CN117236451A  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment  Google Patents
Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment Download PDFInfo
 Publication number
 CN117236451A CN117236451A CN202311199486.1A CN202311199486A CN117236451A CN 117236451 A CN117236451 A CN 117236451A CN 202311199486 A CN202311199486 A CN 202311199486A CN 117236451 A CN117236451 A CN 117236451A
 Authority
 CN
 China
 Prior art keywords
 quantum
 entanglement
 transformation
 scene
 state
 Prior art date
 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
 Granted
Links
 238000000034 method Methods 0.000 title claims abstract description 53
 230000009466 transformation Effects 0.000 claims abstract description 154
 238000006243 chemical reaction Methods 0.000 claims abstract description 150
 239000013598 vector Substances 0.000 claims abstract description 47
 238000009826 distribution Methods 0.000 claims abstract description 22
 230000001186 cumulative effect Effects 0.000 claims abstract description 10
 238000013507 mapping Methods 0.000 claims abstract description 10
 238000002360 preparation method Methods 0.000 claims description 49
 238000000746 purification Methods 0.000 claims description 43
 238000004891 communication Methods 0.000 claims description 25
 230000006870 function Effects 0.000 claims description 20
 238000004590 computer program Methods 0.000 claims description 12
 238000003860 storage Methods 0.000 claims description 11
 230000004044 response Effects 0.000 claims description 5
 230000001131 transforming effect Effects 0.000 claims description 5
 238000004364 calculation method Methods 0.000 description 12
 230000000694 effects Effects 0.000 description 10
 239000002245 particle Substances 0.000 description 9
 230000008569 process Effects 0.000 description 8
 238000012545 processing Methods 0.000 description 8
 230000005540 biological transmission Effects 0.000 description 6
 238000004422 calculation algorithm Methods 0.000 description 5
 238000010586 diagram Methods 0.000 description 4
 238000005516 engineering process Methods 0.000 description 4
 230000010365 information processing Effects 0.000 description 3
 230000003993 interaction Effects 0.000 description 3
 238000012986 modification Methods 0.000 description 3
 230000004048 modification Effects 0.000 description 3
 230000003287 optical effect Effects 0.000 description 3
 238000005457 optimization Methods 0.000 description 3
 238000012546 transfer Methods 0.000 description 3
 238000010276 construction Methods 0.000 description 2
 230000006872 improvement Effects 0.000 description 2
 230000000750 progressive effect Effects 0.000 description 2
 230000005610 quantum mechanics Effects 0.000 description 2
 238000004458 analytical method Methods 0.000 description 1
 238000013459 approach Methods 0.000 description 1
 238000003491 array Methods 0.000 description 1
 238000013473 artificial intelligence Methods 0.000 description 1
 230000009286 beneficial effect Effects 0.000 description 1
 230000001413 cellular effect Effects 0.000 description 1
 238000000354 decomposition reaction Methods 0.000 description 1
 238000013461 design Methods 0.000 description 1
 238000011161 development Methods 0.000 description 1
 238000002474 experimental method Methods 0.000 description 1
 239000004973 liquid crystal related substance Substances 0.000 description 1
 238000010801 machine learning Methods 0.000 description 1
 238000005259 measurement Methods 0.000 description 1
 239000013307 optical fiber Substances 0.000 description 1
 230000001737 promoting effect Effects 0.000 description 1
 239000004065 semiconductor Substances 0.000 description 1
 230000035945 sensitivity Effects 0.000 description 1
 230000001953 sensory effect Effects 0.000 description 1
 238000006467 substitution reaction Methods 0.000 description 1
 239000000758 substrate Substances 0.000 description 1
 230000001052 transient effect Effects 0.000 description 1
 230000000007 visual effect Effects 0.000 description 1
Landscapes
 Data Exchanges In WideArea Networks (AREA)
 Management, Administration, Business Operations System, And Electronic Commerce (AREA)
Abstract
The disclosure provides a quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment, relates to the technical field of quantum computing, and particularly relates to the technical field of quantum entanglement. The specific implementation scheme is as follows: receiving a quantum application request of a quantum network; based on a quantum application request, quantum state information and target errors in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of a quantum network are obtained, wherein the quantum state information comprises a first quantum state and the copy number of the first quantum state; determining a value of an optimal conversion rate in a quantum entanglement transformation scene based on quantum state information, a target error and a predetermined first relation, wherein the first relation is a relation between the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scene and first information, and the first information comprises copy numbers, inverse mapping of a standard forward distribution cumulative function about the target error, shannon entropy and variance of a Schmidt vector of a first quantum state; and carrying out resource scheduling on the quantum application service based on the quantum application request and the value of the optimal conversion rate.
Description
Technical Field
The disclosure relates to the technical field of quantum computing, in particular to the technical field of quantum entanglement, and specifically relates to a quantum entanglement resource scheduling method, a quantum entanglement resource scheduling device and electronic equipment.
Background
The quantum network may be used to perform quantum application services, for example, the quantum communication system may deploy quantum key distribution application services to enable secure information transfer using quantum entanglement states, and for example, the quantum network may deploy communication application services to effectively allocate entanglement resources to various nodes of the quantum network for communication.
Quantum entanglement is a very specific and unique phenomenon in quantum mechanics, where two or more quantum systems enter a closely related complex state. In this state, the quantum states of the individual systems cannot be defined individually, but rather need to be considered in combination with all other systems as a whole.
Quantum entanglement of different structures may be applied in different scenarios. For example, in most usage scenarios, the most desirable quantum entanglement is the bell state (i.e., the maximum entanglement). Therefore, in order to ensure the practical effect of quantum entanglement in the relevant applications, a given quantum entanglement state needs to be converted into a bell state required for the application by a certain operation, which is called quantum entanglement purification, before actually being put into use. For another example, to ensure the practical effect of quantum entanglement applications, a given bell state needs to be converted into the quantum entanglement state required for the application by a certain operation, which is called quantum entanglement preparation, before actually being put into use. The quantum entanglement purification and the quantum entanglement preparation can be called quantum entanglement transformation, namely, the quantum entanglement transformation from a quantum entanglement state to another quantum entanglement state.
When entanglement resources are scheduled for quantum application requests in a quantum network, direct scheduling is usually performed on the basis of entanglement resources obtained in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network.
Disclosure of Invention
The disclosure provides a quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment.
According to a first aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a quantum entanglement resource scheduling method, comprising:
receiving a quantum application request of a quantum network, wherein the quantum application request is used for scheduling entanglement resources to execute quantum application services;
based on the quantum application request, quantum state information and target errors in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network are obtained, wherein the quantum state information comprises a first quantum state and the copy number of the first quantum state, and the quantum entanglement transformation scene is used for transforming among different quantum entanglement states so as to generate entanglement resources required to be scheduled by the quantum application request;
determining a value of an optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario based on the quantum state information, the target error and a predetermined first relation, wherein the first relation is a relation between the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario and first information, and the first information comprises the copy number, inverse mapping of a standard forward distribution cumulative function related to the target error, shannon entropy and variance of a schmitt vector of the first quantum state;
And scheduling resources of the quantum application service based on the quantum application request and the value of the optimal conversion rate.
According to a second aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a quantum entanglement resource scheduling device comprising:
the receiving module is used for receiving a quantum application request of the quantum network, wherein the quantum application request is used for scheduling entanglement resources to execute quantum application services;
the quantum application request is used for obtaining quantum state information and target errors in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network, wherein the quantum state information comprises a first quantum state and the copy number of the first quantum state, and the quantum entanglement transformation scene is used for transforming among different quantum entanglement states so as to generate entanglement resources required to be scheduled by the quantum application request;
a first determining module, configured to determine a value of an optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario based on the quantum state information, the target error, and a predetermined first relationship, where the first relationship is a relationship between the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario and first information, and the first information includes the copy number, an inverse mapping of a standard nethernet distribution cumulative function with respect to the target error, shannon entropy and variance of a schmidt vector of the first quantum state;
And the resource scheduling module is used for scheduling the resource of the quantum application service based on the quantum application request and the value of the optimal conversion rate.
According to a third aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided an electronic device comprising:
at least one processor; and
a memory communicatively coupled to the at least one processor; wherein,
the memory stores instructions executable by the at least one processor to enable the at least one processor to perform any one of the methods of the first aspect.
According to a fourth aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a nontransitory computerreadable storage medium storing computer instructions for causing a computer to perform any of the methods of the first aspect.
According to a fifth aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a computer program product comprising a computer program which, when executed by a processor, implements any of the methods of the first aspect.
According to the technology disclosed by the invention, the problem that the flexibility of the quantum network to the resource scheduling of the quantum application service is relatively poor in the related technology is solved, the flexibility and the accuracy of the quantum network to the resource scheduling of the quantum application service can be improved, and the execution efficiency is relatively high.
It should be understood that the description in this section is not intended to identify key or critical features of the embodiments of the disclosure, nor is it intended to be used to limit the scope of the disclosure. Other features of the present disclosure will become apparent from the following specification.
Drawings
The drawings are for a better understanding of the present solution and are not to be construed as limiting the present disclosure. Wherein:
fig. 1 is a flow diagram of a quantum entanglement resource scheduling method according to a first embodiment of the present disclosure;
FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of quantum state copy number versus average conversion for quantum entanglement purification;
FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of quantum state copy number versus average conversion for quantum entanglement preparation;
fig. 4 is a schematic structural view of a quantum entanglement resource scheduling device according to a second embodiment of the present disclosure;
fig. 5 is a schematic block diagram of an example electronic device used to implement embodiments of the present disclosure.
Detailed Description
Exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure are described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which include various details of the embodiments of the present disclosure to facilitate understanding, and should be considered as merely exemplary. Accordingly, one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that various changes and modifications of the embodiments described herein can be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the present disclosure. Also, descriptions of wellknown functions and constructions are omitted in the following description for clarity and conciseness.
First embodiment
As shown in fig. 1, the present disclosure provides a quantum entanglement resource scheduling method, including the steps of:
step S101: receiving a quantum application request of a quantum network, wherein the quantum application request is used for scheduling entanglement resources to execute quantum application services;
in this embodiment, the quantum entanglement resource scheduling method relates to the technical field of quantum computing, in particular to the technical field of quantum entanglement, and can be widely applied to the scheduling scene of quantum network entangled resources of quantum application service. The quantum entanglement resource scheduling method of the embodiment of the disclosure can be executed by the quantum entanglement resource scheduling device of the embodiment of the disclosure. The quantum entanglement resource scheduling device of the embodiment of the disclosure can be configured in any electronic equipment to execute the quantum entanglement resource scheduling method of the embodiment of the disclosure.
The quantum network may be a quantum key distribution network, a quantum communication network, or a network for performing quantum computation in a quantum computer, which is not particularly limited herein.
The quantum network may be functionally divided into multiple layers, which may include an upper quantum application service layer and a lower service support layer, which may receive quantum application requests sent by the upper quantum application service layer to schedule entanglement resources for execution of quantum application services.
Optionally, the quantum application service includes any one of:
quantum key distribution application services;
a communication application service;
distributed quantum computing application services.
In one scenario, the quantum key distribution application service and the communication application service can schedule entangled resources obtained by quantum entanglement preparation or quantum entanglement purification by a service support layer of the bottom layer to realize safe information transmission. In another scenario, the distributed quantum computing application service may schedule entangled resources obtained by quantum entanglement preparation or quantum entanglement purification by the underlying service support layer to perform complex algorithms, such as distributed quantum computing.
The quantum application request may carry a service identifier, an entanglement resource number, entanglement resource characteristics, etc., where the entanglement resource characteristics may indicate a quantum entanglement transformation scenario. For example, when the quantum state required to be used by the entangled resource characteristic representation quantum application service is the maximum entangled state, the entangled resource characteristic representation quantum application service can indicate a quantum entangled purification scene required to be started by the quantum network so as to purify and obtain corresponding entangled resources for quantum application service. For another example, when the quantum state required to be used by the entangled resource feature representation quantum application service is other quantum states (not the maximum entangled state), the entangled resource feature representation quantum application service can indicate a quantum entangled preparation scene required to be started by the quantum network, and the quantum application service is performed by preparing the corresponding entangled resource through the maximum entangled state.
Step S102: based on the quantum application request, quantum state information and target errors in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network are obtained, wherein the quantum state information comprises a first quantum state and the copy number of the first quantum state, and the quantum entanglement transformation scene is used for transforming among different quantum entanglement states so as to generate entanglement resources required to be scheduled by the quantum application request.
Quantum entanglement is a very specific and unique phenomenon in quantum mechanics, where two or more quantum systems enter a closely related complex state. In this state, the quantum states of the individual systems cannot be defined individually, but rather need to be considered in combination with all other systems as a whole.
A common example is two entangled particles whose spin states may be indeterminate, but interrelated. Even though the two particles are far apart, their spin states remain entangled. For example, if one of the particles is measured with its spin up, then wherever the other particle is, its spin is measured, with the result being necessarily down. In particular, this correlation is independent of the physical distance of the entangled particles. This situation is beyond the understanding of classical physics because, from the point of view of classical physics, two objects that are far apart are unlikely to have such a "transient" interaction. This phenomenon can be approximated by the term "ghostlike superspeed". However, this is an essential feature of the quantum world and has been confirmed by a large number of experiments.
Quantum entanglement is important not only in theory but also in practical applications such as quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum communication. In the field of quantum computing, quantum entanglement is considered as a key factor in achieving largescale quantum computing. With entangled qubits, quantum computers can process a large amount of information, exceeding the processing power of classical computers.
Secondly, quantum entanglement plays a vital role in quantum cryptography, particularly in quantum key distribution protocols, a secure cryptographic key is created for both parties of communication by quantum entanglement, and any attempt to steal the key breaks the entangled state and is detected. In addition, due to the "ghostlike overstepping effect" of entangled particles, changing the state of one particle can instantaneously affect another particle entangled therewith, which makes longdistance quantum communication and quantum clock synchronization possible, no matter how far the distance between the two particles is. In quantum invisible transport states, "transport" of one quantum state from one place to another can be accomplished by utilizing quantum entanglement.
The quantum entanglement can also be applied to the fields of quantum precision measurement and the like, and higher precision and sensitivity are provided compared with the traditional technology. The nature of quantum entanglement allows communication and computation beyond the limits of classical theory, opening new possibilities for technological development.
In quantum information processing, quantum entanglement of different structures can be applied to different practical scenarios. In order to ensure the practical effect of quantum entanglement in the relevant applications, a given quantum entangled state needs to be converted into a quantum entangled state required by the application through a certain operation before actually being put into use.
Quantum entanglement of different structures may be applied in different scenarios. In most usage scenarios, the most desirable quantum entanglement is the bell state (i.e., the largest entanglement of dimension 2). Therefore, in order to ensure the practical effect of quantum entanglement in the relevant applications, a certain operation is required to convert a given quantum entanglement state into a bell state required for the application, before actually being put into use. This quantum entanglement transformation scenario may be referred to as quantum entanglement purification.
While the maximum entanglement state (e.g., bell state) is the most entangled twostate and is useful in many applications, not all quantum information tasks require or are best suited for using the maximum entanglement state. For example, in certain quantum computing algorithms, certain entangled states may be required as initial or intermediate states of the computation. In some protocols for quantum communications, nonmaximally entangled states may be required to achieve more efficient or secure information transfer. In quantum sensing and quantum metrology, a particular entangled state may provide better performance or greater precision than the maximum entangled state. While the maximum entangled state is useful in many situations, it is considered to be an important issue in quantum information processing to convert the maximum entangled state to other entangled states, which is critical for achieving a broader and more efficient quantum information task.
In order to ensure the practical effect of quantum entanglement application, a given quantum entanglement state (usually an ideal bell state) needs to be converted into a quantum entanglement state required by application through a certain operation before the quantum entanglement application is actually put into use, and the quantum entanglement conversion scene can be called quantum entanglement preparation.
In the case where only the maximum entangled state is required in the quantum network or only the designated quantum state is required to implement the quantum application service, the type of quantum entangled transformation scene may be directly determined. When different quantum application services are embedded in the quantum network and the quantum application services generally need different quantum states to execute the services, for example, one quantum application service needs to use the maximum entangled state, another quantum application service needs to use other quantum states, and the type of the quantum entangled transformation scene can be determined based on the entangled resource characteristics carried in the quantum application request.
Correspondingly, quantum state information under the quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network can be obtained based on the type of the quantum entanglement transformation scene and the quantum application request. The quantum entanglement transformation scenes are different in types, and the quantum state information is obtained in different modes, namely, the quantum state information is obtained in a quantum entanglement purification scene and a quantum entanglement preparation scene.
For the quantum state ψ on any AB quantum system _{AB} The quantum state information can be expressed as
Under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement purification scene, the quantum state information is input state information under the quantum entanglement transformation scene. The input state information refers to a quantum state input in a quantum entanglement purification process, the quantum state is obtained by tensor product on the basis of n initial quantum states, the initial quantum states are quantum states on two quantum systems, the dimensions of the two quantum systems can be identical, the dimension of one quantum system can be d, and n is the copy number of the input state information.
Under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement preparation scene, the quantum state information is output state information expected to be transformed under the quantum entanglement transformation scene. The output state information refers to a quantum state expected to be output in a quantum entanglement preparation process, namely a quantum state to be prepared, wherein the quantum state is obtained by tensor product on the basis of n target quantum states, the target quantum states are quantum states on two quantum systems, the dimensions of the two quantum systems can be the same, the dimension of one quantum system can be d, and n is the copy number of the output state information.
Optionally, quantum state information under the quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network is obtained by any one of the following modes:
under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement preparation scene, quantum state information of the quantum network in the quantum entanglement transformation scene is obtained from the quantum application request, wherein the quantum application request carries quantum states expected to be used by the quantum application service;
and triggering nodes in the quantum network to acquire quantum state information in the quantum entanglement transformation scene based on the quantum application request under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is the quantum entanglement purification scene.
Under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement preparation scene, the expected output state information under the quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network can be obtained from the quantum application request based on entanglement resource characteristics and entanglement resource quantity carried by the quantum application request, so as to obtain quantum state information. When the desired output state information is not the maximum entangled state, the quantum network may start a quantum entanglement preparation scenario to prepare entangled resources, so as to obtain entangled resources required to be used by the quantum application service.
Under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement purification scene, input state information in the quantum entanglement purification scene can be prepared by triggering nodes in a quantum network based on entanglement resource characteristics and entanglement resource quantity carried by a quantum application request, so that quantum state information is obtained. The more entanglement resources, the more input state information can be obtained, so that more entanglement resources can be generated for scheduling. However, the input state information is related to the noise environment and hardware devices of the nodes in the quantum network, and the amount of input state information that the nodes in the quantum network prepare is typically limited under the limitations of the corresponding noise environment and hardware devices. Nodes may refer to quantum devices, or may refer to modules in a quantum computer, and are not specifically limited herein.
Therefore, the quantum state information under the quantum entanglement transformation scene can be acquired based on the type of the quantum entanglement transformation scene, so that the quantum network can be embedded into various quantum application services.
Ideally, the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement transformation is required to be the expected quantum state, and the transformation requirement is often too strict, so that the transformation rate is very low, and therefore, in practical application, the error between the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement transformation and the expected quantum state is usually required to meet a given error threshold, and the error threshold is the target error.
For example, in the quantum entanglement purification scenario, the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement purification is required to be a perfect bell state, and the conversion rate is very low due to the too strict conversion requirement, so that in practical application, the error between the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement purification and the bell state is usually required to meet a given error threshold. The error threshold is a target error, and when the error between the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement purification and the bell state is smaller than or equal to the error threshold, the error between the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement purification and the bell state meets the error threshold.
For example, in the quantum entanglement preparation scenario, it is required that the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement preparation through the bell state is the same as the quantum state expected to be output, and since the conversion requirement is often too strict, the conversion rate (or cost) will be very high, so in practical application, it is often required that the error between the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement preparation through the bell state and the quantum state expected to be output satisfies a given error threshold. The error threshold is a target error, and when the conversion error from the bell state input by quantum entanglement preparation to the quantum state expected to be output is smaller than or equal to the target error, that is, the error between the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement preparation through the bell state and the quantum state expected to be output is smaller than or equal to the error threshold, the error between the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement preparation through the bell state and the quantum state expected to be output meets the error threshold.
The target error can be preset, the quantum application request can carry the target error, and the target error can be obtained from the quantum application request correspondingly.
Step S103: determining a value of an optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario based on the quantum state information, the target error and a predetermined first relation, wherein the first relation is a relation between the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario and first information, and the first information comprises the copy number, inverse mapping of a standard forward distribution cumulative function related to the target error, shannon entropy and variance of a schmitt vector of the first quantum state.
The basic idea of quantum entanglement transformation is to transform one or more pairs of initial quantum entanglement states into as many target quantum entanglement states as possible through a series of local quantum operations and classical communication (Local Operations and Classical Communication, LOCC), and to ensure that the resulting quantum states after transformation differ from the ideal target quantum states by less than a given error threshold epsilon.
For example, in protocols such as quantum invisible transmission states and quantum superdense encoding, the most desirable quantum entangled state is the bell state (i.e., the largest entangled state with dimension 2). If through a certain LOCC operation scheme, n pairs of initial quantum entanglement states can be converted into m pairs of bell states within the error range, the conversion rate of the scheme is called m/n. For example, if 10 pairs of initial quantum entanglement states are required to obtain a pair of bell states, then the conversion of this quantum entanglement purification process can be said to be 1/10 or 0.1. The higher conversion indicates a higher efficiency of the quantum entanglement purification process, and the less entanglement resources are consumed to produce an equivalent number of bell states.
For another example, by a certain LOCC operating scheme, one or more pairs of bell states are converted to designated quantum entanglement states, the fewer initial bell states it is desired to consume for conversion, the better, and the difference between the converted quantum states and the target quantum states is guaranteed to be less than a given error threshold epsilon. If m pairs of bell states can be converted into n pairs of specified quantum entanglement states through a certain LOCC operation scheme, the conversion rate (or north urban) of quantum entanglement preparation of the scheme is m/n, namely m/n pairs of bell states need to be consumed for preparing each pair of specified quantum entanglement states on average. For example, if 5 pairs of initial bell states are required to be converted to 10 pairs of designated quantum entanglement states, then the conversion of this entanglement preparation process can be said to be 5/10 or 0.5. The lower the conversion (or cost), the higher the efficiency of the entanglement preparation process, the fewer bell states consumed.
The conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scene is taken as a key parameter for measuring the entanglement operation protocol efficiency, and the calculation of the quantum entanglement transformation scene has a vital meaning. First, because the quantum resources (e.g., initial quantum entanglement) available in actual quantum information handling systems are often limited, understanding and calculation of conversion can help manage these resources more efficiently for optimal system performance. Second, comparing the conversion rates of different entanglement protocols may guide the selection of the most efficient protocol under specific conditions, or optimize the existing protocol to increase its efficiency. Furthermore, quantum entanglement transformation as a means of reducing these effects, as the entanglement is susceptible to errors and noise, the conversion rate of which can reflect the effect of the transformation scheme, indicating whether further optimization is required. The optimal conversion of entanglement can be used as a benchmark for measuring the performance of a quantum information processing system. Comparing the theoretically expected conversion with the actual measured conversion, it is possible to evaluate whether the system performance is expected or whether potential room for improvement is revealed. The optimal conversion rate can be calculated, and the corresponding optimal entanglement transformation protocol can be found, so that the efficiency of quantum entanglement operation is maximized, and the quantum entanglement operation method has very important practical value.
In specific product requirements and application scenarios, the use of calculating the conversion rate in quantum entanglement conversion scenarios is particularly important.
1. In designing and constructing quantum computers, high quality entangled states need to be generated and manipulated to perform complex quantum algorithms. In this process, the conversion rate of the quantum entanglement transformation provides an important efficiency index. For example, if the conversion rate of a certain entanglement transformation scheme is found to be low, it may be necessary to find a more efficient protocol or to improve existing entanglement generation and purification techniques. Furthermore, comparing the theoretical expected and actually measured conversions can help to evaluate the actual performance of the quantum computer and to determine the technical problems that may exist.
2. In quantum communication systems, such as quantum key distribution protocols, entangled states are often used to enable secure information transfer. However, loss and noise during transmission may reduce the quality of the entangled state, resulting in reduced security of information transmission. In this case, entanglement transformation is very important. By calculating the conversion rate, it is possible to know how much original entanglement resources are needed to guarantee a secure information transmission under given system conditions.
3. In building a quantum network, entangled resources need to be efficiently allocated to the various nodes of the network. Knowing the conversion of entanglement operations, these resources can be better planned and managed, for example, to determine which nodes need more entanglement resources, or how to adjust the topology of the network to optimize resource utilization.
In summary, calculating the conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario plays a key role in various quantum information products and applications, and has important significance for promoting the progress of quantum information technology. Since different schemes have different quantum entanglement conversions, how to find a scheme with optimal conversion and calculate the corresponding optimal conversion is a widely focused issue in the industry.
The objective of this embodiment is to determine the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario by performing the quantum entanglement state and the error threshold under any given finite resource quantum entanglement state, and perform resource scheduling on the quantum application service based on the quantum application request and the value of the optimal conversion rate. Thus, entangled resources available through quantum entanglement transformation can be simulated through the value of the optimal transformation rate, and the flexibility and accuracy of the quantum network for resource scheduling of quantum application services are correspondingly improved. Furthermore, the optimal conversion rate can also be used for optimizing the conversion efficiency in the quantum entanglement conversion process and scheduling entanglement resources in the quantum entanglement preparation process.
The first relationship corresponds to the type of quantum entanglement transformation scenario, i.e. the type of quantum entanglement transformation scenario is different, the first relationship may also be different.
In an alternative embodiment, the first relationship may be represented by the following formula (1) in the quantum entanglement purification scenario.
Wherein epsilon is the target error,the maximum dimension achievable for the output state information may be equivalent to the optimal conversion, which may be defined by +.>And calculating to obtain n as the copy number of the first quantum state. P is p _{ψ} For the first quantum state ψ> _{AB} Is a Schmitt vector of (c), H (p _{ψ} ) For the first quantum state ψ> _{AB} Shannon entropy, V (p _{ψ} ) For the first quantum state ψ> _{AB} Variances of schmitt vectors, Φ ^{1} (ε) is the inverse of the standard direct cumulative function for target error, Φ ^{1} The function value of a specific mapping function can be obtained by looking up a table.
In another alternative embodiment, the first relationship may be represented by the following formula (2) in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario.
The minimum dimension of the quantum states required for quantum entanglement preparation can be equivalent to the optimal conversion, which can be defined by +.>And (5) calculating to obtain the product.
Wherein for the quantum state psi at one copy on any quantum system A and B > _{AB} It is in the presence of Schmidt decompositionWherein i> _{A} ，i> _{B} The basis vectors on the quantum systems A and B are respectively, d is the dimension of the quantum system A, the system dimensions of the quantum systems A and B are the same, and p _{i} Descending order (p) _{1} ≥p _{2} ≥...≥p _{d} ). Is called p _{ψ} ＝(p _{1} ,p _{2} ,...,p _{d} ) Is quantum state psi> _{AB} Is a schmitt vector of (c).
Whereas the shannon entropy of the schmitt vector can be determined by the formula H (p _{ψ} ):＝∑ _{i} p _{i} log _{2} p _{i} The variance of the schmitt vector can be calculated by the formula V (p _{ψ} ):＝∑ _{i} p _{i} (logp _{i} H(p _{ψ} )) ^{2} And (5) calculating.
It should be noted that the above formulas (1) and (2) may be an estimation function, which may be within the accuracy rangeI.e. it ignores higherorder estimates regarding copy number. Wherein (1)>Indicating a progression of less than>The value of the function is relative to +.>Can be ignored.
The shannon entropy and variance of the schmitt vector of the first quantum state can be calculated based on the first quantum state, the function value of the inverse mapping of the standard forward distribution cumulative function can be calculated based on the target error, the information and the copy number of the first quantum state are substituted into the first relation, and accordingly the value of the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement conversion scene can be obtained. Wherein, when the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement purification scene, the information obtained by calculation is substituted into the above formula (1), and when the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement preparation scene, the information obtained by calculation is substituted into the above formula (2).
It can be seen that only the shannon entropy, variance of the schmitt vector of the first quantum state and the inverse mapping of the standard ntai distribution cumulative function with respect to the target error need to be calculated when estimating the optimal conversion in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario, the calculated amount is irrelevant to the copy number n of the first quantum state, and therefore, the execution efficiency is very efficient.
On the premise of obtaining the value of the optimal conversion rate, related applications such as quantum key distribution protocol application, quantum network construction application, debugging application of quantum entanglement purification algorithm, distributed quantum computing application and the like can be carried out based on the value of the optimal conversion rate, and in the applications, the conversion efficiency in the quantum entanglement conversion process can be optimized based on the optimal conversion rate, and entanglement resources in the quantum entanglement conversion process can be scheduled.
Step S104: and scheduling resources of the quantum application service based on the quantum application request and the value of the optimal conversion rate.
The maximum number of entanglement resources which can be obtained through conversion in a corresponding input state can be simulated based on the value of the optimal conversion rate, the quantum application request also carries the entanglement resource quantity which needs to be scheduled, and when the maximum number of entanglement resources which can be obtained through conversion is larger than or equal to the entanglement resource quantity in the quantum application request, quantum entanglement conversion operation can be executed in response to the quantum application request, entanglement resources are correspondingly obtained, and quantum application service is scheduled to an upper layer.
In the case where the maximum number of entanglement resources available for conversion is smaller than the number of entanglement resources in the quantum application request, the quantum entanglement conversion operation may be directly rejected in response to the quantum application request without being performed.
In this embodiment, a quantum application request of a quantum network is received; based on a quantum application request, quantum state information and target errors in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of a quantum network are obtained; determining the optimal conversion rate of the quantum entanglement transformation scene based on quantum state information, a target error and a predetermined first relation; and then, carrying out resource scheduling on the quantum application service based on the quantum application request and the value of the optimal conversion rate. Thus, by the value of the optimal conversion rate, entangled resources which can be obtained by quantum entangled conversion can be simulated, and the flexibility and accuracy of the quantum network for resource scheduling of quantum application services are correspondingly improved.
And the value of the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement conversion scene can be directly determined based on quantum state information, target errors and a first relation, and the calculated amount of the value is irrelevant to the copy number n of the first quantum state, so that the execution efficiency is very high, and the corresponding quantum entanglement resource scheduling is also very high. Moreover, the method is applicable to any given finite resource quantum entanglement state and any given error threshold, and meets the requirements of practical application scenes.
Optionally, the step S104 specifically includes:
determining entanglement resources which can be obtained by conversion in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network based on the value of the optimal conversion rate;
and carrying out resource scheduling on the quantum application service under the condition that the transformable entanglement resource is larger than or equal to the entanglement resource requested by the quantum application request.
The entanglement resources which can be obtained by conversion in the quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network can be determined based on the value of the optimal transformation rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scene and the input state information acquired by the nodes of the quantum network. And then comparing the obtained entanglement resources determined based on the value of the optimal conversion rate with entanglement resources requested by the quantum application request, and carrying out resource scheduling on the quantum application service based on the comparison result.
In the case where the transformable entangled resource determined based on the value of the optimal transformation rate is greater than or equal to the entangled resource requested by the quantum application request, at this time, there are enough entangled resources for scheduling, and thus, the corresponding entangled resources can be scheduled to an upper layer for the quantum application service.
In this way, resource scheduling for quantum application services can be achieved based on the value of optimal conversion.
Optionally, the method further comprises:
and refusing to respond to the quantum application request under the condition that the transformable entanglement resource is smaller than the entanglement resource requested by the quantum application request.
Thus, by simulating the entanglement resources available for quantum entanglement transformation based on the value of the optimal transformation rate, the quantum entanglement transformation operation is not required in the case that the entanglement resources are smaller than those requested by the quantum application request, and the response to the quantum application request can be directly refused, so that unnecessary operations are reduced.
Optionally, the method further comprises:
and under the condition that the transformable entanglement resources are smaller than entanglement resources requested by the quantum application request, adjusting the input state of the quantum network under the quantum entanglement transformation scene based on the value of the optimal transformation rate so as to improve the transformable entanglement resources under the quantum entanglement transformation scene.
Under the condition that the available entanglement resources are smaller than entanglement resources requested by quantum application requests, the required minimum number of input states can be determined based on the value of the optimal conversion rate and the quantity of entanglement resources in the quantum application requests, so that safe information transmission is ensured. The input states under the quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network are adjusted, for example, the number of the input states under the quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network is increased, so that quantum entanglement transformation is carried out, more entanglement resources can be obtained for resource scheduling, and the flexibility and the accuracy of quantum entanglement resource scheduling can be further improved.
Optionally, before the step S103, the method further includes:
determining a second relation based on the quantum state information and the target error, wherein the second relation is an optimized functional relation of the optimal conversion rate and the dimension of the maximum entangled state in the quantum entangled converting scene under a first preset condition, the first preset condition is that the conversion error of the quantum state indicated by the quantum state information and the maximum entangled state is smaller than or equal to the target error, and the conversion error is measured based on the distance between the Schmitt vectors of the quantum state in the quantum entangled converting scene;
and performing secondorder expansion on the second relation based on the copy number to obtain the first relation.
In this embodiment, there are various conversion error modes for defining quantum states, and different error definition modes are applicable to different use scenarios, and the corresponding calculation difficulties are also completely different. The conversion error can be understood as defining that the quantum state after conversion is the desired target quantum state under the ideal condition, and the error between the quantum state and the quantum state obtained by quantum entanglement conversion is smaller than or equal to the target error.
Under the definition of the conversion error, the second relation may be the maximum optimized functional relation between the optimal conversion rate of the quantum entanglement purification scene and the dimension of the maximum entanglement state (i.e. the dimension of the output state information) under the first preset condition, where the conversion error from the input state information of the quantum entanglement purification scene to the maximum entanglement state is less than or equal to the target error, and the optimal conversion rate of the quantum entanglement purification scene is represented as the following formula (3).
The above formula (3) is the second relation determined in the quantum entanglement purification scene,for the first preset condition, < >>For transformation error, m is not less than 2, and m is a positive integer, < >>Is the maximum entanglement between quantum systems A and B, equivalent to log _{2} m is the dimension of the output state information of quantum entanglement purification.
Under the definition of the conversion error, the second relation can be the minimum optimized function relation between the optimal conversion rate of the quantum entanglement preparation scene and the dimension of the maximum entanglement state under the first preset condition, the first preset condition is that the conversion error from the maximum entanglement state to the output state information input in the quantum entanglement preparation scene is smaller than or equal to the target error, and the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement preparation scene is expressed as the following formula (4).
The above formula (4) is the second relation determined in the quantum entanglement preparation scene,for the first preset condition, < >>For transformation error, m is not less than 2, and m is a positive integer, < >>Is the maximum entanglement between quantum systems A and B, equivalent to log _{2} m is the dimension of the quantum state input by quantum entanglement preparation.
Conversion errors can be measured by the distance between schmitt vectors of quantum states in a quantum entanglement conversion scenario. Optionally, the conversion error is measured based on a trace norm of the schmitt vector of the quantum state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, which may be a 1norm of the schmitt vector of the quantum state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, and the multiple may be any multiple, for example, the conversion error may be 1/2 of the 1norm of the schmitt vector of the quantum state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene.
Alternatively, the conversion error is expressed as:
wherein T (beta)>→λ>) For the transformation error, β>For the input state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, lambda>For the quantum state expected to be output in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, p _{β} Is quantum state beta>Schmitt vector, p _{λ} Is quantum state lambda>R is a schmitt vector of an output state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, prob (d) represents a set of probability distribution vectors with all dimensions d, d is a quantum system dimension of an input state in the quantum entanglement purification scene in the case that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement purification scene, and d is a quantum system dimension of a quantum state expected to be output in the quantum entanglement preparation scene in the case that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement preparation scene. x _{1} Is the 1norm of the vector x.
In the quantum entanglement purification scenario, λ > is the maximum entanglement state. In the quantum entanglement preparation scenario, β > is the maximum entanglement state.
It should be noted that the number of the substrates, for any vector p, note p _{(K)} Is the sum of the first K largest elements of vector p, i.eFor any two vectors of length d, r > p is noted _{β} Meaning that for any K.epsilon. {1, 2.,. D }, the sum of the first K largest elements of vector r is greater than or equal to vector p _{β} Sum of the first K largest elements of (B). Wherein r > p _{β} Is the condition that the optimization function in the above formula (2) needs to satisfy, and +.>Is an optimization function.
Thereafter, by utilizing the quantum stateThe tensor product structure and finite element analysis technique of (2) can be theoretically proved by performing secondorder expansion on the second relation based on copy number, and can be converted into the formula (3)Converting the above formula (4) into
It is known that the number of the components,and>In the accuracy range>The inner estimate, therefore commonly referred to as the second order estimate of these two quantities, will +.>Neglecting, a first relationship may be obtained. Meanwhile, when the quantum state copy number n is large, the estimated result is very consistent with the accurate calculation result. Therefore, the embodiment effectively ensures the accuracy of the estimation result while ensuring efficient calculation.
The actual effect of the present embodiment in the quantum entanglement purification scenario is shown below with a specific example. Consider the initial quantum stateThe Schmitt vector is p _{ψ} = (0.9, 0.1), error threshold epsilon=0.1, quantum state copy number n takes on a value of 1 to 500.
FIG. 2 is a graph showing the relationship between the quantum state copy number and the average conversion rate of quantum entanglement purification, as shown in FIG. 2, the horizontal axis represents the quantum state copy number, and the vertical axis represents the average conversion rate, namely The horizontal line 201 represents the progressive values of the curve 202 and the curve 203 after n approaches infinity, which can be given by shannon entropy of the p vector, the curve 202 is the precisely calculated average conversion rate of the quantum entanglement, and the curve 203 is the estimated average conversion rate of the quantum entanglement in the present embodiment. The numerical results were obtained using a 16G memory and a plain notebook run of the Intel Core i7 TH GEN processor with an actual calculation time of approximately 5 minutes for curve 202 and 0.0001 seconds for curve 203. In contrast, directly solving the optimal conversion for quantum entanglement purification requires calculating and storing lengths of 2 ^{500} Far beyond the computational power of existing supercomputers. Therefore, the estimation mode of the quantum entanglement purification optimal conversion rate provided by the embodiment is more efficient in calculation efficiency, and the estimation result is very consistent with the accurate result under the condition that n is large, so that the quantum entanglement purification optimal conversion rate estimation method has important practical value.
The actual effect of this embodiment in the quantum entanglement preparation scenario is shown below with a specific example. Consider the quantum state that needs to be preparedThe Schmitt vector is p _{ψ} = (0.9, 0.1), error threshold epsilon=0.1, quantum state copy number n takes on a value of 1 to 3000.
FIG. 3 is a graph showing the relationship between the quantum state copy number and the average conversion rate of the quantum entanglement preparation, as shown in FIG. 3, the horizontal axis represents the quantum state copy number, and the vertical axis represents the average conversion rate, namelyThe horizontal line 301 represents the progressive values of the curve 302 and the curve 303 after n has gone to infinity, which can be given by shannon entropy of the p vector, the curve 302 being the precisely calculated average conversion rate of the quantum entanglement preparation, and the curve 303 being the average conversion rate of the quantum entanglement preparation estimated in this example. The numerical results were obtained using a 16G memory and a plain notebook run of Intel Core i7 TH GEN processor with a time period of approximately 40 seconds for the actual calculation of curve 302 and 0.0001 seconds for the actual calculation of curve 303. In contrast, directly solving the optimal conversion for quantum entanglement preparation requires calculating and storing a length of 2 ^{3000} Far beyond the computational power of existing supercomputers. Therefore, the estimation mode of the quantum entanglement preparation optimal conversion rate provided by the embodiment is more efficient in calculation efficiency, and the estimation result is very consistent with the accurate result under the condition that n is large, so that the quantum entanglement preparation optimal conversion rate estimation method has important practical value.
Second embodiment
As shown in fig. 4, the present disclosure provides a quantum entanglement resource scheduling device 400, comprising:
A receiving module 401, configured to receive a quantum application request of a quantum network, where the quantum application request is used to schedule entangled resources to execute a quantum application service;
an obtaining module 402, configured to obtain, based on the quantum application request, quantum state information and a target error in a quantum entanglement transformation scenario of the quantum network, where the quantum state information includes a first quantum state and a copy number of the first quantum state, and the quantum entanglement transformation scenario is used to perform transformation between different quantum entanglement states, so as to generate entanglement resources that need to be scheduled by the quantum application request;
a first determining module 403, configured to determine a value of an optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario based on the quantum state information, the target error, and a predetermined first relationship, where the first relationship is a relationship between the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario and first information, and the first information includes the copy number, an inverse mapping of a standard positiveethernet distribution cumulative function with respect to the target error, shannon entropy and variance of a schmitt vector of the first quantum state;
and a resource scheduling module 404, configured to perform resource scheduling on the quantum application service based on the quantum application request and the value of the optimal conversion rate.
Optionally, quantum state information under the quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network is obtained by any one of the following modes:
under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement preparation scene, quantum state information of the quantum network in the quantum entanglement transformation scene is obtained from the quantum application request, wherein the quantum application request carries quantum states expected to be used by the quantum application service;
and triggering nodes in the quantum network to acquire quantum state information in the quantum entanglement transformation scene based on the quantum application request under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is the quantum entanglement purification scene.
Optionally, the resource scheduling module 404 is specifically configured to:
determining entanglement resources which can be obtained by conversion in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network based on the value of the optimal conversion rate;
and carrying out resource scheduling on the quantum application service under the condition that the transformable entanglement resource is larger than or equal to the entanglement resource requested by the quantum application request.
Optionally, the apparatus further comprises;
and the refusal response module is used for refusing to respond to the quantum application request under the condition that the transformable entanglement resource is smaller than the entanglement resource requested by the quantum application request.
Optionally, the apparatus further includes:
and the adjusting module is used for adjusting the input state of the quantum network under the quantum entanglement transformation scene based on the value of the optimal transformation rate under the condition that the entanglement resources obtained through transformation are smaller than entanglement resources requested by the quantum application request so as to improve the entanglement resources obtained through transformation under the quantum entanglement transformation scene.
Optionally, the quantum application service includes any one of the following:
quantum key distribution application services;
a communication application service;
distributed quantum computing application services.
Optionally, the apparatus further includes:
the second determining module is configured to determine a second relationship based on the quantum state information and the target error, where the second relationship is an optimized functional relationship between an optimal conversion rate and a dimension of a maximum entangled state in the quantum entangled transformation scene under a first preset condition, and the first preset condition is that a conversion error between the quantum state indicated by the quantum state information and the maximum entangled state is less than or equal to the target error, and the conversion error is measured based on a distance between schmitt vectors of the quantum state in the quantum entangled transformation scene;
And the expansion module is used for carrying out secondorder expansion on the second relation based on the copy number to obtain the first relation.
Optionally, the conversion error is measured based on a trace norm of a schmitt vector of quantum states in the quantum entanglement conversion scenario.
Alternatively, the conversion error is expressed as:
wherein T (beta)>→λ>) For the transformation error, β>For the input state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, lambda>For the quantum state expected to be output in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, p _{β} Is quantum state beta>Schmitt vector, p _{λ} Is quantum state lambda>R is the schmitt vector of the output state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, prob (d) represents the set of probability distribution vectors with all dimensions d, d is the quantum system dimension of the input state in the quantum entanglement purification scene in the case that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement purification scene, andand d is the dimension of a quantum system of a quantum state expected to be output in the quantum entanglement preparation scene under the condition that the quantum entanglement conversion scene is the quantum entanglement preparation scene.
The quantum entanglement resource scheduling device 400 provided by the present disclosure can realize each process realized by the quantum entanglement resource scheduling method embodiment, and can achieve the same beneficial effects, and for avoiding repetition, a detailed description is omitted here.
In the technical scheme of the disclosure, the related processes of collecting, storing, using, processing, transmitting, providing, disclosing and the like of the personal information of the user accord with the regulations of related laws and regulations, and the public order colloquial is not violated.
According to embodiments of the present disclosure, the present disclosure also provides an electronic device, a readable storage medium and a computer program product.
FIG. 5 illustrates a schematic block diagram of an example electronic device that may be used to implement embodiments of the present disclosure. Electronic devices are intended to represent various forms of digital computers, such as laptops, desktops, workstations, personal digital assistants, servers, blade servers, mainframes, and other appropriate computers. The electronic device may also represent various forms of mobile devices, such as personal digital processing, cellular telephones, smartphones, wearable devices, and other similar computing devices. The components shown herein, their connections and relationships, and their functions, are meant to be exemplary only, and are not meant to limit implementations of the disclosure described and/or claimed herein.
As shown in fig. 5, the apparatus 500 includes a computing unit 501 that can perform various suitable actions and processes according to a computer program stored in a Read Only Memory (ROM) 502 or a computer program loaded from a storage unit 508 into a Random Access Memory (RAM) 503. In the RAM 503, various programs and data required for the operation of the device 500 can also be stored. The computing unit 501, ROM 502, and RAM 503 are connected to each other by a bus 504. An input/output (I/O) interface 505 is also connected to bus 504.
Various components in the device 500 are connected to the I/O interface 505, including: an input unit 506 such as a keyboard, a mouse, etc.; an output unit 507 such as various types of displays, speakers, and the like; a storage unit 508 such as a magnetic disk, an optical disk, or the like; and a communication unit 509 such as a network card, modem, wireless communication transceiver, etc. The communication unit 509 allows the device 500 to exchange information/data with other devices via a computer network such as the internet and/or various telecommunication networks.
The computing unit 501 may be a variety of general and/or special purpose processing components having processing and computing capabilities. Some examples of computing unit 501 include, but are not limited to, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), various specialized Artificial Intelligence (AI) computing chips, various computing units running machine learning model algorithms, a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), and any suitable processor, controller, microcontroller, etc. The computing unit 501 performs the various methods and processes described above, such as the quantum entanglement resource scheduling method. For example, in some embodiments, the quantum entanglement resource scheduling method may be implemented as a computer software program tangibly embodied on a machinereadable medium, such as storage unit 508. In some embodiments, part or all of the computer program may be loaded and/or installed onto the device 500 via the ROM 502 and/or the communication unit 509. When the computer program is loaded into RAM 503 and executed by computing unit 501, one or more steps of the quantum entanglement resource scheduling method described above may be performed. Alternatively, in other embodiments, the computing unit 501 may be configured to perform the quantum entanglement resource scheduling method by any other suitable means (e.g. by means of firmware).
Various implementations of the systems and techniques described here above may be implemented in digital electronic circuitry, integrated circuit systems, field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), application Specific Standard Products (ASSPs), systems On Chip (SOCs), load programmable logic devices (CPLDs), computer hardware, firmware, software, and/or combinations thereof. These various embodiments may include: implemented in one or more computer programs, the one or more computer programs may be executed and/or interpreted on a programmable system including at least one programmable processor, which may be a special purpose or generalpurpose programmable processor, that may receive data and instructions from, and transmit data and instructions to, a storage system, at least one input device, and at least one output device.
Program code for carrying out methods of the present disclosure may be written in any combination of one or more programming languages. These program code may be provided to a processor or controller of a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus such that the program code, when executed by the processor or controller, causes the functions/operations specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram to be implemented. The program code may execute entirely on the machine, partly on the machine, as a standalone software package, partly on the machine and partly on a remote machine or entirely on the remote machine or server.
In the context of this disclosure, a machinereadable medium may be a tangible medium that can contain, or store a program for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device. The machinereadable medium may be a machinereadable signal medium or a machinereadable storage medium. The machinereadable medium may include, but is not limited to, an electronic, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, infrared, or semiconductor system, apparatus, or device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. More specific examples of a machinereadable storage medium would include an electrical connection based on one or more wires, a portable computer diskette, a hard disk, a Random Access Memory (RAM), a readonly memory (ROM), an erasable programmable readonly memory (EPROM or flash memory), an optical fiber, a portable compact disc readonly memory (CDROM), an optical storage device, a magnetic storage device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing.
To provide for interaction with a user, the systems and techniques described here can be implemented on a computer having: a display device (e.g., a CRT (cathode ray tube) or LCD (liquid crystal display) monitor) for displaying information to a user; and a keyboard and pointing device (e.g., a mouse or trackball) by which a user can provide input to the computer. Other kinds of devices may also be used to provide for interaction with a user; for example, feedback provided to the user may be any form of sensory feedback (e.g., visual feedback, auditory feedback, or tactile feedback); and input from the user may be received in any form, including acoustic input, speech input, or tactile input.
The systems and techniques described here can be implemented in a computing system that includes a background component (e.g., as a data server), or that includes a middleware component (e.g., an application server), or that includes a frontend component (e.g., a user computer having a graphical user interface or a web browser through which a user can interact with an implementation of the systems and techniques described here), or any combination of such background, middleware, or frontend components. The components of the system can be interconnected by any form or medium of digital data communication (e.g., a communication network). Examples of communication networks include: local Area Networks (LANs), wide Area Networks (WANs), and the internet.
The computer system may include a client and a server. The client and server are typically remote from each other and typically interact through a communication network. The relationship of client and server arises by virtue of computer programs running on the respective computers and having a clientserver relationship to each other. The server may be a cloud server, a server of a distributed system, or a server incorporating a blockchain.
It should be appreciated that various forms of the flows shown above may be used to reorder, add, or delete steps. For example, the steps recited in the present disclosure may be performed in parallel, sequentially, or in a different order, provided that the desired results of the disclosed aspects are achieved, and are not limited herein.
The above detailed description should not be taken as limiting the scope of the present disclosure. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications, combinations, subcombinations and alternatives are possible, depending on design requirements and other factors. Any modifications, equivalent substitutions and improvements made within the spirit and principles of the present disclosure are intended to be included within the scope of the present disclosure.
Claims (21)
1. A quantum entanglement resource scheduling method, comprising:
receiving a quantum application request of a quantum network, wherein the quantum application request is used for scheduling entanglement resources to execute quantum application services;
based on the quantum application request, quantum state information and target errors in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network are obtained, wherein the quantum state information comprises a first quantum state and the copy number of the first quantum state, and the quantum entanglement transformation scene is used for transforming among different quantum entanglement states so as to generate entanglement resources required to be scheduled by the quantum application request;
Determining a value of an optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario based on the quantum state information, the target error and a predetermined first relation, wherein the first relation is a relation between the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario and first information, and the first information comprises the copy number, inverse mapping of a standard forward distribution cumulative function related to the target error, shannon entropy and variance of a schmitt vector of the first quantum state;
and scheduling resources of the quantum application service based on the quantum application request and the value of the optimal conversion rate.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein quantum state information in a quantum entanglement transformation scenario of the quantum network is obtained by any one of the following means:
under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement preparation scene, quantum state information of the quantum network in the quantum entanglement transformation scene is obtained from the quantum application request, wherein the quantum application request carries quantum states expected to be used by the quantum application service;
and triggering nodes in the quantum network to acquire quantum state information in the quantum entanglement transformation scene based on the quantum application request under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is the quantum entanglement purification scene.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the scheduling the quantum application service for resources based on the quantum application request and the value of the optimal conversion rate comprises:
determining entanglement resources which can be obtained by conversion in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network based on the value of the optimal conversion rate;
and carrying out resource scheduling on the quantum application service under the condition that the transformable entanglement resource is larger than or equal to the entanglement resource requested by the quantum application request.
4. A method according to claim 3, further comprising:
and refusing to respond to the quantum application request under the condition that the transformable entanglement resource is smaller than the entanglement resource requested by the quantum application request.
5. A method according to claim 3, further comprising:
and under the condition that the transformable entanglement resources are smaller than entanglement resources requested by the quantum application request, adjusting the input state of the quantum network under the quantum entanglement transformation scene based on the value of the optimal transformation rate so as to improve the transformable entanglement resources under the quantum entanglement transformation scene.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the quantum application service comprises any one of:
Quantum key distribution application services;
a communication application service;
distributed quantum computing application services.
7. The method of claim 1, prior to determining the value of optimal conversion in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario based on the quantum state information and a predetermined first relationship, further comprising:
determining a second relation based on the quantum state information and the target error, wherein the second relation is an optimized functional relation of the optimal conversion rate and the dimension of the maximum entangled state in the quantum entangled converting scene under a first preset condition, the first preset condition is that the conversion error of the quantum state indicated by the quantum state information and the maximum entangled state is smaller than or equal to the target error, and the conversion error is measured based on the distance between the Schmitt vectors of the quantum state in the quantum entangled converting scene;
and performing secondorder expansion on the second relation based on the copy number to obtain the first relation.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the conversion error is measured based on a trace norm of a schmitt vector of quantum states in the quantum entanglement conversion scenario.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein the conversion error is represented as:
Wherein T (beta)>→λ>) For the transformation error, β>For the input state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, lambda>For the quantum state expected to be output in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, p _{β} Is quantum state beta>Schmitt vector, p _{λ} Is quantum state lambda>R is the schmitt vector of the output state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, and Prob (d) representsAnd d is the quantum system dimension of the quantum state expected to be output in the quantum entanglement preparation scene under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is the quantum entanglement preparation scene.
10. A quantum entanglement resource scheduling device, comprising:
the receiving module is used for receiving a quantum application request of the quantum network, wherein the quantum application request is used for scheduling entanglement resources to execute quantum application services;
the quantum application request is used for obtaining quantum state information and target errors in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network, wherein the quantum state information comprises a first quantum state and the copy number of the first quantum state, and the quantum entanglement transformation scene is used for transforming among different quantum entanglement states so as to generate entanglement resources required to be scheduled by the quantum application request;
A first determining module, configured to determine a value of an optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario based on the quantum state information, the target error, and a predetermined first relationship, where the first relationship is a relationship between the optimal conversion rate in the quantum entanglement transformation scenario and first information, and the first information includes the copy number, an inverse mapping of a standard nethernet distribution cumulative function with respect to the target error, shannon entropy and variance of a schmidt vector of the first quantum state;
and the resource scheduling module is used for scheduling the resource of the quantum application service based on the quantum application request and the value of the optimal conversion rate.
11. The apparatus of claim 10, wherein quantum state information in a quantum entanglement transformation scenario of the quantum network is obtained by any one of:
under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is a quantum entanglement preparation scene, quantum state information of the quantum network in the quantum entanglement transformation scene is obtained from the quantum application request, wherein the quantum application request carries quantum states expected to be used by the quantum application service;
and triggering nodes in the quantum network to acquire quantum state information in the quantum entanglement transformation scene based on the quantum application request under the condition that the quantum entanglement transformation scene is the quantum entanglement purification scene.
12. The apparatus of claim 10, wherein the resource scheduling module is specifically configured to:
determining entanglement resources which can be obtained by conversion in a quantum entanglement transformation scene of the quantum network based on the value of the optimal conversion rate;
and carrying out resource scheduling on the quantum application service under the condition that the transformable entanglement resource is larger than or equal to the entanglement resource requested by the quantum application request.
13. The apparatus of claim 12, further comprising;
and the refusal response module is used for refusing to respond to the quantum application request under the condition that the transformable entanglement resource is smaller than the entanglement resource requested by the quantum application request.
14. The apparatus of claim 12, further comprising:
and the adjusting module is used for adjusting the input state of the quantum network under the quantum entanglement transformation scene based on the value of the optimal transformation rate under the condition that the entanglement resources obtained through transformation are smaller than entanglement resources requested by the quantum application request so as to improve the entanglement resources obtained through transformation under the quantum entanglement transformation scene.
15. The apparatus of claim 10, wherein the quantum application service comprises any one of:
Quantum key distribution application services;
a communication application service;
distributed quantum computing application services.
16. The apparatus of claim 10, further comprising:
the second determining module is configured to determine a second relationship based on the quantum state information and the target error, where the second relationship is an optimized functional relationship between an optimal conversion rate and a dimension of a maximum entangled state in the quantum entangled transformation scene under a first preset condition, and the first preset condition is that a conversion error between the quantum state indicated by the quantum state information and the maximum entangled state is less than or equal to the target error, and the conversion error is measured based on a distance between schmitt vectors of the quantum state in the quantum entangled transformation scene;
and the expansion module is used for carrying out secondorder expansion on the second relation based on the copy number to obtain the first relation.
17. The apparatus of claim 10, wherein the conversion error is measured based on a trace norm of a schmitt vector of quantum states in the quantum entanglement conversion scenario.
18. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein the conversion error is represented as:
wherein T (beta) >→λ>) For the transformation error, β>For the input state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, lambda>For the quantum state expected to be output in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, p _{β} Is quantum state beta>Schmitt vector, p _{λ} Is quantum state lambda>R is the schmitt vector of the output state in the quantum entanglement transformation scene, prob (d) represents the set of probability distribution vectors of all dimensions dAnd d is the quantum system dimension of the input state in the quantum entanglement purification scene, and d is the quantum system dimension of the quantum state expected to be output in the quantum entanglement preparation scene when the quantum entanglement transformation scene is the quantum entanglement preparation scene.
19. An electronic device, comprising:
at least one processor; and
a memory communicatively coupled to the at least one processor; wherein,
the memory stores instructions executable by the at least one processor to enable the at least one processor to perform the method of any one of claims 19.
20. A nontransitory computer readable storage medium storing computer instructions for causing the computer to perform the method of any one of claims 19.
21. A computer program product comprising a computer program which, when executed by a processor, implements the method according to any of claims 19.
Priority Applications (1)
Application Number  Priority Date  Filing Date  Title 

CN202311199486.1A CN117236451B (en)  20230915  20230915  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment 
Applications Claiming Priority (1)
Application Number  Priority Date  Filing Date  Title 

CN202311199486.1A CN117236451B (en)  20230915  20230915  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment 
Publications (2)
Publication Number  Publication Date 

CN117236451A true CN117236451A (en)  20231215 
CN117236451B CN117236451B (en)  20240820 
Family
ID=89092500
Family Applications (1)
Application Number  Title  Priority Date  Filing Date 

CN202311199486.1A Active CN117236451B (en)  20230915  20230915  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment 
Country Status (1)
Country  Link 

CN (1)  CN117236451B (en) 
Citations (6)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

CN112529199A (en) *  20201223  20210319  北京百度网讯科技有限公司  Entangled quantum state purification method, device, equipment, storage medium and product 
US20210182726A1 (en) *  20191216  20210617  International Business Machines Corporation  Estimation of an expected energy value of a hamiltonian 
AU2023203030A1 (en) *  20220803  20230615  Beijing Baidu Netcom Science Technology Co., Ltd.  Quantum state transformation method, quantum state transformation apparatus and electronic device 
CN117236450A (en) *  20230915  20231215  北京百度网讯科技有限公司  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment 
CN117236453A (en) *  20230915  20231215  北京百度网讯科技有限公司  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment 
CN117236452A (en) *  20230915  20231215  北京百度网讯科技有限公司  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment 

2023
 20230915 CN CN202311199486.1A patent/CN117236451B/en active Active
Patent Citations (6)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

US20210182726A1 (en) *  20191216  20210617  International Business Machines Corporation  Estimation of an expected energy value of a hamiltonian 
CN112529199A (en) *  20201223  20210319  北京百度网讯科技有限公司  Entangled quantum state purification method, device, equipment, storage medium and product 
AU2023203030A1 (en) *  20220803  20230615  Beijing Baidu Netcom Science Technology Co., Ltd.  Quantum state transformation method, quantum state transformation apparatus and electronic device 
CN117236450A (en) *  20230915  20231215  北京百度网讯科技有限公司  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment 
CN117236453A (en) *  20230915  20231215  北京百度网讯科技有限公司  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment 
CN117236452A (en) *  20230915  20231215  北京百度网讯科技有限公司  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment 
NonPatent Citations (2)
Title 

YAN FENGLI 等: "Probabilistic teleportation of an unknown twoparticle state with a FourParticle pure entangled state and positive operator valued measure", 《CHINA PHYS LETT》, vol. 23, 31 December 2006 (20061231), pages 17  24 * 
孙照龙;胡占宁;孔令浩;靳瑶瑶;: "基于优超理论的纠缠纯态转化", 《重庆工商大学学报(自然科学版)》, no. 04, 25 August 2016 (20160825), pages 53  57 * 
Also Published As
Publication number  Publication date 

CN117236451B (en)  20240820 
Similar Documents
Publication  Publication Date  Title 

CN112529198B (en)  Quantum entanglement state processing method, device, equipment, storage medium and product  
CN112529201B (en)  Entangled quantum state conversion method, device, equipment, storage medium and product  
CN117236452B (en)  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment  
CN114139712B (en)  Quantum circuit processing method, quantum circuit processing device, electronic device and storage medium  
CN117236453B (en)  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment  
CN117236450B (en)  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment  
CN104246705A (en)  Managing the operation of a computing system  
CN114816393B (en)  Information generation method, device, equipment and storage medium  
CN112540898B (en)  Data processing method, platform, system, electronic device and readable medium  
CN114500339B (en)  Node bandwidth monitoring method and device, electronic equipment and storage medium  
JP2022501994A (en)  Secure distributed state estimation for networked microgrids  
CN112529202B (en)  Quantum entanglement state distribution method, device, equipment, storage medium and product  
KR20220110080A (en)  Method and device for performing change task, electronic equipment, and readable storage medium  
CN114707651A (en)  Topology selection method, device, equipment and medium for protocol operation  
CN117236451B (en)  Quantum entanglement resource scheduling method and device and electronic equipment  
US20090217282A1 (en)  Predicting cpu availability for short to medium time frames on time shared systems  
CN113098624A (en)  Quantum state measurement method, device, equipment, storage medium and system  
CN112817660A (en)  Method, device, equipment and storage medium for expanding small program capacity  
CN114900425A (en)  Doublechannel switching method for AGC equipment  
CN116708447B (en)  Data coupling method for comprehensive bifurcation cable  
CN117557140A (en)  Method, device, equipment and medium for evaluating network planning quality of power communication network  
CN113285833B (en)  Method and device for acquiring information  
CN112818060B (en)  Data synchronization method, device, electronic equipment and readable storage medium  
CN117117904B (en)  Frequency modulation contribution evaluation method and device and electronic equipment  
CN115906982B (en)  Distributed training method, gradient communication device and electronic equipment 
Legal Events
Date  Code  Title  Description 

PB01  Publication  
PB01  Publication  
SE01  Entry into force of request for substantive examination  
SE01  Entry into force of request for substantive examination  
GR01  Patent grant  
GR01  Patent grant 