CN1175344C - 笔式计算机指示设备 - Google Patents

笔式计算机指示设备 Download PDF

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CN1175344C
CN1175344C CNB991017153A CN99101715A CN1175344C CN 1175344 C CN1175344 C CN 1175344C CN B991017153 A CNB991017153 A CN B991017153A CN 99101715 A CN99101715 A CN 99101715A CN 1175344 C CN1175344 C CN 1175344C
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body
pointing device
apparatus
motion
communications link
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CN1233795A (zh
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R・巴德雅
R·巴德雅
克内
D·L·克内
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安捷伦科技有限公司
惠普公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/0304Detection arrangements using opto-electronic means
    • G06F3/0317Detection arrangements using opto-electronic means in co-operation with a patterned surface, e.g. absolute position or relative movement detection for an optical mouse or pen positioned with respect to a coded surface
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/033Pointing devices displaced or positioned by the user, e.g. mice, trackballs, pens or joysticks; Accessories therefor
    • G06F3/0354Pointing devices displaced or positioned by the user, e.g. mice, trackballs, pens or joysticks; Accessories therefor with detection of 2D relative movements between the device, or an operating part thereof, and a plane or surface, e.g. 2D mice, trackballs, pens or pucks
    • G06F3/03545Pens or stylus

Abstract

一种笔式计算机指示设备,使笔尖下面的通常具有细微纹理或者细微结构的作用表面的空间特征成像,作为像素阵列。图像检测器(108)的响应被数字化处,作为一个帧结构被存储在存储器(108)中。运动产生像素信息转换模式的连续帧结构,该帧结构与自相关性相比较来确定运动的方向和数量。一个接触式传感器(106),确定指示设备的尖端何时与作用表面接触。按键(112,116)被包含在指示设备的主体(102)的内部,替代计算机鼠标设备完成相应的功能。

Description

笔式计算机指示设备

本申请涉及下面两项美国专利描述的内容:1995年3月2日申请,1996年11月26日公开,标题为“FREEHAND IMAGE SCANNING DEVICE WHICHCOMPENSATES FOR NONLINEAR MOVEMENT”的5,578,813;和1996年8月12日申请,1997年7月1日公开,标题为“NAVIGATION FOR DETECTINGMOVEMENT OF NAVIGATION SENSORS RELATIVE TO AN OBJECT”的5,644,139。此两项专利的发明人相同,他们是:Ross R.Allen,David Beard,Mark T.Smith和Barclay J.Tullis,并且此两项专利都转让给惠普公司Hewlett-Packard Co.本申请还涉及1995年10月6日申请,标题为“METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR TRACKING ATTITUDE”的美国专利<目前未知的-S/N 08/540,355已经被批准但是还未公开>,以及1998年3月30日申请,标题为“SEEING EYE MOUSE FOR A COMPUTER SYSTEM”的美国专利申请<S/N目前未知>HP摘要号10980359-1所描述的内容,此两项专利都转让给了惠普公司Hewlett-Packard Co。这三项专利描述了运动位置的跟踪,及计算机指示设备技术。这些技术是下述的优选实施例的组成部分。因此,美国专利5,578,813和5,644,139以及<S/N08/540,335任何发行号>在此引入作为参考。相关申请描述了一种基于所述技术的鼠标,因此下面的1998年3月30日申请,标题为“SEEINGEYE MOUSE FOR A COMPUTER SYSTEM”的美国专利申请<S/N目前未知>HP摘要号10980359-1也被引入作为参考。

本发明总的来说涉及计算机显示屏上的光标控制设备,亦作为计算机指示(pointing)设备。本发明尤其涉及模仿诸如笔之类的手写用具的计算机指示设备。

应用于计算机及其显示器的手动指示设备的应用已经非常普遍。到目前为止,在各种设备中最为流行的是传统式(机械)鼠标。最近包括基于笔的输入设备的便携式计算机已经出现。这些计算机使用电子笔在显示器上书写数据或选择显示器上的数据。使用基于笔的计算机时,用户握住电子笔在相应的显示器表面上进行书写。笔和计算机里的电子线路计算笔与显示器的相对位置并完成计算机用户所要求的功能。基于笔的计算机的显示器要求是平坦的,以使用户可以方便地在显示器表面上书写,并且要求一种能够检测笔与显示器表面接触的位置的特殊类型的显示器。其它类型的笔或笔式指示设备,该类型的设备受到相类似的限制:它们必须应用于特殊的平面,例如绘图板。

基于笔的指示设备的应用受限于特殊的表面,使得该设备的有用性受到限制。当所述特殊表面是显示器的屏幕时,要求把屏幕放平,从而使用户以舒服的方式书写,而这是不方便的。当所述特殊表面是绘图板或类似的设备时,绘图板需要随着计算机而搬动。另外,这两种设备都限制了一个很小的区域,在此区域可以进行书写或指示,并能被计算机捕获。

因此,需要一种能够在几乎所有的平面上应用的桌面或膝上型便携式电脑中,以可靠、直观的方式实现指示功能的技术。希望该指示设备可以用类似于使用笔的方式输入手写文字或手工绘图,而不需要额外的硬件。最后,还希望此种设备不使用任何电缆或电线,电缆或电线会使设备缠结在一起,或者为了把它连接到计算机而影响书写过程。

本发明的一种优选实施例形状象一支书写用笔。设备外部有一个或多个按键,用于实现计算机鼠标上的按键所具备的功能。一种优选实施例采用一个红外(IR)光源照明设备所应用的表面。为这一目的,可能需要一个或多个红外IR发光二极管(LED)。表面图像被聚焦于一个光学运动传感器的集成电路,该集成电路计算为指示设备尖端的运动所需的必要信息。这些信息和按键状态通过无线链接中继到计算机。

类似于人类视觉成像过程,通过对设备尖端下面的作用表面的各种具体空间特征直接成像,作为像素阵列,可以检测尖端的运动。通常,此作用表面几乎可以是任意的平面;特别地,工作表面不必是绘图板或显示器,特殊或其它设备。基于这一点,成像装置下面的作用表面被前面提到的红外发光二极管LED照明。在以合适的入射角度照明时,各种大量表面形成了丰富的高亮与阴影的集合。该入射角通常非常小,也就是5度到20度,我们把它命名为掠射(grazing)入射角。纸张,木材,胶木和着色印刷品的表面都非常适合;唯一不适合的表面是光滑玻璃(除非上面覆有指纹!)。这些表面适合的原因是它们拥有细微纹理,这在某些情况下,只依靠人的感官是不能感觉到的。

通过比较最新捕获的图像和前面捕获的图像,确定运动的方向和数量,从而实现运动的检测。一种可行的方法是把图像之一的全部内容在一个像素偏移的试验位移所允许的八个方向(一个翻转(over),一个翻转和一个向下,一个向下,一个向上,一个向上一个翻转,一个在其他方向上翻转等等)中的每个方向上连续做一个像素距离的位移。总共有八个试验值,但我们不应忘记,可能没有任何的运动,因而还需要第九个“空位移”试验值。在每一个试验位移后,那些帧的重叠部分在像素上减去像素基数,得到的差异(优选为经过平方后)被累积,形成对重叠部分中相似程度(相关性)的度量:当然可能有更大的试验位移(例如两个翻转和一个向下),但是在某种程度上,随之带来的复杂性破坏了优势,并且优选为只具有较小的试验位移的足够高的帧速率。具有最小的差异(最大的相关性)的试验位移可以作为两帧之间运动的指示。即它提供了粗略的向前/向后和向左/向右的运动指示信息。这些粗略的运动信息可以被定标或累积,从而以合适的信息交换速度提供便利粒度的运动信息指示器。采用的实际算法,是在相关专利及相关申请中被描述的算法,以及上述算法被修正的和复杂的版本。

图1是笔式计算机指示设备的主要元件的说明。

图1说明了一种笔式计算机指示设备的实施例的主要元件。指示设备的主体102通常为带有渐细端120的圆柱体。位于指示设备上的按键112和114可以被用户按下或放开。这些按键耦合到一个通信链接上,此通信链接可以将按键的状态信息发送到计算机。在图1中,通信链接是一个全方位的红外收发器,图中显示为发光二极管116和红外检测器118。还可能需要一个无线电或有线连接用于计算机和指示设备间的通信。

尖端122和指示设备主体102的某些部分是半透明的。这使得来自位于指示设备中的照明光源104的光线可以从指示设备中透射出来。在照明光源104发出的光线被作用表面反射后,光再次入射到指示设备,并由光学运动传感器IC108上的透镜110聚焦。透镜110和光学运动传感器IC108安装在指示设备的内部。在作用表面被反射,并被透镜110聚焦的光,在光学运动传感器IC108上形成该作用表面的图像,并由光学运动传感器捕获。光学运动传感器IC108具有一个用于捕获作用表面的图像的图像检测器阵列。在此优选实施例中,这些检测器集成在光学运动传感器IC108中。然而,这些图像检测器可以位于分立的集成电路中。光学运动传感器对作用表面的连续图像进行比较,以确定指示设备的尖端的向前/向后,向左/向右以及旋转的运动。

指示设备的运动和所述运动在计算机屏幕上诸如通过光标被显示的关系,可以通过按键112,114之一结合指示设备的运动来定义。例如,为了在计算机显示屏上建立向下的特定方向的运动,用户可以按下按键114,然后指示设备在用户所希望的方向运动,作为向下的敲击。这些一旦完成,那个方向上的运动可以在屏幕上保持向下的方向,而不会在计算机或者用户方面产生混乱,直到用户放开指示设备,或让它在自己手中旋转。另一种可能是要求用户每次以相同的旋转手持该指示设备。例如,用户可能握着指示设备使其按键远离自己的身体。这使得按键被粗暴地按在用户的食指下。如果每次都使用同一方位,结果在使指示设备保持正常书写位置的同时,向着用户身体的运动,将导致计算机屏幕上显示的向下运动。

类似于人类视觉成像过程,通过对设备尖端下面的作用表面的各种具体空间特征直接成像,作为像素阵列,可以通过光运动传感器IC108检测尖端122的运动。通常,此作用表面几乎可以是任意的平面;特别地,工作表面不必是绘图板或显示器,特殊或其它设备。基于这一点,成像装置下面的作用表面被前面提到的红外发光二极管LED104照明。在以合适的入射角度照明时,各种大量表面形成了丰富的高亮与阴影的集合。该入射角通常非常小,也就是说以5度到20度的次序,我们把它命名为掠射(grazing)入射角。纸张,木材,胶木和着色印刷品的表面都非常适合;唯一不适合的表面是光滑玻璃(除非上面覆有指纹!)。这些表面适合的原因是它们拥有细微纹理,这在某些情况下,只依靠人的感官是不能感觉到的。

通过比较最新捕获的图像和前面捕获的图像,确定运动的方向和数量,从而可以通过光运动传感器IC108检测尖端122的运动。最新捕获的图像和一些前面捕获的图像,可以被包含在光运动传感器IC108中的存储器电路中。该存储器可以是模拟存储器,或者像素值被数字化后存储在数字存储器中。一种可行的方法是把图像之一的全部内容在一个像素偏移的试验位移所允许的八个方向(一个翻转(over),一个翻转一个向下,一个向下,一个向上,一个向上一个翻转,一个在其他方向上翻转等等)中的每个方向上连续做一个像素距离的位移。总共有八个试验值,但我们不应忘记,可能没有任何的运动,因而还需要第九个“空位移”试验值。在每一个试验位移后,那些帧的重叠部分在像素上减去像素基数,得到的差异(优选为经过平方后)被累积,形成对重叠部分中相似程度(相关性)的度量:当然可能有更大的试验位移(例如两个翻转和一个向下),但是在某种程度上,随之带来的复杂性破坏了优势,并且优选为只具有较小的试验位移的足够高的帧速率。具有最小的差异(最大的相关性)的试验位移可以作为两帧之间运动的指示。即它提供了粗略的向前/向后和向左/向右的运动指示信息。这些粗略的运动信息可以被定标或累积,从而以合适的信息交换速度提供便利粒度的运动信息指示器。这一过程可以采用模拟或数字方法完成。图像的捕获以及光运动传感器IC108所用的算法,在相关专利和相关申请中被描述。

由光学运动传感器IC108产生的,与指示设备尖端的运动有关的信息通过通信链接116中继到计算机。该指示设备还包括某种电源。可以是充电电池或非充电电池。

指示设备还具有开关106,或者其它的接触式传感器,用来确定尖端122何时与作用表面接触。信息可以通过通信链接116中继到计算机。当把手写文本或手工绘图输入到计算机时,这些信息是有用的。当尖端没有与作用表面接触时,计算机可以通过编程忽略指示设备的运动或者采取适应情况其它的动作。例如当模仿一支笔进行手工绘图时,只有当指示设备的尖端接触作用表面时,才应该记录该指示设备的运动路径。

虽然已经对发明的几种实施例进行了描述和说明,本发明不只仅限于所描述和说明的具体形式以及各部分的结构。本发明只由权利要求限制。

Claims (12)

1.一种应用于计算机或类似设备的手持式指示设备,该指示设备包括:一个主体(102),该主体通常为具有一个渐细端(120)的圆柱体,该渐细端还具有一个尖端(122);一个照明光源(104),该照明光源被装配在所述主体内部,并且提供穿过该主体的半透明部分的光线,照明作用表面;一个装配在主体内部,靠近该主体的半透明部分的光学运动检测电路(108),该运动检测电路产生指示沿着第一轴线和第二轴线方向上的运动并且与通过所述主体的半透明部分的、可见的被照明的成像特征有关的运动指示信号;以及其中光学运动检测电路包括多个图像检测器,每一个检测器都有一个输出端,一个包括数字化图像检测器输出值的参考帧和在参考帧之后获得的数字化图像检测器输出值的取样帧的存储器,另外,其中每个都是所述参考帧的位移版本的多个比较帧通过和取样帧相关来确定沿第一轴线和第二轴线的方向上的运动。
2.权利要求1中的设备,其中已有的参考帧以与前面同比较帧的相关性相应的量进行位移。
3.权利要求1中的设备,其中已有的的取样帧被周期性地用作为新的参考帧。
4.权利要求1中的设备,还包括:一个通信链接(116),该通信链接传输表示沿第一轴线和第二轴线方向运动的信息。
5.权利要求4中的设备,其中所述通信链接是通过无线电波实现的。
6.权利要求4中的设备,其中所述通信链接是通过红外光实现的。
7.权利要求4中的设备,还包括:一个按键(112),该按键耦合到所述通信链接,其中所述通信链接传输表示该按键的状态的信息。
8.应用于计算机系统或类似系统的手持式指示设备,该指示设备包括:一个主体(102),该主体通常为具有一个渐细端(120)的圆柱体,该渐细端具有一个尖端(122),该主体还具有半透明部分。一个照明光源(104),该照明光源被装配在所述主体内部,接近半透明部分,并且照明作用表面上的成像特征;一个装配在主体内部,靠近该主体的半透明部分的光学运动检测电路(108),该运动检测电路产生指示沿着第一轴线和第二轴线方向上的运动并且与通过所述主体的半透明部分的、可见的被照明的成像特征有关的运动指示信号;以及一个检测尖端何时不与作用表面接触的接触式检测器(106)。
9.权利要求8中的设备,还包括:一个通信链接(116),该通信链接传输表示沿第一轴线和第二轴线方向上的运动的信息,并且该通信链接传输表示尖端何时不与作用表面接触的信息。
10.权利要求9中的设备,其中所述通信链接是通过无线电波实现的。
11.权利要求9中的设备,其中所述通信链接是通过红外光实现的。
12.权利要求9中的设备,还包括:一个按键(112),该按键耦合到所述通信链接,其中所述通信链接传输表示该按键的状态的信息。
CNB991017153A 1998-04-27 1999-01-29 笔式计算机指示设备 CN1175344C (zh)

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EP0953934A1 (en) 1999-11-03
DE69914659T2 (de) 2005-01-05
CN1233795A (zh) 1999-11-03
DE69914659D1 (de) 2004-03-18
EP0953934B1 (en) 2004-02-11
US6151015A (en) 2000-11-21
TW381235B (en) 2000-02-01

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