CN1182434C - Light intensity controlled changing double-refraction optical fibre all optical switch - Google Patents

Light intensity controlled changing double-refraction optical fibre all optical switch Download PDF

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CN1182434C
CN1182434C CN 02155016 CN02155016A CN1182434C CN 1182434 C CN1182434 C CN 1182434C CN 02155016 CN02155016 CN 02155016 CN 02155016 A CN02155016 A CN 02155016A CN 1182434 C CN1182434 C CN 1182434C
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fiber
switch
optical
birefringent
birefringence
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CN 02155016
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CN1419159A (en )
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刘刚军
李劬
金国良
梁斌明
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上海交通大学
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Abstract

一种光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关,基于现有的光强控制双折射光纤全光开关的工作原理,采用变双折射光纤作为器件的核心部分,输入控制部分将任何偏振态输入光变成圆偏振光,从其出来的光束通过透镜耦合进入变双折射光纤,再经输出部分分解出光束的左旋和右旋部分,改变两束光束自身的强度就达到控制开关的目的。 A light intensity control variable all-optical birefringent fiber switch, intensity control operation principle birefringent fiber switch based on the conventional all-optical light, using variable birefringent fiber as the core portion of the device, the input control section input light of any polarization state circularly polarized light beam therefrom through a lens coupled into the fiber becomes birefringent, then decomposed left and right portions of the light beam through the output section, the purpose of changing the beam intensity reached its control switch two beams. 本发明变双折射光纤的双折射随着光纤以光纤中点为中心呈对称分布,由光纤两头到光纤中间呈现缓慢递增,使光纤两端的双折射为零,光纤中间具有最大双折射,开关曲线中不存在不完全开关而产生的震荡现象,开关曲线在高功率情况下接近矩形,具有很低的串话。 Variable birefringence birefringent fiber of the present invention with the optical fiber to the midpoint of the central profile symmetrically, the optical fiber exhibits two intermediate to slowly increment, so that the fiber birefringence is zero at both ends of the intermediate optical fiber has a maximum birefringence CURVE in the absence of oscillation phenomenon generated by incomplete switch, the switch approximately rectangular curve at high power condition, has a very low crosstalk.

Description

光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关 Variable light intensity control all-optical birefringent fiber switch

技术领域 FIELD

:本发明涉及一种光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关,光纤的双折射大小不是固定的,而是随着光纤变化并以光纤中心呈现对称分布,并且通过改变输入光的强度来进行开关控制,属于光学领域。 : The present invention relates to a variable intensity control all-optical birefringent fiber switch, the size of the birefringence of the optical fiber is not fixed but changes with the optical fiber and the fiber center to exhibit symmetrical, and switching is performed by varying the intensity of the input light control, belonging optics.

背景技术 Background technique

:光纤通信越来越引起人们的注意。 : Optical fiber communication has attracted attention. 随着通信容量的剧增,电子器件难以适应高速,大容量的通信需求。 With the dramatic increase in the communication capacity, communication is difficult to adapt the electronics needs high speed and large capacity. 只有采用光交换技术才能解决这个问题,光开关的核心就是光开关技术,尤其是不需要进行光电转换的全光开关技术。 Only the use of optical switching technology to solve this problem, the core technology is the light switch light switch, in particular, does not require all-optical switching technology photoelectric conversion.

利用光强进行控制的双折射光纤开关主要是由于光纤的三阶非线性引起的,其表现在光纤的折射率随着光强的改变而发生改变。 Controlling the light intensity using a birefringent fiber switch is mainly due to third-order nonlinear optical fiber due to its performance as the light intensity changes in the refractive index change of the optical fiber. 将不同光强的同一偏振态的偏振光输入双折射光纤中,光纤的双折射就会发生变化。 The intensity of light polarized in the same polarization state different input birefringent fiber, a birefringent fiber will change. 这将导致光纤中两种不同正交偏振分量的非线性耦合发生改变,从而耦合输出光纤的光束的偏振态发生变化。 This will result in nonlinear coupling of two different orthogonal polarization components of the optical fiber is changed, thereby coupling the output beam of the optical fiber changes the polarization state. 在光纤的输出端放置偏振元器件(如,偏振片,偏振分束棱镜,1/4波片,半波片,偏振分束器等),使仅仅通过某种偏振态(左旋圆偏振态或者右旋圆偏振态)的光,改变输入光的光强在探测器上就会发现开关现象。 Placing a polarization component (e.g., a polarizing plate, a polarizing beam splitter prism, 1/4-wave plate, half-wave plate, a polarization beam splitter, etc.) at the output end of the fiber, so that only by a certain polarization (left-handed circular polarization or right circular polarization) of the light, changing a light intensity of the input light will find switching phenomena on the detector. 传统的这种光开关所使用的光纤是固定双折射大小的保偏光纤或者缠绕在圆柱体上的低双折射光纤(美国应用物理快报,1991年第59卷,第2082页到2084页,“spun双折射光纤中的偏振开关”和电子学快报,1991年第27卷,第1407页到1408页,“使用长低双折射光纤的全光偏振开关”)。 Such conventional optical fiber used in the optical switch is a polarization maintaining birefringent optical fiber fixing sized wound on a cylinder or a low birefringence fiber (Applied Physics Letters, 1991, Vol. 59, pp. 2082-2084, " spun birefringent fiber polarization switching "and Electronics Letters 1991, Vol 27, pp 1407-1408," low birefringence fiber length using all-optical polarization switch "). 利用固定双折射的光纤制成的这种开关如果光纤为单拍长的光纤,会有一次开关现象发生,如果使用多拍长的光纤会有多次开关现像发生。 With this switch made of optical fiber fixing birefringence if the fiber beat length of a single fiber, there will be a switch phenomenon, if multiple fiber beat length will occur repeatedly switching phenomena. 但是就开关特性而言,这些固定双折射的光纤制成的开关具有如下不足:1.开关曲线不够陡峭,开关不灵敏,开关的串话比较大。 However, in terms of switching characteristics, switching these fixed birefringent fiber made with the following deficiencies: switching curve steep enough, insensitive switch, the switch is relatively large crosstalk. 2.由于固定双折射导致光纤出射端不能退耦合,从而开关曲线的高功率端存在不完全开关的震荡现象,使其在这一段高功率端不能使用。 2. Since the fixed birefringent fiber lead to the exit end can not be decoupled, so that there is turbulence in incomplete switching terminal of the switch high power curve, so that it can not be used in this period of high power terminal. 3.对于多拍长的光纤制作而成光开关,除了前几次开关可以利用外,后面的开关都发生在临界功率附近的很小一段功率范围内,实际上很难分辨出来,从而不能加以利用。 3. For multi-shot long fiber made of an optical switch, can be utilized in addition to previous switches, the switch back occur within a small period of power range near the critical power, it is actually very difficult to tell the difference, and thus can not be use. 而且对于多拍长的光纤制作而成光开关,每次开关功率之间的功率间隔是不等的,使对其进行控制很不方便。 For multi-shot and long fiber made of optical switches, each power interval between the switching power are unequal, so that gain control is inconvenient.

发明内容 SUMMARY

:本发明的目的在于针对现有技术的不足,提供一种光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关,改善开关工作特性曲线,使开关曲线变陡,变方,降低开关串话,提高开关的灵敏度,消除高功率的不完全开关所自震荡现象,对于多次开关现象使每次开关发生的功率间隔相等,同时可以进行开关的功率范围可以根据需要调节。 : Object of the present invention is for the deficiencies of the prior art, there is provided a variable birefringence fibers controlling the light intensity of all optical switching, improve the switching characteristic curves of the switching curve becomes steeper, variant have reduced cross talk switch, a switch to improve sensitivity, high power is not completely eliminate the free-wheeling switch phenomenon, a plurality of times for each of the power switch switching phenomena occur at equal intervals, and can switch the power range may be adjusted according to need.

为实现这样的目的,本发明的技术方案中,基于现有的光强控制双折射光纤全光开关的工作原理,设计了光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关。 To achieve this object, the technical solution of the present invention, based on the existing light intensity control operation principle of all-optical birefringent fiber switch is designed to control the light intensity becomes all-optical birefringent fiber switch. 开关操作时,需要输入一束光,该光束强度可调,并且其偏振态为左旋(或右旋)圆偏振光,通过调节入射光的强度,在出射端光束会以不同的圆偏振态输出,检测出不同的偏振部分作为开关的输出即可。 When the switch operation, to enter a beam of light, the beam intensity is adjustable, and its polarization state is left (or right) circularly polarized light by adjusting the intensity of incident light, will be different in the circular polarization of the output beam to the exit end , detected as part of a different polarization to an output switch.

本发明的光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关,主要由输入部分,变双折射光纤和输出部分组成,其中变双折射光纤部分是器件的核心部分。 Controlling light intensity variations of the present invention, all-optical switch birefringence fibers, mainly by the input section, and an output variable birefringent fiber components, wherein the variable birefringence fiber part is the core of the device. 器件构成为:以光轴为中心,依次排列起偏器、四分之一波片、光纤耦合系统所包括的自聚焦投透镜和光纤支架、变双折射光纤、光纤支架、自聚焦透镜、四分之一波片、偏振分束棱镜,变双折射光纤由两端的光纤支架和光纤支架调节处于自聚焦透镜的焦点附近并支撑固定,四分之一波片主轴可以旋转,四分之一波片的主轴和偏振分束棱镜的主轴都可以旋转以调节两者主轴方向为45度或者-45度。 Device is configured to: the optical axis sequentially arranged a polarizer, a quarter wave plate, an optical fiber coupling system comprising a self-focusing lens and a fiber holder administration, becomes birefringent fiber, the optical fiber holder, GRIN, tetrakis half wave plate, the polarization splitting prism, a fiber holder becomes birefringent fiber and the optical fiber holder is adjusted at both ends near the focal point from the focus lens is fixed and supported, the quarter-wave plate rotatable spindle, a quarter wave spindle and a polarization splitting prism sheet spindle may be rotated to adjust both the major axis direction is 45 degrees or -45 degrees.

输入控制部分将任何偏振态输入光变成圆偏振光,如果输入光束本生就是圆偏振光的话,输入部分可以不需要。 The input control section of any polarization state of the input light into circularly polarized light, if the input beam is circularly polarized Bunsen words, the input section may not be required. 输入部分通常可以通过起偏器和四分之一波片构成,调节他们主轴以使两者主轴方向成45度或者-45度。 Usually by input portion polarizer and quarter wave plate configured to adjust them so that the two spindle spindle at 45 degrees or -45 degrees. 从输入部分出来的光束通过透镜耦合进入变双折射光纤发生作用。 Out of the light beam through the lens from the input section is coupled into the fiber becomes birefringent effect occurs. 从变双折射光纤出来的光束通过输出部分输出。 From variable birefringent fiber out through the output portion of the output beam. 输出部分要将光纤中出来光束的左旋和右旋部分分解出来,通常可以通过四分之一波片和偏振分束镜来构成。 Left and right hand portion of the output beam out of the optical fiber section To the decomposed, may be constituted by generally quarter-wave plate and a polarization beam splitter.

本发明采用变双折射的光纤制成光纤开关,这种变双折射光纤其双折射随着光纤呈现以光纤中心为对称中心的某种对称函数,并且双折射由光纤两头到光纤中间呈现缓慢递减,通常可以使光纤两端的双折射为零,即光纤的两端没有双折射,光纤中间具有最大双折射。 The present invention uses variable birefringence optical fiber switching is made, such as the variable birefringence birefringent fiber which fiber exhibits a certain function to a symmetric central center of symmetry of the optical fiber, the birefringence of the optical fiber and the intermediate fiber exhibits two to slow down , typically both ends of the optical fiber birefringence can be zero, i.e. no birefringence ends of the fiber, the intermediate optical fiber has a maximum birefringence. 采用这种双折射的光纤其光纤的两端几乎没有非线性双折射效应,而光纤的中间部分具有很强的非线性双折射效应。 Optical fiber ends which almost no birefringence using this nonlinear birefringence, and the middle portion of the fiber has a strong nonlinear birefringence effect. 则整个器件的作用区域集中在光纤中间附近。 The active area of ​​the entire device is concentrated near the middle of the optical fiber. 这样光束离开光纤时已经不再有非线性耦合现象发生,可以使开关响应的高功率情况下的没有退耦合而造成的非线性振荡现象。 In this way the light beam exits the fiber with a nonlinear coupling no longer occurs, it can be made nonlinear oscillation caused no decoupling at high power when the switch response. 同时由于光纤双折射随着传播距离而变化,光纤中左右旋圆偏振光的位相的积累并不会呈现像固定双折射那样的线性变化,位相会呈现出非线性积累。 And because fiber birefringence changes with propagation distance, the accumulation of the phase-handed circularly polarized light and left optical fiber does not exhibit birefringence as a linear variation as a fixed, non-linear phase will exhibit accumulation. 合理的选择非线性的积累方式,就会得到理想的开关曲线。 Reasonable choice nonlinear accumulation mode, the switch will be the ideal curve.

本发明的变双折射光纤可以为椭圆纤芯的保偏光纤,或者采用低双折射单模光纤进行缠绕。 Variable birefringent fiber of the present invention may be elliptical polarization maintaining fiber in order to protect the core, or a low birefringence single-mode fiber is wound. 椭圆纤芯光纤制作比较有难度,而低双折射单模光纤缠绕可以通过将普通单模光纤缠绕成螺旋线形状或者缠绕在变直径圆柱体上,实现光纤的变化双折射。 Elliptical core fiber making comparison difficult, low birefringence single-mode fiber is wound by an ordinary single-mode fiber can be wound in a spiral shape or variable diameter wound on the cylinder, effect a change in fiber birefringence.

本发明的开关特性曲线具有很强的数值化多次开关的特性,并且开关曲线在高功率情况下接近矩形,具有很低的串话;截止开关功率和光纤的最大双折射呈正比例关系,在双折射大小固定的前提下,在截止开关功率到达前,开关次数和表征双折射沿光纤变化快慢的参量呈正比例关系。 Switching characteristics of the present invention has a characteristic curve of a strong numerical multiple switch and the switch approximately rectangular curve at high power condition, with low crosstalk; switch off power and the maximum birefringence of the optical fiber was in direct proportion relationship, in under the premise of birefringence fixed size, the power switch is turned off before the arrival, and the number of switching characterized as a direct proportion birefringent optical fiber along the speed variation parameter.

本发明的光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关与光强控制固定双折射的全光开关相比具有以下有益效果:1、改善开关工作特性曲线,使开关曲线变陡,变方,从而降低开关串话,提高开关的灵敏度。 Controlling the light intensity of the present invention becomes birefringent optical fiber switch with full control of the entire light intensity switch fixed birefringence has the following advantages compared: 1, improve the switching characteristic curves of the switching curve becomes steeper, variable side, thereby reducing switch crosstalk, increase the sensitivity of the switch.

2、消除高功率的不完全开关所出现的自震荡现象,对于多次开关现象使每次开关发生的功率间隔相等。 2, since the elimination of the oscillation and high power switching incomplete occurring for a plurality of times each of the power switch switching phenomena occur equally spaced.

3、同时可以进行开关的功率范围以及开关次数的多少可以根据需要调节。 3, while performing power ranges and the number of switching times of the switch can be adjusted according to need.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

:图1为本发明光强控制变双折射光纤全光开如图1所示,本发明包括起偏器1、四分之一波片2、光纤耦合系统3所包括的自聚焦投透镜4、光纤支架5、变双折射光纤6、光纤支架7、自聚焦透镜8、四分之一波片9、偏振分束棱镜10。 : FIG. 1 of the present invention, the light intensity control variable all-optical birefringent fiber opening 1, the present invention includes a polarizer, a quarter wave plate 2, an optical fiber coupling system comprising three self-focusing lens 4 administered , fiber holder 5, 6 becomes birefringent fiber, the optical fiber holder 7, since the focusing lens 8, a quarter wave plate 9, the polarizing beam splitter prism 10.

图2为本发明光强控制型中心对称高斯函数型变双折射光纤全光的光纤缠绕的形状。 The shape of the optical fiber is wound intensity controlled centrally symmetric Gaussian function type all-optical fiber becomes birefringent FIG. 2 of the present invention.

图3为本发明光强控制型中心对称高斯函数型变双折射光纤全光的开关一次的开关特性曲线。 Figure 3 is a light intensity-controlled centrally symmetric Gaussian function type variable birefringent fiber switch once all-optical switching characteristic invention.

图4为本发明光强控制型中心对称高斯函数型变双折射光纤全光的开关多次的开关特性曲线。 Characteristic curve of light intensity switch controlled centrally symmetric Gaussian function type variable all-optical birefringent fiber switch in FIG. 4 of the present invention a plurality of times.

图5为本发明光强控制型中心对称高斯函数型变双折射光纤全光的开关截止功率与光纤最大双折射的关系曲线。 5 of the present invention the light intensity controlled centrally symmetric Gaussian function type variable birefringent fiber switch off the power of all optical fiber with maximum birefringence curve.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

:以下结合附图和实施例对本发明的技术方案作进一步描述。 : In conjunction with the accompanying drawings and the following technical solutions of embodiments of the present invention will be further described.

以低双折射光纤进行缠绕的方法来构成的光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关为例,整个开关结构如图1所示,以光轴为中心,依次排列起偏器1、四分之一波片2、光纤耦合系统3所包括的自聚焦投透镜4和光纤支架5、变双折射光纤6、光纤支架7、自聚焦透镜8、四分之一波片9、偏振分束棱镜10。 Light intensity control method performed at a low birefringent fiber is wound to form the birefringent fiber becomes all-optical switch, for example, the overall switch structure shown in Figure 1, the optical axis sequentially arranged a polarizer, quarter 2 wave plate, an optical fiber coupling system comprising three self-focusing lens 4 and the optical fiber cast bracket 5, 6 becomes birefringent fiber, the optical fiber holder 7, since the focusing lens 8, a quarter wave plate 9, the polarization splitting prism 10 . 变双折射光纤6采用平面缠绕低双折射单模光纤的办法获得,缠绕后的光纤形状如图5所示。 6 approach using variable birefringent fiber is wound flat low birefringence single-mode fiber is obtained, the shape of the optical fiber is wound as shown in FIG. 由于光纤弯曲会导致双折射,其双折射大小和光纤的弯曲半径的平方成反比例关系,利用图2所示的螺旋形形状,则光纤的弯曲半径是变化的,从而由于弯曲所致的双折射也相应的改变,达到变双折射的目的。 Since the optical fiber bending can cause birefringence, birefringence inversely proportional to the square of the size and the bending radius of the optical fiber, a spiral shape as shown in FIG. 2, the bending radius of the fiber is varied, so that due to the bending induced birefringence changes accordingly, achieve the purpose of varying birefringence. 变双折射光纤由两端的光纤支架和光纤支架调节处于自聚焦透镜的焦点附近并支撑固定,四分之一波片主轴可以旋转,四分之一波片的主轴和偏振分束棱镜的主轴都可以旋转以调节两者主轴方向为45度或者-45度。 Adjusted by varying birefringent fiber fiber holder and optical fiber holder near the ends of the self-focusing in a focus of the lens is fixed and supported, the quarter-wave plate may rotate the spindle, the spindle and the quarter-wave plate polarization splitting prism of spindles both the spindle can be rotated to adjust the direction at 45 degrees or -45 degrees.

本发明的开关操作如下: Switching operation of the present invention is as follows:

光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关要求进入开关系统的光束在进入光纤之前应为偏振态分别为左或者右旋圆偏振光。 Light intensity control variable birefringence fibers into the all-optical switch requires the switching system before the beam enters the optical fiber polarization state respectively, should be left or right circularly polarized light. 光束的开或者关主要由光束自身的强度决定。 On or off the light beam is mainly determined by the intensity of the light beam itself.

为了实现圆偏振光入射,首先使光束经过起偏器1变成线偏振光,然后再进过四分之一波片2,起偏器1的主轴方向和四分子一波片2的主轴方向应该为45度或者-45度才可以使进入的任何偏振态的光束变成圆偏振态,所以调节起偏器1和四分之一波片2的主轴方向,以使进入光纤的光束偏振态为右旋圆偏振光。 In order to achieve a circularly polarized beam, the light beam through the first polarizer 1 into linearly polarized light, and then feed through the quarter-wave plate 2, from the main axis direction of the polarizer 1 and the main direction of wave tetrad sheet 2 should be 45 degrees or 45 degrees can cause the polarization of any incoming light beam into a circular polarization state, so the regulator polarizer 1 and the main axis direction of the quarter-wave plate 2, so that the light beam enters the optical fiber polarization state right circularly polarized light. 获得的圆偏振光利用耦合系统3耦合进变双折射光纤6。 Circularly polarized light is obtained using the coupled system 3 coupled into the optical fiber 6 becomes birefringent. 光束首先在耦合系统3中首先经过自聚焦透镜4聚焦,然后再调节光纤支架5使变双折射光纤6处于自聚焦透镜4的焦点附近,这样就可以使光束进入变双折射光纤6中。 First, the light beam system 3 is coupled through the first focusing rod lens 4, and then adjusted so that the fiber holder 5 becomes birefringent fiber 6 in the vicinity of the focal point from the focus lens 4, so you can make the light beam enters the optical fiber 6 becomes birefringent. 圆偏振光在变双折射光纤6中作用实现开关,从变双折射光纤6中出来的光束其偏振态也不一定是圆偏振光,为了进一步将作用完的光束中左旋右旋部分分出来还要经过后面的几个过程。 Achieve acting circularly polarized switch becomes birefringent fiber 6, becomes birefringent fiber 6 from coming out of the polarization state of the light beam which is not necessarily circularly polarized light, in order to effect further finished beam branched off portion further handedness to go through several processes behind. 输出光束经过自聚焦透镜8将出聚焦,以减少光束发散。 After focusing the output beam from the focusing lens 8, in order to reduce beam divergence. 聚焦光束通过四分之一波片9然后再通过偏振分束棱镜10分为两束光。 Focused beam through the quarter wave plate 9 and then through the polarization splitting prism 10 into two beams. 为了使从偏振分束棱镜10出来的两束偏振光强度分别为左旋和右旋圆偏振光的大小,四分之一波片9的主轴方向和偏振分束棱镜10的主轴方向必须为45度或者-45度。 In order to make the polarization splitting prism 10 out of the two polarized lights are left strength and size of the right circularly polarized light, a quarter wave plate 9 and the main direction of main axis directions of polarization splitting prism 10 must be 45 degrees or -45 degrees. 因此调节四分之一波片9和偏振分束棱镜10的主轴方向,使从偏振分束棱镜10出来的两束偏振光强度分别为左旋和右旋圆偏振光的大小,从偏振分束棱镜中出来的两束光作为开关的输出。 Thus quarter-wave plate 9 and adjusting the polarization splitting prism 10 of the main axis directions, respectively, so that left and right circularly polarized light from the polarized light intensity of two beams 10 out of the polarization splitting prism size, the polarization splitting prism out of the two beams as an output switch. 由于利用光强进行控制的双折射光纤开关是一种自开关,即光束开关是有光束本身所携带的信息(此处为光强)作为开关控制的手段。 Since the intensity birefringent fiber switch is a self-controlling switch, i.e. the switch is a light beam itself carrying information (here, the light intensity) as a means of switching control. 所以改变输入光的功率,分别接受从偏振分束棱镜输出的两束互相正交的两束偏振光的光强,从而可达到开关的目的。 Therefore, changing the power of the input light, light intensity, respectively receiving the two beams perpendicular to each other from the two polarized lights output from the polarization splitting prism, so as to achieve the purpose of the switch.

本发明实施例所呈现的中心对称高斯函数型变双折射分布光纤,其双折射随着光纤传播应该具有如下形式:Δn(z)=Aexp(-(zL/2)2/W2),其中A为光纤最大双折射,该点处于光纤的中心处,L为光纤的总长度,z为距离光纤起始点的距离,W为表征双折射沿光纤变化快慢的一个参量。 Embodiments of the invention presented centrosymmetric distribution of Gaussian function becomes birefringent optical fiber as the birefringent optical fiber communications should have the following form: Δn (z) = Aexp (- (zL / 2) 2 / W2), where A maximum birefringence of the optical fiber, the point is the center of the optical fiber, L is the total length of the fiber, z is the distance from the starting point of the fiber, W is a parameter characterizing the speed of the birefringence along the fiber changes. 变双折射的光纤制成光纤开关,将光纤长度的选取足够长,保证光纤入射端和出射端的双折射足够小,使发生耦合的两种偏振态在入射端和出射端的耦合很小,以消除开关曲线中由于没有退耦合而发生的震荡现象。 Variable birefringence optical fibers made switch, the fiber length is selected sufficiently long to ensure that the optical fiber entrance end and exit end of the birefringence is small enough so that the two polarization states occurs at the entrance end and coupled to the exit end of the coupling is very small, in order to eliminate turbulence switching curve because there is no decoupling occurs. 同时,可以改变不同的最大双折射(即上面的A)来调节开关功率的范围,利用表征双折射沿光纤变化快慢的一个参量(即上面的W)来改变开关次数。 Meanwhile, different maximum birefringence can be changed (i.e., above A) to adjust the range of the power switch, characterized by using a parameter in the birefringence (i.e. above W) to change the speed change switch fiber frequency 下面结合附图来对这种变双折射光纤开关的开关特性来进行详细说明。 The following drawings switching characteristics of such variations be birefringent fiber switch described in detail in conjunction. 图3是开关一次的变双折射光纤开关的开关特性曲线图,从图中可以看到,开关完全以后,一直处于直通状态,没有以前固定双折射光纤开关所呈现的不完全开关所致的震荡现象。 FIG 3 is a switch of a switching characteristic graph becomes birefringent optical fiber switch can be seen from the figure, after full switch, has been in a bar state, there is no switch before the fixed birefringent fiber switch presented incomplete due to shocks phenomenon. 图4是开关多次的变双折射光纤开关的开关特性曲线图,图中可以发现除了开关完全以后,一直处于直通状态,没有以前固定双折射光纤开关所呈现的不完全开关所致的震荡现象,在较高功率下开关曲线的数值化特征十分明显,几乎接近于矩形。 FIG 4 is a multiple switch becomes birefringent fiber switching the switching characteristic diagram of the figure can be found in Turbulence induced after full switch, has been in a straight state, not previously presented fixed birefringent fiber switch in addition to incomplete switch at higher values ​​of the power switch characteristic curve is clear, almost close to a rectangle. 如果输入功率比较高的话,这种特性使开关的灵敏度大大提高,开关的串话可以降低很多。 If the input power is relatively high, so that this feature greatly improved sensitivity of the switch, the switch crosstalk can be reduced a lot. 图5为变双折射光纤开关的开关截止功率与光纤最大双折射(即上面的A)的关系曲线。 FIG 5 is a variation of the birefringent fiber switch off the power switch with a maximum birefringence of the optical fiber (i.e., above A) of the curve. 开关的截止功率定义为,当光束的功率大于这个值以后,就不会再有开关现象发生。 Is defined as the power switch is turned off, When the light beam power greater than this value, there will be no switching phenomenon. 从图中可以发现开关的截止开关功率与光纤最大双折射呈现很好的正比例关系,这表明可以利用光纤最大双折射的大小来控制开关可以操作的功率范围。 From the figure can be found off the power switch with a maximum birefringence optical switch exhibits good proportional relationship, which indicates the size of the largest fiber birefringence may be utilized to control the power range switch can operate. 此外,在光纤最大双折射一定的情况下,变双折射光纤开关的开关次数与表征双折射沿光纤变化快慢的参量(即上式中的W)呈现很好的正比例关系,这意味着可以在开关可操作的功率范围内调节开关次数。 Further, the maximum birefringence in the fiber is constant, the switching frequency and variable birefringence birefringent fiber switching and characterization presented a good proportional relationship along the fiber speed change variable (i.e., W is the above formula), which means can be adjusting the number of switching power switch operable range. 因此需要注意的一点是,在根据需要进行参数选择的时候,如前所述,光纤长度必须足够长。 Thus to note is that the time required for parameter selection, as described above, the fiber length must be long enough.

Claims (4)

  1. 1.一种光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关,以光轴为中心,依次排列起偏器(1)、四分之一波片(2)、光纤耦合系统(3)所包括的自聚焦投透镜(4)和光纤支架(5)、变双折射光纤(6)、光纤支架(7)、自聚焦透镜(8)、四分之一波片(9)、偏振分束棱镜(10),其特征在于变双折射光纤(6)采用普通单模光纤缠绕成螺旋线形状或者缠绕在变直径圆柱体上获得,由两端支架(5,7)调节处于自聚焦透镜(4)的焦点附近并支撑固定,四分之一波片(2)的主轴可以旋转,四分之一波片(9)和偏振分束棱镜(10)的主轴可以旋转,两者主轴方向为45度或者-45度,变双折射光纤(6)的双折射以光纤中点为中心呈对称分布,由光纤两头到光纤中间呈现缓慢递增,使光纤两端的双折射为零,光纤中间具有最大双折射。 A light intensity control variable all-optical birefringent fiber switch, the optical axis sequentially arranged a polarizer (1), a quarter wave plate (2), an optical fiber coupling system (3) comprises a self- cast focusing lens (4) and a fiber holder (5), becomes birefringent fiber (6), the optical fiber holder (7), self-focusing lens (8), a quarter wave plate (9), a polarization beam splitter prism (10 ), characterized in that the variable birefringent fiber (6) using ordinary single-mode fiber wound in a spiral shape or variable diameter wound on the cylinder is obtained, regulated by both ends of the holder (5,7) in the self-focusing lens (4) near focus and a fixed support, a quarter wave plate (2) rotatable spindle, a quarter wave plate (9) and a polarization splitting prism (10) of the spindle can be rotated, both the main axis direction of 45 degrees or -45 degrees, becomes birefringent fiber (6) of birefringent optical fiber symmetrically to the midpoint of the center, the two intermediate optical fiber exhibits a slow increase, the birefringent fiber ends is zero, the intermediate optical fiber has a maximum birefringence.
  2. 2.如权利要求1所说的光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关,其特征在于开关特性曲线具有很强的数值化多次开关的特性,并且开关曲线在高功率情况下接近矩形,具有很低的串话。 2. The light intensity of said one control variable birefringent fiber as claimed in claim all-optical switch, wherein the switch has a characteristic strong characteristic values ​​of multiple switch and the switch approximately rectangular curve at high power condition, having low crosstalk.
  3. 3.如权利要求1所说的光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关,其特征在于其截止开关功率和光纤的最大双折射呈正比例关系。 It said light intensity control variable all-optical birefringent fiber switch, characterized in that it showed a maximum birefringence of the optical fiber and the power switch is turned off proportional relationship claim 1.
  4. 4.如权利要求1所说的光强控制变双折射光纤全光开关,其特征在于在光纤最大双折射大小固定的前提下,在截止开关功率到达前,开关次数和表征双折射沿光纤变化快慢的参量呈正比例关系。 4. The light intensity of said control variable to claim 1 all-optical birefringent fiber switch, wherein the optical fiber at a fixed maximum size birefringence premise, before reaching the power switch is turned off, the switching frequency changes along the fiber birefringence and characterization the amount of the reference speed direct proportion relationship.
CN 02155016 2002-12-19 2002-12-19 Light intensity controlled changing double-refraction optical fibre all optical switch CN1182434C (en)

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