CN1246672C - Method and device for intelligent diagnosis and location of leakage fault of fluid delivery pipeline - Google Patents

Method and device for intelligent diagnosis and location of leakage fault of fluid delivery pipeline Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1246672C
CN1246672C CN 02132526 CN02132526A CN1246672C CN 1246672 C CN1246672 C CN 1246672C CN 02132526 CN02132526 CN 02132526 CN 02132526 A CN02132526 A CN 02132526A CN 1246672 C CN1246672 C CN 1246672C
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pressure
wave
location
fluid
pipeline
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CN 02132526
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CN1435678A (en
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张化光
于锡纯
冯健
黎明
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东北大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to an intelligent method and a device for diagnosing and positioning the leakage faults of fluid conveying pipelines, which belongs to the technical field of fault diagnosis. The method comprises the procedures of leakage detection and positioning, wherein the leakage detection adopts the way of coupling measurement shortage and pressure waves, and the positioning adopts the way of positioning transient pressure waves so as to calculate the positions of leakage points. In the device, instruments for detecting pressure, flow and temperature are installed at a head station and a tail station, signals are collected at definite time by lower computers of the stations and transmitted to upper computers of the stations through a local area network, real time data is exchanged through a high-speed wireless communication network between the upper computers of the two stations, and a global positioning and timing system is matched. The data which is received by the two stations is respectively analyzed in real time to carry out working condition analysis and alarm intimation.

Description

Fluid-transporting tubing leaks the method and apparatus of intelligent trouble diagnosis and location
Technical field
The invention belongs to the fault diagnosis technology field, particularly a kind ofly be used for method and the device that the fluid delivery pipe leakage carries out detection and location.
Background technology
Grow apart from fluid line because of escape of liquid, may cause the generation of situations such as on fire, blast, murder by poisoning, cause tremendous economic loss and environmental pollution, therefore the online Dynamic Non-Destruction Measurement of pipeline is the pipeline industry developed country new and high technology of development mutually unexpectedly, and the line leakage of once studying can be divided into two classes with leakage point localization method cardinal principle both at home and abroad: a class is a flow status leak hunting method in the pipe that changes because of physical parameters such as the flow that leakage causes, pressure; Another kind of is outer leak detection of pipe or the detection tube wall situation method that direct test fluid (Oil, Water, Gas) is leaked.Along with the develop rapidly of computer technology, modern control theory and signal processing technology, the traffic conditions detection method has occupied leading position gradually in the pipe on the real-time monitoring of oil pipeline and alarm technique.Comparatively proven technique has following three: flow monitoring method, pressure gradient method, pressure wave monitoring method.The suction wave monitoring method is a line leakage method of quite being paid attention to and received better effects in recent years in the world in practice, again in conjunction with the mechanism model and the mode identification technology of oil pipeline, can accurately locate the leakage failure point, but its product price height has hindered its practical application.
Summary of the invention
Problem at existing fluid-transporting tubing leakage monitoring technology existence, the invention provides a kind of the least possible to the pipeline operational factor carry out real-time sampling, intelligentized, antinoise is disturbed, highly sensitive, accurate positioning, applicable to various fluid delivery pipelines, fluid-transporting tubing leakage locating method and device, its can right area subtube normal regulating and the different operating mode of generation leakage failure.
Device of the present invention is made up of instrument, slave computer, host computer and LAN (Local Area Network) and GPS global location timing system that pressure (P), flow (F), temperature (T) detect.The instrument that pressure (P), flow (F), temperature (T) detect has been installed at first and last two stations, slave computer timing acquiring signal by two stations, be sent to the host computer of our station by LAN (Local Area Network), between the first and last two station host computers by high speed wireless communications network exchange real time data.Performance analysis and alarm are carried out with the data real-time analysis processing respectively that receives in two stations.Slave computer is made up of filter band, A/D converter, tally (I/O plate), embedded computer and GPS dash receiver.Slave computer reaches host computer with real time data by network.Host computer is an operating platform with WindowsNT, comprises functions such as real-time demonstration, historical query, data storage, warning processing.
On-the-spot pressure, temperature signal pass through sensor, be sent to the A/D converter of slave computer with the standard signal of 4-20mA, traffic pulse imports the counter of slave computer into, by A/D converter analog signal conversion is become digital signal, be stored as local data file and be sent in the database of initial station, in order to analyzing.
Apparatus of the present invention each several part function is as follows:
1) part is sent in the change of on-site signal sensing: mainly be by high performance pressure sensor and temperature sensor, magneto-electric impulse type flowmeter is formed, and is responsible for operational factor collection and transmission in the pipeline;
2) signaling conversion circuit A/D: function switching signal is finished by the A/D change-over panel, and the A/D change-over panel is 12 A/D converters in 24 tunnel every roads, switching times 10 μ s, acquisition rate is up to more than 50 times/second;
3) slave computer: the industrial control computer of high reliability, can carry out the processing of larger data amount, it is the basis that system software is finished every function;
4) host computer: collect the data that local slave computer is uploaded, pass the data that the strange land host computer is collected mutually, analyze operating mode;
5) high-speed radiocommunication net: high-speed radio Ethernet, microwave transmission;
6) GPS global location timing system: be made up of cover satellite antenna and a GPS smart card, can be like clockwork the system clock of a plurality of data acquisition system (DAS)s be got up synchronously, the data acquisition of guaranteeing at 3 is the same time.
The present invention is after giving the filter band circuit filtering pressure, temperature, flow signal with intelligence sensor, by A/D change-over panel and tally with the interrupt mode image data pass to that host computer is handled, the demonstration of analysis and curve.Data after then two host computers being handled pass to the other side's workstation mutually by the microwave net and diagnose and locate.
The software runtime environment of native system is NT SERVER or NT WORKSTATION system.Software section mainly comprises data acquisition and processing, Network Transmission, interface display, warning processing, data base administration, data analysis etc.
1) data acquisition: system will adopt in the software module through the later digital signal of hardware conversion circuit conversion;
2) Network Transmission: each substation data is sent in the computing machine of main website by network;
3) interface display: the pressure, the flow temperature signal that collect are shown as real-time curve;
4) data analysis: analyze the data of nearest a period of time, combine, judge whether operate as normal of system by measurement shoutage curve and suction wave curve;
5) warning is handled: receive after the warning mark of data analysis, alert data to this sorts, deposits, automatically write down the curve characteristic when leaking, emptying, the curve characteristic when the interior pressure control valve door of standing is transferred discharge capacity progressively form a database that approaches real leakage plot in standing with difference.The data of general case only need be stored the regular hour (time can be set by user oneself) and be got final product.And sound and light alarm can be provided, and system can eject corresponding warning picture, display alarm data, and prints the warning curve, points out workman on duty with this.
6) systemic-function setting module: for the user provides a CGI interface, finish the function that some can be set by the user, as: curve range, time range, curve sign, printing etc.; The user can carry out the alert data list query, operations such as pressure, flow, the measurement shoutage history curve during to warning looked back, printing.
Method of the present invention comprises signals collecting, three aspects of leak detection and location.Signals collecting at each setting pressure of pipe ends, flow, temperature sensor and lower computer system, is gathered and in real time by the status signals of network when host computer transmitting fluid conveyance conduit moves.Leak detection, the method for employing measurement shoutage-pressure wave coupling is measured the flow at pipeline two ends and is calculated measurement shoutage by computer real-time, and measurement shoutage instantaneous variation trend is analyzed, and utilizes the measurement shoutage opisometer that produces in leakage this section period to calculate wastage.Transient pressure ripple localization method is adopted in the location, calculates the position of leakage point.Utilize the GPS technology to guarantee that the clock of the next sampling computing machine of first and last end is identical synchronous with the collection of first and last end data; Utilize wavelet transformation, extract the character pair point of leak pressure ripple burst in the middle of the noise exactly, accurately obtain to leak the pressure-wave emission that causes mistiming to the upstream and downstream sensor.Pipe internal pressure velocity of wave propagation adopts fuzzy-nerual network technique that the velocity of wave formula is carried out online correction, sets up operating mode knowledge base and velocity of wave estimation model, calculates velocity of wave in real time.Analyze with the way that transient pressure ripple localization method and measurement shoutage leak detecting are coupled.Reduce rate of false alarm effectively, improved the accuracy of system.
The measurement shoutage leak detecting mainly is the principle that equals the output quantity sum of pipeline according to the input quantity sum of pipeline in the oil gas accumulating theory.But in fact, it generally is unbalanced importing and exporting instantaneous delivery, and reason is multiple factors such as the compressibility, temperature effect, flowmeter error in dipping of fluid.Under normal circumstances, the measurement shoutage that these several respects caused is more stable.If the bigger rising of measurement shoutage, the steady state (SS) of measurement shoutage is just destroyed, just can conclude roughly that pipeline has abnormal conditions to take place.Measure the flow at pipeline two ends and calculate measurement shoutage by computer real-time, measurement shoutage instantaneous variation trend is analyzed, just the flow loss that can note abnormalities.But because on-the-spot technological operation as transferring valve, causes measurement shoutage to rise through regular meeting in the processes such as pressurization, its phenomenon is similar to leakage, therefore, adopts the measurement shoutage leak detecting can cause frequent false alarm merely.In order to improve the reliability of system alarm, we have improved the accuracy of system alarm in conjunction with the pressure wave monitoring method.In addition, can also calculate wastage to producing the measurement shoutage opisometer of this section of leakage in the time.When pipeline took place to leak, the leakage point place was owing to the inside and outside pressure reduction of pipeline, and fluid runs off rapidly, and pressure descends.The fluid on leakage point both sides replenishes to the leakage point place owing to there is pressure reduction, and this process is upwards downstream transmission successively, is equivalent to the leakage point place and has produced the negative pressure wave of propagating with certain speed (decompression wave).When negative pressure wave is delivered to first and last two stations, produce the decline of pressure transducer sampled value, the moment that the force samples value begins to descend, be called the moment that the pressure flex point produces, this point is called the pressure flex point.For example the speed propagated in crude oil of pressure wave is generally about 1000 ~ 1200 meter per seconds, as long as the pressure transducer of pipe ends captures the suction wave that comprises leakage information exactly, just can monitor out leakage, and can position according to mistiming and the pressure-wave propagation speed that suction wave propagates into two ends.This method has very fast response speed and high orientation precision.Ranging formula is
X = L - V * Δt 2
Wherein: the X-leakage point is apart from the distance of initiating terminal, m;
L-pipeline total length, m;
The mistiming of Δ t-pressure curve flex point, s;
V-pressure wave velocity of wave, m/s; These class methods are based on all that pressure-wave propagation speed V is that this prerequisite of definite value is made in the defeated medium of pipe, and V is decided by the elasticity of tube wall and the compressibility of liquid, and external less at the research of hot transporting fluid pipeline, the variation of V has also all been ignored in domestic research.In fact along with the variation of fluid temperature (F.T.) in the pipeline, the compressibility of density and liquid also can change to some extent, and V is not a definite value.The application following formula is made location Calculation and can be brought certain error.Pipe internal pressure velocity of wave propagation is decided by the elasticity of elasticity, density of liquid and the tubing of liquid:
V = K / ρ 1 + [ ( K / E ) ( D / e ) ] C 1
In the formula:
V-pipe internal pressure velocity of wave propagation, rn/s;
The coefficient of cubical elasticity of K-liquid, Pa;
ρ-density of liquid, kg/m 3
The elasticity of E-material, Pa;
The D-pipe diameter, m;
The e-pipe thickness, m;
C 1-the correction factor relevant with pipeline constraint condition;
The t-temperature, ℃.
The coefficient of cubical elasticity of liquid is the inverse of its compressibility coefficient, the difference with the difference of kind, temperature, pressure.For example the most crude oil of China has the characteristics of the high content of wax, high viscosity, high condensation point, needs heating to carry.Because pipeline transmission distance, heat radiation are obviously, the first and last end temperature difference is bigger, generally can reach tens degrees centigrade, and end is sometimes near condensation point, and original rerum natura has more different with temperature.
Coefficient of cubical elasticity K and density p all change with crude oil temperature in the formula, and it is as follows to rewrite formula:
v = K ( t ) / ρ ( t ) 1 + [ ( K ( t ) / E ) ( D / e ) ] C 1
Above-mentioned formula has been described the relation between velocity of wave and temperature-density and the pipeline feature, but wherein most of parameter all is difficult to accurately acquisition, need adjust according to field condition when reality is used.The present invention adopts, and fuzzy-nerual network technique carries out online correction to the velocity of wave formula, sets up operating mode knowledge base and velocity of wave estimation model, calculates velocity of wave in real time.
(a) accurately obtain to leak the mistiming that the upstream and downstream sensor is arrived in the pressure-wave emission that causes, need capture the character pair point of leak pressure ripple burst exactly.And because the inevitably electromagnetic interference (EMI) of industry spot, the factors such as vibration of transfer pump, the pressure wave signal sequence that collects has been added much noise, and the unique point that how extracts signal in the middle of the noise exactly is the key of location.We utilize wavelet transformation and inverse transformation to handle by the sampling of noise pollution letter at the characteristics of concrete pipeline sampled signal, not only original signal have been done effective filtering, and have stably extracted the decline flex point of pressure wave, are applicable to each station signal.
Wavelet analysis is a kind of signal processing method very active over nearly 20 years.It can have the characteristics such as any details to insensitive for noise, energy analytic signal in the feature of time one frequency field Conjoint Analysis signal, is described as " microscope of mathematics ".
Because the time that high-frequency signal passes through is short, and the time that low frequency signal passes through is long, so physically we wish that the result of signal Processing has high temporal resolution and low frequency resolution at high frequency, has low temporal resolution and high frequency resolution at low frequency.We notice scaling function in time domain during compressed signal, and its centre frequency and bandwidth increase; And signal duration is long more, and frequency band is narrow more, and this just in time meets our requirement, and we select the scaling function of translation thus As the basis function in the Expansion Theory, such expansion then is called wavelet transformation.Ψ (t) is called basic small echo, and a is a scale factor, and b is time shift.Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is defined as
CWT ( a , b ) = 1 | a | ∫ s ( t ) ψ * ( t - b a ) dt
The characteristics of wavelet transformation are that quality factor are constant, Q = 2 Δω ω 0 , And to real signal s (t), as long as Ψ (t) is a real function, wavelet coefficient also must be real number.In order in computing machine, to realize the calculating of wavelet transformation, must handle discrete signal and small echo.
(b) calculate leakage point with pressure wave flex point trapping, accurately locate if the two ends computing machine has the time difference just to be far from being.For two dot systems, can define wherein that the computing machine of an end is a main frame, every day by communication link regularly to the slave transmission time information of the other end.We can write the program of the system time of automatic modification slave, can make the pipe ends computing machine that the clock of accurate unanimity is arranged, and precision reaches the ms level.But system counts more the time, just needs a unified time benchmark, and all dress to this unified time benchmark at each station.The GPS technology of moulding can address this problem, the precision height, and equipment is simple, economic and reliable.
Global Positioning System (GPS) (global positioning system is abbreviated as GPS) is the radio positioning system based on military purposes that U.S. government sets up, and is made up of space segment, earth station and subscriber equipment.Space segment has 21 work satellites and 3 backup satellites, the work satellite distribution on 6 orbit planes, 4 satellites on each track.Arbitrary time any point GPS receiver can be received the information of 4 satellites simultaneously, obtains three-dimensional position, three-dimensional velocity and the time of dynamic object continuously.At present, technology such as space technology, signal Processing, signal optimum reception, precision interval clock can make time difference method reach for tens nanoseconds.After GPS of America in 1992 put into operation comprehensively, gps clock was widely used in operation of power networks scheduling, thunder and lightning time difference location, transmission line fault location, electric network state monitoring, relay protection or the like the Industry Control.
Pipeline leakage, theft phenomenon can be effectively in time found in this invention, avoid national wealth to sustain a loss and the huge waste of water, gas resource, avoid because leak and pilferage causes environmental pollution; Can monitor in real time pipeline, at any time grasp pressure, temperature, flow, avoid causing pipeline superpressure or discharge capacity to cross phenomenon such as low, avoid industrial accident, go for carrying the leakage monitoring of different fluid medium pipeline through some concrete modifications, for example urban water supply main pipeline network, blowdown main pipeline network, rock gas (coal gas) main pipeline network etc. are all having broad application prospects aspect the Leak Detection of most of fluid-transporting tubing and the location.
This invention (fluid line leaks the method and apparatus of intelligent trouble diagnosis and location) and similar positioning system are compared and are had bearing accuracy height, reaction rate soon, the wrong report phenomenon is failed to report in elimination fully.The technical indicator following points that reach:
1. can measure single hop pipeline maximum length: 50 kms
2. leakage point positioning error: less than 2% of monitored pipeline total length; Leakage monitoring sensitivity: the leakage rate greater than pipeline throughput rate 2% can be reported to the police.
3. warning accuracy rate: accuracy rate 100%, do not have and fail to report the wrong report phenomenon; Alert reaction time: less than 55 seconds.
4. can estimate leakage rate: error is less than about 2% of actual leakage rate.
5. the mobile monitoring instrument can further improve bearing accuracy.
6. have good man computer interface, can on the pipeline map, show the position of leakage point; But the service data of longer-term storage pipeline, automatic report generation, and can inquire about printing at any time.
7. can expand other monitoring functions, networking on a large scale easily.
Succeeding in developing and applying of this system will have huge social, economic benefit:
1. " fluid-transporting tubing leakage monitoring system " is as long as just go for carrying the leakage monitoring of different fluid medium pipeline through some concrete modifications, for example urban water supply main pipeline network, blowdown main pipeline network, rock gas (coal gas) main pipeline network etc. are all having broad application prospects aspect the Leak Detection of fluid-transporting tubing and the location.
2. will effectively and find pipeline leakage, theft phenomenon timely, and avoid national wealth to sustain a loss and the huge waste of resource such as stone Oil, Water, Gas.
3. can monitor in real time by the fluid delivery pipeline, grasp pressure, temperature, flow at any time, avoid causing pipeline superpressure or discharge capacity to cross abnormal running phenomenons such as low, avoid industrial accident.
4. will realize the automatic detection of pipeline, and effectively improve the level of scientific management, reduce artificial line walking labour intensity to have good social benefit.
5. system once invests, and is recoverable cost in a short time, and long-term gain.
Description of drawings:
Fig. 1 is apparatus of the present invention one-piece construction synoptic diagram,
Fig. 2 is apparatus of the present invention head (end) system architecture synoptic diagram of standing,
Fig. 3 is a software flow pattern of the present invention,
Fig. 4 is apparatus of the present invention filtering circuit schematic diagram,
Fig. 5 is the inventive method measurement shoutage leak-hunting principle figure,
Measurement shoutage curve and suction wave curve map when Fig. 6 uses leakage for the leak detection of the inventive method measurement shoutage with the location.
Embodiment:
Consulting Fig. 1 device of the present invention is made of instrument, host computer, slave computer and LAN (Local Area Network) and the GPS global location timing system that the pressure of installing at first, last two stations (P), flow (F), temperature (T) detect.
Consult Fig. 2, this device converts pressure, temperature, the flow of fluid in initial station or the terminal pipeline to the electric signal (pressure, temperature are 4~20mA current signal, and flow is a pulse signal) of standard respectively by corresponding pressure, flow, temperature instrument.Slave computer is made up of filter band, A/D converter, tally (I/O plate), embedded computer and GPS dash receiver.4~20mA normalized current signal is sent into A/D converter after filter band filtering, become digital signal.Traffic pulse is delivered in the tally (I/O plate) after filter band is isolated shaping.Embedded computer is at GPS regularly under the driving of synchronizing pulse, reading of data from A/D converter, tally (I/O plate) regularly, and pass to this station host computer by the 10M Ethernet.First and last two station host computers, receive the data of slave computer after,, join the realization data interaction through handling by high-speed radiocommunication interface and radio communication line.Upper computer software running environment is NT server and NT wokstation system.Slave computer running environment is the DOS system.Consult Fig. 3 software mainly by data acquisition, Network Transmission, interface display, data analysis, warning processing and systemic-function are set and are formed.
Data acquisition will be adopted in the software module through the later digital signal of hardware conversion circuit conversion, Network Transmission with each substation data by Network Transmission in the computing machine at each station; Interface display is shown as real-time curve with pressure, the flow temperature signal that collects; Data analysis is analyzed and is worked recently; Report to the police to handle, receive after the warning mark of data analysis, to this alert data sort, deposit, curvilinear characteristic when record leaks automatically, with emptying in the difference station, stand in curve characteristic during pressure control valve door accent discharge capacity.And can provide functions such as sound and light alarm, printing warning curve; Systemic-function is set at the user CGI interface is provided, and finishes the function that some users set.

Claims (6)

1, a kind of fluid-transporting tubing leaks the method for intelligent trouble diagnosis and location, comprise signals collecting, three aspects of leak detection and location: it is characterized in that signals collecting, at each setting pressure of pipe ends, flow, temperature sensor and lower computer system, gather in real time and by the status signals of network when host computer transmitting fluid conveyance conduit moves; Leak detection, the method for employing measurement shoutage one pressure wave coupling is measured the flow at pipeline two ends and is calculated measurement shoutage by computer real-time, and measurement shoutage instantaneous variation trend is analyzed, and utilizes the measurement shoutage opisometer that produces in leakage this section period to calculate wastage; The location obtains to obtain transient pressure wave-wave speed by the mistiming of leaking transient pressure ripple arrival pipeline two end sensors that produce in real time by fuzzy-nerual network technique by wavelet transformation, adopts transient pressure ripple localization method to calculate the position of leakage point.
2, fluid-transporting tubing according to claim 1 leaks the method for intelligent trouble diagnosis and location, it is characterized in that the calculating of pipe internal pressure velocity of wave propagation in the said transient pressure ripple localization method, adopt fuzzy-nerual network technique that the velocity of wave formula is carried out online correction, set up operating mode knowledge base and velocity of wave estimation model, calculate velocity of wave in real time, the velocity of wave formula is as follows:
v = K ( t ) / ρ ( t ) 1 + [ ( K ( t ) / E ) ( D / e ) ] C 1
In the formula:
V-pipe internal pressure velocity of wave propagation, rn/s;
The coefficient of cubical elasticity of K-liquid, Pa;
ρ-density of liquid, kg/m 3
The elasticity of E-tubing, Pa;
The D-pipe diameter, m;
The e-pipe thickness, m;
C 1-the correction factor relevant with pipeline constraint condition;
The t-temperature, ℃.
3, fluid-transporting tubing according to claim 1 leaks the method for intelligent trouble diagnosis and location, it is characterized in that using in the said transient pressure ripple localization method wavelet transform signal disposal route, extract the character pair point of leak pressure ripple burst exactly, accurately obtain to leak the mistiming that the upstream and downstream sensor is arrived in the pressure-wave emission that causes.
4, fluid-transporting tubing according to claim 1 leaks the method for intelligent trouble diagnosis and location, it is characterized in that utilizing in the said transient pressure ripple localization method GPS technology with Millisecond guarantee that the clock of the next sampling computing machine of first and last end is identical and the first and last end data is gathered synchronous.
5, a kind of fluid-transporting tubing of implementing the described method of claim 1 leaks intelligent trouble diagnosis and locating device, instrument, slave computer, host computer and high-speed radiocommunication net and GPS global location timing system by pressure, flow, temperature detection are formed, it mainly is by high performance pressure sensor and temperature sensor that part is sent in the change of on-site signal sensor, magneto-electric impulse type flowmeter is formed, and is responsible for the operational factor collection in the pipeline and sends slave computer to; The slave computer at two stations is with interrupt mode timing acquiring signal, be sent to the host computer of our station by LAN (Local Area Network), exchange real time data by high speed wireless communications network between the first and last two station host computers, two stations are with the data real-time analysis processing respectively that receives, and foundation judges whether to provide alarm to the result of performance analysis separately.
6, fluid-transporting tubing according to claim 5 leaks intelligent trouble diagnosis and locating device, it is characterized in that slave computer is made up of filter band, A/D converter, tally, embedded computer, GPS dash receiver.
CN 02132526 2002-07-04 2002-07-04 Method and device for intelligent diagnosis and location of leakage fault of fluid delivery pipeline CN1246672C (en)

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