CN1177993A - 含有至少一层纤维增强气凝胶板和/或垫的透明构件 - Google Patents

含有至少一层纤维增强气凝胶板和/或垫的透明构件 Download PDF

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CN1177993A
CN1177993A CN96192387A CN96192387A CN1177993A CN 1177993 A CN1177993 A CN 1177993A CN 96192387 A CN96192387 A CN 96192387A CN 96192387 A CN96192387 A CN 96192387A CN 1177993 A CN1177993 A CN 1177993A
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D·弗兰克
A·齐默曼
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Cabot Corp
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Abstract

本发明涉及一种具有至少两层由透明材料制成的平行放置的板的透明构件,这些板之间含有一个夹层,其特征是,该夹层至少含有一层纤维增强气凝胶板和/或垫。本发明还涉及该种构件的使用。

Description

含有至少一层纤维增强气凝胶板和/或垫的透明构件
本发明涉及透明构件及其使用,尤其是隔热窗板(Isolierscheibe),它至少含有一层纤维增强气凝胶板和/或垫。
迄今为止的隔热窗板由两层或三层玻璃窗板组成,这些玻璃窗板常以10-30mm的间隔距离平行放置,并沿边缘用一种气密性材料相互紧密地连接在一起。窗板(Scheibe)与窗板之间通常是空气或其它在常压或稍低的气压下具有低导热性的惰性气体。这种隔热玻璃窗的隔热效果取决于静止气体的隔热作用。
已经提出了许多通过使用气凝胶提高隔热玻璃窗板的隔热作用的方法。
气凝胶在广义上,也就是在“以空气作为分散介质的凝胶”的意义上,是通过干燥一种适当的凝胶而制备的。在此意义上的“气凝胶”概念包括狭义上的气凝胶、干凝胶和冷凝胶。其中,如果凝胶中的绝大部分液体在临界温度以上的温度并从临界压力以上的压力下开始失去,那么这种干燥了的凝胶被称为狭义上的气凝胶。与此相反,如果凝胶中的液体在临界点之下失去,例如形成液-气边界相的情况,则所产生的凝胶通常也被称为干凝胶。
本说明书中在使用气凝胶这一概念时,是指广义上的气凝胶,也即含义为“以空气作为分散介质的凝胶”。
气凝胶,尤其是那些孔隙率大于60%和密度低于0.4g/cm3的气凝胶,由于其具有很低的密度、高孔隙率和小孔径,故具有格外低的导热性并因此用做隔热材料,例如参见EP-A-0171722所述。
但是,高孔隙率也导致用来干燥形成气凝胶的凝胶和干燥的气凝胶本身这两者的力学稳定性低。
为了改善隔热作用,例如,已有建议在玻璃窗板之间放置气凝胶单片(Aerogelmonolith),以通过气凝胶的低导热性改善隔热作用(CA-C-1288313,EP-A-018955)和/或改善这种窗板的隔音性(DE-A-4106192)。这时气凝胶单片应部分牢固地连接在玻璃窗板上,例如,见DE-A-4106192所述。
尽管这种工艺能得到实际上象玻璃一样透明的透明窗板,但因为气凝胶的力学稳定性低,一方面相应较大的气凝胶单片的制造费用太高,另一方面窗板生产时的处理太复杂,而使这种玻璃窗板得不到更广泛的应用。
取而代之,已有建议在夹层中填充较易制备并且也较易处理的气凝胶颗粒。但是,窗板这时将不再完全象玻璃一样透明,而是半透明,与乳白色玻璃窗板或装饰玻璃窗板相当。这不带来任何本质上的局限,因为存在一系列应用场合,在这些场合下需要避免光线的直接入射投下的阴影,例如,工厂、储仓、展厅或博物馆的窗子。另一个应用领域可以是天窗。
但是,这种类型的窗子有若干缺点。例如,随着时间的推移,颗粒的压实使得窗子的填充程度产生不希望的变化。这种压实可能是,例如,气凝胶小球粒连续轻微振动或破坏的结果,尤其是在抽真空时。
在该颗粒中,小颗粒球相互间的力和/或玻璃板和小颗粒球之间的力仅通过非常小的接触面积传递。因此产生相对高的可以导致气凝胶颗粒破碎的压应力和/或剪应力(参看DE-A-3533805)。
因此DE-A-3533805建议将气凝胶颗粒包在两层薄膜之间再放入玻璃窗板之间,并对薄膜内的空间抽真空。由于薄膜的柔韧性,薄膜与小球粒表面之间的表面积可增加,从而改善长期稳定性。
但是,这一工艺需要较高的费用,因为窗板的构造变得很复杂。除此以外,附加的薄膜层进一步降低了透明度。
US-A-5,027,574描述了由两块以气密性方式彼此连接的窗板组成的隔热结构,窗板构成一个气密性密封夹层。该夹层在从约100-200托到约10-3-10-4托之间的压力下被充入一种气体,该气体在该压力下具有比空气低得多的导热性,其压力低得使对流引起的传热被大大地抑制。在此,该气体的压力只是降低到显著减少对流传热的程度,而非减少热传导引起的传热。在一种实施方式中,该夹层也可用气凝胶材料来填充。即使在此实施方式中,取决于用单片还是颗粒状气凝胶材料,仍将遇到前述问题。
EP-A-0468124描述了透明板的制备方法,该透明板填充有颗粒直径一般为0.5-7mm的气凝胶颗粒。为了在填充窗板之间的夹层时获得高颗粒密度,整个组合都施加了频率典型地为30-100Hz的振动。为了阻止气凝胶中残存水分的冷凝,填充后的玻璃窗板再在低于400毫巴的低压下,最好是低于20毫巴下在50-70℃的温度下加热20分钟到2小时,使得残余气体中的水分含量和因此稍后在窗板上的可能的冷凝相应地减小。根据该专利申请,填充物的坍塌被避免了,因为低压使得窗板压缩颗粒而使颗粒不能移动。
所用的这种方法由于需要振动和在真空下加热而费用同样高。而且也不清楚,随着时间的迁移,颗粒是否会因振动而碎裂,且填充物是否会进而坍塌。
所以,本发明的任务是提供高隔热性的透明构件,它容易生产,且填充物长期稳定。
另一个任务是提供用于隔声的相应构件。
该任务是通过采用含有至少两块平行放置的透明材料制成的窗板的透明构件实现的,这些构件具有一个夹层,其特征是,该夹层含有至少一层纤维增强的气凝胶板或垫。
窗板之间的夹层优先用一种气密性密封沿窗板的边缘封闭。在此,该气密性密封可同时用于窗板的机械连接和/或固定。至少两块平行放置的窗板之间的距离优选处于0.1-5cm的范围内,尤其优选处于0.1-2cm的范围内。纤维增强气凝胶,在湿的或干的状态下,在力学上都显著地比纯的气凝胶尤其是气凝胶单片稳定,也因此而易于操作。
由于一方面窗板和气凝胶之间的支承面积大,另一方面缺少接触点,所以作用力平均分布,尤其是在抽真空时,因此不会破坏气凝胶。而且所产生的作用力实际上是纯压力,对此气凝胶很稳定,然而在使用颗粒时不可避免地产生剪切力,这对于对剪切力非常敏感的气凝胶,容易引起单一颗粒的破坏。此外,生产时不需要任何附加工序,例如薄膜的使用。
而且,气凝胶板或垫本身不可能坍塌,因此整体上获得一个长期稳定的填充物。
另外,气凝胶的体积比例可显著高于颗粒填充情况时的,在相同厚度和真空度下使得隔热作用提高。
作为窗板可以考虑玻璃窗板、复合玻璃窗板、透明或略不透明的塑料窗板,例如那些由象玻璃一样透明的聚苯乙烯及其共聚物制成的,由PVC、聚甲基丙烯酸酯、聚碳酸酯、聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯、聚氨酯、聚烯烃或聚酰胺制成的窗板。在此对窗板的厚度没有限制。一般地,窗板也可以非常厚,以承受大的机械荷载,例如在玻璃结构组件时。但是,窗板厚度优选范围为0.5mm-3cm。
也可以在窗板背向夹层的一面装饰图案。尤其是外层窗板可采用带水平走向鳞片的锯齿图案,其这么倾斜,以致太阳位置较高(尤其是在夏季)时的阳光的透射明显地比太阳位置较低(特别是在冬季)时的阳光透射小。在此,窗板的材料、厚度和/或图案均可不同。此外,为了改善隔热性或着色,至少一块窗板可以,例如,镀上金属和/或其他材料。通过采用专业人员所知的常规设备,一方面窗板可以在机械上牢固地连接在一起并保持适当的距离,另一方面这样可使夹层密封不透气。
对于本发明所述的构件,只需使窗板在整体上彼此相隔一个大致相同的距离,就可以在平面结构之外,再做成拱结构,如圆顶形或桶形。
窗板之间的填充物由纤维增强气凝胶垫和/或板组成,其中气凝胶基体的密度小于0.6g/cm3,孔隙率大于60%,例如,见DE-C-3844003,WO93/06044或P4430642.3和P4430669.5所述。优选小于0.5g/cm3的密度和大于80%的孔隙率。
在此,可以用无机或有机气凝胶以及基于无机和有机材料的气凝胶构成基体,但优选含SiO2的气凝胶,尤其是SiO2气凝胶。
气凝胶常压使用时的导热率优选小于30mW/mK者,尤其优选小于20mW/mK者。进一步优选采用憎水性气凝胶或干凝胶,例如,见P4430642.3和P4430669.5所述。
一方面憎水性气凝胶的含水量显著低于普通气凝胶,另一方面气凝胶垫或板不含采用颗粒时的空隙,这些空隙可包含具有一定湿度的空气。
这样大大减少了结露的发生。可能出现的水气,如果有这种情况,可以通过在夹层内或机械连接面上使用普通干燥剂而吸收。
纤维增强气凝胶中的纤维体积含量应为0.5-30%,优选0.5-15%。尽管较高的纤维含量能增加机械强度,却也同样增大导热性和减少透明度。
纤维在气凝胶中的放置形式可以是纤维网或垫,或者是随机取向或平行于表面设置的单根纤维,其长度应优选大于1cm。
纤维直径优选是0.1-30μm。
气凝胶板或气凝胶垫应优选含有透明纤维,例如玻璃纤维,以保持整个组合的高透光度。
纤维增强气凝胶材料可以以平板(WO93/06044,P4430642.3)或柔性垫(P4430669.5)的形式使用。
为了获得特殊的光学或热学性能,气凝胶可以附加含有光致变色物质和/或红外遮光剂,例如见DE-C-3844003或P4430642.3所述。
如果为了增加夹层厚度,而在夹层中填入多层板或垫,那么可以在将其装入窗板之间之前或之时任选地附加用胶粘剂或胶粘膜粘结起来。
可以将夹层抽真空至5-750毫巴的压力,优选10-200毫巴的压力,以减小气凝胶的导热性,从而进一步减小整个构件的导热性。此外,通过抽真空,还可能将透明窗板挤压到一起,而夹紧气凝胶板或垫,这样就可不必粘结。
由于气凝胶板和/或垫的抗压强度高,在抽真空时大部分压力可由气凝胶承受,考虑到此点,窗板的荷载将因此减轻而可以选用较薄者。
也可选择重气体,如氩气,在常压下填充夹层,以减小夹层的导热性(与填充空气时相比)。
为了获得特殊的机械或声学性能,也可用胶粘剂或胶粘膜将气凝胶板或垫与玻璃窗板粘结在一起,类似于DE-A-4106192所公开的方法。
窗板相互之间的连接和相互之间的固定可以采用用于隔热玻璃窗板并为专业人员所知的常规方法来完成。
在制造时,例如在组装窗板这道工序时,可以将气凝胶板或垫简单地放入窗板之间。需要时可用专业人员所知的方法抽真空。
存在于气凝胶中的纤维和在使用垫的情况下其中存在的裂缝导致窗板不是玻璃般透明,而是更象乳白色玻璃或装饰玻璃窗板一样是半透光的。所述的这种窗板因此适用于透明隔热和/或隔声,例如用于工厂、储仓、展厅或博物馆的窗子,以及屋顶天窗或透光圆屋顶(Lichtkuppel)。

Claims (12)

1.含有至少两层平行放置的由透明材料制成的窗板的透明构件,它包含一个夹层,其特征是该夹层至少含一层纤维增强气凝胶板和/或垫。
2.按照权利要求1的透明构件,其特征是窗板之间的夹层沿窗板边缘用一种气密性密封封闭起来。
3.按照权利要求2的透明构件,其特征是,气密性密封用于窗板的机械连接和/或固定。
4.按照权利要求1-3中至少之一的透明构件,其特征是,气凝胶基体具有大于60%的孔隙率和小于0.6g/cm3的密度。
5.按照权利要求1-4中至少之一的透明构件,其特征是,气凝胶是一种SiO2气凝胶。
6.按照权利要求1-5中至少之一的透明构件,其特征是,气凝胶具有憎水性表面基团。
7.按照权利要求1-6中至少之一的透明构件,其特征是,气凝胶具有小于30mW/mK的热导率。
8.按照权利要求1-7中至少之一的透明构件,其特征是,纤维增强气凝胶中纤维材料的体积含量处于0.5-30%范围内。
9.按照权利要求8的透明构件,其特征是,纤维材料是一种透明的纤维材料。
10.按照权利要求8或9的透明构件,其特征是,纤维材料基本上含玻璃纤维。
11.按照权利要求1的透明构件,其特征是,将位于至少两块窗板之间、至少填充一种纤维增强气凝胶的夹层,抽真空至5-750毫巴的压力范围。
12.按照上述权利要求中至少之一的透明构件的用途,其用于隔热和/或隔声。
CN96192387A 1995-03-07 1996-03-07 含有至少一层纤维增强气凝胶板和/或垫的透明构件 Expired - Lifetime CN1122596C (zh)

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CN100386260C (zh) * 2005-12-20 2008-05-07 长安大学 水镁石纤维增强SiO2气凝胶隔热材料的制备方法
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