CN1227806C - Full-digital subdivision high-accuracy stepper motor controller - Google Patents

Full-digital subdivision high-accuracy stepper motor controller Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1227806C
CN1227806C CN 03129924 CN03129924A CN1227806C CN 1227806 C CN1227806 C CN 1227806C CN 03129924 CN03129924 CN 03129924 CN 03129924 A CN03129924 A CN 03129924A CN 1227806 C CN1227806 C CN 1227806C
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China
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motor
unit
control
signal
stepping motor
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CN 03129924
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1452312A (en
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张建勋
安刚
李彬
王树新
刘铁罗
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南开大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a controller for a step motor, particularly to a control proposal and a realizing method for a subdividing full-digital controller for a step motor. The controller is formed from a high-speed single chip microprocessor, a control interface circuit for a step motor, a power amplification circuit and an asynchronous serial communication interface circuit and a synchronous serial communication interface circuit of a host computer, wherein the high-speed single chip microprocessor is used as a control core unit. The controller receives standard TTL level logic control signals as control signals for the step motor, and realizes full photoelectric isolation with an upper layer control circuit. The highest frequency of input pulse control signals for the motor can achieve 1 MHz, 250 frequency division can be realized, and positioning precision of the motor can be increased by 250 times. Pulses when the motor operates at a low speed are reduced, the motor can stably operate at a low speed (0.2 rpm), the change quantity of current of the motor is strictly controlled, and impact to a mechanical system caused by the sudden change of the current when the system is turned on and off is reduced. The present invention is especially suitable for systems having the requirements of high precision and ultra-low speed motion control.

Description

Digital segmentation type high accuracy controllor for step-by-step motor

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of stepping motor control apparatus, the controlling schemes of particularly segmentation type, digital controllor for step-by-step motor and implementation method.

Background technology

Because the structure of stepping motor is different fully with direct current machine, alternating current machine, make the Stepping Motor Control mode also be different from this two kinds of motors fully.Stepping motor is with the form of pulse voltage the motor input current to be controlled, and the quantity of input pulse is directly proportional with the angle strictness that stepping motor rotor turns over, and the frequency of input pulse is directly proportional with the rotary speed of stepping motor.Just because of the above-mentioned characteristic of stepping motor, stepping motor is widely used in the many precise motions mechanism, finishes the precision positions controlled function of system.Do not surpass under the prerequisite of motor nominal load in load, the umber of pulse strictness of the corner of rotor and input is proportional, this characteristic makes many step motor control systems need not set up the position feedback link, motor is realized open loop control, the complexity that this has just reduced electric machine controller widely makes the range of application of stepping motor further obtain expanding.

But reason owing to manufacturing process, the step angle of stepping motor, the angle that is each pulse motor rotor rotation generally can not done very for a short time, the step angle of at present general stepping motor is 1.8 °/P, the step angle that is used for small size precision stepping motor under controling environment, that volume is small is 15 °/P, does not satisfy the required precision of accurate control far away.In addition, stepping motor can produce resonance when higher speed moves, and this phenomenon produces harm greatly to precise control system.An effective way that addresses the above problem is exactly stepping motor to be taked to segment the method for control, a pulse that is about to original input stepping motor is subdivided into several present pulses, make the motion branch multistep of stepping motor rotor between two mechanical step angles finish, rather than an original step finish, soon the electric current of two phase windings of stepping motor stator is by original impulse form, change into present sinusoidal manner, the segmentation number is exactly the precision of the numeral of offset of sinusoidal waveform.When the segmentation number was infinity, the motion of rotor between two original mechanical step angles can reach level and smooth completely in theory.

United States Patent (USP) (patent No.: 6,414,460, inventor: Li; Yanqing; Pham; Luu T.; Sasso; Mark E.) told about a stepper motor driver that has only 8 steps and the segmentation of 16 steps, the structure that is characterized in controllor for step-by-step motor is relatively simple, but its controlled function is limited, electric current adopts analogue device to provide, there is not Current Feedback Control, the limitation function that electric current is changed does not have the communication interface circuit.It is not in the very high environment that the type controller can be used for that some require precision, kinetic characteristic.

United States Patent (USP) (patent No.: 5,914,579, inventor: Komm; William) told about a controllor for step-by-step motor, in its patent document, do not mentioned the subdivision accuracy that this controller can reach with segmentation function.The characteristics of this controller are: provide the set-point of the biphase current in the motor stator winding by microprocessor, this is the amount of a digital form, and numeral---analog conversion circuit changes this digital quantity, obtains analog control voltage with additional again.Control to electric current is the mode that adopts open loop, and to the feedback regulation function of electric current, the moment that this control mode makes stepping motor export when high speed and low cruise is not inconsistent, and the limitation function that electric current is changed does not have the communication interface circuit.

United States Patent (USP) (patent No.: 6,140,793, inventor: Carr; Raymond A.; Johns; Michael R.) told about a controllor for step-by-step motor with segmentation function, be characterized in by the set-point of core microcontroller with the form output motor stator two-phase winding current of digital quantity, obtain analog quantity by simulating a digital conversion, output in two phase windings of stepping motor through after the power amplification, do not mention feedback regulation function in the patent documentation electric current.The limitation function that this controller does not change electric current does not have the communication interface circuit.

More than three common features that patent had be: the tables of data of 1) utilizing microprocessor internal storage, provide stepping motor electric current set-point data by lookup table mode, obtain analog control voltage 2 by the digital-analogue conversion) control voltage through after the power amplification directly being the stator two phase windings power supply of stepping motor, stator current is not realized FEEDBACK CONTROL, the moment that motor is exported when high speed and low cruise is inconsistent, stator current fluctuation is bigger by 3) control system of stepping motor two-phase winding current all realizes with analog element, because the consistency of analog element is poor, element characteristic is subjected to environmental influence bigger, the two-way adjuster that constitutes by analog element, power amplifier to accomplish control characteristic just the same be one very the difficulty thing, the circuit structure complexity, debugging work also very difficult 4) interface section of not carrying out communication with upper strata control unit or computer, can not realize that intelligent requirements is than higher control procedure, can not be directly and upper strata control computer realization exchanges data 5) there is not a position detection unit, can not finish high-precision Position Control function 6 separately) stator current lifting rate of change is not taked restriction in the moment of controller energising and outage, cause motor to produce very strong jitter phenomenon, can damage the precise motion parts in these two moments.

Summary of the invention

The present invention is in order to overcome above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art, satisfy some application circumstances and requirement, a kind of new device is proposed, be digital segmentation type high accuracy controllor for step-by-step motor, it has realized the digital feedback constant flow control function to the stepping motor stator winding, has compact conformation, volume is little, use flexibly control precision height, adaptable characteristics.

This digital segmentation type high accuracy controllor for step-by-step motor comprises:

CPU 17, with the 1st to the 4th photoelectricity isolated location 10,11,14,15, state detection circuit 23 connects the from the 1st to the 4th photoelectricity isolated location 10,11,14,15 obtain the stepping motor motion command signal of telecommunication, obtain the stepping motor motion state signal of telecommunication from state detection circuit 23, state-detection to the stepping motor kinematic system, carry out data with the upper strata control unit, or signal and communication, digitial controller 19, by realization that CPU is programmed, digitial controller is two control characteristics, the identical current controller of Control Parameter, accept the electric current specified rate and the feedback quantity of digital form, the Current Control amount of output digital form;

Synchronous serial communication unit 8 is connected with CPU 17 by the 1st photoelectricity isolated location 10;

Asynchronous serial communication unit 9 is connected with CPU 17 by the 2nd photoelectricity isolated location 11;

Step motor control input unit 12 is connected with CPU 17 by the 3rd photoelectricity isolated location 14;

State output unit 13 is connected with CPU 17 by the 4th photoelectricity isolated location 15;

Pwm modulator 16 receives the digital form Current Control amount that digitial controller 19 is exported, and output duty cycle is given power amplifier 18 with the voltage signal of the impulse form that controlled quentity controlled variable numerical value is directly proportional or is inversely proportional to;

Power amplifier 18 is subjected to the control of pwm modulator 16 outputs, and this unit is output as the stator winding power supply of stepping motor 5;

Stepping motor 5 is four phase step motor;

Current feedback unit 20 is used for the electric current that the stepping motor stator flows through is taken a sample, and output signal is the voltage signal that is directly proportional with the size of stator current;

Filtering and amplifying unit 7, the voltage signal of received current feedback unit 20 outputs, the voltage signal that output is amplified through filtering;

Analog-digital converter unit 6 receives through the voltage signal after the filtering amplification 7, this voltage signal is transformed to the amount of digital form, and is input in the digitial controller 19;

Position counting pulse feedback unit 21, the position counting pulse signal that the position feedback device that reception is driven by stepping motor 5 sends, output termination pulse shaping unit 22, wherein position feedback device detects the position of stepping motor 5, outgoing position counting pulse signal;

Pulse shaping unit 22 carries out waveform processing to the pulse signal of representing position feedback 21, removes the interference component that is mingled in the signal, makes the pulse signal standard to send this signal to digitial controller 19;

State detection unit 23 detects the state information in the kinematic system, and detected these signals are input in the CPU 17.

Described digital segmentation type high accuracy controllor for step-by-step motor, synchronous serial communication unit 8 is interface circuits, is 3 line locking communication modes, three communication lines are respectively clock line, Data In-Line, DOL Data Output Line; The asynchronous serial communication unit is 2 line asynchronous communication patterns, and two communication lines are respectively data acceptance line, data transmission line.

Owing to adopted technique scheme, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows: realized Digital Control stepping motor stator winding electric current, and the biphase current signal realized FEEDBACK CONTROL, the characteristic when having improved the operation characteristic, particularly low speed of stepping motor and Ultra-Low Speed operation greatly; Simple in structure, debugging work seldom; Have very strong adaptability with cooperating of upper strata control unit, and can independently bear high-precision Position Control work, make the product machine volume little and practical; All input/output signals have all passed through the photoelectricity buffer action, have improved the antijamming capability and the reliability of operation of controller.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a control principle block diagram of the present invention

Fig. 2 is the structured flowchart of controller of the present invention

Fig. 3 is power amplification circuit figure

Fig. 4 is the oscillogram of PWM controller output

Fig. 5 is the electric current set-point oscillogram under the 250 segmentation situations

Fig. 6 is the value of feedback oscillogram of stator current

Fig. 7 is the filtered current feedback value oscillogram of process

Oscillogram when Fig. 8 rises and descends for electric current

Fig. 9-1,9-2,9-3 are the practical circuit diagram of controller of the present invention

Figure 10 is the controlled step block diagram of controller of the present invention

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with each figure the present invention is specifically described:

As shown in Figure 2, the CPU of controllor for step-by-step motor is a microprocessor with high-speed computation ability, the TMS320MC2407 that in the working control device, adopts American TI Company to produce, at the functional unit that this chip had, for controllor for step-by-step motor has designed synchronous serial communication interface circuit 8, asynchronous serial communication interface circuit 9.The synchronous serial communication circuit is 3 line locking communication modes, and three communication lines are respectively clock line (Clock), Data In-Line (Data_In), DOL Data Output Line (Data_Out).The asynchronous serial communication circuit is 2 line asynchronous communication patterns, and two communication lines are respectively data acceptance line (RXD), data transmission line (TXD).In order to reduce the interference between the upper and lower layer of control system, when these two kinds of standard communication interfaces of design, added photoelectricity isolated location 10,11.By these two data communication interfaces, controllor for step-by-step motor can directly receive various data or the order that control computer in upper strata is sent with the form of order, and requires the angle of control step motor with the rate curve motion regulation that requires according to command specifies.

The control signal that behind the step motor control signal input unit 12 process photoelectricity isolated locations 14 the upper strata control unit is sent is input in the central control unit.Input signal mainly contains the pulse signal (Step) of indication motor motion, the direction signal (CW/CCW) of decision motor movement direction, the enable signal of controlled motion state (En/Dis), and lower floor's controller is carried out reset signal (Run/Rst) of reset operation etc.CPU can set in advance the amplitude of the subdivision accuracy and the current of electric of stepping motor according to the required precision of applied environment.The current amplitude curve is stored in the CPU with the form of tables of data in advance, when CPU receives motor message pulse (Step) and direction signal (CW/CCW), CPU is according to the speed of pulse signal (Step), from tables of data, find the electric current set-point of stepping motor stator two phase windings, Fig. 5 is the electric current set-point oscillogram (having passed through numeral---analog converting) under the 250 segmentation situations, biphase current in the stepping motor stator winding obtains the value of feedback of biphase current after excessive current detection unit detects, this value of feedback contains a lot of high-frequency interferencing signal (as shown in Figure 6).This value of feedback is through after the filter amplification circuit, and obtaining one does not have current feedback amount interference signal, complete (as shown in Figure 7).Obtain the digital quantity of biphase current value of feedback behind this feedback signal process A-D analog-digital converter unit, and be imported in the CPU, CPU has been set up two regulatory functions, the identical digital electric throttle regulator of parameter characteristic by software program, its regulatory function as shown in Figure 1: the input variable of this adjuster has two: the 1) electric current set-point (I that is provided by the given unit 1 of electric current g) 2) as above-mentioned, through the current feedback value (I of filtering amplification and A-D analog-digital conversion f), current controller 2 carries out computing to these two amounts, obtain the controlled quentity controlled variable (Ui) of digital form, utilize this digital quantity control pulse-width modulator 3 (pwm modulator), the impulse waveform of pulse-width modulator output as shown in Figure 4, when the numeric ratio of controlled quentity controlled variable (Ui) was big, pulse-width modulator output duty of ratio was just bigger, when the numeric ratio of controlled quentity controlled variable (Ui) hour, pulse-width modulator output duty of ratio is just smaller.Output signal with pulse-width modulator is directly controlled two identical in structure power amplifiers 4, and the schematic diagram of power amplifier is as scheming shown in (3) power amplification circuit that circuit is made up of CMOS (C type metal oxide field effect power tube) transistor.Each power amplifier is a winding power supply of stepping motor, shown in figure (3), and when pulse-width modulator is output as 1, the Q1 of power amplifier, Q4 conducting, the A phase winding forward energising of stepping motor; When pulse-width modulator is output as 0, the Q2 of power amplifier, Q3 conducting, the A phase winding of stepping motor is oppositely switched on.As a same reason, when the Q5 of power amplifier, Q8 conducting, the B phase winding forward energising of stepping motor, when the Q6 of power amplifier, Q7 conducting, the B phase winding of stepping motor is oppositely switched on.Like this, all be to the calculating of digital quantity with to the transmission course of digital quantity to the Current Regulation process of stepping motor stator two phase windings.Wherein the computational process of current controller is to be finished by the software program of CPU.Because the numerical calculation process stabilization of microprocessor internal is reliable, can not be subjected to the influence of environment, can not be subjected to the model restriction of computing unit, the antijamming capability of same digital circuit is strong, be subjected to the influence of environmental condition to be better than analog circuit greatly, the physical characteristic of two current controllers realizing with the method, it is very consistent to regulate parameter, makes very symmetry of the electric current that flows through in stepping motor stator two phase windings.It is highly stable when motor moves under Ultra-Low Speed.The debugging work that should implement circuit simultaneously is considerably less, moves also very reliable.

In order to improve the function of controllor for step-by-step motor, make this controller can finish high-accuracy speed control independently, the Position Control task, ad hocly counted a place value feedback element, it is position count pulse feedback unit, this unit can receive the output signal of position feedback element commonly used, as the feedback unit for position of rotation---increment code wheel, for straight-line position feedback unit---grating chi etc., after position counting pulse feedback unit receives the position feed back signal of said elements, position pulse signal is carried out the frequency multiplication operation, and therefrom tell the travel direction signal, after passing through shaping pulse and filter circuit again, position feedback information is input in the CPU, realizes the position closed loop in the stepping motor SERVO CONTROL.

State detection circuit detects (as the extreme position limit signal of motion, 0 signal of motion etc.) to the various states of stepper motor driven kinematic system.State detection circuit is delayed time, after the operations such as filtering and signal shaping, is input in the CPU, for control system provides information these signals.After simultaneously these signals being carried out the electricity isolation through the 4th photoelectricity isolated location 15, output in the control unit of upper strata through signal output interface unit 13.

Consider that the electric current in the stator coil of stepping motor rises to set-point suddenly by 0, or reduce to suddenly at 0 o'clock by set-point, stator will form magnetic field suddenly, or magnetic field suddenly disappears, and make rotor turn over an angle from original position, its initial position of neglecting rotor greatly is different and different, and maximum can reach a mechanical angle.This shake of stepping motor produces very large damage to the precision optical machinery parts.For avoiding this phenomenon to take place, in the moment of controllor for step-by-step motor energising and outage, controller is not switched on immediately to the stator coil of controlled stepping motor or is cut off the power supply.After the controller energising, electric current in the stator coil of stepping motor is in official hour, with given electric current ascending curve and decline curve, shown in figure (7), the electric current of control step motor rises suddenly or descends, thereby has avoided stepping motor to produce jitter phenomenon in the moment of controller energising and outage.This point is to the precision positions control system, to extremely important in the exigent applied environment of power system steady-state stability.

Claims (2)

1. digital segmentation type high accuracy controllor for step-by-step motor is characterized in that it comprises:
CPU (17), with the 1st to the 4th photoelectricity isolated location (10,11,14,15), state detection circuit (23) connects the from the 1st to the 4th photoelectricity isolated location (10,11,14,15) obtain the stepping motor motion command signal of telecommunication, obtain the stepping motor motion state signal of telecommunication from state detection circuit (23), to the state-detection of stepping motor kinematic system, carry out data with the upper strata control unit, or signal and communication, digitial controller (19), by realization that CPU is programmed, digitial controller is two control characteristics, the identical current controller of Control Parameter is accepted the electric current specified rate and the feedback quantity of digital form, the Current Control amount of output digital form;
Synchronous serial communication unit (8) is connected with CPU (17) by the 1st photoelectricity isolated location (10);
Asynchronous serial communication unit (9) is connected with CPU (17) by the 2nd photoelectricity isolated location (11);
Step motor control input unit (12) is connected with CPU (17) by the 3rd photoelectricity isolated location (14);
State output unit (13) is connected with CPU (17) by the 4th photoelectricity isolated location (15);
Pwm modulator (16) receives the digital form Current Control amount that digitial controller (19) is exported, and output duty cycle is given power amplifier (18) with the voltage signal of the impulse form that controlled quentity controlled variable numerical value is directly proportional or is inversely proportional to;
Power amplifier (18) is subjected to the control of pwm modulator (16) output, and this unit is output as the stator winding power supply of stepping motor (5);
Stepping motor (5) is four phase step motor;
Current feedback unit (20) is used for the electric current that the stepping motor stator flows through is taken a sample, and output signal is the voltage signal that is directly proportional with the size of stator current;
Filtering and amplifying unit (7), the voltage signal of received current feedback unit (20) output, the voltage signal that output is amplified through filtering:
Analog-digital converter unit (6) receives through the voltage signal after the filtering amplification (7), this voltage signal is transformed to the amount of digital form, and is input in the digitial controller (19);
Position counting pulse feedback unit (21), the position counting pulse signal that the position feedback device that reception is driven by stepping motor (5) sends, output termination pulse shaping unit (22), wherein position feedback device detects the position of stepping motor (5), outgoing position counting pulse signal;
Pulse shaping unit (22) carries out waveform processing to the pulse signal of representing position feedback (21), removes the interference component that is mingled in the signal, makes the pulse signal standard to send this signal to digitial controller (19);
State detection unit (23) detects the state information in the kinematic system, and detected these signals are input in the CPU (17).
2. digital segmentation type high accuracy controllor for step-by-step motor according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: synchronous serial communication unit (8) are interface circuits, are 3 line locking communication modes, and three communication lines are respectively clock line, Data In-Line, DOL Data Output Line; The asynchronous serial communication unit is 2 line asynchronous communication patterns, and two communication lines are respectively data acceptance line, data transmission line.
CN 03129924 2003-05-23 2003-05-23 Full-digital subdivision high-accuracy stepper motor controller CN1227806C (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2007104239A1 (en) * 2006-03-15 2007-09-20 Positec Power Tools (Suzhou) Co., Ltd. Position control method, position control device and electric device including the position control device

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US7084592B2 (en) * 2004-10-12 2006-08-01 Rodrian James A Method and apparatus for controlling a DC motor by counting current pulses
CN100341238C (en) * 2005-12-26 2007-10-03 北京航空航天大学 Step motor network control apparatus applicable to medical robot
CN101803952A (en) * 2010-03-05 2010-08-18 南开大学 Motion control system of CT image navigation spinal mini-invasive operation robot
CN103259470B (en) * 2012-02-16 2016-01-20 上海安浦鸣志自动化设备有限公司 A kind of stepping motor kinematic system supporting multi-operation mode
DE102014108637A1 (en) * 2014-06-18 2015-12-24 Trinamic Motion Control Gmbh & Co. Kg Method and circuit arrangement for driving a stepping motor
CN104660127B (en) * 2014-12-04 2017-04-05 重庆谱思机器人控制系统有限公司 A kind of control method of controllor for step-by-step motor
CN104702183A (en) * 2015-02-16 2015-06-10 北京航天发射技术研究所 Multifunctional universal stepping motor driver
CN105158519B (en) * 2015-08-24 2018-05-25 扬州大学 A kind of device that nanoscale follow-up is realized using quantum tunneling effect
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2007104239A1 (en) * 2006-03-15 2007-09-20 Positec Power Tools (Suzhou) Co., Ltd. Position control method, position control device and electric device including the position control device

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