downhole.

图9表示了本发明的第六实施例,其中设置了一个安装在BHA上的牵引系统,它由上部牵引驱动装置131和下部牵引驱动装置133构成,用于将BHA布置和定位在井筒中。 9 shows a sixth embodiment of the present invention, a traction system is provided which is mounted on the BHA, it is pulled by the upper and lower drive means 131 constituted traction drive 133, and is arranged for positioning the BHA in the wellbore. 在该实施例中,按序从较深的井筒位置到较浅的井筒位置对各个区域进行处理。 In this embodiment, each region is processed sequentially from the shallow to the deep wellbore location of the wellbore location. 在该实施例中,BHA还包括一个内部电动泵系统117,它由通过电缆102传输到井下的电力驱动,以通过使用井筒流体而使可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120膨胀或收缩。 In this embodiment, BHA also includes an internal electric pump system 117, which is driven by electric power through the transmission cable 102 to the downhole, to the use of the expandable wellbore fluids and a resettable packer 120 expands or contracts through. 在该实施例中,处理液沿电缆102和生产套管壁82之间的环形空间被向下泵送,并受正压力而进入目标射孔。 In this embodiment, the treatment liquid is pumped downwardly along the cable 102 and the annular space between the production casing wall 82, and by a positive pressure into the target aperture. 图9表示出可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120已经被启动并设置在射孔241的下方,所述射孔241对应于将要被压裂的下一区域。 Figure 9 shows an expandable and resettable packer 120 has been activated and disposed below the perforations 241, the perforations 241 corresponding to the next area to be fractured. 可膨胀且可重置的封隔器120提供了流体隔离,使得当处理液随后沿电缆102和生产套管82之间的环形空间被向下泵送时,处理液被迫进入射孔240和241中并建立新的液力压裂裂缝242。 The expandable and resettable packer 120 provides fluid isolation such that when the treatment liquid is then pumped down the annulus between the production casing 82 and the cable 102, the treatment liquid 240 is forced into the perforations and 241 and create a new hydraulic fracture 242. 接着,为了形成所需数量的地层区域和层段,适当地继续进行并重复这种操作。 Next, in order to form a region of the formation and the required number of intervals, and to appropriately continue This operation is repeated.

作为第六实施例的替换形式,牵引系统可以是自驱动的,并由板载计算机系统控制,并且能够携带板载信号系统,使得不需要为了定位,控制和/或启动牵引系统而安装线缆或管道。 As an alternative the sixth embodiment, the traction system may be self-propelled, controlled by on-board computer system, and can carry on-board signaling systems such positioning is not necessary to control and / or traction system is attached to the cable boot or pipes. 另外,不同的BHA元件也可由板载计算机系统控制,并携带板载信号系统,使得不需要为了控制和/或启动这些元件而安装线缆或油管。 Further, different elements may also be BHA onboard computer control system, and carry on-board signaling systems such that no need to control and / or promoter elements which are mounted cables or tubing. 例如,牵引系统和/或BHA元件能够携带板载动力源(例如电池)、计算机系统和数据传输/接收系统,使得牵引装置和BHA元件既能够通过远程信号装置从地面受到遥控,或者作为替换形式,也能够在地面对不同的板载计算机系统进行预编程,以当布置到井筒中时执行所需顺序的操作。 For example, the traction system and / or device capable of carrying BHA onboard power source (e.g. batteries), computer systems, and data transmission / reception system, so that the traction means and BHA element both to be located remote from the ground by a remote signaling means, or alternatively in the form of We can be confronted with different computer systems onboard preprogrammed manner, to perform the operation desired sequence when disposed into the wellbore.

在本发明的第七实施例中,采用了研磨(或腐蚀性)流体射流作为井筒的射孔装置。 In a seventh embodiment of the present invention, using a grinding (or resistance) as a fluid jet perforation means wellbore. 研磨(或腐蚀性)流体射流是石油工业中常用的方法,用于对井下油管柱和其他井筒和井口元件进行切割和射孔。 Grinding (or corrosive) fluid jet is commonly used method in the petroleum industry, for other downhole tubing string and the wellbore and the wellhead member for cutting and perforating. 采用挠性管或接头连接油管作为BHA悬挂装置能够提供研磨流体喷射切割技术所用的液流管道。 Using a flexible tube or header pipe suspension means can be provided as BHA polishing fluid ejection flow pipe cutting technique used. 为了与此相适应,BHA构造成具有一个喷射工具的形式。 To adapt to this, BHA configured in the form of a injection tool. 该喷射工具使得高压高速的研磨(或腐蚀性)流体系统或者泥浆能够通过油管以及喷嘴而泵送到井底。 The injection pressure and higher speed so that the grinding tool (or corrosive) fluid systems or slurries can be pumped downhole through the tubing and a nozzle. 研磨(或腐蚀性)流体切穿生产套管壁、水泥环并穿透地层以形成与地层相通的液流通道。 Grinding (or corrosive) fluid cuts through the production casing wall, cement sheath, and penetrates the formation to form a liquid flow path communicating with the formation. 在增产作业过程中,使用这种喷射工具能在整个层段中设置出任意分布的孔和裂缝。 In the stimulation job, the use of such tools is provided an injection hole and a distribution of any cracks in the entire interval. 通常,研磨(或腐蚀性)流体切割和射孔操作能够很容易地在下述条件下实施,即在宽范围的泵送条件下、采用宽范围的流体系统(水,凝胶体,油,液体/气体组合的流体系统),以及如果在特定的井筒射孔应用中需要使用固体研磨材料,则可以采用多种固体研磨材料(砂子,陶瓷材料等)。 Typically, polishing (or corrosive) fluid cutting and perforating operation can be easily implemented under the following conditions, i.e., under a wide range of pumping conditions, using a wide range of fluid systems (water, gels, oils, liquid / fluid system of gas composition), and if necessary a solid abrasive material in the wellbore specific perforating application, it may be employed a variety of solid abrasive material (sand, ceramic materials, etc.).

喷射工具代替了前面六个实施例所述的传统选择性发射射孔枪系统,由于这种喷射工具的长度可为1英尺到4英尺的范围内,所以当与采用传统的选择性发射射孔枪装置作为射孔装置时相比时,对地面防喷管系统的高度要求被大大降低了(可能最多降低了60英尺或降低更多)。 Instead of the traditional tool for selectively ejecting the foregoing embodiments of the six transmitting perforating gun system, since the length of this jetting tool may be in the range of 1 foot to 4 feet, and so when transmitting conventional selective perforation when compared to the perforating gun assembly as the means for height requirements surface lubricator system is greatly reduced (may be reduced by up to 60 feet or more reduced). 降低了对地面防喷管系统的高度要求能够提供包括降低费用和操作时间的多个优点。 Reduce the height requirements of the ground lubricator system can provide several advantages including reduced cost and operation time.

图10详细表示了本发明的第七实施例,其中采用了喷射工具310作为射孔装置并用连接的油管302将BHA悬挂在井筒中。 FIG 10 shows in detail a seventh embodiment of the present invention, which adopts the injection tool 310 and the tubing 302 connected with the BHA is suspended in the wellbore as a perforating device. 在该实施例中,将一个机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316用作可重置的密封装置;用一个机械式套管接箍定位器318进行BHA的深度控制和定位;用一个单向全开的活瓣式止回阀接头304来保证流体不会沿连接的油管302向上流;一个组合的剪切释放打捞颈接头306用作安全释放装置;还采用了循环/均衡口接头308,以提供一种流体循环的方法以及在一定的情形下的在机械压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316的上方和下方的压力平衡;还采用了一个单向球座止回阀接头314,以保证流体仅能从机械压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316下方向上流到循环/均衡口接头308。 In this embodiment, the mechanical compression deformation a resettable packer 316 may be used to reset the sealing means; BHA depth control and positioning by a mechanical casing collar locator 318; with a one-way flap-type check valve fully open joint 304 to the tubing 302 to ensure fluid will not flow up along the connection; a combination of a shear release joint fishing neck 306 as a safety relief device; also uses a loop / equalization port connector 308, to provide a method of circulating fluid and the packer is resettable in certain circumstances the mechanical compression deformation in pressure above and below the balance 316; also uses a one-way ball valve seat joint 314 to ensure that fluid can only reset the compression set packer to flow up from below the machine 316 cycles / equalization port adapter 308.

喷射工具310包含射流口312,该射流口312用于对被沿连接的油管302向下泵送的研磨流体加速和导向,使研磨流体喷射直接冲击到生产套管82上。 The jetting tool 310 includes a jet port 312, port 312 for the jet pipe 302 is connected along a downward pumping and accelerating fluid guide grinding, polishing fluid jet impingement directly on the production casing 82. 在这种结构中,机械套管接箍定位器318经适当地设计而连接在机械压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316上,以允许液流能够从机械压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316的下方向上流动到循环/均衡口接头308。 Resettable seal in such a configuration, the mechanical casing collar locator 318 is connected to a suitably designed compression set mechanically resettable packer 316 to allow fluid flow from the mechanical deformation of the compressible below the separator 316 flows upwardly into the circulation / equalization port adapter 308. 与循环/均衡口接头308中包含的液流导管对应的过水断面积的尺寸制造成比与射流口312对应的过水断面积大许多的过水断面积,使得当循环/均衡口接头308处于打开状态时,连接油管302或BHA中的液流主体优先地流动通过循环/均衡口接头308而不是射流口312。 Sectional area size of the water through the circulation / equalization port adapter 308 comprises a flow duct corresponding to manufacture than the sectional area of ​​the jet of water through the port 312 corresponding to a much larger cross-sectional area over the water, such that when the circulation / equalization port connector 308 in the open state, the connection pipe 302 in the flow body or BHA preferentially flows through the circulation / equalization port adapter 308 rather than the jet port 312. 循环/均衡口接头308是通过连接管302的上下轴向移动而被打开和关闭的。 Cycles / linker 308 is equalizing port is opened and closed through the connection tube 302 moves axially up and down.

在该实施例中,连接油管302最好与机械压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316一起使用,这是因为机械压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316能够通过连接油管302施加的垂直运动和/或转动来很容易地被启动或者退动。 In this embodiment, tubing 302 is preferably connected to the mechanical compression deformation resettable packer 316 used together, since the mechanical compression deformation vertical resettable packer 316 can be applied through the connecting tubing 302 movement and / or rotation to be easily started or deactuated. 借助于作为将连接油管302连接、安装在井筒中以及从井筒中取出的地面装置的动力旋转装置,使用完井设备辅助的不压井起下作业装置,通过连接油管302垂直运动和/或转动被施加。 By means of a connecting pipe 302 is connected, installed in the wellbore, and a power ground means rotating means removed from the wellbore, completion equipment using auxiliary snubbing means, the tubing 302 is connected by vertical movement and / or rotation It is applied. 应该注意到,对于在压力下将连接油管302连接、安装在井筒中以及从井筒中拆除来说,与采用带有动力旋转装置的完井设备辅助的不压井起下作业装置相应的地面设备、方法和工艺是普通的并为本领域技术人员所公知的。 It should be noted that, under pressure for connecting tubing 302 is connected, is mounted in a wellbore and for removal from the wellbore, and completion equipment using a powered auxiliary device rotating respective lower snubbing device ground working device , methods and processes are common and well known to those skilled in the art. 作为替换形式,采用借助于动力旋转装置的完井钻架以及拆除头来代替不压井起下作业装置,也能够实现在压力下将连接油管连接、安装在井筒中以及从井筒中拆除;同样,为了在压力下将连接油管连接、安装在井筒中以及从井筒中拆除而进行的上述操作也是普通的并为本领域技术人员所公知的。 As an alternative, using the drilling rig by means of well completion and to remove the power head rotation means in place of the snubbing apparatus can be realized at a pressure connecting tubing connector, installed in the wellbore and to remove from the wellbore; likewise the operation in order to connect tubing connector under pressure, installed in the wellbore and to remove from the wellbore is performed in an ordinary and well known to those skilled in the art. 还应该理解到,地面钻架和管路配置可包括适当的总管、管道和阀以便调节液流流进、流出所有适当的地面元件/设施和井筒以及在它们之间流动,这里适当的地面元件/设施和井筒包括但不局限于:连接的油管、连接油管和生产套管之间的环形空间、泵、流体储存罐和回流池。 It should also be understood that the drilling rig and the ground line configuration may comprise suitable manifold, piping and valves for regulating fluid flow into, out of all appropriate surface elements / facilities and the wellbore and flow between them, where appropriate ground element / amenities and the wellbore including but not limited: the annular space between the tubing connector and connecting tubing and production casing, a pump, a fluid storage tank and a reflux tank.

由于机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器通过连接油管302的垂直运动和/或转动而被启动,所以流体能够沿连接油管302被向下泵送而无需附加的控制阀和/或隔离阀,如果可膨胀的封隔器被用作可重置的密封装置时是需要添加上述阀的。 Since the mechanical compression set packer is resettable by connecting tubing 302 vertical movement and / or rotation is started, it is possible to connect the fluid is pumped down the tubing 302 without additional control valve and / or isolation valve, if the inflatable packer is used as the sealing means is a reset of the valve needs to be added. 以这种方式使用连接油管302的内部,使其提供在地面和喷射工具310之间的独立的液流导管,使得研磨流体能被沿连接油管302向下泵送到喷射工具310中。 Connected in this way inside the tubing 302 so that it provides a separate stream conduit between the ground and the injection tool 310, so that the abrasive fluid in the connecting pipe 302 can be pumped down the injection tool 310. 位于喷射工具310上的射流口312,则提供了高速的研磨喷射液流,该液流被引导对生产套管82和水泥环84射孔以建立与地层86的液体连通。 Tool 310 is located on the ejection port 312 of the jet, the jet milling provides high-speed stream, the stream is guided to the perforated production casing 84 and cement sheath 82 to establish fluid communication with the formation 86.

图10表示了已经使用喷射工具310制成了射孔320并使射孔320穿过需要的第一地层层段,并且需要的第一地层层段已经被增产处理液力并具有了液压压裂裂缝322。 Figure 10 shows the jetting tool 310 has been made of the use of a first perforated section 320 and the layer 320 through the perforations required, and needs to be a first layer segment has been stimulated with hydraulic and hydraulic fracturing 322 cracks. 图10还表示了喷射工具310于井筒内已经被重新定位,并被用来在需要的第二地层层段设置射孔324,并且机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316已被启动,以便在用多级液压支撑剂压裂处理的第二级对射孔进行增产处理操作之前在井筒中形成液体密封。 FIG 10 also shows the jetting tool 310 in the wellbore has been re-positioned, and is used in the second layer to set the required aperture segment 324, and a resettable mechanical compression set packer 316 has been activated before, in order to perform the perforating operation in a second stimulation stage multi-stage hydraulic proppant fracture treatment to form a liquid seal in the wellbore.

应该注意到,射流口312可位于机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316的大约6英寸到1英尺范围内的位置,使得在泵送了第二支撑剂压裂级流体之后,如果积聚在机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316顶部的支撑剂产生影响,能根据需要将非研磨和非腐蚀性的流体沿连接油管302向下泵送并通过射流口312和/或循环/均衡口接头308,以将支撑剂从机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316顶部清除。 It should be noted that the position within the range of about 6 inches to 1 foot jet port 312 may be located in the mechanical compression deformation resettable packer 316, so that after the pumping of the second stage fluid proppant, if 316 accumulated in the top of the proppant mechanical compression set packer is resettable impact, energy needs to be non-corrosive and non-abrasive fluid pumped down 302 along the connection tubing and through jet port 312 in accordance with, and / or cycles / equalization port adapter 308 to reset the proppant packer compression set 316 from the mechanical top clear. 另外,通过使用可用地面动力旋转装置来转动的连接油管302,喷射工具310可以被旋转(当机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316未被启动时),从而进一步帮助清除机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316上可能产生的支撑剂积聚物。 Further, by using the connection tubing ground power available to rotate the rotating device 302, the injection tool 310 may be rotated (when the mechanical compression deformation resettable packer 316 is not activated), to further help remove the mechanical compression strain 316 may be generated on a resettable packer proppant accumulations. 由于采用了流体喷射来制出射孔,就不会形成射孔毛刺。 As a result of the fluid ejection system for perforating, perforating burrs will not form. 由于没有射孔毛刺,就不会使机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316上的弹性体受到额外磨损,从而与射孔毛刺可能存在的情况相比,延长了机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316的寿命。 Since no burrs perforation, mechanical compression set will not resettable packer elastic body 316 by excessive wear, compared with the case perforating burr possible to extend the mechanical compression set life resettable packer 316.

还应该注意到,由单向球座止回阀接头314和单向全开的活瓣式止回阀接头304提供的流体控制,仅提供当机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316下方的压力大于机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316上方的压力时的机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316上方和下方的压力相等。 It should also be noted that one-way fluid control valve provided by the joint 314 and the one-way check valve fully open flap tee fitting 304, only when the mechanical compression deformation resettable packer 316 316 is equal to the pressure above and below the mechanical type pressure above the pressure below 316 greater than the mechanical compression deformation resettable packer compression set packer is resettable. 当机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316上方的压力大于机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316下方的压力时,机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器316上方的压力可通过下述方法被容易地降低:采用连接油管302和生产套管82之间的环形空间实现刚刚被增产处理的区域的受控的流体回流操作;或者通过使低密度的流体(例如氮)沿连接油管302向下流并沿连接油管302和生产套管82之间的环形空间向上流动这种循环而降低上述压力。 When the pressure above the pressure below 316 above the mechanical compression set packer is resettable mechanical compression deformation is greater than a resettable packer 316, the mechanical compression deformation resettable packer 316 the pressure can be easily reduced by the following method: using tubing connected to the annular space 82 between the casing 302 and the production fluid is achieved just reflux controlled stimulation region of operation; or by a low density fluid (e.g. nitrogen) flows in the connection pipe 302 is connected to the downstream along the production tubing 302 and the annular space between the sleeve 82 upwardly and this cycle of the pressure reduction.

单向全开的活瓣式止回阀接头304是优选的,因为这种设计适于将研磨(或腐蚀性)流体不受限制地泵送到井底,并且还允许控制球通过,根据各个BHA元件的具体特定设计,这些控制球可能从地面上坠落以控制各个BHA元件的水力特性以及流体流动,或者提供BHA的安全释放、根据特定工具的设计,可以布置多种不同的阀结构以提供由本实施例所述流动控制阀提供的功能。 The full-way flap-type check valve connector 304 is preferable, because this design is adapted to the grinding (or corrosive) unrestricted fluid pumped downhole, and also allows the ball through, according to various DETAILED BHA particular design element, the control ball may fall safety release BHA to control various features and elements of the hydraulic fluid flow, or to provide the BHA from the ground, depending on the design of the particular tool, the valve may be arranged in a variety of different structures to provide the present embodiment, the flow control function of the valve is provided.

作为该第七实施例的替换形式,可包括带有能够悬挂并保持其他测量装置或BHA元件的接套的接头。 Examples of the alternative form of the seventh embodiment, and may include holding the other can be hung with the sleeve joints or BHA element measuring apparatus. 例如,该接套可以保持一个传统的套管接箍定位器和伽玛射线工具,所述伽玛射线工具通过电缆被布置并坐于接套上,以进行对BHA位置以及感兴趣的地层层段位置的额外诊断分析。 For example, the nipple can maintain a traditional casing collar locator and gamma ray tool, the gamma-ray tool is arranged to sit on the ground by a cable and sleeve, for stratigraphic interest of the BHA position and additional diagnostic analysis section location. 另外,可以布置多个研磨喷射工具作为BHA的部件,从而控制射孔切割特性,例如孔/狭缝的尺寸、切割速率,以适应多种研磨材料,和/或在过早的元件失效情况下提供备用系统。 Further, a plurality of abrasive injection means may be arranged as a component of the BHA, thereby controlling the cutting perforation characteristics such as hole / slot sizes, cut rate, to accommodate a variety of abrasive materials, and / or premature failure of the element in the case providing a backup system.

对于本领域的技术人员来说,应该认识到,可采用很多不同的元件作为井底工具组合的一部分。 Those skilled in the art, it will be appreciated that many different elements can be employed as part of a combination of downhole tools. 井底工具组合可构造成包含测量储层、流体和油井特性的仪器,这些测量被认为在特定的应用场合可能会需要。 Downhole tool combination may be configured to include a measurement of reservoir, fluid, and oil well equipment characteristics, these measurements are considered may be required in certain applications. 例如,可设置温度和压力计来测量处理期间的井下流体温度和压力条件;采用密度计来测量有效的井下流体密度(在液压支撑剂压裂处理过程中,为了确定井底的支撑剂分布和位置,流体密度测量是非常有用的);和采用放射性检测系统(例如伽玛射线或中子测量系统)来定位含烃区域或者鉴别或确定油井或地层中的放射性材料的位置。 For example, a set temperature and a pressure gauge to measure downhole fluid temperature and pressure conditions during processing; measured using densitometer effective downhole fluid density (hydraulic proppant process, in order to determine the distribution of proppant downhole and position, the fluid density measurement is very useful); and the use of radioactive detection system (e.g. gamma ray or neutron measurement systems) to identify or locate the hydrocarbon-containing region or to determine the position of the radioactive material in the well or the formation.

根据特定的井底工具组合元件以及射孔装置是否形成了可能损坏密封装置的带毛刺的射孔,井底工具组合可以构造成带有“射孔毛刺去除”工具的形式,该工具能够从套管壁上刮除射孔毛刺。 According to a particular downhole tool and the perforating device is a combination of elements forming a perforation may damage the sealing means burrs, downhole tool may be configured with a combination of form tool "deburring perforating" tool from the sleeve scrape perforation burrs on the wall.

根据特定的井底工具组合元件以及当该井底工具组合在移动时与套管壁接触的情况下是否形成了井底工具组合元件的过度磨损,可在井底工具组合上布置扶正器接头以使该工具组合形成可靠的机械定位,并防止由于该工具组合移动时与套管壁接触而产生的损坏或将这种可能性减至最小。 Whether the formation of excessive wear element combination downhole tool downhole tool based on a particular combination of elements and in the case where the downhole tool is moved in the composition in contact with the casing wall, may be disposed on the downhole tool centralizer in combination linker the combined to form reliable mechanical tool positioning, and to prevent contact with the casing wall of the tool when the combination of the mobile generated damage or minimize this possibility.

根据特定的井底工具组合元件以及当发射时射孔弹是否形成了强烈的冲击波并产生意外的过度振动,井底工具组合可以构造成带有振动/冲击阻尼接头的形式,该阻尼接头能够消除任何由于射孔弹爆炸而产生的对系统性能负面影响或将其减至最小。 According to a particular combination of elements and the downhole tool when the shaped charges emitted if a strong shock wave formation and produce unexpected excessive vibration, downhole tools can be configured in the form of a combination with a vibration / impact damping joint, the joint can be eliminated damping Since any perforation bomb explosion generated a negative impact on system performance or to reduce it to a minimum.

根据采用的布置系统以及特定作业的目的,射孔装置和任何其他需要的BHA元件也可定位到可重置的密封装置的上方或下方并且以任意所需的互相相对顺序来布置。 The object arrangement system employed and the specific job, and any other perforating means need BHA elements may also be positioned above or below the sealing means may be reset each other and in any desired order relative to the arrangement. 不管是电缆、电线、挠性管、传统的连接油管还是井底牵引装置,布置系统本身都可被用来传递信号,以启动密封装置和/或射孔装置。 Whether cables, wires, flexible tube or hose connected to a conventional bottom traction devices, the system itself may be arranged to transmit a signal to activate the sealing means and / or perforation means. 还可以在用于悬挂密封和射孔装置本身的传统连接油管或挠性管中悬挂这种信号装置。 The suspension may also conventional sealing and perforating device itself in such a signal for connecting tubing or the suspension means of the flexible tube. 作为替换形式,信号装置、不管它是电子的、液力的或其他装置,都能够在油井中移动,并位于悬挂装置的外部,或者容纳在一个或多个单独的挠性管管柱或传统的连接油管柱内,或者由这些管柱构成。 As an alternative, the signaling device, whatever it is, hydraulic or other electronic devices, can be moved in the well, and a suspension means located outside or housed in one or more separate conventional flexible pipe string or connecting tubing string, or a string composed of these.

相对于在深于8,000英尺的油井中采用高粘度流体系统进行处理来说,可从本新发明的应用中立即获得多个主要的技术和经济效果。 Relative to the system for processing high viscosity fluids in the well is deeper than 8,000 feet in a plurality of available primary technical and economic effects from the new application of the present invention immediately. 摩擦压力限制的降低使得能够对更深的井进行处理,并减少了对特定压裂流体配方的要求。 Reducing friction pressure limit of the process enables deeper wells, and reduced the requirements for a particular fracturing fluid formulation. 能够降低或消除摩擦压力限制是因为高粘度的流体能够沿挠性管或其他悬挂装置和生产套管之间的环形空间向下泵送。 It reduces or eliminates friction pressure limitation is due to high viscosity fluids can be pumped down along the annular space between the flexible tube or other suspension and the production casing. 由于通过将高粘度的流体系统沿挠性管的内部向下泵送而能够降低或消除摩擦压力限制,所以实施这种技术的油井能够很大程度地增加深度。 Can be reduced or eliminated due to friction pressure by limiting the fluid system is pumped down the interior of the flexible tube along a high viscosity, so the implementation of this technique can increase the well depth to a large extent. 例如,假设将1-1/2英寸的挠性管设置到外径为5-1/2英寸、每英尺17磅的套管中,有效的过水断面积大约与5英寸外径的套管柱相当。 For example, it is assumed that 1-1 / 2 inch outer diameter of the flexible tube arranged to 5-1 / 2 inches and 17 pounds per foot sleeve, the effective cross-sectional area over the water with an outer diameter of about five inches casing column quite. 使用这种有效的过水断面积,可处理20,000英尺或更长的井深,并能够为有效地进行支撑剂输送以及采用高粘度流体进行液力压裂取得更高的泵送速率(例如,在每分钟10到30桶(10 to30-barrels-per-minute)的范围内或更多)。 This efficient use of the water over the cross-sectional area, may process the depth of 20,000 feet or more, and able to efficiently perform proppant transport fluid and high viscosity hydraulic fracturing achieve a higher pumping rate (e.g., in the in the range of 10 to 30 barrels per minute (10 to30-barrels-per-minute) or more).

由于环形空间通常具有更大的等效过水断面积,所以可采用传统的压裂流体,这与为了降低通过挠性管的摩擦压力降而采用的特定低粘度流体(例如Dowell-Schlumberger的ClearFracTM流体)相反。 Since the annular space generally has a larger cross-sectional area equivalent over the water, it may be employed in conventional fracturing fluids, which in order to reduce the specific low viscosity fluids employed by the frictional pressure drop of the flexible tube (e.g., Dowell-Schlumberger's ClearFracTM fluid) instead. 采用传统的压裂液技术就可以处理高于250的温度的地层,如果高于该温度,则现有可应用的昂贵的特定压裂流体就可能开始降解。 Fracturing fluids using conventional processing techniques can be higher than the temperature of formation 250, if the temperature is higher, then the existing application can be expensive specific fracture fluid may begin to degrade.

这里使用的密封装置可以是可膨胀的装置、机械式压缩形变的可重置的封隔器、机械式压缩形变的跨式双封隔器、杯形密封装置或任何可通过悬挂装置布置并提供可重置的液体密封性能或等效功能的其他可替代的装置。 Sealing means used herein may be inflatable device, the mechanical compression deformation resettable packer, the mechanical compression set straddle packer cup seal may be arranged by any means, or suspension means and to provide liquid-tightness or other alternative means can be reset equivalent functions. 存在的可膨胀的装置和压缩形变的装置都在密封部分和套管壁之间提供径向间隙(如,对于可膨胀的装置,间隙大小为0.25英寸到1英寸,或者对于压缩形变的装置,间隙大小为0.1-0.2英寸),致使密封部分的磨损明显减少或者完全被消除。 Inflatable compression set and means are present to provide a radial gap (e.g., between the sealing portion and the casing wall, to the inflatable device, the gap size of 0.25 to 1 inch, the compression or deformation of the apparatus, gap size of 0.1 to 0.2 inches), resulting in decreased wear of the seal portions or completely eliminated. 在本发明的优选实施例中,在不启动状态下的密封装置和套管壁之间有足够的间隙,使得工具能够快速地移动下入井筒或从井筒中移动移出,而不会明显地损坏密封装置,或者不会产生与由于工具移动而形成的对油井的波动/擦洗相关的压力控制问题。 In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the sealing means between the casing wall and not in the activated state sufficient clearance, so that the tool can be quickly moved into the wellbore or move out from the wellbore, without significantly damaging the sealing apparatus, or is not generated due to fluctuations in the well tool movement formed / scrubbing problems associated pressure control. 密封表面和套管壁之间增大的空隙(当密封件未启动时)还将使起出或下入井筒的挠性管/BHA的速度比现有的挠性管系统的速度快很多。 Increasing the sealing surface and the casing wall between the voids (not started when the seal member) so that the speed will lower into the wellbore or pulled out of the flexible pipe / BHA is much faster than a conventional flexible tube system. 另外,为了减少可能产生的、且并不期望的密封件磨损,在优选实施例中,射孔装置将适当地调节对套管壁进行的射孔,从而获得具有相对平滑边缘的射孔。 Further, in order to reduce possible and is not the desired seal wear, for example, a perforating apparatus appropriately adjusted for the perforation of the casing wall, so as to obtain a relatively smooth edge perforation in the preferred embodiment. 作为替换形式,机械可重置的密封装置可不必提供完美的液体密封效果,例如,可以在装置的周围保持小的间隙。 As an alternative, a mechanical sealing means may be reset without having to provide a perfect liquid seal, for example, to maintain a small clearance around the device. 这一小间隙的尺寸可以被加工成提供一种密封装置,(如果需要)从而使支撑剂跨过小间隙,并且提供一种密封,(如果需要)该密封可在流体循环作用下被去除。 The small size of the gap can be machined to provide a sealing device, (if necessary) so that the proppant across a small gap, and to provide a seal (if required) the seal can be removed under the action of the fluid circulation. 另外,根据特定的应用,还可以用更为经济可行的方式实施该增产作业,即使因为使用机械可重置的密封装置不能取得完美的液体密封。 Further, depending on the particular application, the stimulation operations may also be implemented with a more economically viable manner, even as a mechanical sealing device can not reset in perfect liquid seal.

由于射孔装置与可重置的密封装置同时布置,所以可用相同的测量标准在相同的时间对所有的元件进行深度控制。 Since the perforating means and the sealing means may be arranged to reset simultaneously, the same measure can be used to control the depth of all of the elements at the same time. 这就消除了现有的方法的深度控制问题,在现有的方法中用两种不同的测量系统在不同的时间以及不同的下井作业中来进行射孔操作和增产操作时会产生深度控制问题。 Problems occur when the depth control which eliminates the problem of the conventional depth control method, two different systems of measurement operations and to increase perforating operations with the conventional methods at different times and different downhole operations . 通过使用套管接箍定位器,能够获得非常精确的深度控制,套管接箍定位器是深度控制的优旋的方法。 By using the casing collar locator is possible to obtain very precise depth control, the casing collar locator is preferably a spin depth control method.

各个射孔目标层段的每一层段的总高是不受限制的。 Each layer each segment of the total height of the target interval of perforation is not limited. 这与现有的采用跨式双封隔器状的装置的挠性管布置系统所存在的问题是相反的,因为那种跨式双封隔器状的装置的应用范围限制在15-30英尺高的射孔层段。 This is contrary to the conventional system, the flexible tube arrangement employed straddle packer apparatus like the problem, since the scope of application of the device that straddle packer limits 15-30 feet shaped high perforated intervals.

由于无需采用永久的桥塞,所以消减了与桥塞钻碎操作相关联的增加费用以及井筒风险。 Because without the use of a permanent bridge plug, so the reduction with bridge plugs drilled out operations and increased costs associated with the wellbore risk.

如果用挠性管系统作为布置装置,则用于增产作业的挠性管管柱就可以悬挂在井口并用作生产油管管柱,由于不必将设备移动到井位来安装由连接的油管构成的传统生产油管管柱,就明显地节约了费用。 If the flexible tube is arranged as a system device, the flexible pipe string for stimulation operations can be suspended at the wellhead and used as a production tubing string, it is not necessary to move the device to install conventional wells made of tubing connected production tubing string, it is obviously cost savings.

对要处理的区域的顺序进行控制,就可以根据每一单独区域的特性对各个处理级的设计进行优化。 Of the order of the regions to be processed is controlled, it can be optimized for each processing stage designed according to the individual characteristics of each region. 另外,通过仅将一组开放的射孔暴露在每一处理级上,所以消除了由于同时处理多个区域所产生的亚优化(sub-optimal)增产处理的可能性。 Further, only by opening a set of perforations exposed at each processing stage, thus eliminating the possibility of sub-optimized (sub-optimal) process due to simultaneous stimulation of multiple regions generated. 例如,在液力压裂情况下,本发明可减少酸化顶替液进入裂缝或支撑剂在裂缝中的亚优化分布的可能性。 For example, in the case of hydraulic fracturing, the present invention can reduce the displacement fluid is acidified fracture or proppants into the fracture possibility of suboptimal distribution. 另外,如果发生了使处理必须终止的问题,井身上部区域没有受到影响,因为这些区域还没被射孔。 In addition, the processing must be terminated if the problem occurs, the well body region was not affected, because these areas have not been perforated. 这与传统的封堵球或挠性管增产方法是相反的,在那些方法中,所有的射孔都必须在作业之前射好。 This is a traditional ball sealers or flexible tube stimulation method contrary, in those methods, all of the perforations must be a good shot before the job. 如果传统的挠性管作业失败了,就可能在很长的完井层段上很难有效地进行导流作业和增产处理。 If a conventional flexible pipe job fails, it may be difficult to efficiently flow and stimulation operations on a long completion interval. 另外,如果在密封元件上仅有一组射孔打开,流体也能够循环,而不会击破顶部密封元件上方的其他多组打开的射孔,而这种击破现象在传统的挠性管作业中就可能发生。 Further, if only one set of perforations in the sealing element is opened, the fluid circulation is possible without break open the other plurality of sets of perforations over the top sealing member, and this break phenomenon in conventional coiled tubing operations in It may occur. 这就减少或消除了当井底循环压力超过地层孔隙压力的时候的流体损失和对地层的损坏。 This reduces or eliminates the loss of fluid when the bottom hole circulating pressure when the pressure exceeds the formation pore and damage to the formation.

全部的处理液都可以在单独的一次井下作业中被泵送,这就比其他技术明显节约了费用,在其他技术中,需要多次电缆或设备安装工作以在各处理级之间往油井中下入和从其中取出工具。 All of the processing liquid can be pumped downhole in a separate operation, than other techniques which significant savings in costs, among other techniques, require multiple cables or installation work among the processing stages into the well into and out of which the lower tool.

本发明也可应用于斜井和水平井的多级处理。 The present invention is also applicable to a multi-stage process of deviated and horizontal wells. 通常,在斜井和水平井中,其他传统的导流技术难度都很大,这是由通常对应于斜井和水平井的长层段上的导流材料的流体传输特性所决定的。 Typically, in deviated and horizontal wells, other conventional diversion are large technical difficulty, which is determined by the fluid transport characteristics generally corresponding to the long interval of deviated and horizontal wells flow material.

如果在压裂处理过程产生了滤砂现象,则本发明提供了一种方法,使得环形空间中的含砂流体立即被循环流出井筒,从而使增产操作可重新开始,而不必将挠性管/BHA取出井筒。 If the sand phenomenon generated in the fracturing process, the present invention provides a method, such that fluid in the annulus sand immediately recycled effluent wellbore so that the stimulation operations may be resumed, without having the flexible tube / BHA remove wellbore. 挠性管系统的使用提供了一种能够在射孔之后或者增产操作过程中测量井底压力的装置,这一压力是根据在关闭(或低流动速率)条件下的与挠性管管柱相关的压力计算值得出的。 Using a flexible tube system for providing a device capable of measuring or during stimulation operations after the perforation of the bottom hole pressure, this pressure is a flexible tube in a closed string (or low flow rate) related conditions the pressure calculation worth out of.

如果将挠性管或传统的连接油管系统用作布置装置,则提供了一种独立于注入环形空间的流体的井底流体注入装置。 If the flexible tube or pipe system as a conventional connection arrangement means provides a downhole fluid that is independent of the injection annulus fluid injection means. 这是非常有用的,例如,还可应用于以下用途:(a)通过以额定速率将流体泵送到井底面清洁密封装置和液流口,从而保持BHA密封装置和液流口清洁而无支撑剂聚集(这种聚集可能会导致工具卡住);(b)井底混合用途(下面将进一步讨论);(c)在射孔期间向井底滴酸以帮助清洁射孔以及帮助与地层的连通;(d)独立地对通过可重置的密封装置相互隔开的两个区域进行增产处理。 This is useful, for example, is also applicable to the following purposes: (a) the nominal rate without support by pumping fluid into the bottom of the shaft sealing apparatus and the cleaning liquid flow port, thus holding the sealing means and the liquid flow port BHA cleaning aggregation agents (such aggregates may result in stuck tool); (B) mixing downhole use (discussed further below); (C) an acid downhole dropwise during perforating to help clean the perforations and the communication with the formation to help ; (d) independently of the two regions by the sealing means may be spaced from each other to reset the stimulation. 由此,如果将油管用作布置装置,根据需要的特定操作以及特定的井底工具组合元件,可在任何时间内将流体循环到井底;或者仅在密封元件启动后,或仅当密封元件未启动时;或者在均衡口打开或关闭时。 Thus, if the arrangement is used as the tubing means, according to a particular operation, and the particular combination of components required downhole tool, fluid circulation may be at any time to the bottom; the sealing element or only after starting, or only when the seal member when not activated; or open or closed equalization port. 根据特定的井底工具组合元件和井底液流控制阀的特殊设计,例如就像被用作均衡口接头、循环口接头或液流口接头的一体的元件,井底液流控制阀的操纵可由电缆启动、液压启动、液流启动、“J形锁销”启动、滑套启动,或者由在井底液流控制阀的操作和启动领域的技术人员公知的任何其他装置启动。 The particular combinations of elements and downhole tools specially designed downhole flow control valves, for example, is used as the equalized as the inlet fitting integral linker or liquid circulation port port adapter element, downhole flow control valves 8 start by cable, hydraulically activated, starting the flow, "J-shaped lock pin" start, start sleeve, or any other means of downhole flow control valves and the operation of skill in the art known starting start.

挠性管系统还允许各个处理级中的液流在控制下回流,以帮助清洁并帮助压裂裂缝封闭。 The flexible tube system also allows each processing stage under the control of the reflux stream to help clean and to help fracture closure. 回流可通过沿挠性管和生产套管之间的环形空间向上流而实现,或者作为替换形式,如果不认为过量的支撑剂回流是问题的话,回流也可通过沿挠性管管柱向上流来实现。 Reflux may be achieved by the annular space between the production casing and the flexible tube along the flow direction, or alternatively form, if that is not an excessive amount of proppant flowback problem, it may be refluxed in the flexible tube flow upward through the column to fulfill.

射孔装置可由市场上供应的射孔系统构成。 Perforating means may consist of perforating systems available on the market. 这些枪系统可包括这里称之为“选择性发射”的系统,使得单一的射孔枪装置由多个或多组射孔弹构成。 The gun system may comprise referred to herein as "selective emitter" in the system, such that a single perforating gun means by a plurality of shaped charges or groups constituted. 每个由一个或多个射孔弹组成的组都能采用电、无线电、压力、光纤或其他启动信号从地面受到遥控并发射。 Each group consists of one or more shaped charges can be composed using electric, radio, pressure, fiber optic or other actuation signal and transmitted by the remote control from the ground. 每一组射孔弹(弹数量、每英尺射点数、孔的尺寸、穿透特性)都能设计以取得对欲被各级处理的各个区域进行的优化射孔。 Each set of shaped charge (the number of shells, shot points per foot, hole size, penetration characteristics) can be designed to be made for each area to be treated at all levels of optimal shot. 根据现有的选择性发射枪技术,商业上可供枪系统能够在单独的一次井下作业中依次处理30至40个要被射孔的层段。 According to the prior art selective emission gun, commercially available gun systems can be sequentially processed to be from 30 to 40 perforated interval in a separate downhole operation. 还可将枪预先加工和设计成能够对多组射孔发射的形式。 The gun may also be pre-processed and can be designed in the form of multiple sets of perforation emitted. 枪可以位于井底工具组合上的任一位置,包括位于机械可重置的密封装置的上方和下方的位置。 The gun may be located in any position on the downhole tool combination comprising a position above and below the sealing means positioned mechanically reset.

可根据储层特性、处理操作设计考虑因素或者设备的限制对层段进行分组处理。 According to reservoir characteristics, design considerations limiting factor in the operation processing device or the packet processing interval. 在每一组层段(最好是5到大约20)之后,在作业日的结尾(通常由光照条件确定),或者在碰到很难密封一个或多个区域的情况下,最好采用桥塞或者其他机械装置来将已经处理的层段组与下一要处理的层段组隔离。 In each group of intervals (preferably about 5 to 20), the date at the end of the job (generally determined by lighting conditions), or difficult to seal across a case where a plurality of regions or, preferably in the bridge interval set plugs or other mechanical means have been processed with the interval of the next group to be processed in isolation. 可以将一个或多个选择性发射设置的桥塞或者压裂挡板与井底工具组合一起下入,并且在完井操作过程中按需要将其设置以在已射孔的层段之间提供可靠的机械式隔离,并消除下入单独的电缆来在成组的压裂级之间设置机械式隔离设备或导流介质的需要。 One or more bridges may be provided a selective emitter or frac plug with the shutter at the downhole tool in combination with, and arranged to press needs to be provided between the layer has been perforated section during the completion operation reliable mechanical isolation, and the elimination of the need for a separate cable set mechanical isolation devices or media flow between groups of fracture stages.

通常,使用现有的商业上可供的射孔枪系统和机械可重置的密封装置,本发明方法可以很容易地用于4-1/2英寸直径到7英寸直径的生产套管。 Generally, a perforating gun system and a sealing means for mechanically resetting the existing commercial process of the invention can be readily used for 4-1 / 2 inch diameter and 7 inch diameter production casing. 通过使用为更小或更大的套管适当地设计的机械可重置的密封装置,本发明方法还可用于更小或更大的套管。 Mechanical sealing means may be reset by using a larger or smaller cannula suitably designed, the method of the present invention may also be used a smaller or larger casing.

如果使用了选择性发射的射孔枪,则每一单独的枪的长度可为2至8英尺,并且包含8至20个沿着枪管设置的射孔弹,这些弹的点密度范围是在每英尺1和6点之间,但是最好是每英尺2至4点。 If a perforating gun selective emitter, the length of each individual gun may be 2-8 feet, and comprises from 8 to 20 arranged along the barrel shaped charge, the dot density is in the range of the projectile per foot between 1 and 6:00, but is preferably from 2 to 4 points for each foot. 在优选实施例中,15至20个单独的枪可以一个在另一个上面的方式叠放,使得组合后的枪系统的总长最好小于大约80至100英尺。 In a preferred embodiment the total length of 15 to 20 individual guns could a manner stacked one above the other, such that the combined gun system is preferably less than about 80 to 100 feet. 这种总长的枪可通过很容易准备的地面起重机和防喷管系统而下到井筒中。 The total length of such guns can be ground down into the wellbore by a crane and lubricator systems are easy to prepare. 也可以使用更长的枪,但是根据构成整个射孔装置的枪的总数,可能需要附加的或者特别的地面设备。 Longer guns may also be used, but the total number of the entire configuration perforating gun apparatus, may require additional or special equipment ground. 应该注意到,在某些独特的应用场合,枪的长度、每支枪的弹数以及射点密度可以大于或者小于上述数值,这是因为最终的射孔装置设计将受到欲被增产处理的井筒中的特定地层特性的影响。 It should be noted that in some special applications, the length of the gun, each gun emitting dot density and the number of shells may be greater or less than the above values, because the final design of the perforating means to be subjected to the stimulation of the wellbore Effect of the particular formation characteristic.

为了减小枪系统和BHA的总长,理想的是采用多个(两个或更多)弹装载器,这些装载器均匀分布在挠性管周围并捆绑、焊接或者以其他方式安装在挠性管上,或者连接到机械可重置的密封装置的下方。 To reduce the overall length of the gun system and BHA, desirable to use a plurality (two or more) bomb loader, the loader uniformly distributed around the bundle and the flexible tube, welded or otherwise mounted in the flexible tube on or below the sealing means is connected to the reset mechanically. 例如,如果需要增产处理30个区域,其中每一区域都用一个4英尺的枪射孔,则单一的枪装置将会形成大约150英尺的总长,这在地面上是不可操纵的。 For example, if desired stimulation area 30, where each region is represented by a four-foot perforating gun, the apparatus will form a single gun overall length of about 150 feet, on the ground which can not be manipulated. 作为替换形式,可采用位于挠性管上的相互面对的两个枪装置,其中每一枪装置包含15支枪,总长度约为75英尺,这就能用现有防喷管和起重机系统在地面上很容易地进行操作。 As an alternative, the gun can be located between the two devices facing each other on the flexible tube, wherein each gun 15 comprises a gun unit, a total length of about 75 feet, which can lubricator and existing crane system easily perform operations on the ground.

射孔枪的其他替代布置方案可以是将一支或多支枪定位在可重置的机械密封装置的上方。 Other alternative arrangement may be a perforating gun or guns positioned above a mechanical seal device is resettable. 可以将两支或更多的独立枪装置以下述方式安装,即,使弹的取向背离井底工具组合或挠性管上的元件。 It may be two or more independent gun assembly mounted in such a manner, i.e., the alignment of the elastic element facing away from the downhole tool or a combination of the flexible tube. 还可以形成单一的装置,该装置带有以更大密度加载的弹和发射装置,发射装置被设计为在给定的层段内仅使一个子组的弹同时发射,有可能该一次发射的所有的弹都在一个给定的相位方向上。 May also form a single apparatus with shells and transmitting means at a greater density loading, the transmission device is designed to be within a given interval so that only a subset of the elastic transmitted simultaneously, it is possible that once emitted All shells are given in a phase direction.

尽管在该实施例中描述的射孔装置采用了遥控发射的射孔弹或者流体喷射方式而在套筒和水泥环上射孔,在本发明的范围内,为了实现在井筒和周围地层之间建立流通路径的目的,也可以采用替换形式的射孔装置,包括但不局限于以下方式:化学溶解或者采用钻/磨铣切割装置。 Although the perforating device described in this embodiment uses a shaped charge or a fluid injection mode and a remote control transmitter of perforations in the sleeve and cement within the scope of the present invention, in order to achieve between the wellbore and the surrounding formation Objective to establish the flow path, it may be used alternatively in the form of perforating means, including, but not limited to the following ways: using chemical dissolution or drilling / milling cutting means. 对于本发明的目的,使用的术语“射孔装置”广义上包括上述所有的,以及任何为了触发射孔弹而悬挂在井筒中的启动触发装置,或者是可能由井底工具组合外部的套管或其他装置传输的、或者由用于支撑井底工具组合的悬挂方法悬挂的其他射孔装置。 For the purposes of this invention, the term "perforating device" broadly includes all of the above, and any order to trigger the shaped charge is suspended in the wellbore start trigger device, or may be a combination of a downhole tool or outer sleeve other means of transmission or other perforating device suspended by the suspension method for supporting a downhole tool in combination.

BHA可包含井底马达或者其他装置以形成旋转运动/扭矩,从而满足需要旋转运动/扭矩才能启动的机械密封装置的启动需要。 BHA may include a downhole motor or other means to form a rotary motion / torque needed to meet the start of the mechanical seal device needs to rotary motion / torque can be started. 这种装置,与定向装置(例如陀螺仪或罗盘仪)结合,就能进行定向射孔,使得射孔按优选的罗盘仪方向设置。 This means, the orienting device (e.g., a gyroscope or a compass) binding, oriented perforating can be carried out, so that the perforations provided by the preferred compass direction. 作为替换形式,如果要使用传统的接头连接油管,就可以通过直接旋转连接油管而将旋转运动和扭矩传递给井下,所述旋转连接的油管是通过采用旋转驱动设备来实现的,而该旋转驱动设备在传统的修井设备上是很容易提供的。 As an alternative, if you are using a conventional header pipe, can be rotational movement and the rotational torque is transmitted through a direct connection to downhole tubing, the tubing connector of rotation by a rotary drive apparatus is achieved, the rotational drive and equipment in the traditional workover equipment is easy to provide. 作为BHA的部件,还可以设置用于测量油井条件(套管接箍定位器、压力、温度和其他测量仪)、用于实时监测井下的增产作业参数、储层性能和/或油井动态的井底测量仪。 As a member of the BHA, it may also be provided for measuring the condition of the well (a casing collar locator, pressure, temperature, and other measuring instruments), real-time monitoring for the stimulation job parameters downhole, the reservoir performance, and / or dynamic oil wells end of measuring instrument.

除了可重置的机械导流装置,在处理时还可以将其他导流材料/装置泵送到井下,这包括但不局限于以下材料:封堵球或颗粒,例如砂、陶瓷材料、支撑剂、盐、蜡、树脂或其他有机或无机化合物,或者是可替代的流体系统,例如粘稠流体、凝胶状流体、泡沫或其他化学成分的流体,或其他可注入的导流剂。 In addition to mechanical deflector may be reset, the process may be other flow Shihai material / device pumped downhole, including but not limited to the following materials: ball sealers or particles, such as sand, ceramic material, proppant , salt, waxes, resins or other organic or inorganic compounds, or alternatively a fluid system, such as a viscous fluid, the fluid gelled fluids, foams, or other chemical components, or other agent may be injected into the flow. 附加的导流材料能用于帮助减少增产处理的持续时间,因为可以通过减少机械导流装置的设置次数来节约时间,同时仍然取得在多个区域上的导流效果。 Additional material flow can be used to help reduce the duration of the stimulation, because it can save time by reducing the number of mechanical guide means is provided, while still obtaining the effect of flow on the plurality of regions. 例如,在3,000英尺的层段中,要处理标称地隔开100英尺的各个区域,理想的是在井内向上增加500英尺处采用可重置的机械导流装置,然后用处理液中携带的导流剂对这六级中的每一级进行导流。 For example, in the interval of 3,000 feet, the respective areas to be processed are nominally spaced 100 feet, it is preferably increased upwardly in a well 500 feet at a resettable mechanical deflector and then carried in the treating solution diversion of these six agents were in each stage diversion. 作为替换形式,可对作为欲被处理的总层段的子组的多个层段使用有限进入技术。 As an alternative, may be used for a plurality of sub-intervals of the total interval group is to be treated as a limited access technology. 这些不同方案都会减少机械导流装置的机械设置的次数并能延长其有效寿命。 Mechanically set number of these different schemes will reduce the mechanical guide means and to prolong its useful life.

如果用油管柱作为布置装置,则油管可允许设置井下混合装置并易于应用井下混合技术。 If the apparatus is arranged as a tubing string, the downhole tubing may be provided to allow easy application of downhole mixing devices and mixing techniques. 特别地,可用油管柱将化学物质泵送到井下并使之通过井底工具组合的液流口,以接着通过生产套管环形空间而与泵送到油管中的流体混合。 In particular, the chemical substance can be used the tubing string and pumped downhole through the flow port of the downhole tool in combination, and then the fluid in the tubing to the pump casing annulus through the production mix. 例如,在液力压裂处理过程中,理想的是将氮或二氧化碳泵送到井下的油管中并使之与井下处理液混合,使得能够提供氮辅助或者二氧化碳辅助的回流。 For example, in hydraulic fracturing process, preferably nitrogen or carbon dioxide is pumped downhole tubing and downhole mixed with the processing liquid, so that auxiliary nitrogen or carbon dioxide to provide auxiliary reflux.

这种方法和装置能够用于处理竖井、斜井或水平井。 Such methods and apparatus can be used to process the shaft, inclined wells or horizontal wells. 例如,本发明提供了一种方法,能够产生与水平井或者斜井交叉贯穿的多个垂直(或者大致垂直)的压裂裂缝。 For example, the present invention provides a method capable of generating a plurality of vertical and horizontal wells or deviated through crossing (or substantially perpendicular) to fracture. 这种技术能够在单一的基座位置更经济地对多口油井完井。 This technology can be more economical completion of multiple wells at a single base position. 还可以这样实现对多支井的处理,其中最深支的井首先被处理;接着设置塞子或者启动套筒以隔离这一最低支的井;然后处理下一个沿井身向上的支井;再次设置塞堵或者启动套筒以隔离该支;然后重复这些步骤以处理在单一的井筒内的所需数量的支井。 May also be achieved by processing multiple branch wells, most of which is processed first branch well; then set to start the plug or sleeve to isolate the lowest branch well; and then processing the next uphole Zhijinghe; set again plugs or start to isolate the support sleeve; then repeat these steps to process a desired number in a single branch wellbore the wellbore.

如果采用了选择性发射的射孔枪,尽管从使能够被处理的层段的数量达到最多的观点来说选择性发射的射孔枪是理想的,但是与采用较长的枪相比,采用短枪(例如长度为4英尺或更短)会在某些情况下限制油井生产率,因为导致了附近的井筒储油层区域中的压降增大。 If the selective emitter of the perforating gun, although the perforating gun reaches a maximum point of view the number of layers is selectively emitted from the segments can be so treated is desirable, but with the use of longer gun, using pistols (e.g., a length of 4 feet or less) limit well productivity in some cases, led to as near wellbore reservoir region in increased pressure drop. 如果采用研磨喷射而仅对短的层段(例如长度为4英尺或更短)进行射孔,则油井生产率也同样受到限制。 If only the injection interval shorter milling (e.g., a length of 4 feet or less) was perforated, the well productivity is also limited. 还会增加过量的支撑剂回流的可能性,而这会导致降低增产效果。 It will increase the likelihood of excess proppant flowback, which will lead to lower yield. 所述回流最好在受控制的低速率下进行,以限制可能的支撑剂回流。 The reflux is preferably carried out at a controlled low-rate to limit potential proppant flowback. 根据回流结果,可采用树脂涂覆的支撑剂或者另外的枪结构来增加增产效果。 The reflux result, the resin coated proppants may be employed or another gun structure to increase the yield.

另外,如果采用油管或线缆作为布置装置,为帮助减小在流体被泵送到侧出口注入口时,由于含支撑剂的流体的直接冲击而在油管或线缆上可能产生的不理想的支撑剂腐蚀的可能性,可在井口安装“隔离装置”。 Further, if a cable or tubing arranged as a means to help reduce the time is pumped into the inlet side of the outlet, a direct impact not preferable since the fluid containing proppant that may occur on the cable in the tubing or fluid proppant possibility of corrosion, can be mounted "isolation device" wellhead. 该隔离装置可由带有短油管的法兰构成,并且沿井口的中心向下延伸到注入口下方几英尺的位置。 The spacer means may be composed of a short pipe with a flange, and extending downwardly along the center of the wellhead to a few feet below the injection port position. 井底工具组合和油管或者线缆能够在隔离装置油管中移动。 Downhole tool or a combination of cable and tubing isolation device is movable in the tubing. 这样,隔离装置的油管就能使支撑剂转向并将油管或线缆隔离不受支撑剂的直接冲击。 Thus, the tubing isolation device can proppant steering cables and tubing or isolated from direct impingement of proppant. 这种隔离装置可由适当直径的管道构成,使得它能够很容易地让与油管或线缆和井底工具组合相应的最大外径尺寸不受阻碍地通过。 This isolation means may be composed of an appropriate diameter pipe so that it can easily be combined with tubing so that the cable and the downhole tool or the corresponding maximum outer diameter dimension through unhindered. 该隔离装置的长度可以加工成使得在损坏的情况下下部的主压裂阀仍然能被关闭,并能够根据需要拆下井口设备以拆除隔离工具。 The length of the isolation device that can be processed in case of damage still lower main frac valve could be closed, and can be removed as needed to wellhead isolation tool removal. 根据增产液和注入方法,如果不考虑腐蚀,也可不需要隔离装置。 The stimulation fluid and injection method, without considering corrosion, may not require the isolation device. 尽管对隔离装置的油田试验显示出不会产生腐蚀问题,根据作业设计,存在可能对隔离工具管道装置产生腐蚀损害的风险,而这种腐蚀会使隔离工具的拆除困难。 Although the field test of the isolation device showed no corrosion problems, according to job design, there may be a risk of corrosion damage to the pipeline isolation tool device, and removal of corrosion causes difficulty with this isolation tools. 如果采用了隔离工具,最好的做法是将冲击到隔离工具上的速率保持在一般的腐蚀极限之下,优选的是低于大约180英尺/秒,更优选的是低于大约60英尺/秒。 If an isolation tool, the best practice is to impinge on the isolation tool rate remains below the limit of general corrosion, preferably less than about 180 ft / sec, more preferably less than about 60 ft / sec .

这种技术需要考虑的其他因素是:如果在泵送过程中不能恰当地测出流体驱替,就可能发生过早的脱砂,因为要想用跨过欲被射孔的下一区域的含有支撑剂的流体来开始展开一条裂缝可能是困难的。 Other factors to consider that this technique: if not properly measure the fluid displacement during pumping, premature release can occur sand, is contained as to be crossed in order to use the next zone perforations proppant to the fluid commenced a crack may be difficult. 理想的是采用KCl流体或其他非凝胶状流体系统作前置液而不用凝胶状的前置液,以更好地开始展开对下一区域的压裂。 Desirable to use a fluid or other non-gelled KCl fluid for the pad rather than the system gel pad fluid to better commenced fracturing of the next zone. 在各级之间以较高速度在作业中泵送注入将非凝胶状流体以形成对套管的涡流冲洗/清洗,将减小支撑剂脱砂的风险。 Between the levels of operation in the higher speed pumping implantation to form a non-fluid gel on a vortex tube flushing / washing, will reduce the risk of proppant screenout. 另外,在工具串上还设置有备用枪,以在适当的等待时间之后能使作业继续。 Further, the tool string is further provided with a spare gun, to enable continued operation after a suitable waiting time.

尽管上述实施例主要是当本发明的方法用于液力压裂处理时所产生的优点,这不应解释为限制权利要求所规定的发明,本发明可应用于下述任何情况下,即其中在单一的下井作业中进行射孔以及其他井筒操作。 Although the above embodiments mainly advantage when the method of the invention for a hydraulic fracturing treatment produced, which should not be construed as limiting the invention defined in the claims, the present invention is applicable to any case below, in which perforating and other downhole wellbore operations in a single operation. 本领域的技术人员应该认识到,实施例中未特别描述的许多变化型式也可以作为实现本发明目的的功能等同物。 Those skilled in the art will be appreciated that many variations type embodiment not specifically described embodiments can achieve the object of the present invention as functional equivalents thereof.

Claims (35)

1.一种用于对与井筒相交的一个或多个地下地层的多个层段进行射孔和处理的方法,所述方法包括:(a)采用布置装置把井底工具组合(“BHA”)布置在所述井筒中,所述BHA具有一个射孔装置和一个密封装置;(b)用深度控制装置将所述BHA定位在所述井筒中;(c)采用所述射孔装置对所述层段进行射孔;(d)启动所述密封装置,从而在所述井筒中建立起液体密封;(e)将处理液沿所述布置装置和所述井筒之间的环形空间向下泵送并使其流入由所述射孔装置形成的射孔中,而不必将所述射孔装置从所述井筒中取出;(f)释放所述密封装置;和(g)对于所述一个或多个地下地层的至少另一个层段重复进行步骤(b)至(f)。 1. A method for multiple intervals of one or more subterranean formations intersected wellbore and perforating process, the method comprising: (a) With the arrangement of the apparatus downhole tool combination ( "BHA" ) is disposed in said wellbore, said BHA having a perforating device and a sealing device; (b) with the BHA depth control means is positioned in the wellbore; (c) the use of the perforating means said perforate intervals; (d) activating the sealing means, thereby establishing a liquid seal in the wellbore; (e) the processing liquid are arranged along said means between the wellbore and pumped down the annular space send and allowed to flow into the perforations formed by perforating device, without having to remove the device from the perforations in the wellbore; (f) releasing said sealing means; and (g) to the one or a plurality of layers at least one further section of the subterranean formation repeating steps (b) to (f).
2.权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述布置装置从由下列组成的组中选出:电缆,钢丝和线缆。 The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the arrangement of means selected from the group consisting of: a cable, wire and cable.
3.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述布置装置是油管柱。 The method according to claim 1, characterized in that said means is a tubing string disposed.
4.如权利要求3所述的方法,其特征在于,所述油管柱从由挠性管和接头连接的油管中选择。 4. The method according to claim 3, wherein said tubing string from the selected pipe joint is connected by a flexible tube and the.
5.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,使用深度控制装置将所述BHA定位在所述井筒内,所述深度控制装置从套管接箍定位器和地面测量系统组成的组中选择。 5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a depth control device of the BHA positioned within the wellbore, said depth control means composed from a casing collar locator and a measuring system's group select.
6.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述射孔装置是选择性发射的射孔枪,该射孔枪包含多组射孔弹,每一组射孔弹由一个或多个聚能射孔弹构成;所述由一个或多个聚能射孔弹构成的组的每一个组都由通过布置在井筒中的线缆传输的电或光信号来单独地控制和启动。 6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that said perforating means is selectively emitted from the perforating gun, the perforating gun comprising a plurality of sets of shaped charges, each shaped charge by one or more groups a shaped charge configuration; each of said groups a set of one or more shaped charges disposed individually configured by controlling the start and electrical or optical signal transmission cable through the wellbore.
7.如权利要求3所述的方法,其特征在于,所述射孔装置是喷射切割装置,该切割装置使用沿所述油管柱向下泵送的流体,来在所述井筒和所述一个或多个地下地层的所述一个或多个层段之间建立起液体连通。 7. The method according to claim 3, wherein said perforating device is a jet cutting apparatus, the cutting device used in the fluid pumped down the tubing string to the wellbore and said one establish fluid communication between the subterranean formation one or more segments of one or more layers.
8.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,将所述处理液还沿所述油管柱向下泵送,通过所述BHA上的液流口,并流入所述射孔。 8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the treatment fluid further along pumped down the tubing string, through the flow port on said BHA, and into the perforations.
9.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,将所述第二处理液沿所述油管柱向下泵送,通过所述BHA上的液流口,并流入所述射孔。 9. The method according to claim 1, wherein, in the second processing liquid pumped down the tubing string, through the flow port on said BHA, and into the perforations.
10.如权利要求9所述的方法,其特征在于,所述第二处理液是氮。 10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the second treatment fluid is nitrogen.
11.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述密封装置是可重置的封隔器。 11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that said sealing means is a resettable packer.
12.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述处理液从下列材料组成的组中选择:酸性溶液、有机溶剂以及具有支撑剂材料和携带液的稀浆。 12. The method according to claim 1, wherein said processing liquid from the group consisting of the following material selection: acidic solution, an organic solvent and a proppant material and carrier fluid slurry.
13.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述方法还包括以下步骤,在释放所述密封装置之前,将至少一个导流介质布置在所述井筒中,以堵塞处理液继续流进所述射孔。 13. The method according to claim 1, wherein said method further comprises the step of, prior to release of the sealing means, at least one flow medium disposed in the wellbore to plug the treatment liquid continues to flow into the perforations.
14.权利要求13所述的方法,其特征在于,所述布置在所述井筒中的导流介质从下列材料组成的组中选出:颗粒,凝胶体,粘稠流体,泡沫和封堵球。 14. The method of claim 13, wherein said group is arranged in a flow medium from the wellbore is selected from the following materials: particles, gels, viscous fluids, and a foam block ball.
15.权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述密封装置是通过从地面经过控制管缆传输的液体压力被启动的。 15. The method of claim 1, wherein said sealing means is activated by the fluid pressure from the surface through umbilical transmission.
16.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述射孔装置是通过从地面经过控制管缆传输的液体压力被启动的。 16. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that said perforating means is activated by the fluid pressure from the surface through umbilical transmission.
17.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述射孔装置是通过从地面经过所述井筒传输的液体压力被启动的。 17. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that said perforating means by fluid pressure through the wellbore transmission is started from the ground.
18.权利要求3所述的方法,其特征在于,所述射孔装置是通过从地面经过所述油管柱传输的液体压力被启动的。 18. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein said perforating means is a fluid pressure through the tubing string through the transmission is started from the ground.
19.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,在启动所述的密封装置以前,将所述BHA在所述井筒中重新定位。 19. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that said sealing means before starting the repositioning of the BHA in the wellbore.
20.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述BHA还包括至少一个压力均衡装置;所述方法还包括:在所述释放所述密封装置的步骤之前,通过所述至少一个压力均衡装置,在所述密封装置上方的井筒部分与所述密封装置下方的井筒部分之间建立压力连通。 20. The method according to claim 1, wherein the BHA further comprises at least one pressure equalizing means; said method further comprising: prior to said step of releasing said sealing means, through said at least one pressure equalizing means establishing a pressure communication between the portion of the wellbore below the sealing means sealing the upper portion of the wellbore apparatus.
21.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述射孔装置被设在所述密封装置以下。 21. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that said perforating means is provided in said seal means less.
22.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述密封装置被启动以便在所述已射孔层段以下建立液体密封。 22. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the sealing means is activated so as to establish the following layer has perforations in said liquid seal.
23.如权利要求21所述的方法,其特征在于,所述射孔装置上没有被设置从其中通过的冲洗流体流动通道。 23. The method according to claim 21, characterized in that the perforation has not been provided by means of which the flushing fluid from the flow passage.
24.如权利要求20或21所述的方法,其特征在于,所述该BHA在所述井筒中被重新定位,所述密封装置被启动,以便在所述已射孔层段下方建立液体密封。 24. The method of claim 20 or claim 21, wherein said the BHA is repositioned in the wellbore, the sealing means is activated, so that the lower layer liquid seal segment has been established in the perforated .
25.一种用于对与井筒相交的一个或多个地下地层的多个层段进行射孔和处理的增产处理系统,所述系统包括:(a)处理液;(b)步置在所述井筒中的布置装置;(c)井底工具组合(BHA),它适于用所述布置装置被布置在所述井筒中,所述BHA具有至少一个用于依次地对所述多个层段进行射孔的射孔装置和至少一个密封装置,所述BHA能够用深度控制装置被定位于所述井筒中,以使得所述射孔装置和所述密封装置被启动;(d)所述密封装置能够在所述井筒中建立起液体密封,还能够释放所述液体密封以使所述BHA能移动到所述井筒中的不同位置,从而使所述多个处理层段的每一个层段都用与所述其他处理层段隔离开的所述处理液来处理。 25. A wellbore for intersecting a plurality of layers or a plurality of segments were stimulated subterranean formation perforating system and process, the system comprising: (a) the processing liquid; (b) disposed in the step means disposed in said wellbore; (c) a combination of downhole tool (BHA), adapted by means of said arrangement is disposed in said wellbore, said BHA having at least one of said plurality of layers sequentially perforating means for perforating the segment and at least one sealing means, said BHA capable of being positioned in the wellbore with depth control means, so that the perforating means and said sealing means is activated; (d) the sealing means can establish a liquid seal in the wellbore, it is also capable of releasing the liquid seal to allow said BHA can be moved to a different location in the wellbore, such that each interval of said plurality of segments treatment layer It is treated with the treatment liquid and isolated from the other processing interval.
26.一种用于对与井筒相交的一个或多个地下地层的多个层段进行射孔和处理的装置,所述装置包括:(a)井底工具组合(BHA),它适于通过布置装置被布置在所述井筒中,并适于通过深度控制装置被定位在所述井筒中,所述BHA具有至少一个用于依次地对所述多个层段进行射孔的射孔装置和至少一个密封装置;以及(b)所述密封装置能够在所述井筒内建立起液体密封,还能够释放所述液体密封以使所述BHA移动到所述井筒中的不同位置,从而使所述多个处理层段的每一个层段都被与所述其他处理层段隔离开地处理。 26. A method for one or more of a plurality of intervals of the subterranean formation and a wellbore intersecting and perforating means for processing, said apparatus comprising: (a) downhole tool combination (BHA), adapted by arrangement means is arranged in the wellbore, and adapted to be positioned in the wellbore by a depth control means, said BHA having at least one of said plurality of layers sequentially perforating sections and perforating means at least one sealing means; and (b) said sealing means can establish a liquid seal in the wellbore, further capable of releasing the liquid seal to allow the BHA to move to a different location in the wellbore, so that the each interval more processing interval are processed with the other processing interval to isolate.
27.如权利要求26所述的装置,其特征在于,所述布置装置是油管柱。 27. The apparatus according to claim 26, characterized in that said means is a tubing string disposed.
28.如权利要求27所述的装置,其特征在于,所述油管柱从由挠性管和接头连接的油管组成的组中选择。 28. The apparatus according to claim 27, wherein said tubing string selected from the group consisting of flexible tubing connected to the tube and the joint thereof.
29.如权利要求26所述的装置,其特征在于,所述布置装置从下组中选出:电缆,钢丝和线缆。 29. The apparatus according to claim 26, wherein said means disposed is selected from the group consisting of: a cable, wire and cable.
30.如权利要求26所述的装置,其特征在于,还包括用来将所述BHA定位在所述井筒内的深度控制装置,所述深度控制装置从套管接箍定位器和地面测量系统组成的组中选择。 30. The apparatus according to claim 26, wherein said depth further comprises control means for BHA positioned within the wellbore, said depth control means from the casing collar locator and ground measuring system select the group consisting of.
31.如权利要求26所述的装置,其特征在于,所述密封装置是可重置的封隔器。 31. The apparatus according to claim 26, characterized in that said sealing means is a resettable packer.
32.如权利要求26所述的装置,其特征在于,所述射孔装置是选择性发射的射孔枪,该射孔枪包含多组射孔弹,每一组射孔弹都由一个或多个聚能射孔弹组成;所述每一个由一个或多个聚能射孔弹组成的组都由通过布置在井筒中的电缆传输的电信号来单独地控制和启动。 32. The apparatus according to claim 26, wherein said perforating means is selectively emitted from the perforating gun, the perforating gun comprising a plurality of sets of shaped charges, each shaped charge consists of a set or composed of a plurality of shaped charges; each of said groups of one or more shaped charges disposed composed of individually controlled by starting and electrical signal transmission cable through the wellbore.
33.如权利要求26所述的装置,其特征在于,所述射孔装置是通过从地面经过所述井筒传输的液体压力来启动的。 33. The apparatus according to claim 26, wherein said perforating means by fluid pressure through the wellbore to initiate transmission from the ground.
34.如权利要求26所述的装置,其特征在于,所述射孔装置是通过从地面经过所述油管柱传输的液体压力来启动的。 34. The apparatus according to claim 26, wherein said perforating means is a fluid pressure through the tubing string through the transmission to start from the ground.
35.如权利要求27所述的装置,其特征在于,所述射孔装置是喷射切割装置,该喷射切割装置采用沿所述油管柱向下泵送的流体,以在所述井筒和所述一个或多个地下地层的所述一个或多个层段之间建立起液体连通。 35. The apparatus according to claim 27, wherein said perforating device is a jet cutting device that uses jet cutting apparatus along the fluid pumped down the tubing string to the wellbore and in the one or more of the subterranean formation to establish fluid communication between a segment or a plurality of layers.
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