CN1263807A - Six-freedom parallel mechanism with triaxial nearly orthogonal - Google Patents

Six-freedom parallel mechanism with triaxial nearly orthogonal Download PDF

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CN1263807A
CN1263807A CN 00102901 CN00102901A CN1263807A CN 1263807 A CN1263807 A CN 1263807A CN 00102901 CN00102901 CN 00102901 CN 00102901 A CN00102901 A CN 00102901A CN 1263807 A CN1263807 A CN 1263807A
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body
direction
axis
parallel mechanism
orthogonal
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CN 00102901
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CN1095417C (en
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廖启征
粱崇高
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北京邮电大学
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Abstract

A six-freedom parallel mechanism with nearly orthogonal three axes is composed of static table body, movable table body and 6 drive rods which can stretch out and draw back in length and are pivoted to static and movable table body via the ball hinges at their both ends. It featurs that said 6 drive rods are respectively in or thogonal or nearly orthogonal at X, Y and Z directions, two for each direction. Said movable table body can be positioned at the central space position of 6 drive rods or their upper or lower parts. When it is at the central position, X, Y and Z axes are decoupled, so resulting in simple regulation, easy control and wide application.

Description

三轴近似正交的六自由度并联机构 Approximately six degrees of freedom parallel mechanism triaxial orthogonal

本发明涉及一种结构新颖的调节空间位置的机械结构,确切地说,涉及一种三轴近似正交的六自由度并联机构。 The present invention relates to the mechanical structure of a novel structure adjustment spatial position, particularly, to six degrees of freedom parallel mechanism for a three-axis substantially orthogonal. 该机构可以应用于金属加工机床,以及力与力矩的传感器等领域。 The mechanism may be used in metal processing machines, as well as forces and moments of the sensor and the like.

并联机构可以应用于两个刚性物体相对位置的调节。 Parallel mechanism may be applied to adjust the relative position of the two rigid objects. 一般情况下两个刚体的相对位置可以采用沿x,y,z轴方向的三个移动和绕x,y,z轴的三个转动来表示,共六个自由度。 Three rigid body moving relative positions of the two may be employed generally along the x, y, and z-axis directions about the x, y, z-axis rotation of three represented, a total of six degrees of freedom. 并联机构起源于斯图尔特平台机构(StewartPlatform),参见图1,图2,该机构通常是由3-6根可伸缩调节的杆件1',以及在这些杆件的两端分别用球铰(即:球面付)2'或万向连轴节(即:虎各铰或球销付或转动付铰链)连接两个刚体3'、4'所构成。 Stewart platform parallel mechanism originated means (StewartPlatform), see FIG. 1, FIG. 2, which usually means the root of 3-6 by adjusting the telescopic rod 1 ', respectively, and these ball joints at both ends of the lever (i.e. : spherical pay ') or a universal coupling section (i.e.: each hinge pin or ball rotation pay or pay tiger hinge) connecting two rigid bodies 3' 2, 4 'constituted. 通常,该两个刚体中的一个是静止不动的,被称为静平台或静台体3'一般作为机架使用,另一个是运动的,可以完成各种操作,通常称为动平台或动台体4'。 Typically, one of the two rigid bodies is stationary, static, or static platform is called the table body 3 'is generally used as the frame, the other is in motion, can complete the various operations, commonly referred to as movable platform or station 4 '. 最初的斯图尔特平台机构中,其动、静两个刚体都是平面的,或者说所有联接杆件1'与刚体3'或杆件1'与刚体4'的铰链2'都处在一个平面上。 Initially Stewart platform mechanism, and the dynamic and static are two planar rigid bodies, or all the coupling rod 1 'and the rigid 3' or rod member 1 'and the rigid body 4' hinge 2 'are in a plane . 后来开始出现使用空间的台体式机构,即铰链2'不都在同一平面上,这是一般的并联机构。 Then began to use the space station style mechanism, i.e., the hinge 2 'are not on the same plane, which is generally parallel mechanism. 并联机构在工业上有很多应用,如做机械手,位置调节机构,力与力矩的传感器,游乐场的动感平台等等。 Parallel mechanism has many applications, such as making on an industrial robot, a sensor position adjusting mechanism, the forces and moments playground dynamic platform like. 最近人们用它来做虚拟轴机床或简称虚轴机床。 Recently people use it for virtual axis machine tool or simply imaginary axis machine tools. 这样的机床具有很多特殊的优点,如结构简单,刚度大、控制精度高、传动速度快等,具有很高的性能价格比,被称为21世纪的机床。 Such a machine has additional advantages, such as simple structure, high rigidity, high precision, fast transmission speed, with high performance and low cost, the machine is called the 21st century.

对于象虚轴机床、力与力矩的传感器、位置调节机构等应用场合,采用什么样的位置调节机械结构,才能得到综合性能尽可能优良的机构,是一个十分重要的问题。 The sensor as a virtual axis machine tool, forces and moments, the position adjusting mechanism and other applications, what kind of position adjusting mechanical structure, in order to get good overall performance as a mechanism, is a very important issue. 现在,人们普遍认为从自变量为6个驱动变量到函数为动台体位置姿态6个变量之间转换的雅可比行列式的条件数越小越好,理论上最小条件数为1。 It is commonly believed from six argument variables to the function of the driving conditions of the number of transitions between the movable body position and posture station 6 Jacobian variables as small as possible, in theory, the minimum condition number is 1. 然而人们对于什么样的机构才能满足其条件数为1,也就是说并联机构中刚体上的铰链在空间应该如何分布才是最合理,并不清楚。 However, people for what kind of institution to meet its condition number is 1, which means that hinges on the parallel mechanism in rigid body in space should be how to distribute is the most reasonable, is not clear. 甚至到目前为止,还没有得到确切的结论。 Even so far, we have not been definitive conclusions.

本发明的主要目的是提供一种三轴近似正交的六自由度并联机构;也就是提供一种满足上述雅可比行列式的条件数为最小的台体式机构。 The main object of the present invention is to provide a three-axis orthogonal to approximately six degrees of freedom parallel mechanism; i.e. to provide a number satisfying the condition of the Jacobian is a minimum table style mechanism.

本发明的主要目的是这样实现的:该机构包括有:静台体,动台体和六根驱动杆,该六根驱动的长度伸缩可变,且其中每个驱动杆都通过其两端各自的球铰或万向节分别与静台体、动台体相铰接,其特征在于:上述六根驱动杆的方向分别位于x,y,z三个正交方向或近似正交的方向,且每个方向各有两根驱动杆。 The main object of the present invention is implemented as follows: The mechanism includes: a static table body, the movable body and the six stage drive rod, the six driven telescopic variable length, and wherein each of the drive rods through their respective ends ball hinge or joint respectively to the static platform body, hinged to the movable table body, wherein: the driving direction of the rod are located six x, y, z three directions orthogonal or substantially orthogonal directions, each direction and each two drive rods.

上述六根驱动杆与动台体铰接的六个球铰可以分别位于六面体的六个面的中心位置。 The above-described driving lever and the six articulated body movable stage six ball joints may be located in the center of the six sides of a hexahedron, respectively.

上述六根驱动杆可以两两成组地分别铰接在上述动台体的三个呈x,y,z正交方向的表面上。 The above-described six driving lever hinged respectively with the two sets may be set in the above-described three stage movable on the body form x, y, z orthogonal to the surface direction.

下面结合附图详细说明本发明的结构、特征及功效。 The following detailed description of the structure, characteristics and effects of the present invention in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

图1是一种斯图尔特平台机构的结构示意图。 1 is a schematic structure of a Stewart platform mechanism.

图2是另一种斯图尔特平台机构的结构示意图。 FIG 2 is another schematic structural diagram of Stewart platform mechanism.

图3是本发明的动台体与驱动杆组合起来的一种实施例示意图。 FIG 3 is a schematic diagram of the mobile station of the present invention in combination with one embodiment of the drive rod.

图4是图3中增加静台体后的示意图。 FIG 4 is a schematic view of FIG. 3 is added after the static platform body.

图5是本发明的动台体与驱动杆组合起来的另一种实施例示意图。 FIG 5 is a mobile station of the present invention in combination with a drive rod in another embodiment of FIG.

图6是图5中增加静台体后的示意图。 FIG 6 is a schematic view of the table of FIG. 5 increases static body.

图7是本发明的又一种实施例示意图。 FIG 7 is a schematic view of yet another embodiment of the present invention. 该机构经过一定角度的旋转,使得其对角线指向竖直方向,此时驱动杆件不再与x,y,z轴平行。 The mechanism of rotation through a certain angle such that it is directed vertically diagonal, and at this time the drive lever is no longer x, y, z-axis.

图8是本发明的再一种实施例示意图。 FIG 8 is a further embodiment of the present invention is an embodiment schematic.

参见图3、图4所示的本发明的一种实施例示意图。 Referring to Figure 3, a schematic embodiment of a present invention embodiment shown in FIG. 4. 本发明是一种三轴近似正交的六自由度并联机构,其包括有:静台体3,动台体4和六根驱动杆1,该六根驱动杆1的长度都是伸缩可变的,且其中每个驱动杆1都通过其两端各自的球铰2分别与静台体3、动台体4相铰接,其特点是:上述六根驱动杆1分别位于x,y,z三个正交方向,且每个方向各有两根驱动杆1。 The present invention is a six degree of freedom parallel mechanism substantially orthogonal three-axis, which comprises: a static station 3, station 4 1 and the six drive rod, the drive rod six telescopic length 1 is variable, and wherein each drive shaft 1 through a respective ball joint 24 is articulated to the stationary platform body 3, respectively, the movable table body ends thereof, characterized in that: the above-described driving lever 1 located six x, y, z three positive cross direction, each direction and two drive rods 1.

图3所示上述位于六根驱动杆1空间中心位置的动台体4是个六面体,且该六根驱动杆1中的每一个球铰2都分别位于上述动台体4的各个表面上。 Figure 3 shows a space located above the center position of the driving lever six stations 4 are hexahedral, and each of the six drive rod of a ball joint 12 are located above the respective upper surfaces of the movable table member 4. 动台体4通过六个球铰2与六根长度可变的驱动杆1相联接,该六根驱动杆1再通过其另一端的另外六个球铰2与静台体3相联接。 Six station 4 by a ball joint 2 and six variable-length drive rod 1 is coupled, the static table 1 and 2 the coupling body 3 with six other ball joints and through the other end of the six drive rod. 图4所示的长条状的刚体即表示静台体3或机架,在x,y,z三个方向的每个方向上都有两根驱动杆。 Elongate rigid body that is shown in FIG. 3 showing a static table or frame, in the x, y, and z direction, each direction has two drive rods. 当动台体在中心位置即图3或图4所示位置时,上述x,y,z三个方向的驱动杆互相正交,其条件数为1,即达到了雅可比行列式的最小值。 When the station body at the central position i.e. the position shown in FIG. 3 or FIG. 4, the above x, y, z three directions orthogonal to each drive rod, which condition number is 1, i.e., reaches the minimum value Jacobian . 在这个最小值附近,即x,y,z三个方向的驱动杆互相呈近似正交时,虽然其条件数略大于1但其值仍然较小。 In the vicinity of the minimum value, i.e., x, y, z three directions of the drive rod when in a substantially orthogonal, although the condition number slightly greater than 1 but values ​​smaller still another. 因此采用这种机构具有一些特殊的优点。 Thus using this mechanism has some special advantages.

首先本发明的机构在其中心位置上,对于x,y,z轴方向的三个移动和绕x,y,z轴的三个转动互相解耦。 First means of the present invention is in its central position, three mobile for x, y, and z-axis directions about the x, y, z-axis rotation of three mutually decoupled. 众所周知,一般情况下,两个刚体的相对位置可以采用沿x,y,z三个方向的移动和绕x,y,z三轴的转动来表示,共六个自由度。 Is well known that, in general, two opposite positions along the rigid bodies may be x, y, and z about the three directions of movement x, y, z axes of rotation are represented using a total of six degrees of freedom. 在一般的并联机构中,当其中某个方向的驱动改变时,会同时引起动台体的另外两个方向的移动和动台体的转动,这种现象称为运动之间的耦合,例如当希望动台体纯粹沿x方向运动时,不仅需要沿x轴方向的驱动器工作,而且需要y,z两个方向的驱动器同时协调配合运动;或者说仅有一、两个驱动器工作不能得到纯粹沿x方向运动。 The mobile station and the rotation body in general parallel mechanism, wherein a change when the driving direction, it will cause the mobile station while the other two directions of the body, a phenomenon known as the coupling between the movement, for example, when it is desired to move purely in the x direction movement of the table body, it requires not only the driver operates the x-axis direction, but also y, drive z two directions simultaneously coordination motion; or only one or two drives work can not be obtained pure in the x direction. 本发明的台体式机构在其中心位置上,由于x,y,z三轴互相垂直正交,因此对x,y,z三轴是解耦的。 Style table mechanism of the present invention is in its central position, since the x, y, z three orthogonal axes perpendicular to each other, so the x, y, z three-axis are decoupled. 也就是说,动台体沿x轴运动时,另外两个方向y,z的四根驱动器可以不调节或很少调节即可。 That is, when the movable table along the x-axis moving body, the other two directions y, z drive to four or less may not be adjusted can be adjusted.

本发明的并联机构作为位置调节机构,在实际使用时,是很方便的。 Parallel mechanism of the invention as a position adjustment mechanism, in actual use, it is convenient. 当以同速、同方向调节x轴向的两个驱动时,动台体沿x轴方向平动。 When two same speed, with the x-axis direction adjustment drive, the movable stage member movable parallel to the direction along the x axis. 当该两个驱动同速反方向运动时,动台体则绕z轴转动。 When the two driving motion in the opposite direction at the same speed, the movable table body rotation about the z-axis. 因为这两个驱动杆的运动而引起其他轴向的运动量很小或为零,所以为了得到纯粹的沿x轴的移动或绕z轴的转动,其他两个方向的四个驱动杆或驱动副的驱动量可以很小或为零(即高阶无穷小)。 Because both the drive rod causes movement of the axial movement amount of other small or zero, so in order to obtain a pure or movement along the x-axis is rotated about the z-axis, a drive rod or drive four sub-directions of the other two drive amount may be small or zero (i.e. higher order infinitesimal). 并且,当沿y轴或z轴移动,或绕x轴或y轴转动时,情况完全类似。 Then, when the y-axis or z-axis, or rotation about the x or y axis, completely analogous situation. 所以,本发明的动台体在上述中心位置附近,三个方向近似解耦。 Therefore, the mobile station of the present invention in the vicinity of the center position, three directions approximate decoupling. 因此在一些要求不严格的场合,各个方向的位置和转角可以分别调节,因此调节很方便。 Thus in some situations is not strictly required, the position and angle can be adjusted in all directions, respectively, therefore, the adjustment is very convenient. 另外,由于三个方向的调节呈正交或近似正交,各个方向的对于调节的灵敏度也比较均衡。 Further, since the adjustment in three directions were orthogonal or nearly orthogonal, to adjust the sensitivity is relatively balanced in all directions.

其次,把机构中的六个驱动杆改为长度固定的杆,并在每个驱动杆上面加上一个传感器,可以把本发明变换为一个力与力矩的传感器。 Next, the mechanism of the six drive rod to the rod of fixed length, and adding a sensor, the present invention can be converted into a force and torque sensor in each of the upper drive rod. 这种传感器可以自然地把三个方向的力和力矩分开。 Such sensors may naturally separate the forces and moments in the three directions. 例如:当只有x轴方向受力时,则仅沿x轴的两个传感器有输出,其值为两个传感器的和。 For example: x-axis direction only when the force, only two sensors along the x-axis with an output, and a value of two sensors. 当只有绕z轴有力矩时,则仅沿x轴的一对传感器有输出,其值为该对传感器之差乘以该对驱动杆之间的距离。 When a moment is only around the z axis, the pair of sensors along the x axis only with an output which is multiplied by the distance between the pair of drive rod difference sensors. 由于动台体的位移量很小,所以具有相当高的精度。 Since the amount of displacement of the movable platform body is small, it has a very high accuracy.

本发明的机构如果用在虚拟轴数控机床上也有一些特殊的优点。 If the mechanism of the present invention is used on a virtual axis CNC machine also has some specific advantages. 因为其条件数近似为1,属于最理想的状态。 Because the condition number is approximately 1, belonging to the ideal state. 因此在同样情况下,加工精度高,机床工作空间大,可以达到的工作速度高等等,是一种具有很好应用前景的机床结构形式。 Therefore, in the same context, high precision, a large working space, you can achieve higher operating speed and the like, a structure having a good prospect in the machine.

由于本发明的机构运动解耦的位置是在动台体的中心,处于几个球铰的包围之中,故作为虚轴机床或其他用途时,应用不甚方便。 Due to the decoupling position of the movement mechanism of the present invention is in the center of the movable stage thereof, it is surrounded by several ball joints, so as an imaginary axis of a machine tool or other uses, not convenient application. 因此本发明可以作些改进,即将上述六根驱动杆两两成组的铰接在上述动台体的三个呈x,y,z正交的表面上,参见图5,图6所示。 Thus, the present invention can make some improvements, i.e. the above-described six driving lever articulated with the two sets of the three groups of the above-described movable table body was x, the upper surface y, z orthogonal, as indicated on FIG. 5, FIG. 6. 其中图5是动台体4和驱动杆1以及球铰2的结构布局示意图,加上静台体3后,则如图6所示。 5 is a diagram wherein the movable stage 4 and the drive rod 1 and the structural layout of the ball joint 2, coupled with the static platform body 3, as shown in FIG. 此时,动台体4位于该六根驱动杆1的一侧,采用该种结构,当动台体在其中心位置时,雅可比行列式的条件数仍为1。 At this time, mobile station 4 is located at the side of the six drive lever 1, With this configuration, when the movable stage member is in its central position, the condition number is still a Jacobian. 但在作纯转动时其调节规律是不同的。 But in which for pure rotational adjustment rule is different.

如果把本发明的机构旋转一个角度,使动台体的一条对角线转成竖直方向,且把静台体稍做改变,参见图7。 If the mechanism of the present invention is a rotation angle, so that a station turned into a diagonal member in the vertical direction, and the static table body changes slightly, see FIG. 7. 可以看出它与现在的虚轴机床已经很相似了。 Now it can be seen that the imaginary axis of the machine is very similar. 只不过其驱动杆的方向是互相正交或近似正交的,并且球铰的分布是特殊的。 Except that it is a direction orthogonal to the driving rod or nearly orthogonal to each other, and the distribution of the spherical joints are special. 正是由于具有这些特点,使得机床具有加工精度高,机床工作空间大,可以达到的工作速度高等优点。 Because of these characteristics, so that the machine has a high precision, a large working space, the operating speed can be achieved advantages. 如果把z轴选择为竖直方向,则三个正交方向不再是x,y,z轴,而仅是在中心位置时的三个驱动杆方向了。 If the selected z-axis as the vertical direction, the three orthogonal directions is no longer x, y, z-axis, but only in three directions when the drive rod of the center position.

本发明的机构还可以有其它变形。 Mechanism of the present invention may also have other variations. 如图8所示,每对球铰2之间的六个腿1的长度是固定的,并把调节长度的六个滑动副5及其驱动杆安装在机架3上,同样可以达到调节动台体4位置的目的。 As shown, each of the six legs of a length between the ball joint 2 is fixed to 8, and the adjustment of the length of the six sub-slide 5 and driving lever mounted on the frame 3, can also move to regulate object table 4 position. 此时,自由度仍然是六个,仍然保持了在中心位置条件数为1的优点,但在计算其正反解时,计算方法、计算公式是不相同的。 In this case, a six degree of freedom remains, remains in a central position a number of advantages as a condition, but in the calculation of its inverse solution, the calculation method, the calculation formula is not the same.

Claims (3)

1.一种三轴近似正交的六自由度并联机构,包括有:静台体,动台体和六根驱动杆,该六根驱动的长度伸缩可变,且其中每个驱动杆都通过其两端各自的球铰或万向节分别与静台体、动台体相铰接,其特征在于:上述六根驱动杆的方向分别位于x,y,z三个正交方向或近似正交的方向,且每个方向各有两根驱动杆。 An approximate three-axis orthogonal to the six degrees of freedom parallel mechanism, comprising: a static table body, the movable body and the six stage drive rod, the six driven telescopic variable length, and wherein each drive rod through its two end of the respective ball joints or universal joints, respectively, and the stationary platform body, hinged member station, wherein: the driving direction of the rod are located six x, y, z three orthogonal directions or a direction approximately orthogonal, and two drive rods each direction.
2.如权利要求1所述的三轴近似正交的六自由度并联机构,其特征在于:上述六根驱动杆与动台体铰接的六个球铰可以分别位于六面体的六个面的中心位置。 2. The three-axis according to claim 1 is approximately perpendicular to the six degrees of freedom parallel mechanism, wherein: the above-described driving lever and the six articulated body movable stage six ball joints may be located in the center of the six sides of a hexahedron, respectively, .
3.如权利要求1所述的三轴近似正交的六自由度并联机构,其特征在于:上述六根驱动杆可以两两成组地分别铰接在上述动台体的三个呈x,y,z正交方向的表面上。 3. The three-axis according to claim 1 is approximately perpendicular to the six degrees of freedom parallel mechanism, wherein: the above-described six driving lever can be articulated with the two sets respectively in groups in the form of x three of the above-described movable platform body, y, z direction perpendicular to the surface.
CN 00102901 2000-03-09 2000-03-09 Six-freedom parallel mechanism with triaxial nearly orthogonal CN1095417C (en)

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