CN1187600C - Apparatus and method for measuring equivalent refraction power of optical film and physical thickness - Google Patents

Apparatus and method for measuring equivalent refraction power of optical film and physical thickness Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1187600C
CN1187600C CNB021377588A CN02137758A CN1187600C CN 1187600 C CN1187600 C CN 1187600C CN B021377588 A CNB021377588 A CN B021377588A CN 02137758 A CN02137758 A CN 02137758A CN 1187600 C CN1187600 C CN 1187600C
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China
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sample
compass
thin film
θ
grating
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CNB021377588A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1405550A (en
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陆卫
王少伟
陈效双
李志锋
李宁
陈贵宾
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中国科学院上海技术物理研究所
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Abstract

The present invention provides a device and a method for simultaneously obtaining the equivalent refractivity and the thickness of a thin film by measuring a plurality of angle reflecting spectra. The device has the advantages of simple structure and convenient measurement. The method comprises the steps that the interference phenomenon can be displayed in the reflecting spectra according to the interference of two times of reflection in the position of the interface of air, the thin film and the substrate of incident light; the reflecting spectra R(theta 1, omega) and R(theta 2, omega) of two different incident angles theta 1 and theta 2 containing interference information are measured, and the two reflecting spectra are simultaneously fitted by a thin film refractivity formula to obtain the corresponding optical path differences delta 1 and delta 2; the equivalent refractivity n and the physical thickness d of the thin film can be obtained by setting two equations according to the refraction law. Compared with the traditional methods, the method of the present invention can simultaneously, conveniently and losslessly measure the equivalent refractivity and the thickness of the thin film, and furthermore, the method can be used for the real-time monitoring and the on-line detection in the process of filming.

Description

Measure the equipment and the method for optics equivalent index of thin film and physical thickness

Technical field

The present invention relates to the measurement of optical thin film material parameter, be meant a kind of measuring equipment and method that is used for optical thin film equivalent refractive index and physical thickness especially.

Background technology

Traditional optical thin film detection means is a lot, but can not obtain equivalent refractive index and two parameters of physical thickness of film mostly simultaneously, can only survey equivalent refractive index as method of prism-coupled method, total reflection method, minimum deviation horn cupping and CCD camera system etc.; Can only survey film thickness as Michelson interferometer, X ray interferometric method etc.At present simultaneously MEASUREMENTS OF THIN equivalent refractive index and physical thickness have only the elliptic polarization method, the elliptic polarization method is to shine film surface with linearly polarized light, catoptrical parallel component E pWith vertical component E nGenerally separate, not only differ in size, and to have certain phasic difference, the electric vector that the result synthesizes be elliptic polarization.The ellipse degree of bias is mutually relevant, just relevant with κ (ω) with the n (ω) of material with the position with the size of two components, so can be used for film n (ω), κ (ω). and the measurement of thickness d.If the equivalent refractive index of incident angle, lambda1-wavelength, air and substrate is all known, by measuring ellipsometric parameter (ψ, Δ), can obtain the equivalent refractive index n and the physical thickness d of film, but generally all do not have analytic solution, can only provide numerical solution by computing machine usually.Concrete experimental provision is: light source is tunable laser or xenon lamp, incident beam becomes linearly polarized light behind the polarizer, the polarization direction is by the position angle decision of the polarizer, the rotation polarizer can change the polarization direction of light beam, linearly polarized light passes through λ/4 wave plates again, because the birefringent phenomenon in the wave plate, wherein the phasic difference δ of extraordinary ray and ordinary light=2 π (n e-n o) d/ λ, as (n e-n o) d/ λ=λ/4 o'clock, the phasic difference between ordinary light and the extraordinary ray is 90 °, and both polarization directions are orthogonal, the result synthesizes elliptically polarized light.Elliptically polarized light from λ/4 wave plates come out shines on the testing sample, is generally another ellipse polarisation after reflection, rotates the polarizer, can make the ellipse polarisation of reflection become linearly polarized light, rotates the position angle of analyzer, makes it reach the delustring state.By measuring ellipsometric parameter (ψ, Δ), just can measure the optical parameter that participates in reflection in the sample, as the equivalent refractive index and the physical thickness of film.The elliptic polarization method is to measure the common method of optics thin film physics thickness and equivalent refractive index, the degree of accuracy height, but because the principle of this method and operation more complicated, and must make curve and numerical table in advance, and curve that producer provided and the numerical table of producing polarimeter are limited, often need user oneself to calculate required numerical table and curve, very loaded down with trivial details, cause this method to use underaction.

Summary of the invention

The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of equivalent refractive index of MEASUREMENTS OF THIN simultaneously and the equipment and the method for two parameters of physical thickness, and this equipment is simple, measuring method is easy, is a kind of Non-Destructive Testing.

The present invention is according at the interface two secondary reflections of incident light at air-film-substrate, owing to have optical path difference between the two bundle reflected light, can interfere, and its interference can show from reflectance spectrum.After incident light incided optical thin film with different angles, its optical path difference was different, thereby caused the variation of interference, as shown in Figure 1.As long as therefore record two different incidence angles θ 1And θ 2Reflectance spectrum R (the θ that contains interference information 1, ω) and R (θ 2, ω), adopt these two reflectance spectrums of reflectivity of optical thin film formula match simultaneously, obtain corresponding optical path difference Δ 1And Δ 2, at last according to refraction law, two equations of simultaneous just can draw the equivalent refractive index n and the physical thickness d of film.

Concrete technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:

A kind ofly be used to measure the equivalent refractive index n of optics membraneous material and the equipment of physical thickness d, comprise light source 1, the specimen holder 2 of placing sample 3, sample stage 4, grating 6 and the area array CCD detector 7 of fixed sample frame.Between sample and grating, there is one to be used for the sample reflection optical coupler is incorporated into the optical fiber 5 that is mapped to grating.Said sample stage is a two compass structure, goes up between compass 41 and 42, two compass of a following compass by one to connect by gear, makes that last compass rotated the θ angle along same direction when compass rotated 2 θ angles down.On the circumference of following compass, upwards founding connecting rod, making connecting rod to rotate, will receive optical fiber connector frame from the light of sample at small end around the circumference of last compass.From the light beam of light source 1, through sample 3 reflections, be coupled on the grating by optical fiber 5, each the road monochromatic light behind grating beam splitting is gathered by area array CCD detector 7, machine 8 outputs as calculated.See Fig. 2.

Utilize the method for the equivalent refractive index n and the physical thickness d of described device measuring optical thin film material, it comprises the following steps:

A. sample is placed on the specimen holder, specimen holder is fixed on the compass, adjusts compass, makes sample be transferred to required incident angle position, and with the optical fiber headstock on connecting rod, mobile link makes it move on to the catoptrical receiving position of sample, stationary links then; After this compass did not need to adjust light path to respective angles again under other were measured at any angle and all only need to adjust.

B. incident beam is incorporated into through the sample reflection optical coupler and forms flexible optical circuit in the optical fiber, and the emergent light beam people of optical fiber is to grating, and each the road monochromatic light behind grating beam splitting is directly gathered by area array CCD, by computing machine 8 outputs, obtains reflectance spectrum R (θ 1, ω), adjusting down then, compass makes that incident angle is θ 2, on same film sample, with incident angle θ 2Record reflectance spectrum R (θ 2, ω);

C. adopt these reflectance spectrums of reflectivity of optical thin film formula match simultaneously R (θ 1, ω), R (θ 2, ω), from the fitting result of reflectance spectrum, can obtain corresponding two light path difference DELTA respectively 1And Δ 2,, can obtain equivalent refractive index n and physical thickness d according to the film interference condition.

Advantage of the present invention is: measuring equipment is simple, and measuring method is easy, has eliminated the shortcoming that most of optical detecting methods can only obtain optics thickness of film (nd), can't obtain its equivalent refractive index n and physical thickness d simultaneously.Two compass structures in the measuring equipment can change incident angle easily and not need to readjust light path; In addition, adopt optical fiber that the optical thin film reflection optical coupler is incorporated into and form flexible optical circuit in the optical fiber, can arbitrarily change receiving light path and do not need mobile receiving system; And each the road monochromatic light behind grating beam splitting is directly gathered by area array CCD, and the picking rate of every spectrum is 10 milliseconds, and picking rate is fast.Therefore, this equipment and method are specially adapted to actual on-line detecting system, as the quick spectra collection in the filming equipment.Also be applicable to obtaining of high s/n ratio spectrum, can reduce noise and realize by repeatedly gathering stack.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the interference synoptic diagram of film;

Fig. 2 is a measuring equipment synoptic diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is respectively 10 degree and 80 measured reflectance spectrum when spending for tantalum pentoxide optical thin film incident angle.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the specific embodiment of the present invention is elaborated:

Fig. 2 has provided measuring equipment figure of the present invention, and incident light source is a halogen tungsten lamp.Sample stage is a two compass structure, goes up compass and a following compass by one, connects by gear between two compass, makes when compass rotates 2 θ angles down that last compass is along same direction rotation θ angle.On the circumference of following compass, upwards founding connecting rod, making connecting rod to rotate, will receive optical fiber connector frame from the light of sample at small end around the circumference of last compass.

The wavelength coverage of grating 6: 200nm-1600nm.

Fig. 3 is respectively 10 degree and 80 measured reflectance spectrum when spending with above-mentioned measurement mechanism to tantalum pentoxide optical thin film incident angle, utilizes the reflectivity of optical thin film formula according to this reflectance spectrum:

R = | e - 4 πd n f ω ( 1 - n f ) ( n f + n s ) + ( 1 + n f ) ( n f - n s ) e - 4 πd n f ω ( 1 + n f ) ( n f + n s ) + ( 1 - n f ) ( n f + n s ) | 2 - - - ( 1 )

N in the formula fAnd n sBe respectively the complex index of refraction of film and substrate, d is the thickness of film, and ω is the incident light frequency.

The R of match simultaneously (θ 1, ω) and R (θ 2, ω), the objective function in the match is taken as

σ = Σ i ( R ( θ 1 , ω i ) - R t ( θ 1 , ω i ) ) 2 + ( R ( θ 2 , ω i ) - R t ( θ 2 , ω i ) ) 2 - - - ( 2 )

Because we only need obtain optical path difference information from reflectance spectrum, thus in the fit procedure only the waveform to reflectance spectrum carry out match, ignore the amplitude of reflectance spectrum, initial phase shift and overall spectrum and rise and fall, and adopt the envelope function method to eliminate these influences.Because it is good that the compactness of the film that is coated with generally all is not so good as corresponding body block of material, thereby the equivalent refractive index of film is changed, so we think that unsound film is made of jointly this kind material and air, define its equivalent refractive index and are

n=kn e+(1-k)n air=k(n e-1)+1 (3)

N wherein eAdopt the numerical value of this kind material, k is the fine and close factor of film.

From the fitting result of the reflectance spectrum of two different incidence angles, can obtain corresponding two light path difference DELTA respectively 1And Δ 2, according to the film interference condition:

Δ=2ndcosα (4)

Utilize refraction law nsin α=sin θ, obtain

Δ = 2 nd cos α = 2 d n 2 - sin 2 θ - - - ( 5 )

Respectively with θ 1, θ 2And Δ 1, Δ 2The substitution following formula, being divided by to obtain equivalent equivalent refractive index n,

n = ( Δ 2 Δ 1 ) 2 sin 2 θ 1 - sin 2 θ 2 ( Δ 2 Δ 1 ) 2 - 1 - - - ( 6 )

Gained equivalent refractive index n substitution (5) formula, can obtain the physical thickness d of film.

After match, obtain Δ 10, Δ 80Be respectively 0.71 and 0.62, so the equivalent refractive index of film is 2, with Ta 2O 5The equivalent refractive index 2.16 of body block of material has been compared little 0.16, and the differential section of equivalent refractive index is because the compactness of the film that plate is not so good as due to the body block of material, so error should be less than 7%, the physical thickness that the while can be calculated film is 0.178 μ m.

Utilize said apparatus to adopt the multi-angle measuring method, measuring error size of the present invention also can be provided.Promptly obtain a plurality of equivalent refractive index n and the physical thickness d of film by the reflectance spectrum of measuring a plurality of incident angles, as on same film sample, recording the spectrum of m>2 incident angle, just can therefrom obtain m-1 and organize independently film thickness and equivalent refractive index value, get the measured value that its mean value is film thickness and equivalent refractive index, their discreteness then provides the error size of measuring.

Mean value: n ‾ = 1 m - 1 Σ i = 1 m - 1 n i

d ‾ = 1 m - 1 Σ i = 1 m - 1 d i - - - ( 7 )

Error: σ n = Σ i = 1 m - 1 ( n i - n ‾ ) 2 m - 2 σ d = Σ i = 1 m - 1 ( d i - d ‾ ) 2 m - 2 - - - ( 8 )

Claims (3)

1. equipment of measuring optics equivalent index of thin film and physical thickness, comprise light source (1), the specimen holder (2) of placing sample (3), sample stage (4), grating (6), area array CCD detector (7) and the computing machine (8) of fixed sample frame, it is characterized in that:
A. having one between sample (3) and grating (6) is used for the sample reflection optical coupler is incorporated into the optical fiber (5) that is mapped to grating;
B. said sample stage (4) is a two compass structure, going up compass (41) and a following compass (42) by one forms between two compass and connects by gear, make when compass rotates 2 θ angles down, last compass rotates the θ angle along same direction, on the circumference of following compass, upwards founding connecting rod, make connecting rod to rotate, will receive optical fiber connector frame from the light of sample at small end around the circumference of last compass;
C. from the light beam of light source (1), through sample (3) reflection, be coupled on the grating (6) by optical fiber (5), each the road monochromatic light after grating (6) beam split is gathered by area array CCD (7), machine (8) output as calculated.
2. utilize the equivalent refractive index n of the described device measuring optical thin film of claim 1 material and the method for physical thickness d, it is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
A. sample is placed on the specimen holder, specimen holder is fixed on the last compass of sample stage, adjusts compass, makes sample be transferred to required incident angle position, and with the optical fiber headstock on connecting rod, mobile link makes it move on to the catoptrical receiving position of sample, stationary links then; After this compass did not need to adjust light path to respective angles again under other were measured at any angle and all only need to adjust.
B. light beam incides on the sample, and through the sample reflection, optical fiber is incorporated into the sample reflection optical coupler and forms flexible optical circuit in the optical fiber, the outgoing beam of optical fiber is injected on the grating, each road monochromatic light behind grating beam splitting is directly gathered by area array CCD, by computing machine output, obtains reflectance spectrum R (θ 1, ω), adopt above-mentioned identical method then, on same film sample, with incident angle θ 2Record reflectance spectrum R (θ 2, ω);
C. adopt these reflectance spectrums of reflectivity of optical thin film formula match simultaneously R (θ 1, ω), R (θ 2, ω), from the fitting result of reflectance spectrum, can obtain corresponding two light path difference DELTA respectively 1And Δ 2,, can obtain equivalent refractive index n and physical thickness d according to the film interference condition.
3. according to claim 1 equipment of measuring optics equivalent index of thin film and physical thickness, it is characterized in that: said light source (1) is a halogen tungsten lamp.
CNB021377588A 2002-10-31 2002-10-31 Apparatus and method for measuring equivalent refraction power of optical film and physical thickness CN1187600C (en)

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CN1320352C (en) * 2004-11-18 2007-06-06 上海交通大学 Method for simultaneously measuring refractive index and thickness of polymer film using precision reflectometer
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