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CN1189059C - 带宽分配方法和设备 - Google Patents



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CN1189059C CN 00809078 CN00809078A CN1189059C CN 1189059 C CN1189059 C CN 1189059C CN 00809078 CN00809078 CN 00809078 CN 00809078 A CN00809078 A CN 00809078A CN 1189059 C CN1189059 C CN 1189059C
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bandwidth allocation
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CN 00809078
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    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/0406Wireless resource allocation involving control information exchange between nodes
    • H04W72/0413Wireless resource allocation involving control information exchange between nodes in uplink direction of a wireless link, i.e. towards network
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/003Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0058Allocation criteria
    • H04L5/0064Rate requirement of the data, e.g. scalable bandwidth, data priority
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0091Signaling for the administration of the divided path
    • H04L5/0092Indication of how the channel is divided
    • H04Q11/00Selecting arrangements for multiplex systems
    • H04Q11/04Selecting arrangements for multiplex systems for time-division multiplexing
    • H04Q11/0428Integrated services digital network, i.e. systems for transmission of different types of digitised signals, e.g. speech, data, telecentral, television signals
    • H04Q11/0478Provisions for broadband connections
    • H04W28/00Network traffic or resource management
    • H04W28/02Traffic management, e.g. flow control or congestion control
    • H04W28/0268Traffic management, e.g. flow control or congestion control using specific QoS parameters for wireless networks, e.g. QoS class identifier [QCI] or guaranteed bit rate [GBR]
    • H04W28/00Network traffic or resource management
    • H04W28/02Traffic management, e.g. flow control or congestion control
    • H04W28/10Flow control between communication endpoints
    • H04W28/14Flow control between communication endpoints using intermediate storage
    • H04W56/00Synchronisation arrangements
    • H04W56/0005Synchronisation arrangements synchronizing of arrival of multiple uplinks
    • H04W60/00Registration, e.g. affiliation to network; De-registration, e.g. terminating affiliation
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/0406Wireless resource allocation involving control information exchange between nodes
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/0406Wireless resource allocation involving control information exchange between nodes
    • H04W72/042Wireless resource allocation involving control information exchange between nodes in downlink direction of a wireless link, i.e. towards terminal
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/044Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on the type of the allocated resource
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/044Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on the type of the allocated resource
    • H04W72/0453Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on the type of the allocated resource the resource being a frequency, carrier or frequency band
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/10Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on priority criteria
    • H04W74/00Wireless channel access, e.g. scheduled or random access
    • H04W74/04Scheduled or contention-free access
    • H04W74/06Scheduled or contention-free access using polling
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/54Store-and-forward switching systems
    • H04L12/56Packet switching systems
    • H04L12/5601Transfer mode dependent, e.g. ATM
    • H04L2012/5603Access techniques
    • H04L2012/5604Medium of transmission, e.g. fibre, cable, radio
    • H04L2012/5607Radio
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/54Store-and-forward switching systems
    • H04L12/56Packet switching systems
    • H04L12/5601Transfer mode dependent, e.g. ATM
    • H04L2012/5603Access techniques
    • H04L2012/5609Topology
    • H04L2012/561Star, e.g. cross-connect, concentrator, subscriber group equipment, remote electronics
    • H04W28/00Network traffic or resource management
    • H04W28/02Traffic management, e.g. flow control or congestion control
    • H04W28/06Optimizing the usage of the radio link, e.g. header compression, information sizing, discarding information
    • H04W4/00Mobile application services or facilities specially adapted for wireless communication networks
    • H04W4/06Selective distribution or broadcast application services; Mobile application services to user groups; One-way selective calling services
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/048Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on terminal or device properties
    • H04W8/00Network data management
    • H04W8/22Processing or transfer of terminal data, e.g. status or physical capabilities
    • H04W8/24Transfer of terminal data






本发明涉及无线通信系统,更具体地说,涉及在宽带无线通信系统中,在基站和用户住宅设备(CPE,customer premises equipment)之间高效分配带宽的方法和设备。本说明书部分公开了一种在无线通信系统中分配带宽的方法和设备。


如发明人Gilbert,Hadar和Klein的美国专利No.6016311,“AnAdaptive Time Division Duplexing Method and Apparatus for DynamicBandwidth Allocation Within a Wireless Communication System”中所述,一种无线通信系统简化若干用户无线电台或用户设备(固定的和便携的)与固定的网络基础结构之间的双向通信。例证的通信系统包括移动蜂窝电话系统,个人通信系统(PCS)和无绳电话。该专利作为参考包含于此,并作为附录A附于此。这些无线通信系统的关键目的是应请求在所述若干用户设备和它们的相应基站之间提供通信信道,以便使用户设备和固定网络基础结构(通常为有线系统)相连。在具有多种接入方案的无线系统中,时间“帧”被用作基本信息传输单元。每一帧被再分为若干时隙。用户设备一般利用“双工”方案与基站通信,从而允许在连接的两个方向上交换信息。



图1的宽带无线通信系统100向若干CPE 110提供真实的“请求式带宽分配”(bandwidth-on-demand)。CPE 110根据CPE所服务的用户请求的服务的类型和质量,向它们相应的基站请求带宽分配。不同的宽带服务具有不同的带宽和等待时间要求。专用于指定服务的带宽量由信息率和该服务所要求的服务质量确定(并且还考虑带宽可用性及其它系统参数)。例如,T1型连接数据服务一般要求具有可控性良好的传送等待时间的大量带宽。在结束之前,这些服务在每帧上都要求恒定的带宽分配。相反,某些类型的数据服务,例如网际协议数据服务(TCP/IP)是脉冲式的,常常空闲(在任意时刻不需要带宽),并且当启用时,对延迟变化较为不敏感。















基站媒体接入控制(MAC)在上行链路和下行链路上的物理信道上分配可用带宽。在上行链路和下行链路子帧内,基站MAC根据各种服务的服务质量(QoS)所施加的优先级和规则,在各种服务之间分配可用带宽。基站MAC保持它所服务的各个物理信道的一组队列。在每组物理信道队列中,基站为各个QoS保持一个队列。队列保存有准备传输给存在于物理信道上的CPE的数据。更高的基站MAC控制层自由实现任何适宜的关于相同QoS下,连接间的接入共用的合理性或通信量整形算法(fairness or traffic shaping algorithms),而不影响较低的基站MAC控制层。就确定在特定QoS条件下,为特定CPE分配的带宽量而论,基站要考虑QoS,调制,以及用于防止单个CPE用完所有可用带宽的合理性标准。在一个实施例中,基站尝试利用自适应时分双工技术(ATDD),均衡上行链路/下行链路带宽分配。




















在图1中所示的系统中,由存在于基站106中的软件执行的MAC(在一些实施例中,软件可在基站和CPE中的处理器上运行)控制所有CPE110的传输时间。基站106接收关于传输权的请求,并在考虑优选权、服务类型、服务质量和与CPE 110相关的其它因素的情况下,在可用时间内批准这些请求。如同上面在背景技术中所述,由诸如语音之类的CPE110 TDM信息提供的服务由PBX中继。在服务频谱的另一端,CPE可上行传输用于与众所周知的万维网或因特网通信的脉冲式,而又容许延迟计算机数据。

基站MAC映射并分配上行通信链路和下行通信链路的带宽。这些映像由基站产生和保持,并被称为上行链路子帧映像(Uplink Sub-frameMap)和下行链路子帧映像(Downlink Sub-frame Map)。MAC必须分配足以适应由诸如T1、E1之类的优先级高的恒位速率(CBR)服务和类似的恒位速率服务提出的带宽要求的带宽。另外,MAC必须在诸如网际协议(IP)数据服务之类优先级低的服务间分配剩余的系统带宽。MAC利用各种依赖QoS的技术,例如合理加权排队和循环排队,在这些低优先级的服务间分配带宽。

图1中所示的通信系统的下行链路基于点到多点进行工作(即,从基站106到若干CPE 110)。如同在相关的同时待审申请中说明的那样,中央基站106包括分区有源天线阵列108,所述有源天线阵列108能够同时向几个扇区进行传输。在系统100的一个实施例中,有源天线阵列108同时向六个独立扇区传输。在指定频道和天线扇区内,所有台站接收相同的传输信息。基站是沿下行链路方向工作的唯一发射器,因此除了把时间分成上游(上行链路)和下游(下行链路)传输时段的整体时分双工之外,基站在不与其它基站协调的情况下进行传输。该基站向扇区(及频率)中的所有CPE广播。CPE监视接收消息中的地址,并且只保留发送给它们的那些消息。

CPE 110根据受基站MAC控制的要求,共用上行链路。根据CPE所使用的服务的种类,基站可向选定的CPE授予在上行链路上继续传输的权利,或者可在基站接收来自CPE的请求之后,由基站授予传输的权利。除了单独编址消息之外,消息还可由基站发送给组播组(控制消息和视频分发是组播应用的例子),以及广播给所有的CPE。





下行链路子帧映像图3表示了可由基站106用于把信息传输给若干CPE 110的下行链路子帧300的一个例子。基站最好保持反映下行链路带宽分配的下行链路子帧映像300。下行链路子帧300最好包括帧控制首标302,依据调制类型分组的若干下行链路数据PS 304(例如使用QAM-4调制方案调制的PS 304数据,使用QAM-16调制的PS 304′等等),以及发射/接收转变间隙308,所述若干下行链路数据PS 304可能由用于分隔不同调制数据的相关调制转变间隙(MTS)306分隔。在任何选定的下行链路子帧中,可能缺少任意一个或多个不同调制的数据块。在一个实施例中,调制转变间隙(MTS)306的持续时间为0PS。如图3中所示,帧控制首标302含有由物理协议层(或PHY),用于同步和均衡目的的前置码310。帧控制首标302还包括PHY控制段(312)和MAC控制段(314)。

下行链路数据PS被用于把数据和控制消息传输给CPE 110。该数据最好被编码(例如使用里德-索罗门编码方案),并且在选择的CPE所使用的当前工作调制(operating modulation)下传输。最好按照预定的调制顺序传输:例如QAM-4,之后是QAM-16,再后是QAM-64。调制转变间隙306包括前置码,并被用于分隔所述调制。帧控制首标302的PHY控制部分312最好含有指出在该处调制方案发生变化的PS 304的身份的广播消息。最后,如图3中所示,Tx/Rx转变间隙308使下行链路子帧和下面将更详细说明的上行链路子帧分开。

上行链路子帧映像图4表示了适于和本带宽分配发明一起使用的上行链路子帧400的一个例子。根据本发明的带宽分配方法和设备,CPE 110(图1)使用上行链路子帧400把信息(包括带宽请求)传输给它们的相关基站106。如图4中所示,CPE 110在上行链路帧内传输的MAC控制消息主要有三种:(1)在为CPE注册保留的连接时隙(注册争用时隙402)中传输的MAC控制消息;(2)在为响应关于带宽分配的组播轮询和广播轮询而保留的连接时隙(带宽请求争用时隙404)中传输的MAC控制消息;和在专用分配给各个CPE的带宽(CPE预定数据时隙406)中传输的MAC控制消息。

分配给连接时隙(即连接时隙402和404)的带宽被组合在一起,并利用预定的调制方案传输。例如,在图4中所示的实施例中,利用QAM-4调制传输连接时隙402和404。剩余的带宽由CPE分组。在其预定带宽内,CPE 110利用由关于该CPE 110和其相关基站106之间的传输的环境因素的影响所确定固定调制,进行传输。下行链路子帧400包括若干CPE转变间隙(CTG)408,其作用类似于上面参考图3说明的调制转变间隙(MTG)306的作用。即,CTG 408分隔在上行链路子帧内,从各个CPE 110发出的传输。在一个实施例中,CTG的持续时间为2个物理时隙。进行传输的CPE最好在CTG 408的第二个PS内传输一个PS前置码,以便允许基站与新的CPE 110同步。多个CPE 110可能同时在注册连接时段内进行传输,从而导致冲突。当发生冲突时,基站不做出响应。

通过利用本发明的带宽分配方法和设备,预定上行链路通信数据是分配给特定CPE 110,用于传输控制消息的服务数据的带宽。根据CPE 110使用的调制方案,在上行链路子帧内对CPE预定数据排序。根据本发明,并且按照下面详细说明的方式,CPE 110请求带宽,并且随后相关基站106批准所述带宽。在指定TDD帧(或者自适应TDD帧,视情况而定)内分配给选择的CPE的所有带宽被组合成连续的CPE预定数据块406。分配给CTG 408的物理时隙包含在基站上行链路子帧映像中选定CPE110的带宽分配中。

除了为传输各种宽带服务而分配的带宽(即为CPE预定数据块406而分配的带宽),以及为CPE注册争用时隙而分配的带宽之外,基站MAC还必须为诸如关于额外带宽分配的请求之类控制消息分配带宽。如同下面详细说明的那样,根据本发明,CPE 110通过向它们的相关基站106发出带宽请求,请求改变它们的带宽分配。本发明的方法和设备降低了关于这些带宽分配请求而必须闲置的带宽量。根据本发明,请求带宽的机会受到严格控制。本发明有利地组合多种技术来严格控制带宽请求过程。CPE可使用多种手段向其相关基站传输带宽请求消息。








轮询在图1的为与本发明一起使用而设计的宽带无线系统100的一个实施例中,当CPE 110首次向系统100注册时,该CPE 110被指定一个专用连接标识符(ID)。当基站106与若干CPE 110交换控制消息时,使用该ID。如上所述,除了不可压缩的恒位速率,或者连续准许(continuousgrant)(CG)服务之外,对于系统100传送的所有服务来说,带宽要求方面的变化(即,带宽要求的增加或减小)都是不可避免的。在连接建立和终止之间,不可压缩CG服务的带宽要求不发生变化。可压缩CG服务,例如信道化T1服务的要求会根据通信量而增大或减小。


如上所述,根据本发明,CPE 110具有适于把带宽请求消息传递给它们的相关基站的多种不同技术。这样的一种技术是响应基站的轮询,传输带宽请求消息。根据本发明公开的轮询技术,基站向选定的CPE分配专用于发生带宽请求的带宽。带宽分配可针对单个CPE或者针对成组的CPE。如同下面描述组轮询技术一节中所述那样,针对成组CPE的带宽分配确定带宽请求争用时隙,所述带宽请求争用时隙用于解决带宽请求冲突。有利的是,不是采取明确消息的形式进行带宽分配的,而是以传输的描述上行链路子帧400的映像(图4)中的带宽分配增加的形式,完成带宽分配的。按CPE执行轮询,按连接ID请求带宽,并且按CPE分配带宽。下面更详细地说明这些原理。




图5的流程图中表示了单独轮询的信息交换顺序。如图5中所示,基站最好具有几层控制机制或协议组502、504和506,除了其它作用之外,所述几层控制机制或协议组还控制带宽请求和分配过程。基站MAC被再分为两个子域:(1)HL-MAA MAC域504和LL-MAA MAC域506。LL-MAA MAC域刚好覆盖一个物理信道。每个物理信道需要一个LL-MAA MAC域。HL-MAA MAC跨越多个物理信道,通常所述多个物理信道都在相同的扇区中。MAC域包括HL-MAA MAC域和与HL-MAA MAC域内的物理信道相关的LL-MAA MAC。

如图5中所示,基站通过为CPE分配足以报以带宽请求消息的带宽,单独轮询(如控制箭头508所示)CPE。该带宽在上行链路子帧400中分配。如果CPE MAC 510确定存在要为选定的连接发送的数据(通常通过借助控制路径514,接受更高CPE控制层512的指令而确定),随后CPE MAC控制机制向基站MAC 506发出带宽请求516。如果如同基站的LL-MAA 506确定的那样,可用于CEP 110的带宽不足时,则该带宽请求将不被准许。否则,该带宽请求将被准许,并且通过基站在上行链路子帧400中向该CPE分配额外的带宽,隐式地通知CPE MAC 510带宽请求得到准许。图5中借助控制路径518表示了这一点。随后CPE将利用已分配给它的带宽,通过该上行链路开始向基站传输数据。

图6是表示本发明提供的单独轮询技术600的流程图。如图6中所示,该方法开始于确定带宽是否适用于单独轮询CPE的判定步骤602。如果不存在适用于单独轮询CPE 110的带宽,则方法进行到步骤S604,并且启动组播或广播轮询方法。组播和广播轮询方法将在下面一节中更详细地说明。但是,如果足够的带宽适用于单独轮询CPE,则该方法进行到判定步骤606,在判定步骤606,确定是否存在设置有“poll-me”位的任何未轮询的现用CPE。如果是,则方法进行到控制点608。如果否,则方法进行到判定步骤610,在判定步骤610,确定是否存在任何未轮询的待用CPE。如果是,则方法进行到控制点608。如果否,则方法进行到控制点612。


如图6中所示,在步骤614,基站开始轮询选择的CPE,并把该CPE标记为已轮询。图6中在标题框614'对此进行了概略表示。图6的标题框614′表示了前面说明的图3中的下行链路子帧映像300。MAC帧控制首标302的MAC控制部分314最好包括上行链路子帧映像400′。当基站通过下行链路,把该信息传输给CPE时,上行链路子帧映像400′被传递给CPE MAC。如图6中所示,并且对轮询步骤614起反应,基站MAC在上行链路中,向选择的CPE分配额外的带宽(在图6中,该CPE被称为CPE“k”)。增加的带宽分配通过上行链路子帧映像400′被传递给CPEk。从而,响应轮询选择的CPE的需要,不需要任何额外的带宽。




根据本发明的一个实施例,最好如下进行CPE的编址:每个CPE被指定在注册过程中使用的唯一的永久地址(例如在一个实施例中,CPE具有48位地址);并且每个CPE还被赋予一个基本连接ID(例如,在一个实施例中,在注册过程中,CPE被赋予16位的基本连接ID和16位的控制连接ID)。提供给选定CPE的每种服务也被指定一个连接ID。连接ID帖基站MAC产生(具体地说,由基站HL-MAA产生),并且在HL-MAA MAC域内是唯一的。当CPE向基站注册时被指定的基本连接ID由基站MAC和CPE MAC用于在CPE和基站之间交换MAC控制消息。控制连接ID(同样在注册过程中被指定)由基站和CPE用于在基站和更高的CPE控制层之间交换控制和配置信息。




























合理加权排队合理加权排队要求指定QoS下的所有连接具有赋予它们的权重,以便确定它们有资格接受的可用带宽的百分率。该权重值最好根据规定连接的契约参数,由三个数据率参数之一得出。这三个参数是:(1)待决数据(data pending);(2)保证的速率;和(3)平均速率。






循环法循环合理性算法用于最佳工作(best effort)连接,这里,所有连接具有相同的权重。当不存在足以传输特定TDD帧中的队列中的所有数据的带宽时,连接被循环配给带宽,每个连接接受一块带宽,所述一块带宽最高可达适合于特定队列的带宽最大值。下次存在带宽不足条件时,没有接收带宽的连接被赋予优先权。











为了应付带宽请求,基站建立并保存要传输数据的逻辑队列。该队列由基站根据QoS而形成。另外,基站根据QoS和Qos唯一合理性算法(QoS unique fairness algorithm)的组合,分配带宽。CPE自身,而不是基站,按照CPE确定的任意适宜方式,把配给的带宽分发给它的服务。从而,CPE可按照不同于初始预期(以及请求)目的的方式,使用它的配给带宽。


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