CN1175249C - Angle encoder - Google Patents

Angle encoder Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1175249C
CN1175249C CNB998091413A CN99809141A CN1175249C CN 1175249 C CN1175249 C CN 1175249C CN B998091413 A CNB998091413 A CN B998091413A CN 99809141 A CN99809141 A CN 99809141A CN 1175249 C CN1175249 C CN 1175249C
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angular position
emr
surface
position sensor
array
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CNB998091413A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1311852A (en
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K・Y・埃森豪尔
K·Y·埃森豪尔
怂固囟
J·巴克斯特尔
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毕晓普创新有限公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D5/00Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable
    • G01D5/12Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means
    • G01D5/244Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means influencing characteristics of pulses or pulse trains; generating pulses or pulse trains
    • G01D5/245Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means influencing characteristics of pulses or pulse trains; generating pulses or pulse trains using a variable number of pulses in a train
    • G01D5/2454Encoders incorporating incremental and absolute signals
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D5/00Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable
    • G01D5/26Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light
    • G01D5/32Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light
    • G01D5/34Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light the beams of light being detected by photocells
    • G01D5/347Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light the beams of light being detected by photocells using displacement encoding scales
    • G01D5/3473Circular or rotary encoders
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D5/00Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable
    • G01D5/26Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light
    • G01D5/32Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light
    • G01D5/34Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light the beams of light being detected by photocells
    • G01D5/347Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light the beams of light being detected by photocells using displacement encoding scales
    • G01D5/34776Absolute encoders with analogue or digital scales
    • G01D5/34792Absolute encoders with analogue or digital scales with only digital scales or both digital and incremental scales

Abstract

一种角度位置传感器,包括可绕相对于周围外壳(5)所安装的旋转轴(8)而旋转的机体(1)。 One kind of an angular position sensor comprising a rotatable about relative to the surrounding housing (5) mounted rotating shaft (8) rotating body (1). 机体具有光栅元件(2),光栅元件(2)包括围绕旋转轴的旋转表面。 The body having a grating element (2), the grating element (2) comprises a surface of revolution about the axis of rotation. 该表面包括以单个二进位条形码无穷连续形式排列的伪随机分布高(21)和低(22)EMR反射率区域。 The surface comprises a high pseudo random distribution of a single binary barcode endless continuous form (21) EMR and a low reflectance region (22). 该传感器包括对于外壳所固定安装的EMR源(10)和EMR灵敏探测器阵列(9)。 The sensor comprises a housing is fixedly mounted to the EMR source (10) and the EMR sensitive detector array (9). EMR源照射所述表面并且EMR灵敏探测器阵列接收由该表面反射的入射EMR。 EMR source and irradiating the surface of the EMR sensitive detector array receives incident EMR reflected from this surface. 由入射EMR在该阵列上所产生的图形起因于表面上的低和高反射率的交互区域。 By the incident EMR pattern on the array generated due to the interaction region of low and high reflectivity on the surface. 由处理器(11)对图形进行处理来得到相对于外壳区域的绝对角度位置,并因此提供旋转体相对于外壳的绝对角度位置测量。 (11) by the graphics processor to obtain the absolute angular position relative to the housing area, and thus provide a measurement of absolute angular position of rotation relative to the housing.

Description

角度编码器 Angle encoder

发明领域本发明涉及角度位置传感器,具体的是在不需要计算参考标记的情况下感测旋转体的绝对旋转角度。 Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an angular position sensor, in particular an absolute rotational angle sensing rotary body without the need of calculating the reference numerals.

发明背景通常,角度位置传感器已经用于感测旋转体的旋转角度。 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Typically, the angular position sensor has been used to measure the rotation angle of the rotating body sensation. 这些通常由探测器单元和具有交替透明和不透明所形成对比条或反射条材料的刻度盘所组成,可以由探测器单元探测出其位移,包括光发射、光探测和光学装置。 These typically dials or reflective contrast bars is formed from strip material and having a detector unit consisting of alternating transparent and opaque, may be detected by the detector unit its displacement, comprising a light emitting and light detecting optical devices.

刻度盘由光发射装置所表示,该装置是电磁辐射(EMR)源、通常是紫外线(UV)、可视的或红外线(IR)光,其在对EMR敏感的光探测器的一个或多个阵列上产生图形。 Dial is represented by a light emitting device, the device is an electromagnetic radiation (EMR) source, usually an ultraviolet (UV), visible or infrared (IR) light, in which one pair of EMR sensitive detectors or a plurality of light generate a graphical array. 这种阵列包括CCD装置、VLSI可视芯片、一维和两维光探测器阵列和平面效应光二极管(通常指例如PSD或位置灵敏装置)。 Such means includes a CCD array, visualization of VLSI chips, one-dimensional and two-dimensional photodetector array and the planar LED effects (e.g. generally refers to a position sensitive device or PSD). 进行一个或多个阵列的输出以产生旋转体角度位置的测量。 Performing one or more arrays to produce output angular position of a rotating body measured. 可以将刻度盘布置在旋转体轴的轴向或径向,并且其本性允许不顾旋转体的角度位置允许阵列的连续输出,当所限阵列维数不允许在任何时刻阵列及时观察整个圆周或径向表面时。 Dial may be disposed in axial or radial direction of the rotating shaft body, and regardless of its nature allows the angular position of the rotating body to allow a continuous output of the array, when the dimension of the array does not limit be observed in the whole circumference or diameter of the array at any time to the surface.

这种传感器通常提供基于刻度盘的增量角度位置的信号,并且通过计算已知参考标记来确定绝对的角度位置。 Such sensors typically provide angular incremental position signal based on the dial, and the absolute angular position is determined by calculating the known reference mark. 通常基本通过众所公知的技术例如积分插补来提高增量传感器的精度。 For example, typically substantially integral interpolation to improve accuracy by an incremental sensor As is well known in the art. 这种积分方法需要不变的条角度间隔。 This integral approach requires a constant bar angle interval.

此外,传感器可以通过利用用于刻度盘的条形码来提供基于绝对位置的信号。 Further, the sensor may provide a signal based on the absolute position of a bar code by using the dial. 当每组条形码对于所感测的每个角度位置是唯一的时,这些条形码通常不会具有恒定的角度条间隔,并且这种绝对位置传感器通常不提供位置测量精度,该位置测量精度是当不能使用积分插补技术时增量传感器所提供的。 When the sensed for each angular position of each bar code is only when these bar codes typically do not have a constant angular spacing strip, and this generally do not provide absolute position sensor position measurement accuracy of the position measurement accuracy that can not be used when an incremental sensor integration time interpolation techniques provided.

但是,如果需要绝对位置传感器具有高精度,则需要两个刻度盘。 However, if the absolute position sensor with high accuracy, then two dials. 首先通过条形码的询问来测量近似绝对位置,然后通过规则条形图形的积分插补来提供精确的相对位置。 First, the approximate absolute position is measured by asking the barcode, and then to provide accurate interpolation rule by integrating the relative position of the stripe pattern.

现有技术提供了高精度绝对位置测量,并且在5,235,181号(Durana等人)的美国专利中所描述的和本发明的非常相关。 The prior art provides absolute position measurement with high precision, and the present invention is very relevant and No. 5,235,181 (Durana et al.) As described in U.S. Pat. 其描述的传感器包括:两个刻度盘、近似绝对位置的伪随机条形码刻度盘以及精确相对位置的规则隔开的刻度尺。 Description sensor which comprises: regularly spaced two dials, a pseudo-random barcode approximate absolute position of the scale and the precise relative position of the scale.

在5,235,181号美国专利中所描述的位置传感器具有几个固有的缺点。 A position sensor in U.S. Patent No. 5,235,181 has described several inherent disadvantages. 使用两个刻度盘使得使用多个光探测器阵列成为必要,这与单个阵列相比会增加成本。 Using a plurality of such two dials photodetector array becomes necessary, which increases the cost as compared to a single array. 此外,需要刻度盘和阵列相互之间定位非常精确,这也会增加成本并且限制传感器的最大精度。 Further, very precise positioning is required between each dial and the array, which will increase the cost and limit the maximum accuracy of the sensor. 此外,维修中机械偏差和装配间隙不可避免的变化导致两个阵列相对位置的不确定,这也可能会限制最大精度。 In addition, maintenance and assembly of mechanical deflection of the gap leads to the inevitable changes the relative position uncertainty of the two arrays, which may also limit the maximum accuracy.

本发明的目的在于,为近似分辨率绝对位置探测和精确分辨率增量位置感测提供单个刻度盘,其能够提供所有必需的信息。 Object of the present invention is approximately the absolute position detecting resolution and fine resolution incremental position sensing provides a single dial, capable of providing all the necessary information. 更适合的是,这可以通过使用具有恒定条间距和可变条宽度的条形码、或具有可变条间距的条形码特定形式来实现。 More suitably, this article may have a constant pitch and variable barcode stripe width by using a particular form or a barcode strip variable spacing is achieved. 因此,条形码提供绝对位置感测所需的二进位信息,并且还提供能够精确分辨位置插补的规则条形图形。 Thus, the bar code to provide the binary information required for sensing an absolute position sensing, and also to provide a regular striped pattern can be accurately resolved positions of interpolation. 此外,传感器更适合依靠反射原理,其中光发射装置和光探测装置位于旋转体的同侧,并且刻度盘包括高和低反射率的区域。 Furthermore, the sensor is more suitable to rely on the principle of reflection, wherein the light emitting means and the light detection means on the same side of the rotating body, and the dial includes regions of high and low reflectivity.

与5,235,181号美国专利中所描述的相比,这种设计有几个优点。 U.S. Patent No. 5,235,181 as compared to those described, this design has several advantages. 首先,当仅使用单个刻度盘时,仅需要一个光探测器阵列,从而降低成本。 First, when only a single dial, only one photodetector array, thereby reducing costs. 第二,当组合使用两个刻度盘时,将消除相对刻度盘未对准引起的误差,从而提供更好的测量精度。 Second, when used in combination two dials the dial relative to eliminate errors caused by misalignment, to provide a better measurement accuracy. 第三,两个刻度盘的组合将减少传感器对机械偏差、公差或轴承间隙的敏感,消除现有技术中所描述的两个刻度盘相对位置和阵列中的变化。 Third, a combination of two dials will reduce sensor sensitive to mechanical deviations or tolerances of the bearing gap, two dials eliminate variations in the relative positions of the array and the prior art is described. 第四,反射刻度盘的使用允许更简单和更紧凑的结构,由于其允许光发射和光探测装置在相同装配中组装,节约了传感器的空间和成本。 Fourth, the use of reflective dial allows a simpler and more compact construction, as it allows the light emitting and light detecting means is assembled in the same assembly, saves space and cost of the sensor. 第五,与能传送的刻度盘相比,使用反射刻度盘的另一个优点是EMR从刻度盘的表面反射并且当具有隙缝的情况时EMR不会受边缘散射的影响、或当在EMR必须穿过传送区域中介质的透明材料的情况下不受来自内部反射、衍射或随时间过去而衰减等其他问题的影响。 Fifth, as compared with the dial can be transmitted, reflected Another advantage of using dial EMR is reflected from the surface of the dial and the EMR will not be affected when the edge of the case of a scattering slit, or when to be worn on the EMR the case where the delivery area through the transparent material from the medium against internal reflection, diffraction, or affect the decay over time, and other problems. 否则这种影响将限制传感器的最大分辨率。 Otherwise the impact will be limited by the maximum resolution of the sensor. 最后,组合的刻度盘没有两个分离的刻度盘复杂,因此能够使其产生较快的速度和较低的成本,尤其是如果通过使用例如激光刺点的直接写技术。 Finally, a combination of two separate dials dial without complex, it is possible to produce a faster speed and lower costs, especially if, for example, by the use of direct laser writing technique barbed point.

简要发明本发明是一种角度位置传感器,其包括至少由外壳部分围绕的至少一个机体,机体可绕相对于外壳所安装的旋转轴而旋转,机体包括固定在其上或与之成整体的光栅元件,光栅元件包括绕旋转轴旋转的表面,该表面包括以单个二进位条形码无穷连续形式排列的伪随机分布地高和低EMR反射率区域;传感器还包括至少一个EMR源和至少一个EMR灵敏探测器的阵列,EMR源照射所述表面并且EMR灵敏探测器阵列接收由该表面反射的入射EMR,EMR源和EMR灵敏探测器阵列相对于外壳所安装,因此由入射EMR在EMR灵敏探测器阵列上所产生的图形起因于光栅元件表面上的低和高反射率的交互区域,由处理器对EMR灵敏探测器阵列上的图形进行处理来得到相对于外壳的区域的绝对角度位置,并因此提供旋转体相对于外壳的绝对角度位置的测量。 The present invention is a brief angular position sensor comprising at least a housing portion surrounded by the at least one body, the body of the housing with respect to the rotation shaft mounted to rotate about the body comprises a fixed integral therewith on which a grating or element, the grating element comprises about a surface axis of rotation, the surface comprises aligned single binary barcode infinite continuous pseudo-random distribution of high and low EMR reflectance region; sensor further comprises at least one EMR source and at least one EMR sensitive detection array, EMR source irradiator and the surface of EMR sensitive detector array receives incident EMR reflected from this surface, and EMR source EMR sensitive detector array mounted relative to the housing, so the incident EMR from the EMR sensitive detector array pattern generated due to the interaction region of low and high reflectivity on the surface of the grating element, processed on the EMR pattern sensitive detector array by a processor to obtain an absolute angular position with respect to the region of the housing, and therefore provides rotational measured relative to the absolute angular position of the housing.

在一个实施例中,至少一个机体包括两个旋转体,每一个旋转体都具有各自的光栅元件,通过一预定的抗扭刚度部件来连接这两个旋转体;和至少一个EMR灵敏探测器的阵列,用于接收由光栅元件表面反射的入射EMR,通过处理图形来得到相对于外壳的光栅元件表面区域的绝对角度位置,并且还通过处理角度位置之间的差值来得到光栅元件的相对角度位置,并因此提供该元件所传送扭矩的测量。 In one embodiment, a body comprising at least two rotating bodies each rotating body having respective grating elements, to connect the two rotating bodies by a predetermined torsional rigidity member; and at least one EMR sensitive detector array for receiving incident EMR reflected from the surface of the grating element, to obtain the absolute angular position of the grating element with respect to a surface region of the housing by the processing pattern, and further to obtain the relative angle of the grating elements by processing a difference between the angular positions position, and thus provides the torque measurement of the transmitted member. 传感器可以包括EMR灵敏探测器的两个阵列,其每一个均与各自的光栅元件有关。 The sensor may comprise two arrays of EMR sensitive detectors, each of which are related to the respective grating element. 传感器可以包括两个EMR源,其每一个与各自的光栅元件有关。 EMR source may comprise two sensors, each of which is related to the respective grating element.

更适合的是旋转表面可以是至少部分圆柱形的或部分圆锥形的。 More suitably rotating surface may be at least partially cylindrical or partially conical.

更适合的是,高EMR反射率区域或低EMR反射率区域包括具有恒定中心线节距和可变厚度的条。 More suitable is a high or a low reflectance region EMR EMR reflectance region including a centerline, of constant pitch and variable thickness. 更适合的是可变厚度的条包括至少两个离散厚度的条。 More suitably variable thickness strip comprises at least two discrete strip thickness. 更适合的是具有两种厚度的条,也就是宽条和窄条。 More suitably article having two thicknesses, that is, wide bars and narrow.

此外,更适合的是,高EMR反射率区域或低EMR反射率区域包括具有可变中心线节距的条并且该节距是基本节距的整数倍。 Further, more suitably, the high reflectance region EMR EMR or a low reflectance region having a strip comprising a variable pitch and a center line pitch is an integer multiple of the fundamental pitch. 更适合的是,可变中心线节距的条具有恒定的厚度。 More suitably, the variable pitch center lines have a constant thickness. 此外条可以有可变的厚度。 Furthermore strip may have a variable thickness. 更适合的是,可变厚度条包括至少两个离散的厚度。 More suitably, the variable thickness of the strip comprises at least two discrete thickness. 更适合的是,条只具有两个厚度,也就是宽条和窄条。 More suitably, a thickness of only two strips, i.e. narrow and wide bars.

在一些实施例中,旋转表面具有从那里径向突出的城堡状突起。 In some embodiments, the rotating surface having a radially projecting therefrom castle-like projection. 更适合的是,高反射率区域相应于最大城堡状突起的区域,并且低反射率区域与位于城堡状突起之间的较小突起区域成角度地排成直线。 More suitably, the high reflectance region corresponding to the region of the maximum projection of castellations, and the low reflectance region smaller angled projection region located between the castle-shaped projections aligned. 此外,更适合的是,所述最大突起的区域是被平滑地进行了机械加工、制模加工或烧结、或者利用油漆或通过材料沉积进行了表面处理的具有高反射率的区域;并且不连续的缝隙区域或较小突起的区域是被平滑地进行了机械加工、制模加工或烧结、或者利用油漆或通过材料沉积进行了表面处理的具有低反射率的区域。 Further, more suitably, the maximum projection area is performed smoothly machining, molding or sintering process, or a paint or a high reflectance region having a surface treatment by depositing a material; and a discontinuous the smaller gap area or projection area is performed smoothly machining, molding or sintering process, or a paint or a low reflectance region having a surface treatment by material deposition.

更适合的是,高反射率区域是喷涂了金属的、发光的或浅色的区域;并且低反射率区域是大体透明、无光泽、粗糙或深色的,因此形成反射刻度盘。 More suitably, the high reflectance region is sprayed metal, or a light emitting area; and the low reflectance region is substantially transparent, matte, rough or dark, thus forming the reflective scale.

在所述表面内或外径向布置有至少一个EMR探测器的阵列。 Or in the outer radial surface is arranged at least one array of EMR detectors.

更适合的是,至少一个EMR探测器阵列包括一个一维或两维阵列、CCD、VLSI可视芯片或平面效应光二极管。 More suitably at least an EMR detector array comprises a one-dimensional or two-dimensional array, CCD, VLSI chips or visual effect LED plane.

更适合的是,还由处理器对图形进行处理来得到旋转体相对于外壳的角速度。 It is more suitable for further processing by the processor of the graphics to obtain angular speed relative to the housing.

附图的简要描述现在将凭借附图表示的示例来描述本发明,其中:图1a是根据本发明第一实施例角度位置传感器的剖面简图,表示由径向突出的城堡状突起所提供高和低反射率区域、以及径向分布的光探测器阵列所组成的旋转体;图1b是表示图1a中所示光栅元件局部放大的刻度盘示意图;图2a是类似于图1a中所示的角度位置传感器的剖面简图,其利用轴向突出的城堡状突起和轴向分布的光探测器阵列;图2b是表示图2a中所示光栅元件局部放大的刻度盘示意图;图3a是根据本发明第二实施例角度位置传感器的剖面简图,表示由具有高和低反射率区域的圆柱状刻度盘表面和径向分布的光探测器阵列所组成的旋转体;图3b是表示图3a中所示光栅元件局部放大的刻度盘示意图;图4a是类似于图3a中所示的角度位置传感器的剖面简图,其利用具有轴向分布的光探测器 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS With the example will now be described with reference to the present invention is represented, in which: Figure 1a is a cross-sectional diagram of the angular position sensor of the first embodiment of the present invention, represented by a radially projecting protrusion of the castellations provide high and a rotating body composed of a low reflectance area, and radial distribution of the light detector array; FIG. 1b is a schematic view showing the elements shown in FIG. 1a grating partially enlarged scale; FIG. 2a is similar to that shown in Figure 1a schematic cross-sectional view of the angular position sensor, by the light detector array which axially protruding castellations and axially distributed protrusions; FIG. 2b is a schematic scale grating element shown in FIG. 2a an enlarged representation; FIG. 3a is a present the second embodiment of the invention a cross-sectional schematic view of the angular position sensor of the embodiment, the rotating body is represented by the cylindrical surface of the dial and a light detector array having a high and a low reflectance region of the radial distribution thereof; FIG. 3b is a diagram in FIG. 3a grating element shown in a partially enlarged schematic view of the dial; FIG. 4a is a schematic cross sectional view of the angular position sensor shown in FIG. 3a is similar, utilizing a light detector having an axial distribution 列的圆盘状刻度盘表面;图4b是表示图4a中所示光栅元件局部放大的刻度盘示意图;图5表示在光探测器阵列上入射的图形、以及提供近似分辨率绝对角度测量和精确分辨率插补增量测量所利用的技术,和图6是根据本发明第三实施例角度位置传感器的剖面简图,其中该传感器包括由扭转元件所连接的两个旋转体,并且该传感器提供由扭转元件所传送的扭矩测量。 Disk-shaped column surface of the scale; FIG. 4b is a schematic diagram showing scale grating element 4a shown in partially enlarged; Figure 5 shows incident on the light detector array pattern, and provide an approximate absolute angle measurement resolution and accuracy interpolated resolution incremental measurement technique utilized, and FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional diagram of the angular position sensor of the third embodiment of the present invention, wherein the sensor comprises two rotating bodies by the torsion elements are connected, and the sensor provides a torsion torque measuring element is transmitted.

实现发明的模式图1a和1b表示根据本发明第一实施例的角度位置传感器。 Schematic diagram of the invention implemented 1a and 1b according to the present invention showing the angular position sensor according to the first embodiment. 旋转体1包括光栅元件2,光栅元件2具有由高和低EMR反射率区域交互构成的不连续外部圆柱表面14,以单个二进位条形码的形式排列。 The rotating body 1 comprises a grating element 2, a grating element 2 has a discontinuous outer cylindrical surface constituted by the high reflectance region and the low interaction EMR 14, arranged in a single binary bar code. 光栅元件2包括在径向伸展空腔4中所插入的径向突出的城堡状突起3。 Grating element 2 comprises a radially extending cavity 4 inserted in a radially protruding castellations projections 3. 圆柱表面14上的高反射率区域相应于相对旋转体1旋转轴8的城堡状突起3最大半径12的区域,并且可以对其平滑地进行机械加工、制模加工或烧结,或者利用油漆或通过沉积得到所需高反射率的材料来对表面进行处理。 High reflectance region 14 on the cylindrical surface of the rotary member corresponding to a region 3 the maximum radius of the rotating shaft 12 castellations protrusion 8, and may be smoothly machined, machining or sintering molding, or by paint or by depositing material to obtain the desired high reflectivity surface to be treated. 圆柱表面14上的低反射率区域相应于不连续缝隙区域13,并且其由于空腔4的存在而基本上不反射,包括排列在比前述区域12半径小的最小半径15区域,并且对其进行理想的机械加工、制模加工或烧结,或者利用油漆或通过材料沉积来对表面进行处理以得到低反射率。 Low reflectance region 14 on the cylindrical surface of the gap corresponding to the discontinuous region 13, and due to the presence of the cavity 4 without substantially reflected in the arrangement comprising a region smaller than the minimum radius 12 radius of region 15, and subjected to ideal machining, molding or sintering process, or by treatment by a paint or material deposition to a surface to obtain a low reflectivity. 将旋转体1装入外壳5中并且由轴承6和7对其进行支撑,并且其能够绕旋转轴8而旋转。 The rotating body 5 into the housing 1 and is supported by bearings 6 and 7 thereof, and which can rotate about the rotary shaft 8. EMR源10和EMR灵敏光探测器阵列9安装在外壳5中,并且将其布置成使EMR源10照亮不连续表面14,表面14将EMR反射到基本上径向布置阵列9。 EMR source 10 and the array of EMR sensitive light detector 9 mounted in the housing 5, and which is arranged such that the EMR source 10 illuminates the discontinuous surface 14, 14 to the reflective surface EMR array 9 are arranged substantially radially. 因此在阵列9上产生图形,并由处理器11对其进行处理来提供旋转体1相对于外壳5的绝对角度位置的测量。 Thus producing pattern on the array 9, it is processed by the processor 11 to provide a measurement of the absolute angular position of the rotary body 1 with respect to the housing 5. 必须注意的是该说明书中的单词“反射”、“被反射”、“反射率”是指镜面反射和/或漫反射。 It must be noted that in this specification the word "reflection", "reflected", "reflectivity" refers to the specular and / or diffuse reflection.

图2a和2表示根据本发明第一实施例的另一种角度位置传感器。 Figures 2a and 2 according to the present invention represents a further angular position sensor according to the first embodiment. 旋转体1包括光栅元件2,光栅元件2其具有由高和低EMR反射区域所交替组成的不连续径向扁平圆盘表面14,以单个二进位条形码连续的方式对其进行布置。 The rotating body 1 comprises a grating element 2, a grating element 2 which has a high and a low reflection region EMR is composed of alternating flat disc with a discontinuous radial surface 14, a single binary barcode be arranged in a continuous manner. 光栅元件2包括在轴向伸展空腔4之间所插入的轴向突出的城堡状突起3。 2 grating element comprising axially extending cavity 4 inserted between the projection axially protruding castellations 3. 高反射率区域相应于相对旋转体1旋转轴8的城堡状突起3最大轴向突起12的区域,并且可以对其平滑地进行机械加工、制模加工或烧结,或者利用油漆或通过材料沉积来对表面进行处理以得到所需的高反射率。 High reflectance region corresponding to the axis of rotation of the rotary member 8 of the projection 3 castellations maximum axial protrusion area 12, and may be smoothly machined, machining or sintering molding, or with paint or material deposition by treating the surface to obtain the desired high reflectance. 低反射率区域相应于不连续缝隙区域13,并且其由于空腔4的存在而基本上不反射。 Low reflectance region corresponding to the discontinuous gap area 13, and due to the presence of the cavity 4 without substantially reflected. 将旋转体1装入外壳5中并且由轴承6和7对其进行支撑,并且其能够绕旋转轴8而旋转。 The rotating body 5 into the housing 1 and is supported by bearings 6 and 7 thereof, and which can rotate about the rotary shaft 8. EMR源10和EMR灵敏光探测器阵列9安装在外壳5中,并且将其布置成使EMR源10照亮不连续表面14,表面14将EMR再辐射到基本上轴向布置的阵列9。 EMR source 10 and the array of EMR sensitive light detector 9 mounted in the housing 5, and which is arranged such that the EMR source 10 illuminates the discontinuous surface 14, surface 14 and then radiated to the EMR 9 array of substantially axially disposed. 因此在阵列9上产生图形,并由处理器11对其进行处理来提供旋转体1相对于外壳5的绝对角度位置的测量。 Thus producing pattern on the array 9, it is processed by the processor 11 to provide a measurement of the absolute angular position of the rotary body 1 with respect to the housing 5.

图3a和3b表示的是根据本发明第二实施例的角度位置传感器。 Figures 3a and 3b show the position of the angle sensor according to a second embodiment of the present invention. 旋转体1的光栅元件2包括由高和低反射率区域交替组成刻度盘形式的连续圆柱表面20,以单个二进位条形码的形式进行排列。 Grating element 1 rotating body 2 comprises a continuous cylindrical surface of a high and a low reflectance region of alternate forms of dial 20, are arranged in the form of individual binary bar codes. 喷涂金属的敷层、或其他发亮或浅色的材料或表面处理,提供基本上轴向排列的高反射率区域21。 Metallizing coating, or other shiny or light colored material or surface treatment provides the high reflectance region 21 is substantially axially aligned. 充分透明、无光泽、粗糙或深色材料或表面处理提供空隙隔开的低反射率区域22。 Substantially transparent, matte, rough or dark-colored material or surface treatment provides the void spaced low reflectance region 22. 将旋转体1装入外壳5中并且由轴承6和7对其进行支撑,并且其能够绕旋转轴8而旋转。 The rotating body 5 into the housing 1 and is supported by bearings 6 and 7 thereof, and which can rotate about the rotary shaft 8. EMR源10和EMR灵敏光探测器阵列9安装在外壳5中,并且将其布置成使EMR源10照亮高和低反射率区域21和22,区域21和22将EMR再辐射到基本上径向布置的阵列9。 EMR source 10 and the array of EMR sensitive light detector 9 mounted in the housing 5, and which is arranged to illuminate the EMR source 10 of high and low reflectance regions 21 and 22, the regions 21 and 22 and then radiated to a substantially radial EMR to 9 arranged in an array. 因此在阵列9上产生图形,并由处理器11对其进行处理来提供旋转体1相对于外壳5的绝对角度位置的测量。 Thus producing pattern on the array 9, it is processed by the processor 11 to provide a measurement of the absolute angular position of the rotary body 1 with respect to the housing 5.

图4a和4b表示的是本发明第二实施例的另一个角度位置传感器。 Figures 4a and 4b show another angular position sensor of the second embodiment of the present invention. 旋转体1的光栅元件2包括由高和低反射率区域交替组成刻度盘形式的不连续径向扁平圆盘表面20,以单个二进位条形码的形式进行排列。 20, arranged in the form of individual binary bar code 2 includes a discontinuous radial regions of high and low reflectivity alternated with dial flat disc surface in the form of a grating element of the rotating body. 喷涂金属的敷层、或其他发亮或浅色的材料或表面处理,提供基本上径向排列的高反射率区域21。 Metallizing coating, or other shiny or light colored material or surface treatment provides the high reflectance region 21 substantially radially aligned. 充分透明、无光泽、粗糙或深色材料或表面处理提供空隙隔开的低反射率区域22。 Substantially transparent, matte, rough or dark-colored material or surface treatment provides the void spaced low reflectance region 22. 将旋转体1装入外壳5中并且由轴承6和7对其进行支撑,并且其能够绕旋转轴8而旋转。 The rotating body 5 into the housing 1 and is supported by bearings 6 and 7 thereof, and which can rotate about the rotary shaft 8. EMR源10和EMR灵敏光探测器阵列9安装在外壳5中,并且将其布置成使EMR源10照亮高和低反射率区域21和22,区域21和22将EMR再辐射到基本上轴向布置的阵列9。 EMR source 10 and the array of EMR sensitive light detector 9 mounted in the housing 5, and which is arranged to illuminate the EMR source 10 of high and low reflectance regions 21 and 22, the regions 21 and 22 and then radiated to an axis substantially EMR to 9 arranged in an array. 因此在阵列9上产生图形,并由处理器11对其进行处理来提供旋转体1相对于外壳5的绝对角度位置的测量。 Thus producing pattern on the array 9, it is processed by the processor 11 to provide a measurement of the absolute angular position of the rotary body 1 with respect to the housing 5.

在第一或第二实施例的所有情况中,将会明白可以容易对处理器11编程或硬连接来计算作为时间函数的旋转体1绝对角度位置变化率,并因此还提供旋转体1相对外壳5的绝对角速度的测量。 In the first or second embodiment in all cases, it will be readily apparent to the processor 11 can be programmed or hardwired calculated as a function of time of the rotating body 1 absolute angular position change rate, and thus also provides a rotating body relative to the housing 5 measuring angular velocity absolute.

图5表示根据本发明第一或第二实施例(也根据下面描述的第三实施例)由阵列9上入射的EMR所产生的图形。 Figure 5 shows a pattern according to the first or second embodiment of the present invention (also according to the third embodiment described below) is incident on the array by 9 EMR generated. 单个比特位30a-e代表阵列9图形的暗区域,其是由于减少低反射率区域13(第一实施例)和22(第二实施例)的反射水平所引起的。 Individual bits representative of the dark region 30a-e of the array pattern 9, which is due to reduced due to the low reflectance region 13 (first embodiment) and 22 (second embodiment) of the reflection level. 阵列9是一维“线性”阵列,例如具有128像素和大约8毫米长的活动窗口的Texas Instruments TSL 1410 Black & White Linear Array芯片。 9 is an array of one-dimensional "linear" arrays, such as 128 pixels and having a length of about 8 millimeters active windows Texas Instruments TSL 1410 Black & amp; White Linear Array chip. 该阵列用于提供绝对角度位置测量和精确分辨率增量的角度位置测量。 The angular position measurement array is used to provide absolute angular position measurement resolution and precise increments. 可以通过读取至少一个由预定数比特所形成的完整字符来完成绝对角度位置的测量,在这种情况下字符31包括五个比特,以允许识别代表绝对角度位置测量的伪随机序列的字符。 Can be accomplished by at least one complete character is read by a predetermined number of bits forming the measured absolute angular position of the character 31 in this case comprises five bits, allowing to identify the pseudo-random sequence of characters representative of an absolute angular position measurement. 通常这种伪随机序列的布置和使用在图象分析技术中是众所周知,并且在5,576,535号美国专利中描述了关于测量绝对线性位移。 Typically disposed in the image analysis and use of such art pseudo-random sequence it is well known, and are described on an absolute measurement of linear displacement in U.S. Patent No. 5,576,535. 这种序列一个组合的另一个示例在1989年的lan Stewart,Penguin Books的“Game,Set and Math”中描述为Ouroborean ring。 Another example of such a combination in a sequence of 1989 lan Stewart, Penguin Books of "Game, Set and Math" as described Ouroborean ring.

在本发明的该实施例中所使用高和低EMR反射率区域的布置是不同的,虽然由于阵列9上所产生的图形包括具有可变宽度“p”和“q”的恒定中心线节距“a”(也就是相邻条中心线之间的间隔距离)。 EMR arrangement of high and low reflectance region is used in this embodiment of the present invention is different, although since the pattern on the array 9 comprises generating "p" and "q" has a constant pitch variable width centerline "a" (i.e. the distance between adjacent center lines). 图5表示五比特的字符31,具有由宽度为“p”的比特位30a和30d所代表的二进制数“1”和由宽度为“q”的比特位30b、30c和30e所代表的二进制数“0”。 5 shows a five-bit character 31, having a width of "p" bits 30a and the binary number 30d represents "1" and a width "q" bits are 30b, 30c, and the binary number 30e represents "0." 因此完整字符31是10010(也就是基数10中的18),由处理器11对其进行处理来提供旋转体1的唯一绝对角度位置。 31 is thus completed character 10010 (i.e. the base 1018), to provide a unique absolute angular position of the rotating body 1 by a processor 11 for processing thereof. 重要的是,高和低EMR反射率区域的布置,在阵列9上产生具有恒定节距的图形,允许相同图形,并且将阵列用于精确分辨率增量角度位置的测量。 Importantly, the arrangement of high and low reflectance region EMR, producing a pattern having a constant pitch on the array 9, allows the same pattern, and the resolution of the array for measuring the precise incremental angular position. 图5中也表示了这种插补技术。 5 also shows this interpolation technique. 由P(x)来表示阵列9上的EMR强度图形,其中x是表示角度位移的水平刻度并且P是x的函数。 Of P (x) to represent the intensity pattern on the array of EMR 9, where x is the horizontal scale represents the angular displacement and P is a function of x.

如果EMR强度图形是正弦曲线,那么:P(x)=sin[2π(xd)/a]其中a=图形节距,和d=图形位移由阵列9的单个像素对P(x)进行采样。 If the EMR intensity pattern is sinusoidal, then: P (x) = sin [2π (xd) / a] wherein a = the pitch pattern, and a displacement pattern of d = P (x) is sampled by a single pixel array 9. 假设Pi代表i-th的样本。 Pi is assumed that the i-th representative sample. 因此样本的“图形矢量”可以表示为P=[P1、P2、P3、…Pn]。 Thus sample "Vector Graphics" can be expressed as P = [P1, P2, P3, ... Pn].

现在定义两个加权函数,是正弦和余弦加权矢量:ki1=sin(2πi/a),其中i=1…nki2=cos(2πi/a),其中i=1…n因此可以给出相位角α是:α=arctan[(∑Piki1)/(∑Piki2],其中i=1…n作为结果的相位角α是与正弦和余弦加权矢量相关图形增量位移的测量,并且提供精确分辨率角度位置测量,也就是按照统计学原理,多次比一比特图形的宽度更精确。结合近似分辨率绝对角度位置测量和精确分辨率增量角度位置测量来提供绝对角度位置探测器,该探测器具有仅需一个探测器阵列的精确分辨率并且具有对机械偏差和不重合的低敏感度。 Now define the two weighting functions are sine and cosine weighted vector: ki1 = sin (2πi / a), where i = 1 ... nki2 = cos (2πi / a), where i = 1 ... n can be given by the phase angle α is: α = arctan [(ΣPiki1) / (ΣPiki2], where i = 1 ... n as the result of the phase angle [alpha] is related to the incremental displacement measurement pattern with sine and cosine weighted vector, and resolution to provide accurate angular position measuring, i.e. according to the principles of statistics, the width times more accurate comparison and Laid pattern. binding approximate resolution absolute angular position measurement resolution and accuracy to provide incremental angular position measuring absolute angular position detector which has only a detector array for an accurate and has a resolution and a low sensitivity to mechanical deviations do not overlap.

根据这种“卷积算法”可以同样对具有恒定节距的其它类型条形码的使用进行处理,例如可以将二进位信息编码为条的长度而不是宽度的差值。 Can also use other types of bar codes having a constant pitch is processed in accordance with this "convolution algorithm", e.g. information may be encoded as binary rather than the width of the strip length difference. 此外,例如通过利用灰度代码可以将二进位的信息编码为重新辐射处理的EMR衰减水平的差值。 Further, for example, the binary encoding of information is re-radiation attenuation level difference of EMR-treated by using grayscale code. 此外,尽管这个实施例论证了基于具有恒定条节距和可变条宽度条形码的卷积算法,应该明白的是该算法将在可变条节距情况下顺利起相等的作用,只要所选择的条节距是“基本节距”的整数倍。 Further, although this example demonstrates convolution algorithm based on the width of bar code bars having a constant pitch and variable item, it should be understood that the algorithm successfully play the role of an equal pitch in the case of variable section, provided that the selected Article pitch is "substantially pitch" integer multiple. 例如,参照图5中所使用的术语,分离比特位30a-e的中心线节距可以分别布置为“a”、“3a”、“2a”,并且“a”(具有a的基本节距)不是图5中所示的恒定节距“a”。 For example, the term used in reference to Figure 5, the separation bits 30a-e may be arranged in the center line pitch are "a", "3a", "2a", and "a" (having a pitch of substantially) constant pitch not illustrated in FIG. 5, "a". 确实将“a”的任何整数倍用于连续比特位之间的中心线节距。 Indeed "a" is any integer multiple of a pitch between a centerline of consecutive bits of. 在选择了条形码的这种可变节距格式的情况下,可以通过改变节距间隔(而不是条的宽度)来完成对条形码的加密(如图5中的位图所示),因此在这种情况下对于使用恒定的条宽度并且仍然圆满完成对近似绝对角度位置测量的条形码加密是现实可行的。 In such a variable pitch selected in the case where the bar code format, may encrypt the barcode (bitmap shown in FIG. 5) by changing the spacing pitch (not strip width), so that is a case where realistic use constant for the strip width and still encrypted barcode on the successful completion of the approximate absolute angular position measurement.

还应该注意的是与所描述的实施例相比较,条形码的序列可能具有相反的反射率,也就是高反射率区域利用低反射率区域作为背景。 It should also be noted that in comparison with the described embodiments, the sequence may have a bar code reflectance opposite, i.e. high reflectance region with a low reflectance region as a background.

此外在给出的说明书中“高反射率”和“低反射率”是参照所选择的特定EMR源大概定义的。 Further, in the description given in "high reflectivity" and "low reflectivity" is a reference to the selected particular EMR source approximately defined. 例如,如果使用红光EMR源,反射光栅表面的高和低反射率区域可以由分别利用红和蓝表面敷层所油漆(或者通过另外的方法来着色)的区域所组成。 For example, if a red EMR source, the reflective surface of the grating of high and low reflectance region may be a paint coating area (or be colored by another method) by use of red and blue, respectively, the surface composition.

图6表示根据本发明第三实施例的角度位置传感器。 6 shows an embodiment of an angular position sensor according to a third embodiment of the present invention. 角度位置传感器包括两个旋转体1a和1b,由预定抗扭刚度的扭杆23将它们连接。 Angular position sensor includes two rotating bodies 1a and 1b, 23 are connected by a torsion bar to predetermined torsional stiffness thereof. 光栅元件2a和2b分别固定在或与旋转体1a和1b结合,并且阵列9a和9b分别接收从表面20a和20b再辐射的入射EMR。 Grating element 2a and 2b are fixed to the rotating body or binding 1a and 1b, and the array 9a and 9b respectively receive incident EMR from the surfaces 20b and 20a re-radiated. 在某个其它实施例(没有示出)中,可以将阵列9a和9b组合为单个阵列。 In some other embodiments (not shown), the array may be combined into a single array 9a and 9b. 因此这种单个阵列必须是2D阵列,并且将接收从表面20a和20b反射的EMR。 So this 2D array must be a single array, and received from the EMR reflected from surfaces 20a and 20b. 同样地,在某个其它实施例(没有示出)中,EMR源10a和10b可以组合为单个EMR源。 Likewise, in some other embodiments (not shown), EMR sources 10a and 10b may be combined into a single source of EMR.

表面20a和20b可以表示为类似于图3a和3b中的表面20,也就是这些表面是圆柱形并且每一个都包括由高和低反射率交互区域所组成的刻度盘,并且以单个二进制条形码无穷连续的形式而排列。 Surfaces 20a and 20b can be expressed similarly to FIGS. 3a and 3b the surface 20, i.e. surfaces which are cylindrical in shape and each include a dial of a high and a low reflectance region consisting of the interaction, and a single binary barcode infinity continuous form are arranged. 应该考虑的是其它类型的“旋转表面”可以用于代替这些连续的圆柱表面20a和20b,例如连续扁平圆盘表面(类似于图4a和4b中的表面20)、不连续圆柱表面(类似于图1a和1b中的表面14)、或不连续扁平圆盘表面(类似于图2a和2b中的表面14)。 It should be considered "surface of revolution" may be used instead of other types of successive cylindrical surfaces 20a and 20b, such as a continuous flat disc surface (FIGS. 4a and 4b similar to the surface 20), a discontinuous cylindrical surface (similar to Figures 1a and 1b the surface 14), or discontinuous flat disc surface (FIGS. 2a and 2b similar to the surface 14). 该说明书中旋转体的“旋转表面”定义为围绕旋转轴等距布置的表面,其中旋转体绕旋转轴旋转。 The rotary body specification "rotational surface" is defined as equidistant arrangement around the surface of the rotating shaft, wherein the rotary body about the rotational axis.

阵列9a和9b上的图形、或上述单个阵列(没有示出)上的图形,由处理器11来处理以得到每个光栅元件2a和2b表面20a和20b上分别相对外壳5的高和低反射率(或其它实施例中的传输率)区域的绝对角度位置。 Graphics, or said single array on the array 9a and 9b (not shown) on the pattern, to be processed by the processor 11 to obtain the elements 2a and 2b each grating surfaces 20a and 20b are high relative to the housing 5 and a low reflectance rate (transmission rate or other embodiments of the embodiment) of the absolute angular position of the region. 还通过处理器11来处理这些绝对角度位置之间的差值来得到光栅元件2a和2b的相对角度位移,并因此提供对由扭杆23所传送扭矩的测量。 Also to process the difference between these absolute angular position obtained by the processor 11 to the grating elements 2a and 2b of the relative angular displacement, and thus provide a measurement of the torsion bar 23 by the transmitted torque.

因此角度位置传感器的第三实施例不仅提供两个旋转体1a和1b中每一个相对外壳5的绝对角度位置(以及上述的它们角速度)的测量,而且还提供施加在旋转体1a和1b之间扭矩(由扭杆23对其作用)的测量。 Thus the third embodiment provides not only the angular position measurement sensors 1a and 1b each absolute angular position relative to the housing 5 (and the above-described angular velocity thereof) of the two rotating bodies, but also provides applied between the rotating body 1a and 1b torque measurements (torsion bar 23 to their action).

本领域的技术人员应该明白,在不违背本发明的精神和范围的的前提下,可以对本发明做出多种改变和修改。 Those skilled in the art should understand that, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention premise, can make various changes and modifications of the present invention.

Claims (21)

1.一种角度位置传感器,包括至少由外壳部分围绕的至少一个机体,机体可绕相对于外壳所固定的旋转轴而旋转,该机体包括固定于其上或与之成整体的光栅元件,该光栅元件包括绕旋转轴旋转的表面,该表面包括以单个二进位条形码无穷连续形式排列的伪随机分布的高和低EMR反射率区域;传感器还包括至少一个EMR源和至少一个EMR灵敏探测器的阵列,该EMR源照射所述表面并且该EMR灵敏探测器阵列接收由该表面反射的入射EMR,所述EMR源和EMR灵敏探测器的阵列相对于外壳所固定,因此由入射EMR在EMR灵敏探测器阵列上所产生的图形起因于光栅元件表面上的低和高反射率的交互区域,由处理器对阵列上的图形进行处理来得到所述区域相对于外壳的绝对角度位置,并因此提供旋转体相对于外壳的绝对角度位置的测量。 An angular position sensor comprising a housing at least partially surrounded by at least one body, the body may be fixed relative to the housing to rotate about a rotating shaft, which comprises a body fixed thereto or integral therewith grating element, which grating element comprises about a surface axis of rotation, the surface comprises a high and a low EMR reflectance regions are arranged in a single binary barcode infinite continuous pseudo-random distribution; sensor further comprises at least one EMR source and at least one EMR sensitive detector array, the source of EMR and the EMR irradiating the surface of the sensitive detector array receives incident EMR reflected from the surface of the array of EMR and the EMR source sensitive detector is fixed relative to the housing, and thus detected by the incident EMR sensitive EMR pattern on the array generated due to the interaction region of low and high reflectivity on the surface of the grating element pattern on the array of processing by the processor to obtain an absolute angular position of the region with respect to the housing, and therefore provides rotational measured relative to the absolute angular position of the housing.
2.根据权利要求1所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,至少一个机体包括两个旋转体,每一个旋转体都具有各自的光栅元件,通过一预定的抗扭刚度的部件来连接这两个旋转体;和至少一个EMR灵敏探测器的阵列,用于接收由光栅元件的表面反射的入射EMR,通过处理一个或多个图形来得到光栅元件表面区域相对于外壳的绝对角度位置,并且还通过处理角度位置之间的差值来得到光栅元件的相对角度位置,并因此提供该部件所传送的扭矩测量。 The angular position sensor according to claim 1, wherein the at least two rotating bodies comprises a body, a rotary body each having respective grating elements, the two are connected by means of a predetermined torsional stiffness a rotating body; and at least one array of EMR sensitive detectors, for receiving incident EMR reflected from the surface of the grating element, to obtain the absolute angular position of the grating element with respect to the surface area of ​​the housing through one or more graphical processing, and further relative angular position is obtained by processing the raster elements the difference between the angular position and thus provide a measure of the torque transmitted by the member.
3.根据权利要求2所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,所述传感器包括EMR灵敏探测器的两个阵列,其每一个均与各自的光栅元件有关。 3. The angular position sensor as claimed in claim 2, wherein the sensor comprises two arrays of EMR sensitive detectors, each of which are related to the respective grating element.
4.根据权利要求2所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,所述传感器包括两个EMR源,其每一个与各自的光栅元件有关。 4. The angular position sensor according to claim 2, wherein said sensor comprises two EMR sources, each of which is related to the respective grating element.
5.根据权利要求1所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,旋转表面的至少一部分是圆柱形的。 The angular position sensor according to claim 1, wherein at least a portion of the cylindrical surface of revolution.
6.根据权利要求1所述的角位置传感器,其特征在于,旋转表面的至少一部分是圆锥形的。 6. The angular position sensor according to claim 1, wherein at least a portion of the surface of revolution is conical.
7.根据权利要求1所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,高EMR反射率区域或低EMR反射率区域包括具有恒定中心线节距和可变厚度的条。 7. The angular position sensor according to claim 1, wherein the high reflectance region EMR EMR or a low reflectance region including a centerline, of constant pitch and variable thickness.
8.根据权利要求7所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,可变厚度的条包括至少两个离散厚度的条。 8. The angular position sensor as claimed in claim 7, characterized in that the strip comprises a strip of variable thickness of the at least two discrete thickness.
9.根据权利要求8所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,所述条仅具有两个厚度。 9. The angular position sensor as claimed in claim 8, characterized in that the strip has only two thicknesses.
10.根据权利要求1所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,高EMR反射率区域或低EMR反射率区域包括具有可变中心线节距的条,并且节距是基本节距的整数倍。 10. The angular position sensor according to claim 1, wherein the high reflectance region EMR EMR or low reflectance region including a centerline strip having a variable pitch, and the pitch is an integer multiple of a basic pitch.
11.根据权利要求10所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,可变中心线节距的条具有恒定的厚度。 11. The angular position sensor as claimed in claim 10, characterized in that the center lines of the variable pitch having a constant thickness.
12.根据权利要求10所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,所述条具有可变的厚度。 12. The angular position sensor as claimed in claim 10, characterized in that the strip has a variable thickness.
13.根据权利要求12所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,可变厚度条包括至少两个离散厚度的条。 13. The angular position sensor as claimed in claim 12, wherein a variable thickness strip comprises at least two discrete strip thickness.
14.根据权利要求13所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,所述条仅具有两个厚度。 14. The angular position sensor as claimed in claim 13, characterized in that the strip has only two thicknesses.
15.根据权利要求1所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,旋转表面具有多个从该表面径向突出的城堡状突起。 15. The angular position sensor according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of revolution having a plurality of protrusions projecting radially from the surface of the castellations.
16.根据权利要求15所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,高反射率区域相应于最大城堡状突起的区域,并且低反射率区域与位于城堡状突起之间的较小突起区域成角度地排成直线。 16. The angular position sensor as claimed in claim 15, wherein the high reflectance region corresponding to the region of the maximum of the castle-like projection, and the projection area into smaller angularly between the low reflectivity region and the castle-like protrusion lined up.
17.根据权利要求16所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,所述最大突起的区域是平滑地进行了机械加工、模制加工或烧结、或者利用油漆或通过材料沉积进行了表面处理的具有高反射率的区域;并且不连续的缝隙区域或较小突起的区域是进行了机械加工、模制加工或烧结、或者利用油漆或通过材料沉积进行了表面处理的具有低反射率的区域。 17. The angular position sensor having the according to claim 16, characterized in that the maximum projection area is carried out smoothly machined, molded or sintered machining, or by painting or surface treatment by the material deposited high reflectance region; and a discontinuous gap areas or lesser area is a projection machining, molding or sintering process, or a paint or a low reflectance region having a surface treatment by material deposition.
18.根据权利要求1所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,所述高反射率区域是被喷涂了金属的、发光的或浅色的区域;并且低反射率区域是大体透明、无光泽、粗糙或深色的,因此形成反射刻度盘。 18. The angular position sensor according to claim 1, wherein said high reflectance region is sprayed metal, or a light emitting area; and the low reflectance region is substantially transparent, matte, rough or dark, thus forming the reflective scale.
19.根据权利要求1所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,在所述表面内或外径向布置有至少一个EMR探测器的阵列。 19. The angular position sensor as claimed in claim 1, wherein, in said outer radial surface is arranged or at least one array of EMR detectors.
20.根据权利要求1所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,至少一个EMR探测器阵列包括一个一维或两维阵列、CCD、VLSI可视芯片或平面效应光二极管。 20. The angular position sensor according to claim 1, wherein the at least one array of EMR detector comprises a one-dimensional or two-dimensional array, CCD, VLSI chips or visual effect LED plane.
21.根据权利要求1所述的角度位置传感器,其特征在于,还由处理器对图形进行处理来得到旋转体相对于外壳的角速度。 21. The angular position sensor according to claim 1, characterized in that the further processing by the processor of the graphics to obtain angular speed relative to the housing.
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CA2338637A1 (en) 2000-02-10
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EP1108198A1 (en) 2001-06-20
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JP2002521684A (en) 2002-07-16
BR9912682A (en) 2002-03-26

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