CN1228810C - Method and apparatus for physical vapor phase deposit - Google PatentsMethod and apparatus for physical vapor phase deposit Download PDF
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- CN1228810C CN1228810C CN 98804335 CN98804335A CN1228810C CN 1228810 C CN1228810 C CN 1228810C CN 98804335 CN98804335 CN 98804335 CN 98804335 A CN98804335 A CN 98804335A CN 1228810 C CN1228810 C CN 1228810C
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- H01—BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
- H01J—ELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
- H01J37/00—Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
- H01J37/32—Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
- H01J37/32009—Arrangements for generation of plasma specially adapted for examination or treatment of objects, e.g. plasma sources
- H01J37/32082—Radio frequency generated discharge
- H01J37/321—Radio frequency generated discharge the radio frequency energy being inductively coupled to the plasma
- H01—BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
- H01J—ELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
- H01J37/00—Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
- H01J37/32—Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
- H01J37/32431—Constructional details of the reactor
- H01J37/32623—Mechanical discharge control means
- H01—BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
- H01J—ELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
- H01J37/34—Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering
- H01J37/3402—Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering using supplementary magnetic fields
- H01J37/3405—Magnetron sputtering
- H01—BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
- H01J—ELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
- H01J2237/00—Discharge tubes exposing object to beam, e.g. for analysis treatment, etching, imaging
- H01J2237/022—Avoiding or removing foreign or contaminating particles, debris or deposits on sample or tube
本发明是关于溅涂，而较具体说是关于把涂敷材料的离子化物理汽相沉积(IPVD)到基座上的方法和设备。 The present invention relates to sputtering, and more particularly relates to the ionized physical vapor deposition of the coating material (the IPVD) a method and apparatus to the base.
背景技术 Background technique
半导体生产中子微粒高纵横比形体(features)例如通道、沟渠和接触孔的存在带来各种涂敷问题。 The semiconductor particulate neutron production brings various coating of high aspect ratio problems body (Features) channel exists e.g., trenches and contact holes. 在甚大的超大规模集成(VLSI和ULSI)半导体装置的生产中，在这种形体底部上触点经常要加上衬垫，且该形体要经常填充以导电金属。 In the production of very large very large scale integration (VLSI and ULSI) semiconductor device, in which the bottom of the article contacts often padded, and the article to be regularly filled with a conductive metal. 在许多要沉积薄膜的半导体装置制造情况下，或者要求或者至少最好施加利用物理汽相沉积(PVD)过程的涂敷。 In many semiconductor manufacturing device where a thin film to be deposited, or at least preferable to apply or require the use of physical vapor deposition coating (PVD) process. 以物理方法在具有窄小的高纵横比形体(壁孔)的底部上沉积薄膜需要在向着基底沉积的材料运动中达到很高程度的定向性。 The method of depositing a thin film physical properties required to achieve a high degree of orientation in the material to move towards the substrate deposited on the bottom of the high aspect ratio having a narrow body (wall holes). 纵横比特征越高要求定向性越高。 Wherein the higher the aspect ratio the higher the required orientation. 为在例如基底表面上小的高纵横比孔的底部有效地涂敷触点，涂敷材料的质粒必须以基本上不大于特征的斜面开孔的相对法线的角度运动。 On the surface of the substrate is, for example, small, high aspect ratio contacts effectively applied, the coating material must plasmid motion relative to the normal to the inclined surface features not substantially greater than the opening angle than the bottom of the hole.
在半导体装置生产中，例如说，金属化高纵横比的孔和沟槽的底部上触点是必要的，其中的沟槽可能需要将宽度可能在0.25至0.35微米范围内而且还可能随着装置的微型化趋向而变得可能更窄，因为PVD处理在所实现的膜纯净度、生产率和处理设备的整体成本和简单性方面表现出优于其他可能的处理的技术和商业上的优越性，因此通过物理沉积过程，如溅射涂敷来金属化这种触点是所希望的。 In the semiconductor device production, for example that on the bottom of the trenches and holes of high aspect ratio metal contacts are necessary, which may require the width of the groove but may also be possible with the apparatus in the range of 0.25 to 0.35 micron tendency of miniaturization becomes possible narrower, because PVD process exhibits advantages over other possible technical and commercial superiority of the overall cost of the film processing purity achieved, and productivity and handling simplicity of the apparatus, Therefore, by physical deposition processes, such as sputter coating of the metal to contact this is desirable. 例如，化学汽相沉积(CVD)处理由于化学处理能在孔或沟渠内部的基底表面形成薄膜而用于在深孔或沟渠中沉积薄膜。 For example, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process can be formed due to a chemical treatment film on the substrate surface or the inside of the hole and the trench for depositing a thin film or in a deep trench. 但是CVD处理需要较PVD处理设备更复杂的昂贵的设备。 But PVD CVD process require more sophisticated processing equipment more expensive equipment. CVD处理由于它的化学性质常常涉及到环境因素和应用可能造成装置污染源的化学前体，通常这些系统均要求较高频度的导致非生产性停机的预防性维护。 CVD process due to its chemical nature often involves chemical precursors applications and environmental factors may cause pollution of the apparatus, these systems typically require a higher frequency results in unproductive downtime preventive maintenance. 对于许多类型薄漠，PVD处理较CVD处理速度快，改善生产率从而降低成本。 For many types of thin desert, PVD process than CVD processing speed, improve productivity to reduce costs. 另外，CVD处理对许多沉积材料或许不存在或者可能是不现实的，例如由于需要可能会防碍CVD沉积的复杂的前体和供给系统。 Furthermore, many CVD process the deposition material may not exist or may be impractical, due to the need, for example, may hinder complex precursor and a supply of CVD deposition systems. 可用的生产CVD适用于钛、氮化钛和钨。 CVD is suitable for the production of usable titanium, titanium nitride, and tungsten. 但是，对铝、锢、钽和氮化钽的CVD处理或者不存在或者如果存在，它们也是不成熟的或商业上不可行的。 However, CVD of aluminum, indium, tantalum and tantalum nitride process is either absent or, if present, they are immature or not commercially viable. 此外，采用某些处理，CVD可能使基底上局部地形成的装置长时期地加热，这可能造成在材料边缘处的材料迁移和扩散，或者可能使这些装置经受热造成的损坏或超出对于该处理的热量估算、由于形体的减小尺寸和增大纵横比，在某些应用中由物理汽相沉积施加涂敷层的可取性对溅射过程要求增加来达到涂敷到基底上的材料的运动中越来越高程度的定向性。 Further, with some processing, so that the CVD apparatus may be locally formed on the substrate is heated long period of time, which may cause material migration and diffusion at the edges of the material, or may be subjected to these devices or damage due to heat exceeds the process for motion estimation desirability of heat due to the reduced size and compact aspect ratio increases, in some applications, the coating layer is applied by physical vapor deposition sputtering process to achieve the required increase applied to a substrate material increasingly high degree of orientation. 除非入射到基底上的溅射材料的质粒的的途径能高度平行并垂直于基底表面的平面，溅射高纵横比形体的努力将导致该形体上侧面上过量的沉积或形体开口的关闭，在这样的情况中物理沉积处理将不会达到满意的结果。 Unless ways plasmid sputtered material incident on the substrate can be highly parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the substrate surface, sputtering high aspect ratio will result in the closure body effort on the side of excess deposited on the body or body openings, in in such a case a physical deposition process will not reach satisfactory results.
溅射涂敷处理典型地是通过将基底和高纯度涂敷材料的靶极置入一填满惰性气体例如氮的真空腔室并在此气体中产生等离子体。 Sputter coating process is typically a vacuum chamber and a nitrogen plasma is generated in this gas by the high purity of the target substrate and the coating material into a pole, for example, an inert gas fill. 等离子体的生成典型的是依靠将此靶极或者连续地或者间断地保持为负电位，以使得靶极起提供激发腔室内气体而在邻近靶极表面处形成等离子体的电子的阴极的功能作用。 A typical plasma generating electrode is to rely on this target either continuously or intermittently to maintain a negative potential, so that the target electrode from the chamber to provide a gas excited electrons is formed at the cathode electrode surface of the plasma adjacent the target functional role . 等离子体的发生通常利用一磁电管组件来加强，其中位于靶极后面的磁铁俘获那些通过靶极表面的电子，在此将变换成正离子。 Plasma generation typically utilize a magnetron to enhance assembly, wherein the magnet poles located behind the target of electron capture by the target electrode surface, this is converted into a positive ion. 气体离子被向着负电的靶极加速在此它们与表面碰撞，靶极表面弹射出原子和原子簇或靶极材料的质粒和二次电子。 Negatively charged gas ions toward the target acceleration electrode where they collide with the surface of the target electrode surface and eject atoms or clusters of atoms of the target material and a plasmid secondary electrons. 二次电子在维持等离子体中起主要作用。 Secondary electrons play a major role in maintaining the plasma. 被弹射出的靶极材料的质粒在电荷上是中性的和通过真空空间以各个方向传播，其中一些碰到基底，它们粘结到基底上形成薄膜。 The plasmid is ejected out of the target material on the charge neutral and propagate in all directions through the vacuum space, wherein some of the touch substrate, they form a thin film bonded to the substrate. 基底上越来越窄的形体和纵横比越来越高的形体起着减小孔径的接受角的作用，从而遮蔽形体的边，导致越来越多的入射质粒被形体的边和周围地区拦截，而使越来越少的质粒可能沉积在形体底面上。 The base body and the more narrow aspect ratio increasing the acceptance angle of the body acts to reduce the aperture, so that the shielding body side, resulting in more compact plasmid was incident side and around intercept, the fewer plasmids may be deposited on the bottom surface of molded article.
已经为使传播的质粒能以直线向着和垂直于基底表面运动采用了各种方法。 And we can have a straight line toward the perpendicular to the substrate surface using a variety of methods for the moving plasmid propagation. 一种途径是采用靶极与基底间的物理准直仪盘来实现入射角的正态分布和通过拦截以低角度指向准直仪的质粒以使得仅仅那些垂直或近似垂直基底的质粒能通过准直仪来改善入射质粒的定向性。 One way is to use the physical disk collimator between the target electrode and the substrate is achieved by blocking normal angle of incidence and at a low angle point plasmid collimator such that only those perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the substrate through the quasi-plasmid the collimator is incident to improve the directivity of the plasmid. 另一种途径被叫做长射程溅射，要求增加靶极至基底的间距以便使仅仅以正交或接近正交于基底的角度运动的质粒能行进腔室长度来冲击基底。 Another approach is called a long-range sputtering, the substrate required to increase the target pitch of the extreme so that only a plasmid angular movement orthogonal or near-orthogonal to the substrate can travel length of the chamber to impact the substrate. 准直仪提供了特定的污染源，因为被截获的粒子沉积在准直仪上，在这里薄膜累积并倾向于脱落。 Collimator provides specific sources, since particles are intercepted deposited on the collimator, where the film tends to accumulate and shed. 准直沉积和长射程设计两者均以排除以低角度向基底运动的材料来实现定向性。 Collimated deposition and long range designed to exclude both be achieved at a low angle to the orientation of the material of the substrate movement. 它们极大地降低入射在基底上的溅射材料的百分数从而大大减小沉积率。 They significantly reduce the percentage of the sputtered material incident on the substrate so as to greatly reduce the deposition rate. 这还增加了防护性维护，减小靶极材料的利用和降低生产率。 This also increases the preventive maintenance, reduced use of target material and a reduction in productivity.
得到重新加以考虑的另一个定向溅射材料的方法是离子化溅射处理，常常被称之为离子化物理汽相沉积即IPVD。 Another orientation of the sputtered material obtained reconsider the ionized sputtering method, often referred to as ionized physical vapor deposition i.e. IPVD. 采用IPVD，涂敷材料利用磁控管溅射或其用常规的溅射或汽化技术被由靶极溅射。 Using IPVD, the coating material with the use of magnetron sputtering or conventional sputtering or evaporation techniques are sputtered from the target electrode. 在溅射涂敷过程中，溅射的质粒以宽大发射角度由靶极发射。 In the sputter coating process, a sputtering plasmids to large emission angle from the target emitter. IPVD依靠将质粒离子化以便使它们能被静电地或电气控制在垂直于基底的方向上来寻求改善定向性。 Plasmid IPVD rely ionized so that they can be controlled electrically or electrostatically in a direction perpendicular to the substrate up seeking to improve orientation.
IPVD，被溅射质粒在到基底途中所通过的靶极与基底之间的空间中的气体内产生额外的等离子体。 IPVD, additional plasma is generated in the space between the sputtering target and the substrate electrode to the substrate in the middle of the plasmid by the gas. 先有技术中，已借助各种方法例如以将RF能量作容性耦合进靶极下游腔室来在此空间中形成此额外的等离子体，或者借助电子回旋共振(ECR)或其他微波等离子体生成技术使其在远离此空间形成然后再流进此空间。 In the prior art, various methods have been for example by means of RF energy to be capacitively coupled into the chamber downstream of the target electrode to form this additional plasma in the space, or by means of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma, or other generation technology to form away from the space and then flows into the space. 穿过这一空间的溅射材料质粒与电子或被离子化处理气体的亚稳态中子碰撞。 Plasmid sputtered material passing through the electron or ionized process gas space of the metastable neutron collisions. 碰撞趋向于由被溅射质粒的原子剥离电子，留下带正电的质粒。 Collision tends to release electrons from the atoms sputtered plasmid, the plasmid leaving positively charged. 溅射材料的这些正离子然后由例如对基底所加的负偏压被向着基底作电气加速。 These positive ions of the sputtered material to the substrate, for example, is then accelerated by the negative bias is applied toward the substrate for electrical connection.
先有技术中的IPVD显示出多个缺点和问题，它们防碍在制造环境下的实际应用。 IPVD the prior art show a plurality of disadvantages and problems, which hinder the practical application in the manufacturing environment. 例如说，这样的处理造成整个效率低下。 For example, he said such a process resulting in low overall efficiency. 具体说，IPVD处理典型地会带来低沉积率。 Specifically, IPVD process typically lead to lower deposition rates. 而且此先有技术过程已产生很高程度的薄膜污染。 Also this prior art process has produced a high degree of contamination of the film. 特别是在采用先有技术的IPVD建议时，已发现因为靶极处的溅射功率增加而使高纵横比形体的填充恶化。 IPVD particularly recommended when using the prior art, it has been found that because of the increased power of the sputtering target at a very high aspect ratio deterioration of the filling body. 这样的恶化与这种靶极/磁控管组件通常可达到的12至30kw相比将铝合金的溅射功率导致与增加污染的同时使得生产率和产量降低的低沉积率，例如与典型的约45s至1min的晶片处理时间相比达到每一晶片的10至40min的溅射时间。 Such degradation and at the same time such a target electrode / magnetron assembly 12 may generally be achieved as compared to the sputtering power of 30kw aluminum contamination results in increased deposition rate such that the low productivity and reduced production, for example, typically about 1min 45s to achieve the wafer processing time as compared to the sputtering time of each of the wafer 10 to 40min. 而且，发现除非设备在溅射室由相当高的压力例如20至40mtorr下运行被溅射材料的部分离子化将很低。 Moreover, unless the device was found in the sputtering chamber by a relatively high pressure, for example, 20 to run at 40mtorr is partially ionized sputtered material will be low. 以氩作为处理气体，这一压力高于通常小于15mtorr或低真空压强范围内的所希望的溅射压力。 Argon as the process gas, the pressure is generally higher than or smaller than the low-vacuum pressure range 15mtorr desired sputtering pressure. 较高压力具有降低所沉积膜特性的质量并增加膜污染的趋向。 High pressure with a reduced quality of the deposited film properties and increase the membrane fouling tendency. 此外，较高的运行压力降低处理的平面领域的均匀性，迫使增大真空腔室设计，这又进一步降低离子化效率。 Moreover, higher operating pressures reduce the uniformity of the treated areas of the plane, forcing the design of the vacuum chamber is increased, which further reduces the ionization efficiency. 先有技术IPVD处理所带来的其他问题在于对RF电极或元件被不希望地溅射，这是由于等离子体、其上面非所希望的沉积而累积溅射的材料由RF元件剥落、RF元件由等离子体或沉积在元件上的材料的短接和其他等离子体及材料与电极或被用来耦合RF能量进入等离子体以离子化所溅射材料的元件的交互作用。 Other prior art IPVD processing problems that are brought about undesirably sputtering or RF electrode elements, which is due to the plasma, the non-desired accumulated deposited thereon by the RF sputtering material peeling elements, RF elements and a short plasma and other plasma electrode material is deposited on the element or material or for coupling RF energy into the plasma as a component of the ionized sputtered material interaction.
因而需要有IPVD设备和方法来克服先有技术的这些缺点和问题。 Thus the need for IPVD equipment and methods to overcome these disadvantages and problems of the prior art. 具体说，必须要有能提供满意高的整体效率，特别高的沉积率，高溅射材料离子化效率和低沉积膜污染的现实和有效的IPVD设备。 In particular, we must be able to provide satisfactory high overall efficiency, particularly high deposition rates, the high ionization efficiency and low deposition material sputtered membrane fouling realistic and effective IPVD apparatus. 尤其需要一种设备能产生高度均匀性和高质量的薄膜，同时提供商业上可采用过程的足够的生产率。 In particular, a need for an apparatus capable of producing highly uniform and high quality film, while providing sufficient productivity of the process can be employed commercially.
本发明的主要目的是提供用于在VLSI和ULSI半导体晶片的窄小的高纵横比孔和沟渠的底部和在一定程度上的边上沉积薄膜的方法和设备。 The main object of the present invention is to provide a method and apparatus for the narrow, high aspect VLSI and ULSI semiconductor wafer than the bottom and sides of the trenches and holes to some extent on the deposited film. 本发明的主要目的也在于提供为进行具有高整体效率，特别是能以涂敷材料的高离子化效率在很宽压力范围取得高沉积率的离子化物理汽相沉积的方法和设备。 The main object of the present invention is also to provide for a high overall efficiency, especially to high ionization efficiency of the coating material obtaining method and apparatus for ionized physical vapor deposition of a high deposition rate over a wide pressure range. 本发明的再一目的是提供能保持低沉积膜污染的有效的IPVD方法和设备。 A further object of the present invention is to provide a method capable of maintaining effective IPVD apparatus and a low contamination of the deposited film. 现有，本发明的另一目的是提供于防护维修要求很低的IPVD处理和硬件。 Conventional, a further object of the present invention is to provide protection to the low maintenance requirements and hardware IPVD process.
本发明的一特殊目的是提供靶极处的溅射功率将能被保持为至少中等水平和将具有RF(射频)能量高效率耦合进被溅射材料而无需维持腔室相对高的溅射压力的IPVD设备和方法。 A particular object of the present invention is to provide a sputtering target power poles will be maintained for the sputtering pressure and having at least a moderate level RF (radio frequency) energy is coupled efficiently into the sputtered material without maintaining a relatively high chamber the IPVD equipment and methods. 本发明的又一目的是提供的方法和设备中，腔室内的等离子体与用来耦合RF能量进入等离子体以离子化溅射材料的电极或元件间的的交互作用保持很低，特别是被溅射材料由于电极的可能短接而造成的溅射、剥离。 A further object of the present invention is to provide a method and apparatus, the plasma within the chamber for coupling RF energy into the plasma to the interaction between the ionized sputtered material in the electrode elements or kept low, in particular by Since the electrode sputtering sputter material may be caused by short peeling.
根据本发明的一方面，提供了一种物理汽相沉积的方法，包括有步骤：提供其内包围有一处理空间的一真空腔室，一蒸发的涂覆材料的源，和该真空腔室内的与该蒸发的涂覆材料的源相对并面对该源以支持其上的一基底的一基底支座；用一环绕该处理空间的一线圈将射频能量电感地耦合进该真空腔室；并在该真空腔室中设置一屏蔽，其特征在于该方法提供离子化物理汽相沉积并包括在该线圈和该空间之间设置一不导电保护结构，该射频能量通过该保护结构被耦合进该处理空间，该屏蔽被设置在该保护结构的附近，使该保护结构不受涂覆材料质粒的影响而不将该处理气体空间与射频能量电隔离，用该射频能量激励该处理空间中的等离子体并用该等离子体离子化涂覆材料的质粒，且从该空间将离子化的涂覆材料的质粒引至基底上，其中该屏蔽步骤是用 According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of physical vapor deposition, comprising the steps of: providing a vacuum chamber surrounding the inner chamber has a process space, an evaporation source of coating material, and the vacuum chamber with the coating material of the evaporation source relative to the source and facing the substrate to support a substrate thereon a seat; with a coil surrounding a process space of the RF energy is inductively coupled into the vacuum chamber; and a shield disposed within the vacuum chamber, characterized in that the method provides for ionized physical vapor deposition and comprises a non-conductive protective structure disposed between the coil and the space through which the RF energy is coupled into the protective structure the processing space, the shield is disposed in the vicinity of the protective structure, so that the protective structure is not affected by the coating material without the plasmid isolation process gas space and the RF energy level, the energy to excite the plasma in the processing space with said RF plasmid body and the plasma ionization of the coating material, and the lead from the plasmid space ionized coating material onto a substrate, wherein the masking step is 提供环绕该处理空间的圆周电流路径的一屏蔽被执行的。 Providing a current path around the circumference of the processing space of a shield is executed.
根据本发明的另一方面，提供了一种物理沉积设备，包括其内包围有一待被保持在一低压力水平下的处理空间的一真空腔室，该真空腔室中的蒸发涂覆材料的一源，该真空腔室中的相对于该蒸发涂覆材料的源并面对该蒸发涂覆材料的源以支持其上平行于该源的一基底的一基底支座，环绕该基底支座和该蒸发涂覆材料源的表面之间的该真空腔室的一容积的至少一线圈，连接至该线圈并工作以激励该线圈的一射频能量源，和一屏蔽，且其特征在于该设备是一离子化物理汽相沉积设备，且还包括插入在线圈和容积之间的一不导电保护结构，且该射频能量源可工作以通过保护结构电感地耦合射频能量以激励该容积中的气体内的等离子体，且该屏蔽被配置在该真空腔室的内部，圆周地环绕在该容积的外面并向内地与该保护结构隔开以使该保护结构免受溅射材 According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a physical deposition apparatus, which comprises an inner envelope has a vacuum chamber to be maintained at a low pressure level of the processing space, the vacuum chamber of the coating material evaporate a source, the vacuum chamber of the evaporation source with respect to the coating material and facing the source of evaporation of the coating material to support a substrate on which a substrate parallel to the source holder, surrounding the substrate support at least a coil and a volume of the vacuum chamber between the surface of the coating material source is evaporated, and the work coil connected to the RF energy source to energize a coil of, and a shield, and in that the apparatus It is an ionized physical vapor deposition apparatus, and further comprising inserting between the coil and the volume of a non-conductive protective structure, and the RF energy source operable to couple RF energy inductively through the protective structure to energize the gas in the volume in plasma, and the shield is disposed inside the vacuum chamber, circumferentially surrounds the outside of the interior volume and spaced apart so that the protective structure to protect the structure from the sputtering material 的影响，该屏蔽具有至少一间隙，该间隙至少部分地电分离该屏蔽足以减少该屏蔽中的环绕电流。 Effect, the shield having at least one gap which is at least partially electrically isolating the surrounding shield is sufficient to reduce the current in the shield.
依据本发明的原理提出的IPVD设备和方法，其中邻近靶极形成主等离子体来由靶极溅射材料，同时RF元件将能量耦合进PVD处理腔室来在主等离子体与其基底间的腔室的一空间内产生二次等离子体。 IPVD apparatus and method according to the principles of the present invention as set forth, wherein the electrode is formed adjacent the target diode sputtering target material reason the main plasma, while RF energy is coupled into the element PVD processing chamber to the chamber between the substrate and its main plasma a secondary plasma in the space. 二次等离子体是对通常被约束为紧靠溅射靶极的主等离子体的补充。 The secondary plasma is generally complementary to the sputtering target is constrained against poles of the main plasma. 将等离子体一般充满腔室，但主要占据靶极与基底之间的至少一部分空间，据此在被溅射质粒从靶极移动期间离子化它们从而使粒子在溅射材料离子辅助沉积到基底上的过程中被向着基底作静电加速。 The plasma is generally filled chamber, but the main portion of the space occupying at least between the target electrode and the substrate, whereby the ionized movement thereof during sputtering from the target plasmid such that the electrode material particles in the ion-assisted sputter deposited onto the substrate process are electrostatically accelerated toward the substrate.
离子化的溅射材料最好由施加到基底的负偏压来对着基底加速，它可被加以控制来优化对运动中离子的调整而不致损坏晶底表面。 Preferably the ionized sputtered material toward the substrate to accelerated by a negative bias is applied to the substrate, which may be controlled to optimize the adjustment of the movement of ions without damage the bottom surface of the crystal. 可替换地或者作为补充，腔室可被永磁体或电磁铁包围以在基底与靶极间的腔室中产生轴向磁场来协助离子化溅射质粒限定于与腔室轴平行和垂直于基底表面的路径中。 Alternatively or additionally, the chamber may be surrounded by a permanent magnet or an electromagnet to generate an axial magnetic field in the chamber between the substrate and the target electrode in the ionization sputtering plasmid to assist in defining the chamber axis parallel and perpendicular to the substrate path surface.
RF离子化能量耦合元件可以是RF电极，最好为电感性元件，例如该象一至多个围绕腔室的线圈。 RF ionization energy coupling element may be an RF electrode, preferably an inductive element, such as one to which a plurality of coils surrounding the chamber. 如以下更详细说明的，RF元件可被布置在腔室内最好与腔室处理气体隔离，或者也可被布置在腔室之外。 As described in more detail below, the RF element may be disposed within the chamber and the chamber is preferably isolated from the process gas, or may be disposed outside the chamber.
此优选设备还设置有一非电导性和非磁性介质材料的保护结构，以防止即避免RF元件与腔室内的等离子体起有害的交互作用，例如与主等离子体以及与由RF元件产生的次等离子体的交互作用。 This apparatus is preferably further provided with a protective non-conductive and non-magnetic dielectric material, i.e., to prevent the elements to avoid RF plasma within the chamber from harmful interactions, for example, and a main plasma ions generated by the RF inferior element interaction body. 最好，此保护结构要能使得射落到它上面的(如果存在的话)溅射材料能以不会剥离此结构而造成污染源的状态粘附剂此结构上。 Preferably, this protective structure enables to shoot down onto it (if any) capable of sputtered material does not peel off the pollution caused by the structure of this state of this adhesive structure. 此保护结构的部件还最好被配置得能防止它的内部或其上面沉积的溅射材料层中的涡流并能防止RF元件的静电屏蔽。 This protective structure further members are preferably arranged so you can prevent sputter deposited material layer above, or its internal vortex can be prevented and the electrostatic shield RF components.
在本发明的范围内可能有各种不同的RF元件和保护结构的配置。 Within the scope of the present invention may have a variety of configurations and RF protection element structure. 例如，在一实施例中，一RF元件线圈围绕在保护结构后面的腔室，它构成围绕处理空间的腔室的密闭真孔内壁的部分，其中此RF线圈被一外部导电罩遮盖。 For example, in one embodiment, an RF coil element of the protective structure around the rear chamber, which forms part of the closed chamber true hole wall surrounding the processing space, wherein this RF coil is an outer conductive shield cover. 另一方面，RF线圈也可在靶极边缘之外的下流的处理腔室真空之内，而此保护结构使RF线圈避免与等离子体交互作用。 On the other hand, the RF coil can be processed downstream in the chamber outside the very edge of a target within a vacuum, and this protective structure of the RF coil and the plasma to avoid interaction. 在另一实施例中，将RF线圈设置得以保护绝缘材料遮盖，采用完全遮盖线圈导体的整体绝缘物或者采用具有足够窄的槽隙以阻止邻近导体形成等离子体的工槽的或分段的绝缘物。 In another embodiment, the RF coil is provided to cover the protective insulating material, completely covers the use of the entire coil conductor insulation or with slots having a sufficiently narrow to prevent adjacent conductor groove forming station plasma or segmented insulating thereof. RF线圈和保护结构在形状上最好为圆柱形并包围处理空间。 RF coil and the protective structure is preferably cylindrical and surround the treatment space in shape.
此优选设备还包括有设置来屏蔽保护结构以便使保护结构的功能不致被其上溅射材料沉积效果损坏的屏蔽阵列。 This apparatus preferably further comprises a shielding structure is provided so as to protect the functional structure of the sputtered material will not be deposited on the shielding effect of the damaged array. 可能采用各种保护结构和屏蔽阵列实施例，如以下举例中所描述。 Various structures may be protected and shielded array embodiment, as described in the following examples.
第一实施例在第一实施例中，RF元件包括一个从被用作为保护结构的多半为圆柱状的石英窗后面围绕腔室的螺旋线圈。 First Embodiment In the first embodiment, RF element comprising a protective structure from being used as the back is mostly a cylindrical quartz window chamber surrounding the helical coil. 此多半为圆柱状的石英挡风可构成腔室的密闭真孔内壁的部分，或者它是在腔室内部包围线圈的绝缘体形式，或者是使线圈导体与处理气体绝缘的某种另外的形式。 This is mostly a cylindrical quartz true wind hole wall portion of the closed chamber may be composed of, or inside the chamber which is surrounded by an insulation in the form of a coil, or the coil conductor processing gas insulated some other form.
设置一基本上为圆柱形的屏蔽紧密贴近将线圈与PVD处理腔室隔开的窗地围绕腔室。 Provided with a substantially cylindrical shield coil into close proximity with the PVD process chambers spaced around the chamber window. 此屏蔽最好在平行于其腔室的轴的方向上被加以切割。 The shielding is preferably be in a direction parallel to its axis the cutting chamber. 所谓“紧密贴近”是指与窗隔开的距离足够短以防止此屏蔽与窗间形成等离子体。 The so-called "into close proximity" means a distance spaced from the window is short enough to prevent the window is formed between this shield and the plasma. 此被切割的屏蔽仿效将线圈与真空腔室和处理气体分隔的介质窗的形状。 This is cut to emulate the shape of the shielding coil and the vacuum chamber and process gas separated by the dielectric window. 此屏蔽防止涂敷材料沉积到窗上。 This shielding prevents coating material deposited on the window. 当材料是导电性的时，可能会发生线圈的电气短路而防止RF能量被传送进腔室。 When the material is electrically conductive, an electrical short may prevent the transmitted RF coil energy feed chamber occurs. 此屏蔽最好这样来加以切割，即能防止此屏蔽本身构成其中可能感生环形电流的围绕腔室的环形通路，此环形电流将耗费来自RF线圈的能量和有损被耦合进辅助等离子体的能量的效率。 The shielding is preferably to be cut so that the shield itself, this configuration can prevent the annular passageway around the chamber which may be induced loop current, the loop current from the energy-consuming and detrimental to the RF coil is coupled into the secondary plasma efficiency of energy. 此屏蔽被进一步在轴向延伸得足够远来缩短穿过RF线圈的轴向电场由此优化能量感性耦合进等离子体的效率和降低此被耦合能量的容性成分。 This shield is further extended axially sufficiently far to shorten the axial electric field through the coil thereby optimizing RF energy inductively coupled into the plasma and reduce the efficiency of this energy is capacitively coupled components. 此外，此屏蔽被保持紧密隔开贴近窗以便防止在屏蔽后产生等离子体从而使得能在溅射质粒行进通过的空间中更有效地产生等离子体。 In addition, the shield is held closely spaced close to the window to prevent the rear shield in a plasma is generated so that more efficiently generate plasma in the sputtering space travel through the plasmid. 最好此屏蔽与窗的这一分隔不大于处理气体的原子的平均自由路径或此空间中等离子体的最小扩散长度。 The mean free path of the window shield of this partition is preferably not larger than atoms or process gas plasma in the space in the minimum diffusion length.
屏蔽中的切口足够宽使得其中能形成等离子体，从而等离子体将依靠再溅射连续地去除作为来自通过切口的源的材料的结果在窗上涂敷材料的任何沉积。 Shield incision wide enough so that a plasma which can form, so that the plasma will depend on re-sputtering as a result of the continuous removal of material from the source through the slit any deposition of coating material on the window.
此屏蔽相对于线圈遮盖保护的定位和配置给予了在腔室的空间中等离子生成的高效率，避免了因屏蔽与线圈之间生成等离子体所造成的损失。 The shielding protection cover relative to the coil positioning and arranged in a given space of the chamber to generate plasma in high efficiency, avoiding the loss due to plasma is generated between the shield and the coil caused. 结果，具有溅射材料的高度离子化。 As a result, highly ionized sputter material.
采用这一实施例，防止了腔室的无效区域例如屏蔽结构与线圈保护绝缘体或窗之间产生等离子体，从而避免了离子化效率的损失。 With this embodiment, the plasma generation is prevented, for example, an invalid region of the chamber between the shield and the coil protective insulator structure or window, thereby avoiding loss of ionization efficiency.
第二实施例在第二实施例中，单独或相结合地采用罩壳、介质窗和整体或分段绝缘来共同保护RF元件离开等离子体和被溅射的材料。 Second Embodiment In the second embodiment, employed alone or in combination a housing, and overall dielectric window or segment common to protect the insulating member away from the plasma and the RF sputtered material. 此屏蔽阵列最好为多个屏蔽分部的形式，可被加以偏压来控制其被等离子体的溅射。 The shielding is preferably an array of a plurality of segments form the shield may be biased to be controlled by the plasma sputtering. 屏蔽阵列具有多个间隙来至少局部地电气切断屏蔽分部以防止感生的涡流耗费能量和抵制能量对等离子体的耦合。 The shield having a plurality of gaps array to at least partially shield the cutting segment to prevent electrical coupling of the plasma energy and the eddy currents induced resistance to energy consuming. 而且，各个别屏蔽分部最好在电气上分离以便使它们能各个地加以偏压来优化在基底上涂敷的均匀性和离子化材料在基底上的定向性。 Moreover, each individual segment is preferably separated from the shield electrically biased so that they can be individually optimized directivity coated on the substrate uniformly and the ionized material on the substrate. 屏蔽段间的间隔有利用等离子体由屏蔽后面传送进入处理空间。 Intervals using plasma between the rear shield by the shield segment transferred into the processing space.
第三实施例在第三实施例中，螺旋线圈围绕保护结构后的腔室。 Third Embodiment In the third embodiment, the helical coil around the chamber after the protective structure. 作这样的配置，保护线圈不与腔室内所形成的等离子体接触。 For such a configuration, the plasma is not in contact with the protective coil chamber is formed. 腔室内设置一屏蔽分部阵列也围绕靶极与基底之间的空间，和最好加以偏压来控制其由等离子体的溅射。 A shield disposed in the chamber array segment also surrounding the space between the target electrode and the substrate, and preferably to be controlled by a bias sputtering plasma. 此屏蔽阵列具有许多间隙来至少局部地电气隔离屏蔽分部，部分防止感生的涡流耗费能量和抵消能量对等离子体的耦合。 This array having a plurality of gap shields to shield at least partially electrically isolated segments, to prevent part of eddy currents induced energy intensive and the offset coupling energy to the plasma. 屏蔽分部被加以配置和定向，和限定间隙，以使屏蔽分部能为保护结构遮蔽靶极，同时最小时影响来自线圈的能量的耗合和二次等离子体的形成和定位。 And the shield segment is configured to be oriented, and define a gap, so that target segment can shield to protect the shield electrode configuration, while minimum influence the formation and consumption of the positioning and engagement of the secondary plasma energy from the coil.
屏蔽阵列被相对于保护结构设置得使其上而不致建立会助长其中的涡流或者会产生RF线圈的静电屏蔽的涂敷。 Relative to the protective shield structure array is set so as to establish upper and without vortex which will encourage or generate electrostatic shielding coating of the RF coil. 最好，从保护结构的任一部分均不能看到靶极的任何部位，而如果保护结构的任一部能看到靶极以致累积导电性溅射材料的涂敷，被涂覆面积就不会如此成形而致助长涡流或者使得线圈遭受很大的屏蔽。 Preferably, any part of the protective structure can not see any portion of the target electrode, and if the protective structure according to any one of the target electrode can be seen that the cumulative applying a conductive sputtering material, the area will not be coated caused or contributed shaped so that the vortex shield coil suffers considerable.
在举例说明的这一第三实施例中，此保护结构为一介质窗。 In this third embodiment illustrated in the embodiment, this protection structure is a dielectric window. 屏蔽阵列由呈角度的分部构成，它们整体地阻断靶极与窗之间的所有通路。 Shield array consists of angled segments, which are integrally target block all channels between the source and the window. 这些分部还被作成带角度的来使得主等离子体与基底间的空间的容积能由线圈看到。 These segments are also made to the angled such that the volume of the space between the main plasma and the substrate can be seen by the coil. 这样，此窗被保护不被靶极溅射沉积而同时提供最有效的能量耦合来为离子化被溅射材料形成一二次等离子体。 Thus, this window is protected from the sputtering target electrode deposition while providing the most efficient energy coupling to a secondary plasma is formed for the ionized sputtered material. 屏蔽分部最好与窗隔离开和在相邻分部间具有足够的空间以使线圈的某一部分能看见腔室的其中希望形成二次等离子体的容积，从而能在邻近窗处形成等离子体并伸展进其中被溅射材料能被离子化的容积内。 Preferably the window shield segments between the segments and isolate having enough space to allow a portion of the coil can see where the volume of the chamber is desired to form a plasma adjacent to the secondary, so that the window can be formed adjacent the plasma wherein the inner and extends into the ionized sputtered material can volume.
按照此第三实施例的一说明示例，屏蔽阵列由多个被布置在窗内侧并以一般垂直于由靶极至窗的通路的角度倾斜的轴向隔开的截头锥体分部构成。 DESCRIPTION According to an exemplary embodiment of this third embodiment, the shield by a plurality of arrays are arranged inside the window and is generally perpendicular to the angle of inclination of a path of the target window extreme axially spaced segments constituting frustum. 这些屏蔽分部可以相对于腔室轴线的相同角度倾斜或者是这些分部以不同角度倾斜，例如说对离轴较远的分部以小角度倾斜。 The shield segments may be the same angle with respect to the axis of the chamber is inclined or is inclined at different angles of these segments, e.g. far off-axis segment of said small angle. 最好这些分部从靶极上每一点均不遮蔽相邻的分部，虽然最小的重叠可能倾向于降低溅射质粒冲击窗散布。 Preferably, these segments of the target from the shield electrode are not adjacent to each point of division, while the minimum overlap may tend to reduce the impact of sputtering plasmid spread window. 屏蔽分部最好进一步由各分部间的间隙作周围的分段，由此截断可能的感应电流通路。 Preferably each segment further shield the gap between the segments as the segments around, truncation may thus induced current path.
按照此第三实施例的另一说明性示例，屏蔽阵列由窗内侧多个围绕控制腔室在周围隔开的平面的或稍许弯曲的轴向沿伸的矩形叶板构成。 In accordance with another exemplary illustrative embodiment of this third embodiment, the shield by the inner array of a plurality of windows in the control chamber spaced around the planar or slightly curved rectangular vanes Yan Shen axially encircling a. 这些分部被由窗隔开，并各自以相对于腔室半径的角度倾斜来集合地由靶极整个面积遮蔽窗，或至少基本上处于线圈磁场之内的窗的局部，但容许线圈的某一部分能看到希望的其中形成二次等离子体的腔室的容积。 These segments are separated by a window and each angle relative to the radius of the chamber is inclined to the target set by the whole area of the shielding electrode window, or at least partially in the window substantially within the coil field, but to allow a coil wherein a desired portion can be seen in the plasma volume of the secondary chamber is formed. 这样二次等离子体即可形成于窗邻近并易于伸展进溅射质粒将通过的容积。 Such secondary plasma can be formed easily on a window adjacent to and extending into the volume of the plasmid by sputtering. 这一实施例的屏蔽分部最好以相对腔室半径的同一角度倾斜。 This embodiment of the shield segment is preferably at the same angle of inclination relative to the radius of the chamber. 可取的是，这些分部由靶极上每一点均不遮蔽相邻的分部，尽管较小的重叠可能对降低窗的涂敷起作用。 Preferably, these target segments by the shield electrode are not adjacent to each point of division, although smaller overlap may act to reduce the window coating. 屏蔽分部最好在周围相互分隔开并以至少等于真空腔室内气体中分子的平均自由路径的距离与靶极和基底隔开。 Preferably the shield segments spaced apart from each other around and at least equal to the distance between the target electrode and the substrate of the mean free path of molecules in a vacuum chamber separated from the gas chamber.
* * *当本发明被用于溅射涂敷系统中时，溅射功率可保持为高水平，由此来维持高沉积率和高溅射材料离子化率。 * * * When the present invention is used to sputter coating systems, sputtering power may be maintained at a high level, thereby maintaining a high deposition rate and a high ionization rate of the sputtered material. 这此结果的达到不会增加诸如RF线圈短路或增大污染从而恶化沉积薄膜之类的问题的发生。 This increase does not achieve this result, such as a short circuit or an RF coil is increased to deteriorate the problem of contamination of the deposited film or the like. 因此能依靠溅射以垂直于基底表面的入射溅射材料的高度定向性切实高效率地满足高纵横比特征。 It is possible to effectively perpendicular to the sputtering relies highly directional sputtered material incident on the substrate surface is efficiently meet the high aspect ratio feature. 消除了先有系统的必须降低溅射功率，因为防止了密集的溅射等离子体短路或对耦合生成离子化溅射材料的等离子体的RF等离子体的有害影响。 Deleted the system must be reduced sputtering power, it is prevented because the harmful effects of intensive short or RF plasma sputtering plasma to generate the ionized sputtered material coupled plasma. 防止由RF元件自身所产生的等离子体短路此元件。 This prevents the short-circuit element itself by the plasma generated by the RF element. 溅射气体压力可维持在低的或正常的溅射水平，并防止因散布带来的定向性的损失。 Sputtering gas pressure may be maintained at a low sputtering or normal levels and prevent loss of orientation due to the spreading caused. 避免了由RF耦合元件的溅射产生的反作用。 The coupling reaction is avoided by the RF sputtering device produced. 这些优点可以在与不能得到本发明所奉献的高质量高纵横比特征的涂敷的惯常的溅射方法相当的处理时间中实现。 These advantages are the usual sputtering method can not be obtained at the sacrifice of the present invention with a high aspect ratio feature quality coated implement the processing corresponding to time.
在增强被用于沉积涂敷进高纵横比形体时的PVD处理、特别是溅射涂敷处理之外，本发明还具有采用蒸发源或其他由基本上为物理技术沉积的气化材料源的PVD处理中的优点。 Is used for reinforcing the coating deposited into high aspect ratio when molded PVD process, in particular outside the sputter coating process, the present invention also has uses evaporation source or other source material is gasified substantially by a physical deposition technique in the PVD process advantages. 反应性处理和被或者包括有材料的化学沉积的物理处理也可能由本发明得益。 The reaction and the treatment or physical treatment comprises a chemical deposition materials may also benefit from the present invention. 本发明具有与金属膜沉积相结合的特别的实用性，但也具有在沉积其他材料特别是氧化物和氮化物中的优点。 The present invention has particular utility with the combination of the metal film deposition, but also have advantages in other depositing materials, particularly oxides and nitrides.
本发明的这些和其他的目的和优点由下面对发明优选实施例的详细说明将会更容易地清楚理解。 Detailed descriptions of these and other objects and advantages of the preferred embodiments of the invention by the following the present invention will be understood more readily apparent.
附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION
：图1为按照本发明一实施例的IPVD溅射设备的正面图形表述：图1A为说明为保护线圈的替代形式的图1一部分的放大正面图；图2为图1设备的屏蔽的立体图；图3为按照本发明一实施例的IPVD溅射设备的图形表述：图4A-4D为说明图3设备的替换线圈配置的图形；图5为与图3中所示的相对照的具有二次等离子体RF耦合元件和保护结构的替换配置的IPVD溅射设备的图形表述；图6为与图3和5中所示的相对照的具有二次等离子体RF耦合元件和保护结构的另一替换配置的IPVD溅射设备的图形表述；图7A-7D为说明对图6实施例中所示的替换方案中的线圈绝缘保护结构的形式的图形表述；图8为按照本发明一实施例的IPVD溅射设备的图形表述； : FIG. 1 is a representation in accordance with the positive pattern IPVD sputtering apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention: FIG. 1A is an alternate form of protection for the coil of an enlarged front view of a part thereof; FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the shield of the apparatus of Figure 1; Figure 3 is a graphical representation of IPVD sputtering apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention: Figures 4A-4D is a graph illustrating alternative coil configuration of the device of FIG. 3; FIG. 5 is a contrast of a secondary and 3 shown in FIG. IPVD sputtering apparatus graphical representation of an alternative configuration of the plasma RF coupling element and a protective structure; FIG. 6 is a further secondary plasma RF coupling device having a protection structure, and in contrast with FIG. 3 and 5 replaces graphical representation IPVD sputtering apparatus configuration; Figures 7A-7D illustrate in the form of a coil insulation structure in the alternative embodiment shown in the graphical representation of the embodiment of FIG. 6; FIG. 8 is an embodiment according to the present invention, an embodiment of IPVD the expression pattern of the sputtering apparatus;
图9说明屏蔽阵列一替换配置的图8的部分的图形；和图10为沿图9中线3-3所取的图9屏蔽阵列实施例的截面视图；具体实施方式图1图示说明按照本发明原理的溅射涂敷设备10。 9 illustrates an array mask pattern part of an alternative configuration of FIG. 8; a cross-sectional view of the embodiment of FIG. 10 and FIG. 9 along line 3-3 of FIG. 9 taken shield array embodiment; 1 illustrates a specific embodiment according to the FIG. sputter coating apparatus 10 the principles of the invention. 设备10包括有被包围在腔室12中的真空密闭处理空间11。 Device 10 comprises a 12 enclosed in a vacuum-tight chamber in the processing space 11. 安装在腔室11内其中一端的为用于支撑安装在其上面的半导体晶片15的基底支座即基座14。 Mounted within the chamber 11 which at one end is mounted on the substrate support for supporting a semiconductor wafer 15 thereon, i.e. the base 14. 晶片15在安装于基底支座14上时平行于并面向靶极16。 Wafer 15 parallel to and facing the target electrode 16 mounted on the base support 14. 靶极16由欲被作为一薄膜沉积在晶片15上的溅射涂敷材料构成。 Sputter target electrode 16 is made of a coating material to be deposited as a thin film on the wafer 15. 处理空间11一般为圆柱形空间，保持超高真空压力水平并在处理期间被填充以处理气体如氩。 The processing space 11 is generally a cylindrical space, and to maintain high levels of vacuum pressure during processing are filled with a gas such as argon treatment. 空间11位于基底支座14与靶极16间的腔室12内，靶极16是按装在腔室内在其一端的相对于基底支座的阴极组件17的一部分。 The substrate support 14 is located in the space 11 and the target chamber 16 between the inner electrode 12, the target electrode 16 is mounted by a portion of the chamber at one end thereof with respect to the substrate support the cathode assembly 17. 阴极组件17包括有靶极16被固定到上面的靶极保持器18。 The cathode assembly 17 includes electrode 16 is fixed to an upper electrode target holder 18 a target. 在靶极保持器18后面在其对向侧通常由基底支座14设置有磁体结构19。 18 behind the electrode holder 14 is provided at its opposite side with a magnet structure 19 is generally in abutment by a target substrate. 围绕靶极16的周围还可能设置有黑暗空间屏蔽13。 Around the periphery of the target electrode 16 may also be provided with a dark space shield 13. 磁体结构19最好包括有磁铁能在靶极16的表面上产生俘获在当阴极组件17被电气激励到负电位时由其释放进腔室12的电子的闭合磁道，如本技术领域熟练人员所熟知的。 The magnet structure 19 preferably includes a magnet capable of producing on the surface of the target electrode when the cathode 16 is trapped in the assembly 17 is energized by the negative potential to the electrically closed track releasing electrons into the chamber 12, as the person skilled in the art well known. 磁体结构19可包括本技术领域公知的众多磁电管溅射组件中任一个的它们可以是永磁体或电磁体。 The magnet structure 19 may comprise a number of magnetron sputtering assemblies known in the art any one of which may be a permanent magnet or an electromagnet.
供给电能的功率源20通常为DC功率源，它们可以被接通后保持恒定或者可以是脉冲的，被连接在组件17与通常被接地和用作为系统阳极的腔室12的室壁之间。 A power source supplying power to the DC power source 20 is generally, they may remain switched on after a constant or may be pulsed, is connected between the normal assembly 17 is grounded and the chamber wall with an anode 12 as a system. 阴极组件17与腔室12的室壁绝缘。 The cathode assembly 17 is insulated from the wall of the chamber 12. 功率源20最好通过RF滤波器22连接到阴极组件17。 Power source 20 is preferably connected to the cathode assembly 17 through an RF filter 22. 辅助电源例如RF发生器24也可任选地通过匹配网络25连接到阴极组件17。 Auxiliary power supply such as RF generator 24 can optionally be connected through a matching network 25 to the cathode assembly 17. 还设置有偏压电路27被通过匹配网络28连接到基底支座14。 27 is also provided with a bias circuit 28 is connected to the base support 14 through a matching network. 此偏压电路27施加一偏压给安装在基底支座14上的晶片15。 This bias circuit 27 applies a bias voltage to a wafer 15 mounted on the base support 14. 为此目的可以采用双极性DC电源或RF电源。 For this purpose a bipolar DC power or RF power supply may be employed. 来自稳定的或脉冲DC功率源20和/或RF发生器24的功率在表面21上产生促使由靶极16表面21发射电子的负电位。 From steady or pulsed DC power source 20 and / or power of the RF generator 24 is produced on the surface 21 causes the surface of electrode 16 by the target 21 electrons emitted negative potential. 所发射的电子保持被由磁体结构19所产生的磁场俘获在表面21上直至它们撞击和离子化紧密贴近靶极16的表面21的处理气体的原子，在邻近靶极表面21处形成主等离子体23。 The emitted electrons held trapped by the magnetic field generated by the magnet structure 19 on the surface 21 until they strike and the ionization electrode 16 into close proximity of the surface atoms of the target process gas 21 is formed at the electrode surface of the target 21 adjacent the main plasma twenty three. 这一主等离子体23成为被向着和背对带负电荷的表面21加速的正离子源，在此它们由靶极发6弹射出涂敷材料的质粒。 This becomes the main plasma 23 toward surface 21 opposite to the acceleration of negatively charged positive ion source, where they are sent from the target electrode 6 plasmid ejected coating material.
靶极表面21与基底支座14间的空间11可被看成为由二部分构成。 Electrode 21 and the target surface of the substrate holder 11 between the space 14 may be seen as constituted by two portions. 一部分主要由等离子体23占据，其被成形来在靶极16的溅射表面21上产生所要求的冲蚀型式，而空间11的第二部分为在基底支座14上位于等离子体23与基底15间的保留容积26。 The main part occupied by the plasma 23, which is shaped to produce a desired erosion pattern on the sputtering surface of the target electrode 16, 21, and the second space portion 11 into the plasma 23 and the substrate 14 positioned on a substrate support retention volume 26 of 15. 由靶极16溅射的电气上为中性靠动力通过空间11的粒子，其中一些但不是全部通经等离子体23和容积26撞击基底15。 Upper electrode 16 is sputtered from the target electric power by the neutral particles by space 11 in which some but not all pass through the plasma volume 23 and 26 strike the substrate 15. 在惯常的溅射设备中，通经等离子体23的中性溅射质粒并不被明显地离子化因为等离子体23仅占据接近靶极表面21的很小容积，和在相关的运行压力时中性溅射质粒与等离子体23的粒子间很少发生碰撞。 In the usual sputtering apparatus, neutral sputtered plasmid pass through the plasma 23 are not ionized significantly since the plasma 23 occupies only a small volume close to the surface of the target electrode 21, and when the operating pressure associated rarely collisions between particles and the plasma sputtering plasmid 23. 这样，惯常的溅射中，中性溅射质粒子大部分中性地退出等离子体23，且保持为中性的直至作为薄膜沉积在基底15上。 Thus, the usual sputtering, sputtered mass neutral particles exit the plasma 23 mostly neutral and remains deposited on the substrate 15 as a thin film until neutral.
为涂敷高纵横比小孔和其他形体的底面的触点和为以溅射的导电材料填充来金属化小孔，在VLSI和ULSI半导体器件生产中极为可取的是质粒能以围绕基底法线作很小角度分布撞击到基底表面上，以便它们能直接前行进入形体内和形体底面上，而不冲击或被形体边缘遮蔽。 Applying a high aspect ratio of the contact hole and the bottom surface of the other body and filled with a conductive material sputtered to the metallization of apertures in VLSI and ULSI production of semiconductor devices is highly desirable to surround the substrate normal plasmid can be for a small angular distribution impinging on the substrate surface, so that they can directly forward into the molded article and bottom surface, or molded without an impact edge masking. 这种质粒在基底上的垂直撞击在装置10中依靠在被溅射质粒通过容积26时离子化该溅射材料以使粒子产生电荷，一旦带电，质粒即可被作静电加速或者被电的或磁的导引到平行腔室轴线和垂直于基底15表面的路径。 This plasmid vertically impinging on the substrate in the device 10 rests by the plasmid is sputtered ionized sputtered material 26 when the volume of the generated charges to the particles, once charged, the plasmid can be electrically or electrostatically accelerated or magnetic guide path parallel to the axis of the chamber 15 and perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. 这样的处理在本技术领域内被称之为离子化物理汽相沉积(IPVD)即离子协助溅射涂敷。 Such a process is in the art known as ionized physical vapor deposition (the IPVD) sputter coating i.e. an ion assist.
按照本发明一优选实施例，空间26内溅射质粒的飞行中离子化依靠由设置围绕容积26但不占据空间11的RF元件来反应性地和最好感应性地耦合RF能量进容积26进行。 According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the flying space 26 within the sputtering relies plasmid into the ionization volume element 26 but does not occupy the space 11 to RF reactively and preferably inductively coupled RF energy provided by the surrounding volume for 26 . RF元件最好为螺旋线圈组件30的形式，虽然非螺旋形的绕线圈配置也可应用。 RF element is preferably in the form of a helical coil assembly 30, while the non-wound helical coil arrangement may be used. 线圈组件可能的配置示例30a-30d如图4A-4D中所示。 Possible examples of coil assemblies 30a-30d arranged as shown in FIG 4A-4D. 而且线圈组件30的配置应包括有线圈、绕组和/或线圈和绕组安排。 And the configuration of the coil assembly 30 should include a coil, the windings and / or coils and the winding arrangements. 另外，还可能以不同于所表明的方式馈送RF能量进线圈，例如借助对线圈中心增加中央RF抽头并将另外二引线接地，相反亦如此。 In addition it is also possible to feed different from that indicated by way of RF energy into the coil, for example by means of increased central RF coil center tap and another two ground wires, the opposite is also true. 线圈组件30感性耦合能量进腔室26中的处理气体由此形成一般充满容积26并与主等离子体23不同的二次等离子体29。 Process gas 26 is inductively coupled to the coil assembly 30 thereby forming energy into the chamber volume 26 and generally filled with 23 different main plasma secondary plasma 29. 将一最好能运行在(但不限于)0.1或0.2MHz至60或80MHz范围内的RF发生器32通过匹配网络32连接到线圈组件来提供能量到线圈组件30以便在容积26中形成二次等离子体。 The best one can run (but not limited to) 0.1 to 0.2MHz or RF generator 60 or within the range of 80MHz connected through a matching network 32 to coil assembly 32 to provide energy to the coil assembly 30 to form a secondary volume 26 in plasma.
处理气体源40通过气流控制装置41被连接到腔室11。 Process gas source 40 connected to the chamber 41 through air flow control means 11. 对于溅射处理，供给气体40典型地为惰性气体例如氩。 For the sputtering process, the feed gas 40 is typically an inert gas such as argon. 对于反应性处理，附加气体如氮和氧可被通过辅助流控制器引入。 The reaction of the process, an additional gas such as nitrogen and oxygen may be introduced through the auxiliary flow controller. 还将一高真空泵39连接到腔室12来将腔室12泵唧到毫Torr或亚毫Torr范围内的真空水平。 A high vacuum pump 39 is also connected to the chamber 12 to pump the pumping chamber 12 to the vacuum level in milli Torr or sub-milli Torr range. 5至50毫Torr范围内压力是受推荐的。 Within 5 to 50 milli Torr range is subject to a pressure recommended. 泵39以处理气体流速在5至300标准cm3/sec(sccm)的范围内维持此超高真空。 Process gas flow rate pump 39 to maintain this ultra high vacuum in the range of 5 to 300 standard cm3 / sec (sccm) of. 设备10还包括有一最好为能运行来排序和控制以上讨论的部件的操作的基于微处理器的可编程控制器的主控制器50。 Apparatus 10 further comprises a main controller microprocessor-based programmable controller 50 is preferably an operation to sort and to run above discussed control member. 控制器50具有用于控制阴极功率源20和24的能量、基底偏压功率源27、用于激励二次等离子体发生元件线圈组件30的RF发生器32、气流控制41、泵39和设备10的其他可控制组分的输出。 The controller 50 has a control and a cathode power source 24 of energy 20, a substrate bias power source 27, the RF generator for energizing the coil assembly of the secondary element 32 of the plasma generator 30, air flow control 41, pump 39 and apparatus 10 other components may control the output.
为了实现离子化溅射材料的定向性，可借助以通过匹配网络28连接到基底支座14的偏压功率源27将基底15作相对二次等离子体29的负偏压在基底支座14前面的等离子层中维持一电势，来提供为向着和到达基底表面上加速正离子化的溅射质粒的动力。 In order to achieve the orientation of the ionized sputtered material, to means 28 may be connected to a bias power source 14 to the substrate support 27 the substrate 15 as a secondary negative bias relative to the plasma through a matching network 29 in front of the substrate support 14 plasma layer maintained a potential to provide toward and reach the upper surface of the substrate plasmid sputtering powered acceleration of the positive ions. 为此目的可采用双极性DC电源或RF电源。 Employed bipolar or RF power supply DC power for this purpose.
另外或者在可替换方案中，可在腔室12的周围设置磁铁80来在腔室12的轴向产生磁场。 Additionally or in the alternative embodiment, the magnet may be disposed around the chamber 12 to generate a magnetic field 80 in the axial direction of the chamber 12. 此磁铁80可以是一电磁铁或者由一或多个永磁体构成。 The magnet 80 may be constituted by an electromagnet or one or more permanent magnets. 由磁铁80产生的磁场使得带电粒子围绕磁力线旋转，由此增加它们在轴向的制约。 Magnetic field generated by the magnet 80 such that rotation of the charged particle around the magnetic field lines, thereby increasing the restriction in the axial direction thereof. 存在有轴向磁场时，带电质粒可被导向于轴向，向着基底运动并使径向损失最小。 When there is an axial magnetic field, charged plasmid may be directed to the axial direction, towards the radial movement of the substrate and with minimum loss.
线圈组件30与空间11之间设置有保护结构以防止等离子体23和29与线圈组件30接触和电气交互作用。 Coil assembly 11 is provided between the space 30 and the guard structure to prevent plasma 23 and 29 in contact with the coil assembly 30 and the electrical interaction. 这一结构为非导电材料的，不会阻碍围绕线圈组件30的磁场到达进入容积26。 The structure of non-conductive material, does not hinder the magnetic field around the coil assembly 30 reaches into the volume 26. 此保护结构的一优选形式为腔室12的室壁中的由与真空相容的介质材料例如石英制成的窗60的形式，它被安装来与腔室壁构成真空密封。 A preferred form of this protection structure is in the form of a window 60 made of a dielectric material such as quartz is compatible with a vacuum chamber wall in the chamber 12, which is mounted and sealed to form the vacuum chamber wall. 窗60可以是一单个的电气绝缘和磁场可透过的材料或者它可由其被连接的多分部构成，以形成一总体圆柱形保护结构。 Window 60 may be a single electrically insulating material and a magnetic permeable or it may be constituted by multiple segments are connected to form a generally cylindrical protective structure. 前述实施例中描述的线圈组件30最好在窗60外侧缠绕腔室12。 The coil assembly 30 described in the foregoing embodiment of the embodiment outside window 60 is preferably wound in the chamber 12. 导电金属外壳61在外侧覆盖线圈组件30，形成一密封的空腔62，它隔离线圈组件30并且还防止由线圈组件30和由腔室12内部辐射电磁能到腔室12之外。 A conductive metal housing 61 covering the outside of the coil assembly 30, a sealed cavity 62 is formed, it is isolated from the coil assembly 30 and also prevents the outside of the coil assembly 30 and the electromagnetic radiation from the inner chamber 12 into the chamber 12 can. 空腔62可对腔室11密封但可与外面大气连通或者它可在大气或低压下被填充以惰性气体，以使得当线圈组件30被激励时空腔62中的气体不会支持等离子体的形成。 The cavity 62 may be sealed to atmosphere but the chamber 11 communicates with the outside or it can be filled at a low pressure atmosphere or an inert gas, so that the coil assembly 30 is energized when the gas hourly space in the chamber 62 will not support a plasma formed .
虽然窗60自身是非电导性的，但它易于累积由靶极16溅射的导体材料的涂敷。 Although the window 60 itself is non-electrical conductivity, but it is coated with a conductive material tend to accumulate from the target electrode 16 is sputtered. 窗60中或上面的导电性支持围绕腔室的感生电流，这降低，抵消或者根本上削弱由线圈组件30对容积26中的二次等离子体作能量的RF耦合的效率。 Window 60 in or on a conductive support induced currents around the chamber, which reduces offset or simply weaken the efficiency of the RF coil assembly is coupled by a secondary plasma in the volume pair of 2630 for energy. 窗60上涂敷的这样的电导性，特别是在方位角(圆周)方向上，亦即围绕腔室12伸展的方向上，产生感性耦合短路，可能使得全部或大部分感性耦合进容积26的能量失效。 Such electrically conductive coating on the window 60, particularly in the azimuthal (circumferential) direction, i.e. the direction of the chamber 12 extends around, resulting in a short circuit inductive coupling may be such that all or most of the inductively coupled into the volume 26 energy failure.
为防止在窗60上这样地形成导电性溅射材料，此优选设备还包括有一屏蔽阵列，下面说明其各种实施例。 To prevent this conductive sputtering material is formed on the window 60, this apparatus preferably further comprises a shield array, various embodiments thereof will be described below.
第一实施例：图1表明紧密接近窗60内表面设置在空间11与窗60间的切口圆柱形屏蔽100。 First Embodiment: FIG. 1 shows that the cut surfaces disposed in close proximity to the space 11 between the window 60 and the window 60 in the cylindrical shield 100. 屏蔽100将窗60由靶极16溅射的材料阻断，而最好阻断靶极16的表面21上任一点与窗60间的所有直接视线通路。 The shield 100 from the window 60 electrode 16 a sputtering target blocking material, and preferably block the target surface 21 of pole 16 at any point between the window 60 and any direct line of sight path. 而按照这一实施例，屏蔽100具有其中的纵向切槽103，平行于腔室12的轴线。 And according to this embodiment, the shield 100 having therein a longitudinal slot 103, parallel to the axis of the chamber 12. 带有单一或多个被制成来切断环形电流的切槽的屏蔽也可加以应用。 The shield is formed with a single or plurality of currents to cut off the annular slot may also be applied. 此优选实施例的切槽103主要切断腔室12周围的屏蔽100中的环形通路。 Shielding 103 surrounding the main chamber 12 cut slots this preferred embodiment the annular passage 100. 这防止屏蔽100中感生环形或方位角电流。 This prevents the shield 100 or azimuthal currents induced in the ring.
另外，屏蔽100具有超过由线圈组件30基本上到达电场的全有效轴向范围的线圈组件30的轴向范围的轴向范围。 Further, the axial extent of the axial extent of the shield coil assembly 100 having substantially the full effective axial extent than by the coil assembly 30 reaches the electric field 30. 结果，电导性屏蔽100有效地扼制二次等离子体29中平行于腔室12的轴的电场，防止这样的容性地屏蔽线圈组件30于容积26并因而损坏由线圈组件30向容积26耦合能量的效率的轴向电场。 As a result, electrically conductive shield 100 effectively curb the secondary plasma 29 in the electric field parallel to the axis of the chamber 12, to prevent such a capacitively shield coil assembly 30 in the volume 26 and thereby damaging the energy coupled by the coil assembly 30 to a volume 26 axial electric field efficiency. 最好屏蔽100由靶极16的表面21平面后面轴向伸展到超过窗60和线圈组件30。 Shield 100 is preferably a surface of the target electrode 16 to 21 extends axially beyond the plane of the rear window 60 and the coil assembly 30. 采用这种配置，屏蔽100更有效地短接二次等离子体29中的轴向电场，从而增强由线圈组件30感性耦合能量进入二次等离子体29。 With this arrangement, the shield 100 more effectively shorts the secondary plasma 29 in the axial direction of the electric field, thereby enhancing the inductive coupling of energy from the coil assembly 30 enters the secondary plasma 29.
本发明的此优选实施例还由于屏蔽100与窗60接近的间隔而产生由线圈组件30至容积26的高能量耦合效率。 This preferred embodiment of the present invention, since the shield 100 and the further window 60 close intervals to produce a high energy coupling efficiency of the coil assembly 30 to a volume of 26. 这一间隔保持为一最好不大于气体中原子或分子的平均自由路径或腔室12内二次等离子体29的最小扩散长度。 This spacing is preferably not greater than a mean free path of the gas atoms or molecules or chamber of the secondary plasma 29 in the minimum diffusion length of 12. 这一接近的屏蔽-窗间隔与下述的其他实施例相反，它们允许邻近窗或保护非导电结构线圈处和在任何被设置的屏蔽结构之后形成等离子体。 The closest block - window interval contrast to other embodiments described below, they allow the window or adjacent the non-conductive protective structure of the coil and the plasma is formed after any shield structure is provided. 避免在窗后面形成等离子体具有增加由线圈或其他等离子体发生电极进入溅射质粒所通经的容积的能量的百分比的趋势，由从增加有效等离子体并因而溅射材料的离子化效率。 Plasma is formed behind the window to avoid having to increase the energy capacity of a coil or other plasma generating electrode into the sputtering plasmid pass through the percentage of the trend by increasing the effective plasma and thus the ionization efficiency of the sputtered material. 在装置10中，设想将采用约5至50mTorr的处理气体压力。 In the apparatus 10, the use is envisaged process gas pressure of from about 5 to 50mTorr. 在这样的压力下氩气体的平均自由路径分别为11mm至1.0mm。 Under such pressures the mean free path of argon gas is 1.0mm to 11mm, respectively. 结果屏蔽100与窗60的优选间隔约为1.0至15mm。 Results window 60 and the shield 100 is preferably spaced from about 1.0 to 15mm.
另一方面，切槽103最好被作成在宽度上大于15mm左右。 On the other hand, the slots 103 are preferably made larger than the width of about 15mm. 切槽103的宽为足以使得能在切槽103内形成二次等离子体29，以便为了清除可能在邻近切槽103的屏蔽100的边缘上或者作为通经切槽103的溅射材料的结果在窗60上沉积的溅射材料。 Width of slot 103 is sufficient so that the secondary plasma 29 can be formed in the slots 103, so that the result may be an upper edge of the shield 100 adjacent the slot 103 as the sputtered material or pass through the slots 103 in order to remove sputtered material deposited on the window 60. 形成在切槽103内的这样的等离子体29将在切槽103附近对着窗60伸展和通过再溅射在切槽103处沉积在窗60上的材料不断地去除。 Such a plasma is formed within the slot 103 of extension 29 against the window 60 and the slot 103 is deposited by sputtering and then slot 103 in the vicinity of the window 60 on the continuous material removal.
代替窗60，线圈组件30可被另外包含在腔室12内的绝缘块66中，如图1A中所示，在此绝缘块66以与窗60类似方式起作用来将线圈组件30与腔室11中等离子体和溅射材料隔离。 Instead of the window 60, coil assembly 30 may be additionally contained in the insulating block 66 within the chamber 12, as shown in FIG. 1A, where the insulating block 66 and the window 60 to function in a similar manner to the coil assembly 30 with the chamber 11 isolated from plasma and sputtered material. 屏蔽100相对于绝缘体66的配置按与其相对于窗60(图1)同样的途径配置。 Shield 66 arranged in the insulator 100 by the same route configuration therewith for window 60 (FIG. 1) with respect to.
此第一实施例的许多细节在下述的实施例中是有用的，不过为了简单起见已在说明中作了省略，以便能着重于实施例之间的差别。 Examples of this are useful in many of the details of the first embodiment in the following embodiment, but has been omitted from the description for simplicity, in order to focus on the differences between the embodiments.
第二实施例图3说明作为图1屏蔽100的替代方案的屏蔽阵列200，但不太紧密地接近窗60的内表面地设置在空间11与窗60之间。 Figure 3 illustrates a second embodiment of FIG. 1 as an alternative shield 100 shields the array 200, but not in close proximity to the inner surface of the window 60 is disposed between the space 11 and the window 60. 屏蔽阵列200至少部分地将窗60由从靶极16溅射的材料遮隔开，但其间具有足够空间即间隙204来促成由线圈组件30耦合能量进入容积26。 Shielding the array 200 is at least partially separated by a window shield 60 material sputtered from the target electrode 16, but with sufficient space therebetween, the nip 204 to facilitate coupling of energy from the coil assembly 30 into the volume 26.
屏蔽阵列200最好为多个至少遮蔽窗60的轴向条带以使得不会因溅射材料的涂敷形成环形导电路径的个别屏蔽即屏蔽段202。 Shielding the array 200 is preferably at least axially into a plurality of masking tape strip window 60 is not formed so that the individual annular shield conductive paths due to the coating material sputtered i.e., shield segment 202. 间隙204被配置来基本上切断屏蔽阵列200中的环形电流路径和被配置来作整个地或部分地穿过阵列200的轴向尺寸地伸展。 Gap 204 is configured to cut off the shield substantially annular array and the current path 200 is configured to be wholly or partially through the axial dimension of the array 200 is stretched. 屏蔽段202由金属或其他被选择来在当屏蔽段202上形成溅射材料涂敷时能将这样的涂敷保留其上的材料。 A metal shield segment 202 is selected to the other when the shield section 202 can form a sputter coating material for coating such material retained thereon. 否则这些沉积将剥离而造成腔室12和被处理晶片15的污染。 Otherwise deposited contamination caused by the release chamber 12 and the wafer 15 is processed. 为了控制在屏蔽段202上沉积材料的累积和由此减小污染的危险，可将屏蔽段202加以电气偏压。 In order to control the accumulation of deposited material and thereby reducing the risk of contamination in the shield segment 202, shield segment 202 can be electrically biased. 段202最好也以它们的可分开控制的偏压来作个别地偏压，用于优化被沉积在基底上的膜的分布，例如依靠优化在基底15上的涂敷的均匀性和进入其上的离子化材料的定向性。 Section 202 is preferably also separately controllable bias thereof to be individually biased for optimizing the distribution of the film deposited on the substrate, for example, rely on the coated substrate 15 to optimize the uniformity and to enter their orientation of the ionized material. 在这样的配置中，间隙204将是完全分开的并使每一个分开偏压的屏蔽段202相互电气绝缘。 In such a configuration, the gap 204 will completely separate shield segment and each separate bias 202 are electrically insulated. 偏压由通过滤波器或匹配网络207连接的发生器206提供，而各个屏蔽分开地通过限流电阻208连接。 Bias voltage provided by the filter 207 is connected via a matching network or a generator 206, and each separately shielded by a current limiting resistor 208 is connected. 电阻208可以是可变电阻或者可以设置其他装置用于响应控制器50个别地控制屏蔽段202的偏压。 Resistor 208 may be a variable resistor or other means may be provided for controlling the controller 50 in response to individually bias section 202 of the shield.
图5说明对装置10的替代实施例10a，其中线圈组件30被设置在真空室12中，在腔室12室壁的内侧但仍在空间11之外。 5 illustrates an alternative embodiment 10a of the apparatus 10 of the embodiment, wherein the inner wall of the chamber 12 but still in the space 11 outside the coil assembly 30 is disposed in the vacuum chamber 12. 此保护结构为窗60a的形式，被设置在由腔室12室壁内侧向内延伸并包住线圈组件30的罩壳61a上线圈组件30与空间11之间。 This protective structure is in the form of the window 60a is provided extending from the chamber wall 12 inwardly and wrapped around the inner coil assembly 30 and the space 11 between the upper coil 30 of the assembly housing 61a. 罩壳61a包含向其中线圈组件30面对腔室12的真空的外罩内侧排气。 A vacuum enclosure comprising a housing 61a to which the exhaust gas inside the coil assembly 30 facing the chamber 12. 屏蔽阵列200如上述实施例中那样设置由靶极16遮住窗60a。 Shielding the array 200 as described above in Example 60a disposed to cover the window from the target electrode 16.
替代窗60或60a，图6的替换实施例10b采用一绝缘涂层86的形式来覆盖线圈组件30的导体。 Alternatively window 60 or 60a, alternatively 10b of FIG. 6 embodiment takes the form of an insulating coating covering the coil assembly 86 to conductor 30. 在此实施例中线圈组件30被设置在空间11之外腔室12中围绕容积26。 Examples coil assembly 30 in this embodiment is disposed in a space 11 outside the chamber 12 around the volume 26. 屏蔽阵列200如以上实施例中那样设置来由靶极16遮住绝缘层86。 Shielding the array 200 is provided as a target reason embodiment electrode 16 insulating layer 86 covering the above embodiment. 绝缘体86可以为多种形式中的任一个，例如象图7A中所示的整个覆盖线圈组件30的导体表面的整体绝缘器86a，或者可以是如图7B中所示的多个分离的绝缘体部件86b的形式。 The insulator 86 may be any of a variety of forms, such as a monolithic whole insulator covering the coil assembly as shown in FIG. 7A of conductor surface 30 86a, or may be illustrated in FIG. 7B plurality of insulators separating member 86b form. 采用段的绝缘体86a，各段间的间隙67有利于提高线圈组件30的效率，而间隙67的大小最好保持为小于腔室12中气体分子的平均自由路径以使其不会传送等离子体到线圈组件30的导体。 Using the insulator segment 86a, the gaps between the segments 67 will help improve the efficiency of the coil assembly 30, and the size of the gap 67 is preferably maintained at less than the mean free path of gas molecules 12 in the chamber so as not to transfer the plasma to the conductor coil assembly 30. 取代线圈组件30上的绝缘涂层，绝缘材料可包围线圈组件30，例如图7C和7D中各自的绝缘体86c和86d。 Substituted insulating coating on the coil assembly 30, an insulating material surrounding the coil assembly 30 may be, for example, FIGS. 7C and 7D are respective insulator 86c and 86d. 这些特点和的许多其他可替代方案的屏蔽及保护结构可与其他实施例共同使用。 These features and shielding and protective structure may be many other alternatives can be used with other embodiments.
第三实施例：图8说明紧密贴近窗60内表面设置在空间11与窗60之间的屏蔽阵列300。 Third Embodiment: FIG. 8 illustrates an array 300 into close proximity shield surface disposed between the space 11 and the window 60 in the window 60. 此屏蔽阵列300将窗60与靶极16溅射的材料遮住，而最好能阻断靶极16表面21上任一点与窗60之间的所有直接视线路径。 This shield 60 with a window array 300 target material sputtered electrode cover 16, and preferably capable of blocking any point on the target electrode 16 21 All direct line of sight path between the surface and the window 60. 不过，按照本发明这一实施例，屏蔽阵列300在这里提供窗60后面的线圈组件30与等离子体29要被耦合的容积26之间一基本上不被切断的区域的空间即间隙305，由此来促进由线圈组件30的能量耦合和传递等离子体进容积26。 However, according to this embodiment of the invention, there is provided in the shield array 300 behind the window 60 of the coil assembly 30 with the plasma region 29 to be coupled between the volume 26 is substantially not cut a space i.e. the gap 305, by the this promotes energy coupling by the coil assembly 30 and transferred into the plasma volume 26.
屏蔽阵列300最好为多个屏蔽或屏蔽段302的形式，它们集合来将窗60由靶极16上每一点遮挡住。 Array 300 is preferably a plurality of shield or shields shield in the form of segments 302, which are set to each point in the window 60 on the electrode 16 by the blocking target. 这种遮挡消除了大部分要在窗60上形成溅射膜累积的趋势。 This eliminates most of the tendency to be blocked sputtered film is formed on the window 60 is accumulated. 相应地即不会发生发生导电途径也不会发生静电屏蔽。 Accordingly, i.e. it does not occur electrostatically shielded conductive path occurs.
在本发明一实施例中，屏蔽段302为截头圆锥形状，在其内侧形成一与平行于靶极16的表面21和支座16上的基底15的平面间成角度θ。 In an embodiment of the present invention, shield segment 302 is a frusto-conical shape, forming an angle θ between the plane of the substrate 15 on a surface parallel to the target electrodes 16 and 21 of support 16 on its inside. 每一屏蔽段302的角度θ可以相同，但在段302与靶极16间的距离增大时可由减小角度θ来增强或优化屏蔽段302的效率，由此使段302的上表面303直接面向靶极16，取得对给定段面积的最大地将靶极16由窗60遮挡住。 Each shield angle θ section 302 may be the same, but the distance between the segment electrode 16 and the target 302 is increased by reducing the angle θ to enhance or optimize the efficiency of the shield segment 302, whereby the upper surface 302 of the segment 303 directly 16 facing the target electrode, to obtain a given segment the target area of the electrode 16 is maximally blocked by the window 60 live. 屏蔽段302位于空间11之外和环形围绕空间11，并被环形间隙即空间305相互作轴向分隔。 Shield segment 302 located outside the space 11 and the annular space around 11, i.e. annular gap space 305 and axially separated from each other. 间隙305的最大宽度为仍然完全将靶极16表面由窗60遮住的最宽的间隙S，如线79所示，从而使窗60的环形带不被暴露到靶极16而致围绕窗60沉积环形的导电条。 The maximum width of the gap 305 is still completely cover the surface of the target electrode 16 from the window 60 of the widest gap S, as shown in line 79, the annular window 60 such that the tape is not exposed to a target electrode 16 caused around the window 60 depositing a conductive annular strips. 因此间隙305的最大宽度S在距靶极16较大时可以较大。 Accordingly electrode 16 the maximum width of the gap 305 is larger away from the target S may be large. 间隙305可以较窄，但不应小于在腔室12的温度和压力下处理气体的原子的平均自由途径，并因在给定处理条件下被最佳地分隔开以便有利于最有效地扩散RF等离子体进入容积26。 305 may narrow the gap, but the mean free pathway atoms processing gas at the temperature and the pressure chamber 12 is not less than, and because under given processing conditions are optimally spaced apart so as to facilitate the most effective diffusion RF plasma into the volume 26. 鉴于同样的理由，段302各自具有每一段302均相同的或者被改变的高度H来优化段302之间的遮挡和空间。 Given the same reason, each segment 302 of each segment 302 having the same or height H are changed to optimize the space between the shield 302 segments.
理想的屏蔽段302数取决于腔室12的几何因素。 Ideal number of shield segment 302 depends on the geometrical factors of the chamber 12. 尽管可以采用单一的屏蔽段302，而通常将采用2至6个段302。 Although a single shield segment 302, but generally will use 2-6 segments 302. 段302的数量应加以限制和累积屏蔽段面积应当最小来使RF等离子体损耗最小。 The number of segments 302 should be restricted and the accumulation shield segment area should be minimized to minimize the loss of the RF plasma. 而且，为防止由RF线圈组件30所感生的涡流或其他电流的闭合环形路径的形成，段302应至少具有一个切断彼此的间隙304。 Further, in order to prevent the induced RF is formed by a closed annular path of eddy current coil or other components 30, section 302 should have at least one cut gap 304 to each other. 相邻段302的间隙304可以如所示的成为一行，而最好能作交错排列以防止轴向穿过窗60的连续成行的薄膜的沉积。 Gap adjacent segments 302 can be a line 304 as shown, and preferably can be staggered in order to prevent the deposited film is continuously axially through the rows of the window 60. 间隙304应足够宽来防止因处理参数而异的击穿，将需要约1/4-1英寸的宽度。 Gap 304 should be wide enough to prevent breakdown process parameters vary, will require about 1 / 4-1 inches wide.
间隙304被配置来基本上切断屏蔽阵列300中的电流途径和被配置来完全或局部地穿过阵列300的轴向尺寸。 Gap 304 is configured to substantially interrupt the current route of the shield 300 and the array is configured to partially or completely through the axial dimension of the array 300. 屏蔽段302可由金属、真空相容的介质材料如陶瓷或石英，或者其他被选择的能在当屏蔽段302上形成溅射材料涂层时在其上保持这样的涂层的相容材料制造。 Shield segment 302 may be made of metal, such as a vacuum compatible dielectric material or a ceramic, quartz, or other selected when compatible material capable of holding thereon a coating of such material in forming a coating on a sputtering shield segment 302. 否则，这样的沉积将会剥落而造成腔室12和正在处理晶片15的污染。 Otherwise, such a deposition chamber will result in flaking and contamination 12 of the wafer 15 being processed. 为了控制被沉积材料在屏蔽阵列300上的聚积并由此来减小污染的危险，可将屏蔽段300加以电气偏压和为此目的以金属制造。 To control the accumulation of material is deposited on the shield array 300 and thereby to reduce the risk of contamination, may be electrically biased shield segment 300 for this purpose and to metal. 屏蔽段302还最好以它们可独立控制的偏压来作个别的偏压，用来优化被沉积在基底上的膜的分布，例如依靠优化基底15上涂敷的均匀性和进到基底15的离子化材料的方向性。 Shield segment 302 also preferably independently controllable to bias them to make individual bias, is used to optimize the distribution of the film deposited on the substrate, for example, rely on optimizing the uniformity of the coating substrate 15 and the substrate 15 proceeds to directionality of the ionized material. 在这样的配置中，间隙304将使每一独立偏压的屏蔽段302a相互完全分离和电气绝缘。 In such a configuration, the gap 304 will bias each shield segment 302a independent from each other completely separate and electrical insulation. 偏压由通过滤波器或匹配网络307连接的发生器306提供，而各屏蔽段302均独立地通过限流电阻308连接。 Bias voltage provided by the generator via the filter 306 or matching network 307, and each shield segment 302 is independently connected through a current limiting resistor 308. 电阻308可以是可变电阻或其他可被设置来按照控制器50个别地控制屏蔽段302的偏压的装置。 Resistor 308 may be a variable resistor or the other may be provided to controller 50 individually in accordance with the biasing segment 302 of the shielding apparatus.
上述屏蔽阵列300的优点可由图9和10中所示的具有屏蔽阵列300a的替代实施例来实现。 Array 300a having an alternative embodiment of the shield to achieve the advantages shown by the shield array 300 in FIG. 9 and 10. 阵列300a由多个平的或稍许弯曲的矩形部件302a构成，它们被安排成在窗60内侧围绕在空间11周边上的叶片或风扇的阵列。 Array 300a is constituted by a plurality of flat or slightly curved rectangular member 302a, which are arranged around the inside of the window 60 or an array of fan blades on the periphery of the space 11. 段302a被轴向间隔即槽304a相互在圆周上分隔开，这提供了使等离子体耦合进容积26以及切断围绕阵列300a的可能的环形电流路径所需的段302a之间的间隔。 I.e. section 302a are spaced axially from each other in the circumferential grooves 304a spaced apart, which provides a spacing between the cut 26 and the desired current paths around the annular array of possible segments 302a 300a is coupled into the plasma volume. 段302a的取向是使它们每一个均与通过腔室12的轴312的径向平面311定义一个角度φ。 The segment 302a is oriented so that they are related to each of a radial plane through the chamber 312 of the shaft 12 define an angle of 311 φ. 相邻屏蔽段302a之间和屏蔽段302a与窗60之间的间隔W应不小于腔室12中气体的平均自由途径以使邻近窗能有效地形成等离子体并在段302a之间的间隙304a中传送进容积26。 Between adjacent shield segment and the shield segment 302a and 302a of the window interval W between the chamber 60 to be less than the mean free pathway 12 is adjacent the window so that the gas effective to form a plasma and a gap between the segments 302a, 304a transmitted into the volume 26. 段302a在轴向足够长以便能防止在段302a端部窗60上形成任何涂层的环形带，和最好相互间设定角度φ和间距W来在窗60处遮挡整个靶极16。 Section 302a in the axial direction long enough to prevent the formation of any coating the endless belt at the end portion 302a window section 60, and the angle φ is preferably set to each other and the spacing W of the target electrode 16 to shield the entire window 60.
代替窗60，上述的屏蔽阵列可与设置在腔室内侧的介质窗或通过绝缘防护等离子体的腔室中的细圈一起使用。 Instead of the window 60, the aforementioned shield array may be used together with the dielectric window disposed on the indoor side of the chamber or chamber through the thin insulating protective ring plasma.
* * *本技术领域中的熟悉人士将会理解，这里本发明的实施例可以改变，和本发明是以优选的实施例加以说明的。 * * * Apparent to those skilled in the art will appreciate, embodiments of the invention herein may be changed, and this is a preferred embodiment of the present invention will be described in the embodiments. 因而，可进行增加和修改，而各不同实施例的细节可加以交换，而不背离本发明的原理和创造。 Accordingly, additions and modifications may be made, and the details of the various embodiments may be exchanged, and without departing from the principles of the present invention to create.
Priority Applications (3)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|US08/844,757 US5948215A (en)||1997-04-21||1997-04-21||Method and apparatus for ionized sputtering|
|US08/837,551 US5800688A (en)||1997-04-21||1997-04-21||Apparatus for ionized sputtering|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CN1265222A CN1265222A (en)||2000-08-30|
|CN1228810C true CN1228810C (en)||2005-11-23|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CN 98804335 CN1228810C (en)||1997-04-21||1998-04-21||Method and apparatus for physical vapor phase deposit|
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|EP (1)||EP0978138A1 (en)|
|JP (1)||JP3775689B2 (en)|
|KR (1)||KR100322330B1 (en)|
|CN (1)||CN1228810C (en)|
|AU (1)||AU6977998A (en)|
|TW (1)||TW460602B (en)|
|WO (1)||WO1998048444A1 (en)|
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