CN1212222C - Improved all-direction moving unit for spherical robot - Google Patents

Improved all-direction moving unit for spherical robot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1212222C
CN1212222C CN 02128933 CN02128933A CN1212222C CN 1212222 C CN1212222 C CN 1212222C CN 02128933 CN02128933 CN 02128933 CN 02128933 A CN02128933 A CN 02128933A CN 1212222 C CN1212222 C CN 1212222C
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China
Prior art keywords
annulus
motor
spherical shell
supporting
ball shape
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Expired - Fee Related
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CN 02128933
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1397411A (en
Inventor
孙汉旭
廖启征
徐扬生
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Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications
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Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications
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Priority to CN 02128933 priority Critical patent/CN1212222C/en
Publication of CN1397411A publication Critical patent/CN1397411A/en
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Publication of CN1212222C publication Critical patent/CN1212222C/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
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Abstract

The present invention relates to an improved all-directional walking device for spherical robots, and the walking device comprises a spherical shell and a walking transmission mechanism positioned in the spherical shell, wherein the walking transmission mechanism comprises a circular ring, and two supporting short shafts extending towards the outer side of the circular ring are arranged in the diameter direction of the circular ring; the two supporting short shafts bear two supporting seats arranged on the inner side of the spherical shell respectively through a bearing, and the two supporting seats pass through a shaft line of the spherical center of the spherical shell; one supporting seat is fixedly provided with a big gear. The circular ring is provided with motors, and a pinion gear on a motor shaft of one of the motors is engaged with the big gear on the supporting seat to drive the circular ring to rotate back and forth; two bottom seats correspondingly arranged are arranged on the inner side of the circular ring in a direction vertical to the two extending supporting short shafts; an internal connecting long shaft bears on the two bottom seats through bearings, and one end side of the internal connecting long shaft is fixedly provided with a big gear; a pinion gear on the other motor shaft, which is arranged on the circular ring or on the internal connecting long shaft through a hinge of the short shafts, is engaged with the big gear fixedly arranged on the internal connecting long shaft to drive the pinion gear to rotate left and right.

Description

Improved all-direction moving unit for spherical robot
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of improved all-direction moving unit for spherical robot, belong to the control device technical field of the two dimension walking of the control of on-electric variable or the land in the regulating system, delivery vehicle (robot) waterborne.
Background technology
At present, if a kind of walking robot is arranged, it can have the performance of quick walking and bigger bearing capacity as wheeled robot; Can adapt to rugged ground as walking robot again, will be a kind of more satisfactory robot, be certain to be used widely in real life.Ball shape robot is exactly the novel robot of the development and Design in order to realize this purpose, and it has at a high speed, big carrying, characteristics that road worthiness is strong, simultaneously, should be simple in structure, control is convenient.
Yet the ball shape robot of developing does not at present reach this level as yet.For example, give birth to the notion that a research group teaching the leader has taken the lead in proposing high-speed single-wheel lunar robot the Xu Yang of U.S. Ka Naijimailong university (CMU), and the single-wheel stabilized walking I of a robot type and II type model machine have been developed (referring to " A single wheel gyroscopically stabilized robot ", Proceedings of the IEEEInternational Conference on Robotics and Automation, Minneapolis, MN, 1996.).This single-wheel walking robot be with gyroscope keep its walking in stability, its walking mechanism has been used 4 drive motors altogether.Gyrostatic application makes this robot all very stable when high speed and low speed walking, still, but can't keep stable when static.In case gyro stops operating, it will be toppled over, and does not have stranger's assistance, just can't restart motion.In addition, the radius of turn of this single-wheel walking robot is bigger, also is a shortcoming.
In Japan, the more mountain of telecommunications university is sincere, mountain rattan and man, abundant three professors of Ji Ning develop a spherical walking robot, this robot adopts two-layer rotating gyro frame bracket to support the walking executing agency of single pendulum (referring to " Development and motion control of all directionsteering-type robot the 3rd report:principle control method and experiment ofsteering of the robot " Proceedings of 10th Japanese Robotics Conference, 1992, in Japanese).This robot stretches out two little followers as its stabilizing mechanism of walking in big ball outside, to realize comprehensive stable walking.But its complex structure because there are three strong points on itself and ground, adapts to the poor-performing of uneven ground.
The Sukhan Lee proposition of U.S. jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) is a kind of to come the drive ball body weight heart with inner four pistons, realizes that the three-dimensional of center of gravity moves, thereby makes the scheme of ball shape robot walking.This mechanism with piston motion becoming center of gravity three-dimensional motion is provided with a plurality of power drill/drivers, and its structure is complicated more.
The applicant is at patent of invention " omnibearing walking mechanism of the ball shape robot " (application number: 01118289.X), be made up of spherical shell and the walking mechanism that is positioned at this housing of application in May calendar year 2001.The basic functional principle of the omnibearing walking mechanism of this ball shape robot is to adopt conical gear to pay the pinion unit of paying formation with roller gear, the driven by power of the motor by the double as counterweight, constantly regulate its position of centre of gravity, make its center of gravity be positioned at a segment distance at centre of sphere the place ahead or rear forever, thereby produce driving force forward or backward, make the continuous overcome friction of this robot and rolling forward or backward.Adopt and use the same method,, just can produce turning moment, thereby realize that ball shape robot is to any direction-omnibearing driving walking by regulating its position of centre of gravity two side direction deflections to the left and right; And the speed adjustable range of its walking is quite big, in addition can also operate slackly, work such as observation.Theoretically, this device can be applied to rugged ground or the different situations such as marsh, the water surface without exploitation, carries out tasks such as transportation, operation, distant surveillance or detection.But, the structure more complicated of this mechanism, it is heavier to conduct oneself with dignity; And in driving-chain, used a plurality of bevel gears, and make its processing technology complexity, cost height, and the vertical precision of assembling is required high, limited applying of this application for a patent for invention.
Summary of the invention
The all-direction moving unit that the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of improved ball shape robot, this device not only can overcome the above-mentioned various defectives of existing several robots both at home and abroad, more can avoid the defectives such as driving mechanism complexity, process and assemble specification requirement height, cost costliness of applicant's " omnibearing walking mechanism of ball shape robot "; Have simple in structurely, from heavy and light, bearing capacity is big, the movement velocity height, the transmission efficiency height, make and assembling than being easier to and characteristics such as cost is low, help applying.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this: a kind of all-direction moving unit of improved ball shape robot, comprise spherical shell and the walking transmission mechanism that is positioned at spherical shell, described walking transmission mechanism includes: an annulus, the diametric(al) of this annulus is provided with to its two short supporting axles stretching out of outside, these two short supporting axles respectively by loading ability of bearing on two supporting seats that pass through spherical shell centre of sphere axis of spherical shell inboard; On a supporting seat of spherical shell one side, install a gear wheel; Two motors are installed on this annulus, and the motor shaft of one of them motor stretches to the annulus outside, and a pinion is installed on this motor shaft, and this pinion is meshed with gear wheel on the supporting seat and drives its rotation; On annulus inboard, the direction perpendicular, be provided with the base of two relative installations with stretching out two short supporting axles, interior spreading axle by loading ability of bearing on these two bases; Should in the spreading axle one distolaterally install a gear wheel; The motor shaft that is installed in another motor on the annulus stretches to the annulus inboard, and the pinion on this motor shaft is meshed with the described interior spreading axle one distolateral gear wheel that installs and drives its rotation; Should in the centre of spreading axle set firmly one with should in the perpendicular minor axis of spreading axle, be installed with a balancing weight in the end of this minor axis; It is characterized in that: on the described annulus, also be installed with balancing weight in the place relative with two motor installation site centers of gravity; This balancing weight is a battery.
Described two supporting seats are packed on the spherical shell, and described two bases of installing relatively are packed on the annulus.
The present invention is the all-direction moving unit of ball shape robot, has following advantage and purposes:
1, the driving-chain of this ball shape robot running gear is simple in structure, link is few, abandon original bevel gear and adopt the common cylinder gear drive, even about directly driving annulus and do by reducing motor and shaft coupling, front and back rotate, handling ease, easy for installation, reliable operation is durable in use; Body is in light weight, and bearing capacity is strong, can finish the multi-tasks such as distant surveillance, operation, enforcement rescue or transporting supplies in a big way.
2, the balancing weight of this ball shape robot running gear has only two, be positioned at spherical shell under, thereby make this ball shape robot staticly easily to be stabilized on the optional position, be convenient to its parking and stretch out folding arm and carry out other operations, for example the removal of mines etc.
3, this ball shape robot and ground are to contact, and belong to pure rolling friction, and resistance is little, drive and turn to flexible, can pass the tortuous passageway that bore is slightly larger than its diameter more easily.When the diameter of this ball shape robot is enough big, can be used as visitor's delivery vehicle on the soil of softness, sand, snowfield or travel on the ice face, open up its application scenario.
4, running gear of the present invention has comprehensive driving walking function, and the adaptability of road is stronger, cooperates sensor and the cartographic information reader that is provided with again within it, can finish the task of long-distance transportation goods and materials.Might become the another desirable means of transport that robot from now on walks on ups and downs ground, have certain market competitiveness.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is that first kind of example structure of ball shape robot running gear of the present invention formed schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is that second kind of example structure of ball shape robot running gear of the present invention formed schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 is that the third example structure of ball shape robot running gear of the present invention is formed schematic diagram.
The specific embodiment
Referring to Fig. 1, the present invention is a kind of all-direction moving unit of improved ball shape robot, comprise spherical shell 1 and the walking transmission mechanism that is positioned at spherical shell, this walking transmission mechanism includes: an annulus 2, the diametric(al) of this annulus 2 is provided with two short supporting axles 3 that stretch out to its outside, and these two short supporting axles 3 are carried on two supporting seats 5 that pass through spherical shell centre of sphere axis of spherical shell 1 inboard by bearing 4 respectively; These two supporting seats 5 are packed on the spherical shell 1 by bolt 6.On a supporting seat 5 of spherical shell 1 one sides, install a gear wheel 21; Two motors 7,8 are installed, these two motors the 7, the 8th, reducing motor or torque motor on this annulus 2.Place relative with two motors, 7,8 installation site centers of gravity on annulus 2 also is installed with two balancing weights 17,18, these two balancing weights the 17, the 18th, battery.The motor shaft of one of them motor 7 stretches to annulus 2 outsides, and 7 in this motor is gone up a pinion 9 is installed, and this pinion 9 is meshed with gear wheel 21 on the supporting seat 5 and drives its rotation; On these two bases 11, two bases of installing relatively 11 are packed on the annulus 2 by bolt 10 11, one the interior spreading axles 12 of base that are provided with two relative installations on annulus 2 inboards, the direction perpendicular with stretching out two short supporting axles 3 by loading ability of bearing.Should in spreading axle 12 one distolaterally install a gear wheel 13; The motor shaft that is installed in another motor 8 on the annulus stretches to the annulus inboard, the pinion 14 on 8 in this motor with described in the spreading axle 12 1 distolateral gear wheels that install 13 be meshed and drive its rotation; Should in the centre of spreading axle 12 be installed with one with should in the perpendicular minor axis 15 of spreading axle 12, be installed with a balancing weight 16 in the end of this minor axis 15, this balancing weight 16 be positioned at all the time spherical shell under.
In this example structure, if motor 8 does not start, motor 7 clockwise rotates, and the pinion 9 that drives on it also clockwise rotates, and drives the gear wheel 21 that is meshed with pinion 9 simultaneously and rotates counterclockwise, and ball shape robot just rolls forward; And if motor 7 rotates counterclockwise, drive pinion 9 and also rotate counterclockwise, drive the gear wheel 21 that is meshed with it simultaneously and clockwise rotate, ball shape robot just rolls backward; If motor 7 does not start, motor 8 clockwise rotates, and the pinion 14 that drives on it also clockwise rotates, and drives the gear wheel 13 that is meshed with pinion 14 simultaneously and rotates counterclockwise, and ball shape robot just rolls left; And if motor 8 rotates counterclockwise, drive pinion 14 and also rotate counterclockwise, drive the gear wheel 13 that is meshed with pinion 14 simultaneously and clockwise rotate, ball shape robot just rolls to the right.If motor 7,8 rotates simultaneously, then this ball shape robot just can be done omnibearing movable.
Referring to the another kind of example structure figure of the present invention shown in Figure 2.The present invention is a kind of all-direction moving unit of improved ball shape robot, comprise spherical shell 1 and the walking transmission mechanism that is positioned at spherical shell, this walking transmission mechanism includes: an annulus 2, the diametric(al) of this annulus 2 is provided with two short supporting axles 3 that stretch out to its outside, and these two short supporting axles 3 are carried on two supporting seats 5 that pass through spherical shell centre of sphere axis of spherical shell 1 inboard by bearing 4 respectively; These two supporting seats 5 are packed on the spherical shell 1 by bolt 6.On a supporting seat 5 of spherical shell 1 one sides, install a gear wheel 21; A motor 7 is installed on this annulus 2, and place relative with motor 7 on annulus 2 is provided with balancing weight 20, and this balancing weight 20 is batteries.The motor shaft of this motor 7 stretches to annulus 2 outsides, and 17 in this motor is gone up a pinion 9 is installed, and this pinion 9 is meshed with gear wheel 21 on the supporting seat 5 and drives its rotation.On these two bases 11, two bases of installing relatively 11 are packed on the annulus 2 by bolt 10 11, one the interior spreading axles 12 of base that are provided with two relative installations on annulus 2 inboards, the direction perpendicular with stretching out two short supporting axles 3 by loading ability of bearing.Should in spreading axle 12 one distolaterally install a gear wheel 13, should in the centre of spreading axle 12 set firmly one with should in the perpendicular minor axis hinge 19 of spreading axle 12, on this minor axis hinge 19, set firmly one with should in the perpendicular minor axis of spreading axle 12, the end of minor axis is installed with the motor 8 of a double as counterweight, the motor shaft of this motor 8 stretches to annulus 2 inboards, and the pinion 14 on 8 in the motor is meshed with the interior spreading axle 12 1 distolateral gear wheels that install 13 and drives its rotation.The motor 8 of this double as counterweight be positioned at equally all the time spherical shell under.In addition, above-mentioned two motors the 7, the 8th, reducing motor or torque motor.Like this, just formed the ball-type robot walking device of another kind of structure.
In this example structure, if motor 8 does not start, motor 7 clockwise rotates, and the pinion 9 that drives on it also clockwise rotates, and drives the gear wheel 21 that is meshed with pinion 9 simultaneously and rotates counterclockwise, and ball shape robot just rolls forward; And if motor 7 rotates counterclockwise, drive pinion 9 and also rotate counterclockwise, drive the gear wheel 21 that is meshed with it simultaneously and clockwise rotate, ball shape robot just rolls backward; If motor 7 does not start, motor 8 clockwise rotates, and the pinion 14 that drives on it also clockwise rotates, and drives the gear wheel 13 that is meshed with pinion 14 simultaneously and rotates counterclockwise, and ball shape robot just rolls left; And if motor 8 rotates counterclockwise, drive pinion 14 and also rotate counterclockwise, drive the gear wheel 13 that is meshed with pinion 14 simultaneously and clockwise rotate, ball shape robot just rolls to the right.If motor 7,8 rotates simultaneously, then this ball shape robot just can be done omnibearing movable.
Referring to another example structure figure of the present invention shown in Figure 3.The present invention is a kind of all-direction moving unit of improved ball shape robot, comprise spherical shell 1 and the walking transmission mechanism that is positioned at spherical shell, this walking transmission mechanism includes: an annulus 2, the diametric(al) of this annulus is provided with two short supporting axles 3 that stretch out to its outside, and wherein a short supporting axle 3 is carried on the supporting seat 5 that passes through spherical shell centre of sphere axis of spherical shell 1 inboard by bearing 4; And on another supporting seat 5 ' of spherical shell 1 opposite side, installing a reducing motor 27, these two supporting seats 5,5 ' are packed on the spherical shell 1 by bolt 6 respectively.The motor shaft of this reducing motor 27 is connected with another root short supporting axle 3 of annulus 2 by shaft coupling 25, drives this short supporting axle 3 and annulus 2 by this and rotates together.In annulus 2 inboards, be provided with 11, one interior spreading axles 12 of a base with stretching out two short supporting axles 3 on the perpendicular direction and be carried on by bearing 4 ' on this base 11, this base 11 is packed on the annulus 2 by bolt 10.The extended end of spreading axle 12 and annulus 2 intersections are equipped with a reducing motor 28 in this, and the motor shaft of this reducing motor 28 stretches to annulus 2 inboards, and by shaft coupling 26 with should in spreading axle 12 be connected, spreading axle 12 rotates in driving by this.Should in the centre of spreading axle 12 set firmly a perpendicular minor axis 15, be installed with a balancing weight 16 in the end of this minor axis 15, this balancing weight 16 be positioned at all the time spherical shell under.Place relative with reducing motor 28 installation site centers of gravity on annulus 2 also is installed with two balancing weights 17,18, these two balancing weights the 17, the 18th, battery.Like this, just formed the ball-type robot walking device of another structure.
In this example structure, if motor 28 does not start, motor 27 clockwise rotates, and also clockwise rotates by shaft coupling drive short supporting axle 3 and annulus 2, and ball shape robot just rolls forward; And if motor 27 rotates counterclockwise, motor 28 does not still start, and then drives short supporting axle 3 and annulus 2 also rotates counterclockwise, and ball shape robot just rolls backward.If motor 27 does not start, motor 28 clockwise rotates, and spreading axle 12 also clockwise rotates in driving by shaft coupling, and ball shape robot just rolls to the right; And if motor 27 does not start, and motor 28 rotates counterclockwise, and spreading axle 12 also rotates counterclockwise in driving by shaft coupling, and ball shape robot just rolls left.If motor 27,28 rotates simultaneously, then this ball shape robot just can be done omnibearing movable.

Claims (3)

1, a kind of all-direction moving unit of improved ball shape robot, comprise spherical shell and the walking transmission mechanism that is positioned at spherical shell, described walking transmission mechanism includes: an annulus, the diametric(al) of this annulus is provided with to its two short supporting axles stretching out of outside, these two short supporting axles respectively by loading ability of bearing on two supporting seats that pass through spherical shell centre of sphere axis of spherical shell inboard; On a supporting seat of spherical shell one side, install a gear wheel; Two motors are installed on this annulus, and the motor shaft of one of them motor stretches to the annulus outside, and a pinion is installed on this motor shaft, and this pinion is meshed with gear wheel on the supporting seat and drives its rotation; On annulus inboard, the direction perpendicular, be provided with the base of two relative installations with stretching out two short supporting axles, interior spreading axle by loading ability of bearing on these two bases; Should in the spreading axle one distolaterally install a gear wheel; The motor shaft that is installed in another motor on the annulus stretches to the annulus inboard, and the pinion on this motor shaft is meshed with the described interior spreading axle one distolateral gear wheel that installs and drives its rotation; Should in the centre of spreading axle set firmly one with should in the perpendicular minor axis of spreading axle, be installed with a balancing weight in the end of this minor axis; It is characterized in that: on the described annulus, be installed with balancing weight respectively in the place relative with two motor installation site centers of gravity, this balancing weight is a battery.
2, the all-direction moving unit of improved ball shape robot according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described motor is servomotor or torque motor.
3, the all-direction moving unit of improved ball shape robot according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described two supporting seats are packed on the spherical shell, and described two bases of installing relatively are packed on the annulus.
CN 02128933 2002-08-22 2002-08-22 Improved all-direction moving unit for spherical robot Expired - Fee Related CN1212222C (en)

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CNB2004100965684A CN1313250C (en) 2002-08-22 2002-08-22 Stracture improved ball shape robot omnibearing walking device
CNB200410096567XA CN1313249C (en) 2002-08-22 2002-08-22 Structure improved ball shape robot omnibearing walking device
CN 02128933 CN1212222C (en) 2002-08-22 2002-08-22 Improved all-direction moving unit for spherical robot

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CNB2004100965684A Division CN1313250C (en) 2002-08-22 2002-08-22 Stracture improved ball shape robot omnibearing walking device

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CN 02128933 Expired - Fee Related CN1212222C (en) 2002-08-22 2002-08-22 Improved all-direction moving unit for spherical robot

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CN101314222B (en) * 2008-05-12 2010-06-09 北京邮电大学 Spherical robot having visual sensation and arms on both sides
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CN100556622C (en) * 2008-02-28 2009-11-04 南京航空航天大学 The omnibearing movable spherical robot of designs simplification
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CN101314222B (en) * 2008-05-12 2010-06-09 北京邮电大学 Spherical robot having visual sensation and arms on both sides

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CN1397411A (en) 2003-02-19
CN1313250C (en) 2007-05-02
CN1616257A (en) 2005-05-18
CN1313249C (en) 2007-05-02

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