CN1280069C - Flexible tactile sensor and method for detecting infomation of tactile sensation - Google Patents

Flexible tactile sensor and method for detecting infomation of tactile sensation Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1280069C
CN1280069C CN 200310106202 CN200310106202A CN1280069C CN 1280069 C CN1280069 C CN 1280069C CN 200310106202 CN200310106202 CN 200310106202 CN 200310106202 A CN200310106202 A CN 200310106202A CN 1280069 C CN1280069 C CN 1280069C
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magnetosensitive
magnetic
array
magnetic rubber
sensor
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CN 200310106202
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CN1539604A (en
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孔德义
梅涛
汪小华
张正勇
张涛
路巍
王锐
倪林
陈茅
陶永春
张成梅
胡圣军
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中国科学院合肥智能机械研究所
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a flexible tactile sensor and a method for detecting tactile information. The sensor comprises a magnetic rubber working face, an elastic interlayer, a magnetic-sensing array, a glass substrate and a signal processing circuit, wherein the magnetic rubber working face and the elastic interlayer can automatically adapt to the surface shape of a target object through flexible deformation, and simultaneously result in the change of the spatial distribution of a magnetic field. Thereby, the output current of each magnetic-sensing unit in the magnetic-sensing array is changed. The quantitive relationship of the output current of each magnetic-sensing unit in the magnetic-sensing array and the amount of deformation of magnetic rubber is calibrated through a neural network technology. The tactile information of a contact position when the sensor is soft contact with an unknown object, the spatial distribution of contact force, the local shapes of the target object, etc. can be obtained. The flexible tactile sensor can be used in the technical field of robots, can be arranged in the positions of the surface of a mechanical hand clamp holder or the finger surface of a robot, etc., enhance the reliability of the processes of grabbing, conveying, etc., and can also be arranged on the periphery of the body of a mobile robot for avoiding obstacles.

Description

A kind of flexible touch sensation sensor and tactile data detection method

Technical field

The present invention relates to the robot sensor field, particularly a kind of flexible touch sensation sensor and tactile data detection method.This sensor energy adaptive targets object surfaces shape, can be applicable to the Robotics field after succeeding in developing, can be installed in manipulator clamp surface or robot finger's positions such as finger face, obtain the spatial distribution of contact position, contact force and the tactile datas such as local shape of target object " soft contact ", improve the reliability of processes such as extracting and transmission, the health that also can be installed in the mobile robot is used to keep away barrier on every side.

Background technology

Touch sensor is one of extremely important sensor of robot, and according to the information that touch sensor provides, robot can grasp target object, and further physical propertys such as its shape of perception, soft or hard.An important development trend of touch sensor be requirement it have certain flexibility, the working face of promptly wishing it can softness and high resilience as people's skin, by this by distortion adaptive targets object surfaces shape, increase contact-making surface, help more solid and reliable ground grasping target object so on the one hand, can also obtain more tactile data on the other hand.

Early stage touch sensor mainly contains two kinds of mechanical type touch sensor and flexible type touch sensors, their volumes are bigger, spatial resolution is lower, and adopt " hard contact " working method, be that the working sensor face can not produce plastic deformation with adaptive targets object surfaces shape, so they are difficult to obtain using comparatively widely in the Robotics field.

Along with the development of sensor technology, pressure resistance type, condenser type and three kinds of touch sensors of optical profile type have appearred.

Piezoresistive tactile sensor generally adopts the method for pasting foil gauge in elastomer structure, and its shortcoming is that the volume of sensor is difficult to further dwindle, and uniformity and precision are all relatively poor.Piezoresistive tactile sensor can also adopt semiconductor technology directly to make on silicon chip, its precision and uniformity are greatly improved, volume also reduces greatly, but because it adopts two-sided processing technology to make, thereby can not be compatible fully with semiconductor integrated circuit technique, its tactual space resolution ratio also is difficult to further raising.The piezoresistive tactile sensor that adopts these two kinds of methods to make also is to adopt " hard contact " working method.

Capacitance type touch sensor is when touching target object, one of them electrode can be moved, thereby cause the change of capacitance, but its juxtaposition metamorphose is less, basically can not adaptive targets object surfaces shape, therefore belong to " hard contact " formula touch sensor, and in capacitance type touch sensor, have movable electrode, its life-span is not very long, and reliability neither be very high.

Optical tactile sensor mainly is meant the optical fiber touch sensor, the U.S. once produced a kind of ellipsoid shape flexible touch sensation sensor of built-in fiber, it adopts " soft contact " working method, its working face has bigger juxtaposition metamorphose, can adaptive targets object surfaces shape, but it only can calculate the surface configuration of target object by the deflection that detects self, but can not calculate the size and the distribution of contact force, and the system of optical tactile sensor is all comparatively complicated, except sensor itself, also need outer according to Mingguang City's fibre, therefore miniature CCD and be used for high-speed computer that image handles etc. is difficult to miniaturization.

Except above-mentioned touch sensor, the domestic novel touch sensor of developing a kind of based on vacuum microelectronics technique recently, it has very high tactual space resolution ratio and higher sensitivity, but also be to adopt " hard contact " working method, juxtaposition metamorphose is little, and have movable electrode, its life-span and long-time stability are still waiting to improve.

In addition, Japan develops a kind of radio-type flexible touch sensation sensor, its sensing unit itself adopts wireless mode work, the coil array that but need be positioned at the sensing unit bottom provides electric energy by the mutual inductance mode for it, take out sensitive signal simultaneously, will handle in the computer that it passes to coil array links to each other.This sensor all is not very flexible aspect design and use, oversize, the diameter of only single power receiving coil just reaches 22mm, spatial resolution is very low, and sensing element depends on the coil array that links to each other with computer of its bottom, so it is not a kind of touch sensor that truly adopts wireless mode work.This sensor is only produced the principle demonstration model machine at present, but does not develop the product of practicability.

Summary of the invention

Some shortcomings part in view of existing various touch sensors, a kind of new flexible touch sensation sensor and tactile data detection method have been the present invention seeks to propose, this sensor has higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, its working face can obtain the spatial distribution of contact position, contact force and the tactile datas such as local shape of target object by plastic deformation adaptive targets object surfaces shape " soft contact ".

Technology contents of the present invention is a kind of flexible touch sensation sensor, is made up of sensor probe and these two parts of signal processing circuit, it is characterized in that:

Sensor probe mainly comprises magnetic rubber, elastic interlayer, magnetosensitive array and glass substrate;

Magnetic rubber is positioned at the outermost layer of sensor probe, it directly contacts with testee as working face, on the magnetic rubber working face without any electronic device and electrode, thereby can not occur because of the electronic device and the circuit damaged condition thereof that contact and the extracting target object may cause, so reliability is better;

Be elastic interlayer below the magnetic rubber, it is the cushion between magnetic rubber and the magnetosensitive array;

Magnetic rubber and elastic interlayer are flexible material, be easier to distortion under external force, but the thickness of magnetic rubber does not change when deforming, and elastic interlayer can be compressed on thickness direction, therefore elastic interlayer provides the local surfaces shape of a bigger deformation space with the self adaptation testee for the magnetic rubber working face, this makes sensor to work in " soft contact " mode, thereby can effectively avoid " hard contact " the testee surface that may cause and damage of sensor itself, simultaneously because magnetic rubber and elastic interlayer can produce the compressive deformation that the adaptive targets object is touched the part surface shape, thereby increased contact area, make that contact and extracting process are more reliable, and can obtain more mechanical information;

It below the elastic interlayer magnetosensitive array, magnetosensitive unit in the array is magnetodiode or the magnetic sensitive transistor that the silicon materials of employing rigidity are made, be used for detecting near the magnetic field distribution of magnetosensitive array surface, compare with Hall element, magnetodiode and magnetic sensitive transistor have higher sensitivity, and its manufacture craft and ic process compatibility, so integrated level is higher, be that magnetosensitive cell density in the magnetosensitive array is higher, thereby can realize higher tactual space resolution ratio;

Glass substrate is a kind of and the very approaching Pyrex material of thermal coefficient of expansion silicon, is positioned at the bottom of sensor probe, main support, heat insulation, the insulating effect of rising;

Glass substrate is combined in the back side of magnetosensitive array by the electrostatic sealing-in technical key, elastic interlayer and magnetic rubber then are installed in the front of magnetosensitive array successively by little package technique, in a single day magnetic rubber working face or elastic interlayer damage or follow the string, can only carry out dismounting and change separately to these two parts, need not change the magnetosensitive array, therefore easy to maintenance, maintenance cost is cheap, but needs again the output signal of magnetosensitive array to be demarcated after changing magnetic rubber or elastic interlayer;

Described flexible touch sensation sensor second portion signal processing circuit mainly comprises current amplification circuit, switching gate circuit, A/D and D/A change-over circuit, signal comparator circuit, single-chip microcomputer, memory, display circuit, power supply, and the structure annexation between each circuit is:

Magnetodiode in the sensor probe or the output of magnetic sensitive transistor signal, be connected to the current amplification circuit in the signal processing circuit, signal output after this circuit amplifies is connected to A/D change-over circuit and the signal comparator circuit that has the switching gate circuit, signal after amplifying is converted to digital quantity, and output is connected to single-chip microcomputer, memory, display circuit, handle by single-chip microcomputer, finish the collection and the explanation of magnetosensitive element output signal, and can show by display circuit, D/A change-over circuit output connects and deposit memory in;

Each magnetosensitive unit in the sensor probe magnetosensitive array all connects signal processing circuit by the way, each magnetosensitive unit is selected by the switching gate circuit, successively the output signal of each the magnetosensitive unit in the magnetosensitive array is handled, all circuit in the signal processing circuit all are connected with lead by the power supply power supply with element, and sensor probe assembles with signal processing circuit is in the same place.

The switching gate circuit extracts the output current signal of each magnetosensitive unit in the magnetosensitive array successively under the control of single-chip microcomputer, amplified through current amplification circuit, again through after the A/D conversion data being stored in the memory; Signal comparator circuit compares the signal that is stored in the memory before output signal behind the sensor contact target object and the contact target object under the control of single-chip microcomputer, and the result that will compare is construed to a complete haptic signal, demonstrates tactile data by D/A change-over circuit and display circuit again.

The preparation method of described sensor is:

1) according to the demand of specific application area, determine working face size, spatial resolution and the sensitivity of sensor probe, wherein the working face size of sensor probe depends primarily on the planar dimension of magnetosensitive array;

The magnetosensitive array adopts microelectric technique to make, and its planar dimension can be very little, but the full-size of single magnetosensitive array is no more than the planar dimension of single silicon chip;

Must adopt undersized magnetosensitive array in the structure of small-sized flexible touch sensation sensor probe, minimum flexible touch sensation sensor even can be installed in the finger face of robot is for robot provides profuse tactile data;

For bigger flexible touch sensation sensor, in the structure of its probe, need to adopt large-sized magnetosensitive array, therefore under the prerequisite of process conditions permission, can select the bigger silicon chip of diameter and make large-sized magnetosensitive array, perhaps several magnetosensitive array group are dressed up bigger " compound " tactile sensing array by mixing integrated mode, the large scale flexible touch sensation sensor of producing thus can be installed in the clamp surface of mechanical arm end, be used for nondestructively grasping and transmitting bigger object, the mechanics feedback control signal is provided simultaneously, improves the reliability that grasps;

2), determine the planar dimension of magnetosensitive array, and the combined process condition is determined the size of single magnetosensitive array and whether need to adopt the mixing integration mode to form " compound " magnetosensitive array according to the dimensional requirement of sensor probe;

3), determine the planar dimension of elastic interlayer, magnetic rubber and glass substrate according to the planar dimension of selected magnetosensitive array;

4) determine the full-size of magnetosensitive unit according to the requirement of spatial resolution, the magnetosensitive unit of actual fabrication can be less than this size to improve spatial resolution;

5) determine that according to the requirement of sensitivity the magnetosensitive unit is to adopt magnetodiode or employing magnetic sensitive transistor, compare that magnetic sensitive transistor has higher sensitivity, but manufacture craft is complicated more with magnetodiode;

When the requirement to sensitivity when not being very high, can select for use magnetodiode as the magnetosensitive unit to reduce the technology manufacture difficulty, when requiring sensor to have higher tactility, can select for use magnetic sensitive transistor as the magnetosensitive unit;

When adopting magnetic sensitive transistor still to be difficult to reach the requiring of sensitivity, under the prerequisite that satisfies certain tactual space resolution ratio, magnetodiode that can several are adjacent or magnetic sensitive transistor are formed " compound " magnetosensitive unit, constitute whole magnetosensitive array by these " compound " magnetosensitive unit again, adopt this method can detect very faint changes of magnetic field, have very high tactility;

6) according to the sensitivity of selected magnetosensitive unit, calculate thickness, the thickness of magnetic rubber and the minimum magnetic induction intensity of magnetic rubber near surface of determining elastic interlayer by theory;

7) adopt finite element method that the stress deformation of magnetic rubber and elastic interlayer and the redistribution of the space magnetic field after the magnetic rubber distortion are carried out numerical computations, and then finish the material parameter of magnetic rubber and elastic interlayer and the optimal design of structural parameters;

In sensor probe, the manufacture craft of magnetic rubber working face, elastic interlayer, magnetosensitive array and glass substrate is separate, thereby after the material parameter of magnetic rubber and elastic interlayer and structural parameters are determined, can carry out this tetrameric independent making of magnetic rubber working face, elastic interlayer, magnetosensitive array and glass substrate synchronously, be assembled into sensor probe after all completing again, this helps improving yield rate, makes that also the manufacture craft of this sensor probe is comparatively flexible simultaneously;

8) adopt microelectric technique to make the magnetosensitive array, comprise layout design, plate-making, process flow, chip encapsulation, test etc.;

9) adopt the electrostatic sealing-in technology that magnetosensitive array and glass substrate are bonded together;

10) adopt micro-processing technology to make elastic interlayer, and it is installed in the magnetosensitive array surface;

11) select for use quality evenly and have big flexible permanent magnetism elastomeric material, be processed into the required size requirement

The magnetic rubber working face, require magnetic rubber consistent with this working face normal direction in the magnetic line of force direction at its working face place, can guarantee that like this this magnetosensitive array plane is vertical with the magnetic line of force direction at described magnetic rubber working face place, thereby improve the sensitivity of sensor;

For the magnetic line of force direction magnetic rubber vertical, can directly a complete magnetic rubber be assembled in the elastic interlayer surface with rubber face;

For the magnetic line of force direction magnetic rubber parallel with rubber face, need to adopt micro-processing technology that it is separated into a plurality of onesize magnetic rubber unit earlier, be assembled in the elastic interlayer surface equably behind again that these are the discrete magnetic rubber unit half-twist, thereby form a magnetic rubber cell array, wherein the magnetic line of force direction at the working face place of each described magnetic rubber unit is all perpendicular to described magnetosensitive array plane;

12) adopt electronic circuit technology to make signal processing circuit, and be connected debugging with sensor probe, wherein signal processing circuit partly comprises power supply, A/D and D/A change-over circuit, switching gate circuit, current amplification circuit, signal comparator circuit, single-chip microcomputer, memory, display circuit;

13) sensor is demarcated, promptly by signal processing circuit extract successively with handle the magnetosensitive array in each magnetosensitive unit contact output current signal before and after the known target object at sensor probe, and adopt nerual network technique that these signals are handled, it is construed to corresponding haptic signal.

Described sensor carries out method for measuring to tactile data:

The outermost layer magnetic rubber of sensor probe is a kind of permanent-magnet material, the space exists certain Distribution of Magnetic Field in its vicinity, magnetic field is comparatively responsive to external world to be positioned at magnetosensitive array below the elastic interlayer, the operating current of each magnetosensitive unit all can the corresponding change along with the variation of magnetic induction intensity in the array, so the influence of magnetic field that produces of magnetic rubber the operating current of each magnetosensitive unit;

When sensor probe does not contact any object, any deformation can not take place in magnetic rubber and elastic interlayer, therefore near the space magnetic field the magnetic rubber distributes constant, the vertical range of all magnetosensitive unit and magnetic rubber face is all keeping the fixed value of original state in this moment magnetosensitive array, the magnetic induction intensity at each place, magnetosensitive unit is constant, and their operating current is also constant;

When sensor probe contacts with target object, stressed inside recessed distortion of magnetic rubber working face and elasticity of compression interlayer, feasible vertical range with contact position corresponding magnetosensitive unit and magnetic rubber working face shortens, and cause the magnetic induction intensity at these places, magnetosensitive unit to strengthen, thereby make their operating current produce variation comparatively significantly, by detecting the operating current situation of change of each magnetosensitive unit in the magnetosensitive array, can obtain the spatial distribution of contact position, contact force and the tactile datas such as local shape of target object.

Beneficial effect of the present invention, this flexible touch sensation sensor promptly proposed by the invention has following characteristics:

1) magnetic rubber (1) and the elastic interlayer (2) that is positioned at the sensor probe outside is flexible material, therefore this sensor adopts " soft contact " working method, can effectively avoid " hard contact " the testee surface that may cause and damage of sensor itself;

2) during sensor probe contact target object, magnetic rubber (1) and elastic interlayer (2) produce the compressive deformation that the adaptive targets object is touched the part surface shape, this has not only increased contact area, makes that contact and extracting process are more reliable, can also obtain more mechanical information simultaneously;

3) structure of sensor probe is comparatively simple, wherein the manufacture craft of magnetic rubber (1) working face, elastic interlayer (2), magnetosensitive array (3), glass substrate (4) is separate, be assembled into sensor probe again after can completing separately respectively, this helps improving yield rate, makes that also the processing technology of this sensor is comparatively flexible simultaneously;

4) the magnetosensitive unit (5) in the sensor probe is magnetodiode or magnetic sensitive transistor, with commonly used comparing with Hall element, magnetodiode and magnetic sensitive transistor have higher sensitivity, and its manufacture craft and ic process compatibility, therefore integrated level is higher, be that magnetosensitive unit (5) density in the magnetosensitive array (3) is higher, thereby can realize higher tactual space resolution ratio;

5) compare with magnetodiode, magnetic sensitive transistor has higher sensitivity, but manufacture craft is complicated more; When the requirement to sensitivity when not being very high, can select for use magnetodiode as magnetosensitive unit (5) to reduce the technology manufacture difficulty; When requiring sensor to have higher tactility, can select for use magnetic sensitive transistor as magnetosensitive unit (5);

6) when adopting magnetic sensitive transistor still to be difficult to reach the requiring of sensitivity, under the prerequisite that satisfies certain tactual space resolution ratio, magnetodiode that can several are adjacent or magnetic sensitive transistor are formed " compound " magnetosensitive unit (5), constitute whole magnetosensitive array (3) by these " compound " magnetosensitive unit (5) again, adopt this method can detect very faint changes of magnetic field, have very high tactility;

7) on the working face of sensor probe without any electronic device and electrode, thereby can not occur because of contact and grasp electronic device and the circuit damaged condition thereof that target object may cause, so reliability is better;

8) magnetic rubber (1) working face or elastic interlayer (2) in a single day damage or follow the string, can only carry out dismounting and change separately to these two parts, need not change magnetosensitive array (3), therefore easy to maintenance, maintenance cost is cheap, but needs sensor is demarcated again after changing magnetic rubber (1) or elastic interlayer (2);

9) in the design of sensor probe, the magnetic line of force that requires magnetic rubber (1) to produce vertically passes magnetic rubber (1) plane, can guarantee that like this magnetic pole of magnetosensitive array (3) plane and magnetic rubber (1) is perpendicular, thereby improves the sensitivity of sensor; For the magnetic line of force direction magnetic rubber vertical (1), can directly a complete magnetic rubber (1) be assembled in elastic interlayer (2) surface with rubber face; For the magnetic line of force direction magnetic rubber parallel (1) with rubber face, then need to adopt micro-processing technology that rubber face is separated into a plurality of onesize magnetic rubber unit (6) earlier, be assembled into new magnetic rubber unit (a 6) array behind magnetic rubber unit (6) half-twist that these are discrete, this array is installed in elastic interlayer (2) surface, wherein the magnetic line of force direction at the working face place of each described magnetic rubber unit (6) is all perpendicular to described magnetosensitive array plane again;

10) the working face size of sensor probe depends primarily on the planar dimension of magnetosensitive array (3); Magnetosensitive array (3) adopts microelectric technique to make, and its size can be very little, also can be bigger; Must adopt small size magnetosensitive array (3) in the structure of small-sized flexible touch sensation sensor, minimum flexible touch sensation sensor even can be installed in the finger face of robot is for robot provides profuse tactile data; The full-size of single magnetosensitive array (3) depends on the size of silicon chip, under the prerequisite of process conditions permission, can select the bigger silicon chip of diameter and make large-sized magnetosensitive array (3), even can also several magnetosensitive arrays (3) be assembled into a bigger tactile sensing array by mixing integrated mode, select the magnetic rubber (1) of corresponding size again, elastic interlayer (2) and glass substrate (4), can produce the flexible touch sensation sensor of large-size, can be installed in the clamp surface of mechanical arm end, be used for nondestructively grasping and transmitting bigger object, the mechanics feedback control signal is provided simultaneously, improves the reliability that grasps.

11) adopt the method for designing that this patent proposed, can produce a kind of novel flexible touch sensor, it has higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, its working face can obtain the spatial distribution of contact position, contact force and the tactile datas such as local shape of target object by plastic deformation adaptive targets object surfaces shape " soft contact "; This sensor has different specifications, can form a kind of series, to satisfy the application demand of different field; Can be directly used in the Robotics field after this sensor design success, can be installed in robot finger's finger face or manipulator clamp surface, improve the reliability of processes such as extracting and transmission, the health that also can be installed in the mobile robot is used to keep away barrier on every side.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the novel flexible touch sensor sonde configuration schematic diagram with complete magnetic rubber working face;

Fig. 2 is the novel flexible touch sensor sonde configuration schematic diagram that working face is made up of discrete magnetic rubber unit;

Fig. 3 is the signal processing circuit connection diagram.

1. magnetic rubbers among the figure (magnetic line of force is perpendicular to the rubber plane), 2. elastic interlayer, 3. magnetosensitive array, 4. glass substrate, 5. magnetosensitive unit, 6. magnetic rubber unit (pole orientation is perpendicular to elastic interlayer and magnetosensitive array), AMP. current amplification circuit, MUX. switching gate circuit, A/D.A/D change-over circuit, the D/A.D/A change-over circuit, CP. signal comparator circuit, MCU. single-chip microcomputer, RAM. memory, DISPLAY. display circuit, the POWER. power supply.

The specific embodiment

Flexible touch sensation sensor proposed by the invention is made up of sensor probe and these two parts of signal processing circuit.The structure of sensor probe has two kinds, is shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 respectively.These two kinds of sensor probes all mainly comprise magnetic rubber 1, elastic interlayer 2, magnetosensitive array 3 and glass substrate 4.Magnetic rubber 1 is positioned at the outermost layer of sensor probe, and it directly contacts with testee as working face.On magnetic rubber 1 working face,, thereby can not occur because of contact and grasp electronic device and the circuit damaged condition thereof that target object may cause, so reliability is better without any electronic device and electrode.Be elastic interlayer 2 below the magnetic rubber 1, it is the cushion between magnetic rubber 1 and the magnetosensitive array 3.Magnetic rubber 1 and elastic interlayer 2 are flexible material, be easier to distortion under external force, but the thickness of magnetic rubber 1 does not change when deforming, and elastic interlayer 2 can be compressed on thickness direction, therefore elastic interlayer 2 provides the local surfaces shape of a bigger deformation space with the self adaptation testee for magnetic rubber 1 working face, this makes sensor to work in " soft contact " mode, thereby can effectively avoid " hard contact " the testee surface that may cause and damage of sensor itself.In addition because magnetic rubber 1 and elastic interlayer 2 can produce the compressive deformation that the adaptive targets object is touched the part surface shape, thereby increased contact area, made that contact and extracting process are more reliable, and can obtain more mechanical information.

Be magnetosensitive array 3 below elastic interlayer 2, the magnetosensitive unit 5 in the array is magnetodiode or magnetic sensitive transistors that the silicon materials of employing rigidity are made, and is used for detecting the magnetic field distribution of magnetosensitive array 3 near surfaces.Compare with Hall element, magnetodiode and magnetic sensitive transistor have higher sensitivity, and its manufacture craft and ic process compatibility, so integrated level is higher, be that magnetosensitive unit 5 density in the magnetosensitive array 3 are higher, thereby can realize higher tactual space resolution ratio.

Glass substrate 4 is a kind of and the very approaching Pyrex material of thermal coefficient of expansion silicon, is positioned at the bottom of sensor probe, main support, heat insulation, the insulating effect of rising.Glass substrate 4 is combined in the back side of magnetosensitive array 3,1 front that is installed in magnetosensitive array 3 by little package technique successively of elastic interlayer 2 and magnetic rubber by the electrostatic sealing-in technical key.In a single day magnetic rubber 1 working face or elastic interlayer 2 damage or follow the string, and can only carry out dismounting and change separately to these two parts, need not change magnetosensitive array 3, and therefore easy to maintenance, maintenance cost is cheap.

Fig. 3 is the signal processing circuit connection diagram.Signal processing circuit mainly comprises current amplification circuit (AMP), switching gate circuit (MUX), A/D change-over circuit (A/D) and D/A change-over circuit (D/A), signal comparator circuit (CP), single-chip microcomputer (MCU), memory (RAM), display circuit (DISPLAY), power supply (POWER), and the structure annexation between each circuit is:

Magnetodiode in the sensor probe or the output of magnetic sensitive transistor signal, be connected to the current amplification circuit (AMP) in the signal processing circuit, signal output after this circuit amplifies is connected to A/D change-over circuit (A/D) and the signal comparator circuit (CP) that has switching gate circuit (MUX), signal after amplifying is converted to digital quantity, and output is connected to single-chip microcomputer (MCU), memory (RAM), display circuit (DISPLAY), (MCU) handles by single-chip microcomputer, finish the collection and the explanation of magnetosensitive unit 5 output signals, and can pass through display circuit (DISPLAY) demonstration, D/A change-over circuit (D/A) is exported connection and is deposited memory (RAM) in;

Each magnetosensitive unit 5 in the sensor probe magnetosensitive array 3 all connects signal processing circuit by the way, each magnetosensitive unit 5 is selected by switching gate circuit (MUX), successively the output signal of each the magnetosensitive unit 5 in the magnetosensitive array 3 is handled, all circuit in the signal processing circuit all pass through power supply (POWER) power supply with element and are connected with lead, and sensor probe assembles with signal processing circuit is in the same place.

Switching gate circuit (MUX) extracts the output current signal of each magnetosensitive unit 5 in the magnetosensitive array 3 successively under the control of single-chip microcomputer, (AMP) amplified through current amplification circuit, after passing through A/D change-over circuit (A/D) again data are stored in the memory (RAM), the signal that is stored in the memory (RAM) before to output signal behind the sensor contact target object and contact target object under the control of signal comparator circuit (CP) and single-chip microcomputer (MCU) compares, and the result that will compare is construed to a complete haptic signal, demonstrates tactile data by D/A change-over circuit (D/A) and display circuit (DISPLAY) again.

The development process of this flexible touch sensation sensor is as follows:

1) according to the demand of specific application area, determine working face size, spatial resolution and the sensitivity of sensor probe, wherein the working face size of sensor probe depends primarily on the planar dimension of magnetosensitive array 3;

Magnetosensitive array 3 adopts microelectric technique to make, and its planar dimension can be very little, but the full-size of single magnetosensitive array 3 is no more than the planar dimension of single silicon chip;

Must adopt undersized magnetosensitive array 3 in the structure of small-sized flexible touch sensation sensor probe, minimum flexible touch sensation sensor even can be installed in the finger face of robot is for robot provides profuse tactile data;

For bigger flexible touch sensation sensor, in the structure of its probe, need to adopt large-sized magnetosensitive array 3, therefore under the prerequisite of process conditions permission, can select the bigger silicon chip of diameter and make large-sized magnetosensitive array 3, perhaps several magnetosensitive arrays 3 are assembled into bigger " compound " tactile sensing array by mixing integrated mode, the large scale flexible touch sensation sensor of producing thus can be installed in the clamp surface of mechanical arm end, be used for nondestructively grasping and transmitting bigger object, the mechanics feedback control signal is provided simultaneously, improves the reliability that grasps;

2), determine the planar dimension of magnetosensitive array 3, and the combined process condition is determined the size of single magnetosensitive array 3 and whether need to adopt the mixing integration mode to form " compound " magnetosensitive array 3 according to the dimensional requirement of sensor probe;

3), determine the planar dimension of elastic interlayer 2, magnetic rubber 1 and glass substrate 4 according to the planar dimension of selected magnetosensitive array 3;

4) determine the full-size of magnetosensitive unit 5 according to the requirement of spatial resolution, the magnetosensitive unit 5 of actual fabrication can be less than this size to improve spatial resolution;

5) determine that according to the requirement of sensitivity magnetosensitive unit 5 is to adopt magnetodiode or employing magnetic sensitive transistor, compare that magnetic sensitive transistor has higher sensitivity, but manufacture craft is complicated more with magnetodiode; When the requirement to sensitivity when not being very high, can select for use magnetodiode as magnetosensitive unit 5 to reduce the technology manufacture difficulty, when requiring sensor to have very high tactility, can select for use magnetic sensitive transistor as magnetosensitive unit 5;

When adopting magnetic sensitive transistor still to be difficult to reach the requiring of sensitivity, under the prerequisite that satisfies certain tactual space resolution ratio, magnetodiode that can several are adjacent or magnetic sensitive transistor are formed " compound " magnetosensitive unit 5, constitute whole magnetosensitive array 3 by these " compound " magnetosensitive unit 5 again, adopt this method can detect very faint changes of magnetic field, have very high tactility;

6) according to the sensitivity of selected magnetosensitive unit 5, calculate thickness, the thickness of magnetic rubber 1 and the minimum magnetic induction intensity of magnetic rubber 1 near surface of determining elastic interlayer 2 by theory;

7) adopt finite element method that the stress deformation of magnetic rubber 1 and elastic interlayer 2 and the redistribution of the space magnetic field after magnetic rubber 1 distortion are carried out numerical computations, and then finish the material parameter of magnetic rubber 1 and elastic interlayer 2 and the optimal design of structural parameters;

8) adopt microelectric technique to make magnetosensitive array 3, comprise layout design, plate-making, process flow, chip encapsulation, test etc.;

9) adopt the electrostatic sealing-in technology that magnetosensitive array 3 and glass substrate 4 are bonded together;

10) adopt micro-processing technology to make elastic interlayer 2, and it is installed in magnetosensitive array 3 surfaces;

11) select the permanent magnetism elastomeric material that quality is even and have big flexibility for use, be processed into magnetic rubber 1 working face of required size requirement, the magnetic line of force direction that requires magnetic rubber 1 to produce is consistent with the normal direction of working face, the magnetic pole that can guarantee magnetosensitive array 3 planes and magnetic rubber 1 like this is perpendicular, thereby improves the sensitivity of sensor;

For the magnetic line of force direction magnetic rubber 1 vertical, can directly a complete magnetic rubber 1 be assembled in elastic interlayer 2 surfaces with rubber face; For the magnetic line of force direction magnetic rubber 1 parallel with rubber face, need to adopt micro-processing technology that it is separated into a plurality of onesize magnetic rubber unit 6 earlier, be assembled in elastic interlayer 2 surfaces equably behind again that these are discrete magnetic rubber unit 6 half-twists, thereby form magnetic rubber unit 6 arrays, wherein the magnetic pole of all magnetic rubber unit 6 is all perpendicular to magnetosensitive array 3;

12) adopt electronic circuit technology to make signal processing circuit, and be connected debugging with sensor probe, wherein signal processing circuit partly comprises power supply, A/D and D/A change-over circuit, switching gate circuit, current amplification circuit, signal comparator circuit, single-chip microcomputer, memory, display circuit;

13) sensor is demarcated, promptly by signal processing circuit extract successively with handle magnetosensitive array 3 in each magnetosensitive unit 5 contact output current signal before and after the known target object at sensor probe, and adopt nerual network technique that these signals are handled, it is construed to corresponding haptic signal.

Promptly can be used to the unknown object object is detected through the flexible touch sensation sensor of demarcating.Because sensor probe outermost layer magnetic rubber 1 is a kind of permanent-magnet material, therefore the space exists certain Distribution of Magnetic Field in its vicinity; Magnetic field is comparatively responsive to external world to be positioned at elastic interlayer 2 following magnetosensitive arrays 3, the operating current of each magnetosensitive unit 5 all can the corresponding change along with the variation of magnetic induction intensity in the array, so the influence of magnetic field that produces of magnetic rubber 1 operating current of each magnetosensitive unit 5.

When sensor probe does not contact any object, any deformation can not take place in magnetic rubber 1 and elastic interlayer 2, therefore near the space magnetic field the magnetic rubber 1 distributes constant, all magnetosensitive unit 5 and the vertical range of 1 of magnetic rubber are all keeping the fixed value of original state in this moment magnetosensitive array, the magnetic induction intensity at each 5 place, magnetosensitive unit is constant, and their operating current is also constant.

When sensor probe contacts with target object, stressed inside recessed distortion of magnetic rubber 1 working face and elasticity of compression interlayer 2, make and shorten with the vertical range of the corresponding magnetosensitive of contact position unit 5 with magnetic rubber 1 working face, and cause the magnetic induction intensity at these 5 places, magnetosensitive unit to strengthen, thereby make their operating current produce variation comparatively significantly.By detecting the operating current situation of change of each magnetosensitive unit 5 in the magnetosensitive array 3, can nondestructively obtain the spatial distribution of contact position, contact force and the tactile datas such as local shape of target object, this information can be used to the perception external environment condition, perhaps provides the tactile data feedback for grasping and transmit target object more reliably.

Claims (2)

1, a kind of flexible touch sensation sensor, be made up of sensor probe and these two parts of signal processing circuit, it is characterized in that: described first sensor probe mainly comprises magnetic rubber (1), elastic interlayer (2), magnetosensitive array (3) and glass substrate (4);
Magnetic rubber (1) is positioned at the outermost layer of sensor probe, it directly contacts with testee as working face, on magnetic rubber (1) working face,, thereby can not occur because of contact and grasp electronic device and the circuit damaged condition thereof that target object may cause without any electronic device and electrode;
Be elastic interlayer (2) below the magnetic rubber (1), it is the cushion between magnetic rubber (1) and the magnetosensitive array (3);
Magnetic rubber (1) and elastic interlayer (2) are flexible material, be easier to distortion under external force, but the thickness of magnetic rubber when deforming (1) does not change, and elastic interlayer (2) can be compressed on thickness direction, therefore elastic interlayer (2) provides the local surfaces shape of a bigger deformation space with the self adaptation testee for magnetic rubber (1) working face, this makes sensor to work in " soft contact " mode, can effectively avoid " hard contact " the testee surface that may cause and damage of sensor itself, simultaneously because magnetic rubber (1) and elastic interlayer (2) can produce the compressive deformation that the adaptive targets object is touched the part surface shape, increased contact area, make that contact and extracting process are more reliable, and can obtain more mechanical information;
Below the elastic interlayer (2) magnetosensitive array (3), magnetosensitive unit (5) in the array is magnetodiode or the magnetic sensitive transistor that the silicon materials of employing rigidity are made, be used for detecting the magnetic field distribution of magnetosensitive array (3) near surface, compare with Hall element, magnetodiode and magnetic sensitive transistor have higher sensitivity, its manufacture craft and ic process compatibility, integrated level is higher, can realize higher tactual space resolution ratio;
Glass substrate (4) is a kind of and the very approaching Pyrex material of thermal coefficient of expansion silicon, is positioned at the bottom of sensor probe, main support, heat insulation, the insulating effect of rising;
Glass substrate (4) is combined in the back side of magnetosensitive array (3) by the electrostatic sealing-in technical key, elastic interlayer (2) and magnetic rubber (1) then are installed in the front of magnetosensitive array (3) successively by little package technique, magnetic rubber (1) working face or elastic interlayer (2) in a single day damage or follow the string, can only carry out dismounting and change separately to these two parts, need not change magnetosensitive array (3), but need again the output signal of magnetosensitive array (3) to be demarcated after changing magnetic rubber (1) or elastic interlayer (2);
Described flexible touch sensation sensor second portion signal processing circuit mainly comprises current amplification circuit, switching gate circuit, A/D and D/A change-over circuit, signal comparator circuit, single-chip microcomputer, memory, display circuit, power supply, and the structure annexation between each circuit is:
Magnetodiode in the sensor probe array or the output of magnetic sensitive transistor signal, be connected to the current amplification circuit in the signal processing circuit, signal output after this circuit amplifies is connected to A/D change-over circuit and the signal comparator circuit that has the switching gate circuit, signal after amplifying is converted to digital quantity, and output is connected to single-chip microcomputer, memory, display circuit, handle by single-chip microcomputer, finish the collection and the explanation of magnetosensitive unit (5) output signal, and can show by display circuit, D/A change-over circuit output connects and deposit memory in;
Each magnetosensitive unit (5) in the sensor probe magnetosensitive array (3) all connects signal processing circuit by the way, each magnetosensitive unit (5) is selected by the switching gate circuit, successively the output signal of each the magnetosensitive unit (5) in the magnetosensitive array (3) is handled, all circuit in the signal processing circuit all are connected with lead by the power supply power supply with element, and sensor probe assembles with signal processing circuit is in the same place.
2, a kind of method of using the described flexible touch sensation sensor of claim 1 that tactile data is detected, it is characterized in that: the method that flexible touch sensation sensor detects tactile data comprises sensor production method and the sensor assay method to tactile data, and described sensor production method is as follows:
(1) according to the demand of specific application area, determine working face size, spatial resolution and the sensitivity of sensor probe, wherein the working face size of sensor probe depends primarily on the planar dimension of magnetosensitive array (3);
Magnetosensitive array (3) adopts microelectric technique to make, and its planar dimension can be very little, but the full-size of single magnetosensitive array (3) is no more than the planar dimension of single silicon chip;
Must adopt undersized magnetosensitive array (3) in the structure of small-sized flexible touch sensation sensor probe, minimum flexible touch sensation sensor even can be installed in the finger face of robot is for robot provides abundant tactile data;
For bigger flexible touch sensation sensor, in the structure of its probe, need to adopt large-sized magnetosensitive array (3), therefore under the prerequisite of process conditions permission, can select the bigger silicon chip of diameter and make large-sized magnetosensitive array (3), perhaps several magnetosensitive arrays (3) are assembled into bigger " compound " tactile sensing array by mixing integrated mode, the large scale flexible touch sensation sensor of producing thus can be installed in the clamp surface of mechanical arm end, be used for nondestructively grasping and transmitting bigger object, the mechanics feedback control signal is provided simultaneously, improves the reliability that grasps;
(2), determine the planar dimension of magnetosensitive array (3), and the combined process condition is determined the size of single magnetosensitive array (3) and whether need to adopt the mixing integration mode to form " compound " magnetosensitive array (3) according to the dimensional requirement of sensor probe;
(3), determine the planar dimension of elastic interlayer (2), magnetic rubber (1) and glass substrate (4) according to the planar dimension of selected magnetosensitive array (3);
(4) determine the full-size of magnetosensitive unit (5) according to the requirement of spatial resolution, the magnetosensitive unit (5) of actual fabrication can be less than this size to improve spatial resolution;
(5) determine that according to the requirement of sensitivity magnetosensitive unit (5) is to adopt magnetodiode or employing magnetic sensitive transistor, compare that magnetic sensitive transistor has higher sensitivity, but manufacture craft is complicated more with magnetodiode;
When the requirement to sensitivity when not being very high, can select for use magnetodiode as magnetosensitive unit (5) to reduce the technology manufacture difficulty, when requiring sensor to have very high tactility, can select for use magnetic sensitive transistor as magnetosensitive unit (5);
When adopting magnetic sensitive transistor still to be difficult to reach the requiring of sensitivity, under the prerequisite that satisfies certain tactual space resolution ratio, magnetodiode that can several are adjacent or magnetic sensitive transistor are formed " compound " magnetosensitive unit (5), constitute whole magnetosensitive array (3) by these " compound " magnetosensitive unit (5) again, adopt this method can detect very faint changes of magnetic field, have very high tactility;
(6) according to the sensitivity of selected magnetosensitive unit (5), calculate thickness, the thickness of magnetic rubber (1) and the minimum magnetic induction intensity of magnetic rubber (1) near surface of determining elastic interlayer (2) by theory;
(7) adopt finite element method that the stress deformation of magnetic rubber (1) and elastic interlayer (2) and the redistribution of the space magnetic field after magnetic rubber (1) distortion are carried out numerical computations, and then finish magnetic rubber (1) and the material parameter of elastic interlayer (2) and the optimal design of structural parameters;
In sensor probe, the manufacture craft of magnetic rubber (1) working face, elastic interlayer (2), magnetosensitive array (3) and glass substrate (4) is separate, thereby after the material parameter of magnetic rubber (1) and elastic interlayer (2) and structural parameters are determined, can carry out this tetrameric independent making of magnetic rubber (1) working face, elastic interlayer (2), magnetosensitive array (3) and glass substrate (4) synchronously, be assembled into sensor probe after all completing again, this helps improving yield rate, makes that also the manufacture craft of this sensor probe is comparatively flexible simultaneously;
(8) adopt microelectric technique to make magnetosensitive array (3), comprise layout design, plate-making, process flow, chip encapsulation, test etc.;
(9) adopt the electrostatic sealing-in technology that magnetosensitive array (3) and glass substrate (4) are bonded together;
(10) adopt micro-processing technology to make elastic interlayer (2), and it is installed in magnetosensitive array (3) surface;
(11) select the permanent magnetism elastomeric material that quality is even and have big flexibility for use, be processed into magnetic rubber (1) working face of required size requirement, require magnetic rubber consistent with this working face normal direction in the magnetic line of force direction at its working face place, can guarantee that like this this magnetosensitive array plane is vertical with the magnetic line of force direction at described magnetic rubber working face place, thereby improve the sensitivity of sensor;
For the magnetic line of force direction magnetic rubber vertical (1), can directly a complete magnetic rubber (1) be assembled in elastic interlayer (2) surface with rubber face;
For the magnetic line of force direction magnetic rubber parallel (1) with rubber face, need to adopt micro-processing technology that it is separated into a plurality of onesize magnetic rubber unit (6) earlier, be assembled in elastic interlayer (2) surface equably behind again that these are discrete magnetic rubber unit (6) half-twist, thereby form a magnetic rubber unit (6) array, wherein the magnetic line of force direction at the working face place of each described magnetic rubber unit is all perpendicular to described magnetosensitive array plane;
(12) adopt electronic circuit technology to make signal processing circuit, and be connected debugging with sensor probe, wherein signal processing circuit partly comprises power supply, A/D and D/A change-over circuit, switching gate circuit, current amplification circuit, signal comparator circuit, single-chip microcomputer, memory, display circuit;
(13) sensor is demarcated, promptly by signal processing circuit extract successively with handle magnetosensitive array (3) in each magnetosensitive unit (5) contact output current signal before and after the known target object at sensor probe, and adopt nerual network technique that these signals are handled, it is construed to corresponding haptic signal;
Flexible touch sensation sensor has higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, its working face can obtain the spatial distribution of contact position, contact force and the tactile datas such as local shape of target object by plastic deformation adaptive targets object surfaces shape " soft contact ";
Method for measuring is described sensor to tactile data:
The outermost layer magnetic rubber (1) of sensor probe is a kind of permanent-magnet material, the space exists certain Distribution of Magnetic Field in its vicinity, magnetic field is comparatively responsive to external world to be positioned at the following magnetosensitive array (3) of elastic interlayer (2), the operating current of each magnetosensitive unit (5) all can the corresponding change along with the variation of magnetic induction intensity in the array, so the influence of magnetic field that produces of magnetic rubber (1) the operating current of each magnetosensitive unit (5);
When sensor probe does not contact any object, any deformation can not take place in magnetic rubber (1) and elastic interlayer (2), therefore near the space magnetic field the magnetic rubber (1) distributes constant, all magnetosensitive unit (5) and the vertical range of magnetic rubber (1) face are all keeping the fixed value of original state in this moment magnetosensitive array, the magnetic induction intensity that each magnetosensitive unit (5) is located is constant, and their operating current is also constant;
When sensor probe contacts with target object, stressed inside recessed distortion of magnetic rubber (1) working face and elasticity of compression interlayer (2), make and shorten with the vertical range of the corresponding magnetosensitive of contact position unit (5) with magnetic rubber (1) working face, and the magnetic induction intensity that causes these magnetosensitive unit (5) to be located strengthens, thereby make their operating current produce variation comparatively significantly, by detecting the operating current situation of change of each magnetosensitive unit (5) in the magnetosensitive array (3), can obtain contact position, the spatial distribution of contact force and the tactile datas such as local shape of target object.
CN 200310106202 2003-11-01 2003-11-01 Flexible tactile sensor and method for detecting infomation of tactile sensation CN1280069C (en)

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CN100348387C (en) * 2005-09-02 2007-11-14 杭州电子科技大学 Robot touch sensor
JP4868347B2 (en) * 2005-09-12 2012-02-01 国立大学法人 東京大学 Tactile sensor module and tactile sensor mounting method
CN100436306C (en) * 2006-11-23 2008-11-26 西北工业大学 Touch sensor and its manufacture method
WO2011011546A1 (en) * 2009-07-22 2011-01-27 Immersion Corporation System and method for providing complex haptic stimulation during input of control gestures, and relating to control of virtual equipment
CN103600353B (en) * 2013-04-28 2016-01-27 宝山钢铁股份有限公司 A kind of method that terminal-collecting machine detects group material edge
CN103223675B (en) * 2013-05-21 2015-08-05 中国科学院重庆绿色智能技术研究院 Based on the robot delicate curved surface tracking method of array of pressure sensors
JP5945968B2 (en) * 2013-09-03 2016-07-05 株式会社安川電機 Robot hand, robot system, and article depalletizing method
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CN109100054A (en) * 2018-07-06 2018-12-28 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Touch sensing device and system

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