CN1267766C - Method for realizing high speed moving article 3D profile measurement using stroboscopic structure lighting - Google Patents

Method for realizing high speed moving article 3D profile measurement using stroboscopic structure lighting Download PDF

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CN1267766C
CN1267766C CN 200310104138 CN200310104138A CN1267766C CN 1267766 C CN1267766 C CN 1267766C CN 200310104138 CN200310104138 CN 200310104138 CN 200310104138 A CN200310104138 A CN 200310104138A CN 1267766 C CN1267766 C CN 1267766C
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object
method
light source
under test
shape
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CN 200310104138
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1554926A (en
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苏显渝
张启灿
曹益平
向立群
陈文静
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四川大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a method for measuring the three-dimensional surface shape and deformation of a high-speed movement object in real time by using a strobe light source to project a structure light field according to the Fourier transform profile technology in the three-dimensional sensing technology. The method comprises the steps: using the strobe light source to instantaneously image a grating isobilateral structure modulation template on the surface of the movement object; then, using an image-taking device to record a series of deformation stripe images of the movement object at every moment; finally, using the Fourier transformation method to process the deformation stripes. The method can accurately restore the three-dimensional surface shapes of the movement object at every moment, and further analyze data and process results to obtain some digital information such as object deformation, etc. The present invention can be used for the measurement and research with obvious periodic signal movement (such as rotation, oscillation, etc.) and without obvious periodic signal movement (such as transient phenomena of expansion, shrinkage, ballistic flight, detonation, etc.). The present invention has the advantages of high measurement precision, quick response time, etc., and is capable of obtaining the three-dimensional surface shape data of the high-speed movement object in real time.

Description

Realize the method that the high-speed moving object 3 d shape is measured with the stroboscopic structured illumination

One, technical field

The present invention relates to the optical 3-dimensional sensing technology, particularly relate to realizing the real-time three-dimensional face shape of high-speed moving object and the measurement of distortion based on the Fourier transform profilometry method with stroboscopic light source projection structure light field.

Two, technical background

The three-dimensional object surface profile measurement, promptly 3 d shape is measured, and is significant in fields such as machine vision, biomedicine, industrial detection, rapid shaping, video display stunt, production quality control.The optical 3-dimensional sensing technology is because it has noncontact, precision height, is easy to advantage such as automatically control and obtains to develop on a large scale very much.Existing optical 3-dimensional method for sensing mainly comprises: triangulation, Moire fringe technique (Moir é Topography, abbreviation MT), Fourier transform profilometry (Fourier Transform Profilometry, abbreviation FTP), space phase detection technique (Spatial Phase Detection, abbreviation SPD), phase measurement technology of profiling (Phase MeasuringProfilometry, be called for short PMP) etc., these methods all are by the space structure light field that is subjected to the modulation of three-dimensional article dignity shape being carried out rectification, obtaining three-dimensional article dignity form height degree information.Wherein the most frequently used space structure light field three-dimensional sensing method is phase measurement technology of profiling and Fourier transform technology of profiling.The phase measurement technology of profiling need come reconstruction of three-dimensional face shape from multiframe phase shift striated pattern, has very high precision, but owing to adopt repeatedly phase shift, real-time is relatively poor.Fourier transform profilometry realizes by the deforming stripe image being carried out steps such as Fourier transform, frequency domain filtering and inverse Fourier transform.Fourier transform profilometry only need be come reconstruction of three-dimensional face shape with a frame bar graph, and real-time is better, can be used for the three-dimensional sensing of dynamic process.When testee is in high-speed motion state, owing to limited by the frame frequency of picture pick-up device, adopt traditional normal bright light source illumination and projection structure light field to body surface, the deforming stripe that finally obtains distributes will " plucking " even fuzzy fully, can't carry out the 3 d shape reconstruction of object with this image information.In the research of the accurate measurement of swiftly passing object being carried out 3 d shape and distortion, the technology of most critical is the clear deforming stripe image of moment that how to photograph swiftly passing object.The method of the stroboscopic light source projection structure light field that application the present invention mentions just can solve this gordian technique difficult problem.

Stroboscopic light source is the light source that certain frequency flashes fast, when observing the object of high speed rotating or motion with stroboscopic light source, by regulating the frequency of flashing of stroboscopic light source, the rotation or the movement velocity of itself and measured object are moved closer to, though measured object at high-speed motion, but look it is slowly motion, when stroboscopic light source repeat to flash frequency less than the motion frequency of object the time, the direction of motion of taking moving image that object obtains is consistent with the direction of motion of object own; When stroboscopic light source repeat to flash frequency greater than the motion frequency of object the time, the image motion direction is opposite with the direction of motion of object own, the automotive wheel sense of rotation of running at high speed that people see in the actual life is opposite with vehicle traveling direction to be exactly this reason; When stroboscopic light source flash frequency strict with testee rotation or movement velocity equates or during its integral multiple, will see that object is static relatively.Briefly, the of short duration flash of light that human eye is happened suddenly " has been conquered ", only sees the short flash object state of moment, only sees that object always presents every kind of fixed position and attitude (static).This persistence of vision phenomenon is called " stroboscopic effect ", and stroboscopic effect makes the people estimate the operation conditions that just can observe high-speed moving object easily.

In high speed Dynamic Photography research field, stroboscopic light source adopts xenon lamp fluorescent tube (XenonFlashtube) mostly, xenon lamp flash intensity height, good uniformity, but the duration of charging is very long, when needing repeatedly flash exposure in the shot process, need a plurality of xenon lamp combinations of a discharge flash of light chronologically often.The response speed of xenon lamp makes single xenon lamp can't obtain the high frequency strobe light slowly.

Three, summary of the invention

Purpose of the present invention then is the defective that can't obtain clear deforming stripe at normal bright light source projection structure light field in the dynamic process, proposes a kind of method of using the realization of stroboscopic light source projection structure light field to the real-time three-dimensional surface shape measurement of high-speed moving object in the three-dimensional sensing commercial measurement.This method can very well accomplish to obtain the image information that moving object moment surface deformation striped distributes in real time, and has higher measuring accuracy, makes Fourier transform profilometry can really realize dynamically and instantaneous measurement.

The objective of the invention is to adopt following technical proposals to realize:

The luminotron of stroboscopic light source can select for use light emitting diode (LED) as light emitting source, because have more superiority as the LED of visible light cold light source than the short duration gate methods of many tradition: high response speed (nanosecond order), low voltage drive, low cost power, low heating and need not the overall dimensions of any heat abstractor, simple drive circuit, micro, extremely flexible installation and cheap cost price.

When measurement has the object (rotation that will mention as the back) of obvious periodic motion characteristic, motion frequency with the infrared tube inspected object, and synchronously give the LED stroboscopic in real time with this frequency signal and control and image acquisition units, make object of which movement, LED is luminous and camera system three's strict synchronism, final real " freezing " certain constantly object moving state image in a flash.

When the object of measuring no obvious periodic motion characteristic (as the flight object), can be by the artificial stroboscopic light source glow frequency of setting, and synchronously give the LED stroboscopic in real time with this frequency signal and control and image acquisition units, allow the luminous and camera system of LED synchronously, finally adopt the time interval that equates or does not wait to remove " freezing " the object moving state image in corresponding moment moment.

In order to realize this thought well, the present invention adopts a driven in synchronism control circuit board.The user that this circuit board can be finished LED specifies the driving of any flicker frequency, also can and extract the frequency of tested moving object from motion tracking, driven in synchronism LED is luminous, the frequency unit that can also using system when the testee motion frequency is higher than the actual frame frequency of general commercial CCD provides is counted frequency division, according to certain hour interval sampling, finish surface shape measurement to the high frequency motion object; Simultaneously, this circuit board can also be regulated the duration of light source luminescent, accomplished to adjust luminous dutycycle according to the different motion speed of different objects, made camera system finally obtain stripe pattern clearly.

The present invention compared with prior art has following advantage:

1. the present invention uses stroboscopic light source projection structure light field to realize Fourier transform profilometry, makes the three-dimensional sensing optical system structure can measure high-speed moving object face shape in real time.

The luminous duration of light source of the present invention adjustable, can finally obtain deforming stripe image clearly.

3. the present invention uses custom-designed synchronous control system, and energy captured in real time and tracking object of which movement frequency are carried out the synchronous images collection, accomplish real-time measurement truly.

4. the present invention can be by the motion feature of high-speed moving object, any, stepless setting flashing rate, and the driving stroboscopic light source is luminous and projection structure light field according to predefined time series, finally can measure the object that some do not have obvious period of motion characteristic.

5. the present invention can set the method for interval sampling by frequency division, is the surface shape measurement that the universal CCD of 25fr/s is finished high-speed moving object with frame frequency.

Four, description of drawings

The light path synoptic diagram of Fig. 1 Fourier transform profilometry method.

Fig. 2 does not use the blurred picture of the rotary fan blade of taking under the situation of the present invention.

Fig. 3 uses the picture rich in detail of the rotary fan blade of taking under the situation of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is the function simple block diagram of synchronization control circuit plate.

Fig. 5 the present invention measures the system and device synoptic diagram of rotary fan blade.

Four moment of the rotary fan blade that Fig. 6 the present invention shooting is obtained are the deforming stripe image clearly.

The 3 d shape grid distribution plan of a certain moment fan blade of Fig. 7 restoration and reconstruction of the present invention.

Fig. 8 the present invention rebuilds the deflection of a series of moment 3 d shapes on subgraph institute timberline of fan blade.

Five, embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, principle of work and embodiment the present invention is described in further detail.

The light path that Fourier transform profilometry adopted that is used for kinetic measurement is similar to traditional stationary body surface shape measurement photometry road.Fig. 1 is the projecting light path of FTP method, and 1 is projection arrangement, and 2 is projection grating, and 3 is imaging device, generally adopts ccd video camera.4 is object under test.E p, E ' pBe respectively the emergent pupil and the entrance pupil of optical projection system, E ' pE pBe its optical axis.E ' c, E cBe respectively the emergent pupil and the entrance pupil of imaging system, E ' cE cBe the optical axis of imaging system, the some O of two optical axis intersections on reference planes 5.The grid line of grating 2 is perpendicular to E pE cThe O plane, reference planes and E ' cE cVertically.

When a sinusoidal grating or Luo Qi grating were projected on the reference planes 4 by out of focus, the imaging striped that CCD obtains was:

g 0 ( x , y ) = Σ n = - ∞ + ∞ A n r 0 ( x , y ) exp { j [ 2 nπ f 0 x + n φ 0 ( x , y ) ] } - - - ( 1 )

Wherein the x axle is vertical with grid line, and the y axle is parallel with grid line, r 0(x y) represents reflectivity distribution function on the reference surface, f 0Space fundamental frequency (f for the grating picture 0=1/p 0, p 0Space periodic for the grating picture), φ 0(x y) is PHASE DISTRIBUTION on the reference planes.Under the condition of same structure parameter, this grating is looked like to project on the diffuse reflection body surface to be measured, the deforming stripe that imaging system obtains is distributed as:

g ( x , y , t ) = Σ n = - ∞ + ∞ A n r ( x , y , t ) exp { j [ 2 n π f 0 x + nφ ( x , y , t ) ] } - - - ( 2 )

T=1 wherein, 2 ..., s, s are going through the time of whole dynamic process, (x, y t) are each body surface reflectivity distribution function constantly to r, and (x, y t) are each phase modulation (PM) that causes owing to the body surface height change constantly to φ.

For the convenience with data processing is discussed, the zero deformation-free deforming stripe constantly that the striped that imaging system is taken the reference planes that obtain is defined as that t=0 obtains constantly can be rewritten as (1) formula:

g 0 ( x , y ) = g ( x , y , t = 0 ) = g ( x , y , 0 ) = Σ n = - ∞ + ∞ A n r ( x , y , 0 ) exp { j [ 2 n π f 0 x + nφ ( x , y , 0 ) ] } - - - ( 3 )

So, (1) formula and (2) formula just can be unified to be write as:

g ( x , y , t ) = Σ n = - ∞ + ∞ A n r ( x , y , t ) exp { j [ 2 nπ f 0 x + n φ ( x , y , t ) ] } , t = 0,1 , 2 , . . . , s - - - ( 4 )

(4) formula is carried out Fourier transform, and in the spectrum distribution that obtains, fundamental frequency has comprised required phase information.By a suitable bandpass filter, wherein a fundamental component is filtered out, then filtered fundamental component is carried out inverse Fourier transform, answering of obtaining is distributed as:

g ^ ( x , y , t ) = A 1 r ( x , y , t ) exp { i [ 2 π f 0 x + φ ( x , y , t ) ] } , t = 0,1,2 , . . . , s - - - ( 5 )

From the geometric relationship of projecting light path as can be seen, the elevation information of object is coded in three dimensional Phase distribution phi (x, y, t) in, and Δ φ (x, y, t)=and φ (x, y, t)-φ (x, y, 0) corresponding true altitude distribution h (x, the y of object under test, t), therefore only need obtain Δ φ (x, y utilize the corresponding relation formula of phase place and height after t) again:

h ( x , y , t ) = l 0 Δφ ( x , y , t ) Δφ ( x , y , t ) - 2 π f 0 d ≈ l 0 Δφ ( x , y , t ) 2 π f 0 d - - - ( 6 )

The three-dimensional object surface face form height degree that can recover object distributes.

The PHASE DISTRIBUTION of generally calculating is to block in that (π between π), also must launch it.When measuring object is when being in the object of dynamic process, the field of behaviour of blocking of acquisition is three-dimensional.The expansion of three dimensional Phase not only need be at x, carries out on the y two-dimensional directional, but also should also launch on the t direction, with the correct relation between the field of behaviour that guarantees the acquisition adjacent moment.From the surface, the three dimensional Phase field has increased the dimension that needs expansion than two-dimensional phase potential field, as if can increase the difficulty of phase unwrapping, but the time dimension that in fact newly-increased needs launch launches to have brought new method and deployment paths to three dimensional Phase, make the deployment paths of three dimensional Phase no longer be confined to x, the y both direction has finally increased the ductile and the degree of freedom of point of discontinuity.

Fig. 2 is the normal bright light source illumination blurred picture of taken rotary fan blade down.

Fig. 3 is the picture rich in detail that adopts a certain moment of the taken rotary fan blade of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is the function simple block diagram of synchronization control circuit plate, the computed ISA slot of the circuit board after the making, and plate is provided with the wire jumper selector switch, provides four kinds to select duty: 1. exporting the peak value operating voltage of LED, is that LED is operated in long bright state; 2. be communicated with a work branch, finally produce the driving frequency of 1~1600Hz, LED is worked under corresponding frequencies in the situation lower frequency typing of known tested dynamic object motion frequency; 3. be communicated with another work branch, finally produce the above driving frequency of 1600Hz, LED is worked under corresponding frequencies in the situation lower frequency typing of known tested dynamic object motion frequency; 4. connect and detect the frequency branch road automatically, will be real-time transmitted to the driving circuit section of LED by the object rotational frequency signal that infrared tube records.VCO is a voltage controlled oscillator, will add the control voltage signal with the CT74LS629 device and change over oscillation frequency signal, and maximum frequency of oscillation is 20MHz greatly; Frequency divider can be realized electrodeless frequency conversion, that is to say, and can be continuously unremitting through the frequency behind the frequency division.When the required value that the frequency of telling when frequency divider and divider ratio scrambler are write down is consistent, opens the trigger of rear end equipment, and send a signal feedback to the counting zero clearing of frequency divider with frequency divider; Trigger uses two monostalbe trigger 74LS221 that Schmidt trigger is arranged, and to trigger single LED or array LED, also triggers the image acquisition operation simultaneously.

In addition, considered also that in the design phase of this plug-in card plug-in card should realize the pulsewidth and the dutycycle that trigger the luminous pulse signal of LED are implemented controllable adjustment on circuit, therefore special adjustable potentiometer design finally makes pulsewidth and the dutycycle that this plug-in card can pulse signals in practice regulate according to demand.

Fig. 5 is utilization the present invention system and device synoptic diagram that deformation is measured to the rotary fan blade.The image pick-up card 2 that this measuring system requires to be installed in the main frame 1 has external trigger (External Trigger) acquisition function, and ccd video camera 3 has outer synchronous reset function.The fan blade 5 rotation frequency signal S that detect by infrared tube 4 TestBe transferred to driven in synchronism control circuit board 6, this circuit board sends two signals simultaneously: one is to being installed in the drive voltage signal V of the LED stroboscopic lamp 8 on the multidimensional adjusting bracket 7 Tri, this signal has been lighted LED and projecting on the tested rotary fan blade 5 as process optical projection system 10 grating 9; Another is the trigger pip S that feeds back to image pick-up card 2 and imaging system (picture pick-up device CCD) 3 Tri, this signal is divided into two-way again, and one the tunnel triggers CCD notes the leaf image of LED when luminous, and another road is triggered image pick-up card simultaneously and is gathered the image information that current time CCD obtains.Carried and be temporarily stored in after the view data that is in the deformation information of fan blade in the rotation status is accepted by the shooting system in the internal memory that image pick-up card opens up in advance, it is medium pending to treat all to take the hard disk that dumps to main frame after finishing.

In the dynamic object experimental study, in very short time, moved by the deforming stripe of body surface modulation with very fast speed, if any deforming stripe is arranged in motion in dodging once this short time process of light, imaging system will obtain the fuzzy image of a frame.Therefore, the duration of flash of light must be short to and enough freeze to have in these deforming stripes and the inherent at one time imaging system sufficient light intensity exposure.

Fig. 6 has provided 4 frames in the fast rotary fan blade of the 100 vertical frame dimensions moment image that fan obtains in the time period to relatively stable rotation (this moment, rotating speed was that per minute 1080 changes) altogether by the energising entry into service respectively, (a), (b), (c), (d) corresponding respectively blade rotation of the moment shown in four subgraphs revolution is 1,26,58,90 change.

Fig. 7 has provided the 3 d shape grid chart the when blade after the restoration and reconstruction rotates to the 24th commentaries on classics.

Fig. 8 (a), (b) having provided on the blade at the revolution of being taken in of the line shown in the subgraph of lower-left respectively is 1,3,10,18,26,34,42,50,58,66,74,82, the distortion situation when changeing with respect to the 1st respectively in 90,98 o'clock.

Claims (6)

1. one kind is applicable to the method for with stroboscopic light source projection structure light field the real-time measurement of 3 d shape is carried out in moving object in the three-dimensional sensing commercial measurement, and this method may further comprise the steps:
A) research object is the object under test of high-speed motion;
B) frequency signal is fed back to a stroboscopic light source device and an image collecting device respectively;
C) with certain frequency the face structure plan is projected to the object under test surface by the stroboscopic light source device, be used for modulating the face shape information of object under test;
D) by the different deforming stripe figures constantly, that characterize object under test 3 d shape information in image collector put object under test surface;
E) by above-mentioned deforming stripe figure is carried out data processing, the face shape of obtaining object under test distributes.
2. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that the frequency signal in the step b) comprises the motion frequency signal of using the detected testee of positional detecting device, perhaps the fixed frequency signal that produces by computer software control.
3. the method for claim 1, it is characterized in that stroboscopic light source device in the step c) comprises periodically glimmers luminously with electronic circuit board drive controlling light emitting diode or xenon lamp fluorescent tube, perhaps realize with software control digital projector cycle opening and closing projection lighting mode.
4. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that the face structure plan in the step c) comprises sinusoidal grating and Luo Qi grating pattern.
5. the method for claim 1, it is characterized in that in the step e) that the deforming stripe figure that obtains is carried out data processing to be comprised this figure is carried out Fourier transform, filtering and inverse Fourier transform, after perhaps utilizing the space phase detection method to demodulate the phase information of reflection testee 3 d shape distribution, pass through phase unwrapping again, the phase height conversion process finally obtains the testee 3 d shape and distributes.
6. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that object Shape ' in the step e) distributes and comprises face shape, deflection, strain, recovery torsion angle and the unique point attitude of object under test instantaneous state.
CN 200310104138 2003-12-26 2003-12-26 Method for realizing high speed moving article 3D profile measurement using stroboscopic structure lighting CN1267766C (en)

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CN104160241B (en) * 2012-03-14 2017-06-30 独立行政法人产业技术总合研究所 Using the phase distribution analysis method of the stripe pattern of higher-dimension monochrome information, device and its program
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