CN116158222B - Mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment and method - Google Patents

Mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN116158222B
CN116158222B CN202310286005.4A CN202310286005A CN116158222B CN 116158222 B CN116158222 B CN 116158222B CN 202310286005 A CN202310286005 A CN 202310286005A CN 116158222 B CN116158222 B CN 116158222B
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China
Prior art keywords
soil
rotary tillage
frame
slope
vertical
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CN202310286005.4A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN116158222A (en
Inventor
汪海蓉
邢红
王国富
张伟
魏海平
金征
纪敏
马应龙
穆雪红
徐峰
孙鸿儒
冬措毛
李永存
韩振兴
王昆
王洋洋
马文斌
黄刚
梁媛娜
童翠芸
辛小伟
张艳玲
王启斐
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Qinghai Provincial State Owned Forest Farm Station
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Qinghai Provincial State Owned Forest Farm Station
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Priority to CN202310286005.4A priority Critical patent/CN116158222B/en
Publication of CN116158222A publication Critical patent/CN116158222A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B49/00Combined machines
    • A01B49/02Combined machines with two or more soil-working tools of different kind
    • A01B49/022Combined machines with two or more soil-working tools of different kind at least one tool being actively driven
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B49/00Combined machines
    • A01B49/02Combined machines with two or more soil-working tools of different kind
    • A01B49/022Combined machines with two or more soil-working tools of different kind at least one tool being actively driven
    • A01B49/025Combined machines with two or more soil-working tools of different kind at least one tool being actively driven about a substantially vertical axis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B49/00Combined machines
    • A01B49/04Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/40Afforestation or reforestation

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Soil Working Implements (AREA)

Abstract

A mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation device and method relates to the technical field of agricultural machinery, and the structure is as follows: the device comprises a power chassis, a traveling device, a frame, a furrow plough, a vertical soil loosening device, a harrow group, a rotary tillage device, a plough harrow group, an earth-moving auger, a compacting device and a water shaft, wherein crawler traveling devices are arranged on two sides below the power chassis, the front end and the rear end of the power chassis are respectively provided with a frame, and the furrow plough, the vertical soil loosening device and the harrow group are sequentially arranged on the frame at the front end of the power chassis; the frame at the rear end of the power chassis is sequentially provided with a horizontal rotary tillage device, a plow rake group, a vertical rotary tillage device, a soil conveying auger, a compacting device and a water shaft, and two sides of the frame are respectively provided with travelling wheels. The invention has the beneficial effects that: the utilization efficiency of the machine tool is improved, the integrated operation is realized, the adjustment is flexible and convenient, the operation cost is reduced, the mechanization degree of the mountain upland area is improved, and a reasonable mechanical operation process system is constructed.

Description

Mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment and method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of agricultural machinery, in particular to a mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation device and method.
Background
At present, the country highly pays attention to ecological civilization construction, and large-scale homeland greening and ecological restoration actions are promoted. In the forestation process in the mountain area of the plateau, the problems of low survival rate of trees, poor growth of trees, slow expansion of forestation scale and the like caused by poor standing quality of the soil, drought, water and soil loss and other topography and climate factors are faced. The reverse slope terrace soil preparation method can play roles of accommodating rainfall, intercepting muddy water, storing water, preserving soil moisture and the like, and is a common forestation soil preparation mode in arid areas of mountain lands of the highland.
Under the conditions of complex topography, irregular operation sites, lack of other accessories and the like in hilly and mountain areas, the common engineering excavator and the agricultural rotary cultivator are difficult to climb the hills, and the small machine is lack of pertinence, inconvenient to adjust and low in use efficiency, so that the cost of forest area operation is indirectly increased, even inorganic availability is realized, and the problems of high labor intensity, insufficient labor force, low work efficiency and the like are caused.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides a mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation device and method, which are used for solving the problems that a common engineering excavator and an agricultural rotary cultivator are difficult to climb a mountain, and small tools lack pertinence, are inconvenient to adjust and have low use efficiency.
The invention provides mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment, which has the structure as follows: the device comprises a power chassis, a traveling device, a frame, a furrow plough, a vertical soil loosening device, a harrow group, a rotary tillage device, a plough harrow group, an earth-moving auger, a compacting device and a water shaft, wherein the traveling device comprises a crawler traveling device and traveling wheels, the rotary tillage device comprises a horizontal rotary tillage device and a vertical rotary tillage device, the crawler traveling devices are arranged on two sides below the power chassis, the front end and the rear end of the power chassis are respectively provided with a frame, and the furrow plough, the vertical soil loosening device and the harrow group are sequentially arranged on the frame at the front end of the power chassis; the frame at the rear end of the power chassis is sequentially provided with a horizontal rotary tillage device, a plow rake group, a vertical rotary tillage device, a soil conveying auger, a compacting device and a water shaft, and two sides of the frame are respectively provided with travelling wheels.
The furrow plough, the vertical soil loosening device, the harrow group, the horizontal rotary tillage device, the plough harrow group, the vertical rotary tillage device, the soil conveying auger, the compacting device and the water shaft are all hung on the frame.
The power chassis is characterized in that frame hanging frames are respectively arranged at the front end and the rear end of the power chassis, one end of each frame hanging frame is movably arranged on the power chassis, the other end of each frame hanging frame is connected with the corresponding frame through a hanging plate, an undercarriage is arranged above the corresponding frame, one end of each undercarriage is fixedly arranged on the power chassis, the other end of each undercarriage is fixed on the corresponding frame, the corresponding frame is installed and detached through the hanging plate, the corresponding frame is lifted or dropped through the corresponding undercarriage, and the corresponding frame can be lifted when a machine walks.
The turnplow is hung on the frame through a hole plate, and the height of the turnplow can be adjusted through the hole plate.
The vertical soil loosening device comprises a mounting seat, a blade B, spike teeth and spike tooth shafts, wherein the spike tooth shafts are arranged in the center of the mounting seat, the blade B is arranged around the mounting seat, and the spike teeth are arranged on the blade B; the pin tooth shaft is connected with the mounting seat through a bearing, and the pin tooth shaft does not rotate along with the rotation of the mounting seat and the blade B.
The rake set is a notch disc rake set, the notch disc rake set comprises a servo motor, a screw rod, a locking nut, a bearing, a key and a threaded pipe, the output end of the servo motor is connected with the screw rod, notch disc rakes are uniformly arranged on the screw rods on two sides of the servo motor, the center of the notch disc rake is sleeved on the screw rod through the bearing, the key and the threaded pipe, and the notch disc rake is fixed on the screw rod through the locking nut; the inner side of the threaded pipe is provided with threads which are connected with the screw rod, the outer part of the threaded pipe is connected with the inner side of the bearing through a key, and the outer wall of the bearing is connected with the inner part of the notch disc harrow; the whole harrow group is connected to the frame through a fixed connecting rod, the servo motor is fixed above the frame, and the output end of the servo motor penetrates through the frame and is connected with the lead screw gear.
The rotary tillage device comprises a cutter shaft, a blade A and cutter teeth, wherein the blade is fixedly arranged on the cutter shaft, the cutter teeth are fixedly arranged on the blade, and the lengths of the cutter teeth are unequal.
The two ends of the cutter shaft of the horizontal rotary tillage device are connected through a side transmission mechanism, a hydraulic driver is arranged above the frame of the horizontal rotary tillage device and connected with the side transmission mechanism, a shield is arranged above the horizontal rotary tillage device, and the length of cutter teeth on the cutter shaft of the horizontal rotary tillage device is gradually prolonged from one end to the other end.
The vertical rotary tillage device comprises a frame, a hydraulic driving machine, a cutter shaft, a cutter tooth, a cutter shaft, a rotary tillage device and a rotary tillage machine.
The lower part of the vertical rotary tillage device is provided with a small plow which does not rotate along with the rotary tillage blade.
The plow harrow group comprises a scarifying plow, opposite harrows and strong pressing rods, three strong pressing rods are arranged, and the three strong pressing rods and the frame are arranged in a triangle shape, so that the plow harrow group is ensured to be stable in operation; the scarifier plow and the opposite harrows are arranged in a front-back staggered way; the strong pressure rod is a telescopic rod, and the operation angle can be adjusted.
The soil conveying auger comprises a spiral auger and a cam device, the spiral auger is attached to the reverse slope surface, soil is conveyed to one side far away from the mountain, the cam device is connected with the auger, and the rotation of the cam controls the distance of the auger from the ground.
The pressing device comprises a strong pressing spring rod, an attitude adjusting rod, a counter slope pressing roller, a front slope pressing roller, a rear bank pressing roller and a spring, wherein the strong pressing spring rod and the attitude adjusting rod are respectively arranged at the tops of the counter slope pressing roller, the front slope pressing roller and the rear bank pressing roller, and the strong pressing spring rod is sleeved with the spring; the inclination angles of the counter slope press roll, the front slope press roll and the rear bank press roll are respectively adjusted according to the angles of the slope surfaces; the strong spring rod presses the roller pressing slope through a spring; the two parts of the gesture adjusting rod are connected through a bolt, and the length of the gesture adjusting rod is adjusted through the bolt, so that the angle of the roller is adjusted.
The water shaft comprises a shaft body, an installation clamping seat and a spray head, wherein the installation clamping seat is arranged on the shaft body, and the spray head is arranged on the installation clamping seat.
The power chassis provides traction power and electrohydraulic power.
The soil preparation method of the mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment comprises the following steps: the equipment is suitable for horizontal ditch type forestation soil preparation operation; the power chassis provides traction power and electrohydraulic power, and in the non-operation running process, the landing gear is lifted, and the travelling wheels are lifted off the ground;
the furrow plough turns out the soil at the high altitude side, the number of furrow ploughs and the depth of the plough body into the soil are adjusted according to the width of the horizontal ladder plane and the angle of the slope, a counterweight is arranged at one side far away from the mountain body to prevent uneven stress, and the height of the furrow plough is adjusted through a pore plate;
the vertical soil loosening device loosens large soil ploughed by the furrow plough, and performs preliminary dispersion treatment on the loosened soil, a blade B on the vertical soil loosening device further cuts the soil, and a cutter tooth forms a nail tooth in a space to strike, pick and loosen the soil, and the direction of a nail tooth shaft is opposite to that of the blade B, so that the soil loosening efficiency is improved, and grass winding of the vertical soil loosening device is reduced;
the notch disc harrows further finely crush and loosen the soil after the vertical soil loosening device, long weeds on the ground surface are cut, each two notch disc harrows form a harrow group, the notch disc harrows an S-shaped route under the action of a servo motor, the soil crushing efficiency is improved, and the soil is spread and dispersed;
the horizontal rotary tillage device loosens soil on the reverse slope, mixes weeds with the soil, conveys the soil to one side, and the protective cover simultaneously plays roles of collecting the soil and leveling the ground surface, the lengths of blades of the horizontal rotary tillage device are gradually increased, and the rotary tillage depth of each blade is different, so that the inclination angle of the ground surface after rotary tillage is formed; the size of the surface inclination angle is adjusted by the increasing amplitude of the length of the rotary tillage blade;
the plow harrow group carries out preliminary crushing and ploughing on the soil at the back ridge surface, after the plow harrow group works, large blocks of soil are separated from the ground surface and spread on the back ridge surface, the angle of the plow harrow group is adjusted through a strong pressing rod, and the plow harrow group is obliquely attached to a hillside to carry out the work on the soil;
the vertical rotary tillage device loosens soil on the slope surface of the rear ridge, mixes weeds with the soil, throws the soil to one side far away from the mountain, and the small plow turns up the soil at the slope toe at the staggered position of the horizontal rotary tillage device and the vertical rotary tillage device to prevent the missing of tillage;
the earth-moving auger conveys the soil on the slope surface to one side, the soil on the reverse slope surface is cleaned, a front slope surface is gradually formed, the cam device enables the earth-moving auger to be lifted regularly, part of the soil is left, and transverse ridges on the reverse slope surface are formed;
the soil compacting device compacts and plasticity of the soil on the rear ridge face, the reverse slope face and the front slope face, the three compacting rollers respectively compact the soil on the reverse slope face, the front slope face and the rear ridge face, the soil is compacted under the action of the strong compacting elastic rod, and the inclination angle of the rollers is adjusted through the length of the telescopic posture adjusting rod according to the slope face angle;
the water shaft is used for applying water to the rear ridge surface, the reverse slope surface and the front slope surface, so that the slope surface forms a soil hardening thin layer, loose soil in a drought region is prevented from generating sand wind, the water shaft has the advantages that water is applied uniformly, water is applied to the same place for multiple times, the hardening property of the soil is improved, and water resources are saved.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the utilization efficiency of the machine tool is improved, the integrated operation is realized, the adjustment is flexible and convenient, the operation cost is reduced, the mechanization degree of the mountain upland area is improved, and a reasonable mechanical operation process system is constructed.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a diagram of the whole machine of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a workflow of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a structural view of the rotary tillage apparatus of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a diagram of the rake section of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of the operation of the pressing device of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a block diagram of a mountain area where the present invention is implemented;
FIG. 7 is a block diagram of the vertical scarifier according to the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a water axis construction diagram of the present invention;
in the figure: 1. rear ridge, 2, front slope, 3, front slope, 4, toe, 5, reverse slope, 6, frame hanger, 7, frame, 8, aperture plate, 9, landing gear, 10, power chassis, 11, strong bar, 12, scarifier, 13, cam device, 14, walking wheel, 15, water axle, 16, compacting device, 17, earth-moving auger, 18, small plough, 19, vertical rotary tillage device, 20, opposite harrow, 21, shield, 22, horizontal rotary tillage device, 23, hanging plate, 24, crawler walking device, 25, harrow group, 26, vertical scarifier, 27, furrow plough, 28, plough harrow group, 29, hillside, 30, soil after raking, 31, soil after horizontal rotary tillage, 32, soil after vertical rotary tillage, 33, soil after compacting, 34, cutter shafts, 35, blades A,36, cutter teeth, 37, notch disc rakes, 38, screw rods, 39, lock nuts, 40, servo motors, 41, bearings, 42, keys, 43, threaded pipes, 44, mounting seats, 45, spike teeth, 46, blades B,47, spike tooth shafts, 48, cross beams, 49, strong spring rods, 50, attitude adjusting rods, 51, counter slope press rolls, 52, front slope press rolls, 53, rear slope press rolls, 54, springs, 55 and mounting clamping seats.
Detailed Description
Embodiment 1, as shown in fig. 1-8, the invention provides a mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation device and method, the structure of which is as follows: the device comprises a power chassis 10, a traveling device, a frame 7, a furrow plough 27, a vertical soil loosening device 26, a rake group 25, a rotary tillage device, a plow rake group 28, an earth-moving auger 17, a compacting device 19 and a water shaft 15, wherein the traveling device comprises a crawler traveling device 24 and traveling wheels 14, the rotary tillage device comprises a horizontal rotary tillage device 22 and a vertical rotary tillage device 19, the crawler traveling devices 24 are arranged on two sides below the power chassis 10, the front end and the rear end of the power chassis 10 are respectively provided with the frame 7, and the furrow plough 27, the vertical soil loosening device 26 and the rake group 25 are sequentially arranged on the frame 7 at the front end of the power chassis 10; the rear end frame 7 of the power chassis 10 is sequentially provided with a horizontal rotary tillage device 22, a plow harrow group 28, a vertical rotary tillage device 19, an earth-moving auger 17, a compacting device 19 and a water shaft 15, and two sides of the frame 7 are respectively provided with travelling wheels 14.
Further, the furrow plow 27, the vertical soil loosening device 26, the rake set 25, the horizontal rotary tillage device 22, the plow rake set 28, the vertical rotary tillage device 19, the earth-moving auger 17, the compacting device 19 and the water shaft 15 are all hung on the frame 7.
Further, the front end and the rear end of the power chassis 10 are respectively provided with a frame hanging frame 6, one end of the frame hanging frame 6 is movably installed on the power chassis 10, the other end of the frame hanging frame 6 is connected with the frame 7 through a hanging plate 23, a landing gear 9 is arranged above the frame 7, one end of the landing gear 9 is fixedly installed on the power chassis 10, and the other end of the landing gear 9 is fixedly installed on the frame 7. The frame 7 is assembled and disassembled through the hanging plate 23, the frame 7 is lifted or dropped through the landing gear 9, and the frame 7 can be lifted when the machine walks.
Further, the turnplow 27 is hung on the frame 7 through the orifice plate 8, and the height of the turnplow 27 can be adjusted through the orifice plate 8.
Further, the vertical soil loosening device 26 comprises a mounting seat 44, a blade B46, spike teeth 45 and spike tooth shafts 47, the spike tooth shafts 47 are arranged in the center of the mounting seat 44, the blade B46 is arranged around the mounting seat 44, and the spike teeth 45 are arranged on the blade B46; the pin shaft 47 is connected with the mounting seat 44 through the bearing 41, and the pin shaft 47 does not rotate along with the rotation of the mounting seat 44 and the blade B46.
Further, the rake group 25 is a notch disc rake 37 group, the notch disc rake 37 group comprises a servo motor 40, a lead screw 38, a lock nut 39, a bearing 41, a key 42 and a threaded pipe 43, the output end of the servo motor 40 is connected with the lead screw 38, the lead screws 38 on two sides of the servo motor 40 are uniformly provided with the notch disc rake 37, the center of the notch disc rake 37 is sleeved on the lead screw 38 through the bearing 41, the key 42 and the threaded pipe 43, and the notch disc rake 37 is fixed on the lead screw 38 through the lock nut 39; the inner side of the threaded pipe 43 is provided with threads which are connected with the screw rod 38, the outer part of the threaded pipe 43 is connected with the inner side of the bearing 41 through a key 42, and the outer wall of the bearing 41 is connected with the notch disc harrow 37; the whole rake group 25 is connected to the frame 7 through a fixed connecting rod, the servo motor 40 is fixed above the frame 7, and the output end of the servo motor 40 penetrates through the frame 7 and is in gear connection with the lead screw 38.
Further, the rotary tillage device comprises a cutter shaft 34, a blade A35 and cutter teeth 36, wherein the blade A35 is fixedly arranged on the cutter shaft 34, the cutter teeth 36 are fixedly arranged on the blade A35, and the lengths of the cutter teeth 36 are unequal.
Further, two ends of a cutter shaft 34 of the horizontal rotary tillage device 22 are connected through a side transmission mechanism, a hydraulic driver is arranged above a frame 7 of the horizontal rotary tillage device 22 and is connected with the side transmission mechanism, a shield 21 is arranged above the horizontal rotary tillage device 22, and the length of cutter teeth 36 on the cutter shaft 34 of the horizontal rotary tillage device 22 is gradually prolonged from one end to the other end.
Further, one end of a cutter shaft 34 of the vertical rotary tillage device 19 is connected with a hydraulic driving machine, the hydraulic driving machine is arranged on the frame 7 where the vertical rotary tillage device 19 is positioned, the output end of the hydraulic driving machine penetrates through the frame 7 to be connected with the cutter shaft 34, and the length of cutter teeth 36 of the vertical rotary tillage device 19 is shortened from top to bottom.
Further, a small plow 18 is arranged at the lower part of the vertical rotary tillage device 19 and does not rotate along with the rotary tillage knife.
Further, the plow harrow group 28 comprises a scarifier plow 12, an opposite harrow 20 and a strong pressing rod 11, wherein three strong pressing rods 11 are arranged, and the three strong pressing rods 11 and the frame are arranged in a triangle shape, so that the plow harrow group 28 is ensured to be stable in operation; the scarifier plow 12 and the opposite harrow 20 are arranged in a staggered way from front to back; the strong pressing rod 11 is a telescopic rod, and the operation angle can be adjusted.
Further, the soil conveying auger 17 comprises a spiral auger and a cam device 13, the spiral auger is attached to the surface of the reverse slope 5, and soil is conveyed to the side far away from the mountain. The cam device 13 is connected with the screw feeder, and the rotation of the cam controls the distance of the screw feeder from the ground.
Further, the compacting device 19 includes a strong compacting spring 49, a posture adjusting rod 50, a counter slope pressing roller 51, a front slope pressing roller 52, a rear ridge pressing roller 53 and a spring 54, the tops of the counter slope pressing roller 51, the front slope pressing roller 52 and the rear ridge pressing roller 53 are respectively provided with the strong compacting spring 49 and the posture adjusting rod 50, and the strong compacting spring 49 is sleeved with the spring 54; the back slope press roller 51, the front slope press roller 52 and the rear ridge press roller 53 respectively adjust the inclination angles according to the slope angles; the strong spring rod 49 presses the roller pressing slope through a spring 54; the two parts of the posture adjusting lever 50 are connected by a bolt, and the lever length is adjusted by the bolt, thereby adjusting the angle of the roller.
Further, the water shaft 15 comprises a shaft body, an installation clamping seat 55 and a spray head, the installation clamping seat 55 is arranged on the shaft body, and the spray head is arranged on the installation clamping seat 55.
Further, the power chassis 10 provides traction power and electrohydraulic power.
The soil preparation method of the mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment comprises the following steps: the equipment is suitable for mountain dry land horizontal ditch type forestation soil preparation operation; the power chassis 10 provides traction power and electrohydraulic power, the landing gear 9 is lifted and the travelling wheel 14 is lifted off the ground in the non-operation running process;
the first step: the furrow plough 27 turns out the soil at the high altitude side of the hillside 29, the number of the furrow plough 27 and the depth of the plough body into the soil are adjusted according to the width of the horizontal step plane and the angle of the slope, a counterweight is arranged at the side far away from the hillside to prevent uneven stress, and the height of the furrow plough 27 is adjusted through the pore plate 8;
and a second step of: the vertical soil loosening device 26 loosens large soil ploughed by the furrow plough 27, and preliminary dispersion treatment is carried out on the loosened soil, the blade B46 on the vertical soil loosening device 26 further cuts the soil, the cutter teeth 36 form the space, the nail teeth 45 strike, pick and loosen the soil, the direction of the nail tooth shaft 47 is opposite to that of the blade B46, the soil crushing efficiency is increased, and grass winding of the vertical soil loosening device 26 is reduced;
and a third step of: the notch disc harrows 37 further finely crush and loosen the soil after the vertical soil loosening device 26, cut long weeds on the ground surface, form a harrow group 25 by every two notch disc harrows 37, walk an S-shaped route under the action of the servo motor 40, improve the soil crushing efficiency, and spread and disperse the soil to form post-harrow soil 30 (as shown in fig. 2, 30);
fourth step: the horizontal rotary tillage device 22 loosens soil on the reverse slope 5 surface, mixes weeds with the soil, conveys the soil to one side, and the protective cover 21 simultaneously plays roles of collecting the soil and leveling the ground surface, the lengths of blades of the horizontal rotary tillage device 22 are gradually increased, the rotary tillage depth of each blade is different, the inclination angle of the ground surface after rotary tillage is formed, and the soil 31 (shown as 31 in fig. 2) after horizontal rotary tillage is formed; the size of the surface inclination angle is adjusted by the increasing amplitude of the length of the rotary tillage blade;
fifth step: the plow harrow group 28 carries out preliminary scarification and plowing on the soil on the surface of the rear ridge 1, after the plow harrow group 28 works, large blocks of soil are separated from the ground surface and spread on the surface of the rear ridge 1, the angle of the plow harrow group 28 is adjusted through the strong pressure bar 11, and the plow harrow group 28 is obliquely close to the front slope 3 to carry out the work on the soil;
sixth step: the vertical rotary tillage device 19 loosens soil on the slope of the rear ridge 1, mixes weeds with the soil, throws the soil to the side far away from the mountain to form vertical rotary tillage soil 32 (shown as 32 in fig. 2), and the small plow 18 turns up the soil of the toe 4 at the staggered position of the horizontal rotary tillage device 22 and the vertical rotary tillage device 19 to prevent the missing of the tillage;
seventh step: the earth-moving auger 17 conveys the soil on the slope surface to one side, cleans the soil on the reverse slope 5 surface, gradually forms the slope surface of the front slope 2, and the cam device 13 enables the earth-moving auger 17 to be lifted periodically to leave part of the soil, so that the transverse ridge 6 (shown as 6 in fig. 6) on the reverse slope 5 surface is formed.
Eighth step: the compacting device 19 compacts and plasticity of soil on a slope surface and a ridge surface, namely a counter slope compression roller 51, a front slope compression roller 52 and a rear ridge compression roller 53 respectively, compacts soil on a counter slope 5 surface, a front slope 2 surface and a rear ridge 1 surface under the action of a strong compacting spring rod 49 to form compacted soil 33 (shown as 33 in fig. 2), and the inclination angle of the rollers is adjusted by the length of a telescopic posture adjusting rod 50 according to the slope surface angle;
ninth step: the water shaft 15 is used for applying water to the slope surface to enable the slope surface to form a soil hardening thin layer so as to prevent the loose soil in a drought region from generating sand wind, and the water shaft 15 has the advantages that water is applied uniformly and is applied to the same place for a plurality of times, the hardening property of the soil is improved, and water resources are saved.

Claims (10)

1. The mechanical combined soil preparation equipment for mountain land drought region forestation is characterized in that: the device comprises a power chassis, a traveling device, a frame, a furrow plough, a vertical soil loosening device, a harrow group, a rotary tillage device, a plough harrow group, an earth-moving auger, a compacting device and a water shaft, wherein the traveling device comprises a crawler traveling device and traveling wheels, the rotary tillage device comprises a horizontal rotary tillage device and a vertical rotary tillage device, the crawler traveling devices are arranged on two sides below the power chassis, the front end and the rear end of the power chassis are respectively provided with a frame, and the furrow plough, the vertical soil loosening device and the harrow group are sequentially arranged on the frame at the front end of the power chassis; the frame at the rear end of the power chassis is sequentially provided with a horizontal rotary tillage device, a plow rake group, a vertical rotary tillage device, an earth-moving auger, a compacting device and a water shaft, and two sides of the frame are respectively provided with travelling wheels; the vertical soil loosening device comprises a mounting seat, a blade B, spike teeth and spike tooth shafts, wherein the spike tooth shafts are arranged in the center of the mounting seat, the blade B is arranged on the periphery of the mounting seat, and the spike teeth are arranged on the blade B; the pin tooth shaft is connected with the mounting seat through a bearing, and the pin tooth shaft does not rotate with the mounting seat and the blade B.
2. The mountain land drought area forestation mechanized combined soil preparation device of claim 1, wherein: the furrow plough, the vertical soil loosening device, the harrow group, the horizontal rotary tillage device, the plough harrow group, the vertical rotary tillage device, the soil conveying auger, the compacting device and the water shaft are hung on the frame.
3. The mountain land drought area forestation mechanized combined soil preparation device of claim 2, wherein: the power chassis is characterized in that the front end and the rear end of the power chassis are respectively provided with a frame hanging frame, one end of each frame hanging frame is movably mounted on the power chassis, the other end of each frame hanging frame is connected with the frame through a hanging plate, an undercarriage is arranged above the frame, one end of each undercarriage is fixedly mounted on the power chassis, and the other end of each undercarriage is fixedly mounted on the frame.
4. A mountain land drought area forestation mechanized joint soil preparation device as claimed in claim 3, wherein: the turnplow is hung on the frame through a pore plate; the rake set is a notch disc rake set, the notch disc rake set comprises a servo motor, a screw rod, a locking nut, a bearing, a key and a threaded pipe, the output end of the servo motor is connected with the screw rod, notch disc rakes are uniformly arranged on the screw rods on two sides of the servo motor, the center of the notch disc rake is sleeved on the screw rod through the bearing, the key and the threaded pipe, and the notch disc rake is fixed on the screw rod through the locking nut; the inner side of the threaded pipe is provided with threads which are connected with the screw rod, the outer side of the threaded pipe is connected with the inner side of the bearing through a key, and the outer wall of the bearing is connected with the notch disc harrow; the whole harrow group is connected to the frame through a fixed connecting rod, the servo motor is fixed above the frame, and the output end of the servo motor penetrates through the frame and is connected with the lead screw gear.
5. The mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment as claimed in claim 4, wherein: the rotary tillage device comprises a cutter shaft, a blade A and cutter teeth, wherein the blade is fixedly arranged on the cutter shaft, the cutter teeth are fixedly arranged on the blade, and the lengths of the cutter teeth are unequal; the two ends of the cutter shaft of the horizontal rotary tillage device are connected through a side transmission mechanism, a hydraulic driver is arranged above the frame of the horizontal rotary tillage device and connected with the side transmission mechanism, a shield is arranged above the horizontal rotary tillage device, and the length of cutter teeth on the cutter shaft of the horizontal rotary tillage device is gradually increased from one end to the other end; one end of a cutter shaft of the vertical rotary tillage device is connected with a hydraulic driving machine, the hydraulic driving machine is arranged on a frame where the vertical rotary tillage device is positioned, the output end of the hydraulic driving machine penetrates through the frame to be connected with the cutter shaft, and cutter teeth of the vertical rotary tillage device are longer from bottom to top; the lower part of the vertical rotary tillage device is provided with a small plow which does not rotate along with the cutter shaft.
6. The mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment as claimed in claim 5, wherein: the plough rake group comprises a scarifying plough, an opposite harrow and three strong pressing rods, and the three strong pressing rods and the frame are arranged in a triangle; the scarifier plow and the opposite harrows are arranged in a front-back staggered way; the strong pressing rod is a telescopic rod.
7. The mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation device as claimed in claim 6, wherein: the earth-moving auger comprises a spiral auger and a cam device, the spiral auger is attached to the reverse slope, the cam device is connected with the earth-moving auger, and the rotation of the cam device controls the distance from the auger to the ground.
8. The mountain land drought area forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment as claimed in claim 7, wherein: the pressing device comprises a strong pressing spring rod, an attitude adjusting rod, a counter slope pressing roller, a front slope pressing roller, a rear bank pressing roller and a spring, wherein the strong pressing spring rod and the attitude adjusting rod are respectively arranged at the tops of the counter slope pressing roller, the front slope pressing roller and the rear bank pressing roller, and the strong pressing spring rod is sleeved with the spring; the inclination angles of the counter slope press roll, the front slope press roll and the rear bank press roll are respectively adjusted according to the angles of the slope surfaces; the strong spring rod presses the roller pressing slope through a spring; the two parts of the gesture adjusting rod are connected through a bolt, and the length of the gesture adjusting rod is adjusted through the bolt, so that the angle of the roller is adjusted.
9. The mountain land drought area forestation mechanized combined soil preparation device of claim 8, wherein: the water shaft comprises a shaft body, an installation clamping seat and a spray head, wherein the installation clamping seat is arranged on the shaft body, and the spray head is arranged on the installation clamping seat.
10. The soil preparation method of the mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment, which is characterized by comprising the following steps of: the power chassis provides traction power and electrohydraulic power, and in the non-operation running process, the landing gear is lifted, and the travelling wheels are lifted off the ground;
the first step: the furrow plough turns out the soil at the high altitude side of the hillside, the number of the furrow plough and the depth of the plough body into the soil are adjusted according to the width of the horizontal ladder plane and the angle of the slope, a counterweight is arranged at the side far away from the hillside to prevent uneven stress, and the height of the furrow plough is adjusted through a pore plate;
and a second step of: the vertical soil loosening device loosens large soil ploughed by the furrow plough, and performs preliminary dispersion treatment on the loosened soil, a blade B on the vertical soil loosening device further cuts the soil, and the blade B and the spike teeth of the spike tooth shaft strike, pick and loosen the soil;
and a third step of: the notch disc harrows further finely crush and loosen the soil after the vertical soil loosening device, long weeds on the ground surface are cut, each two notch disc harrows form a harrow group, the notch disc harrows an S-shaped route under the action of a servo motor, the soil crushing efficiency is improved, and the soil is spread and dispersed;
fourth step: the horizontal rotary tillage device loosens soil on the reverse slope, mixes weeds with the soil, conveys the soil to one side, and the protective cover simultaneously plays roles of collecting the soil and leveling the ground surface, the lengths of blades of the horizontal rotary tillage device are gradually increased, and the rotary tillage depth of each blade is different, so that the inclination angle of the ground surface after rotary tillage is formed; the size of the surface inclination angle is adjusted by the increasing amplitude of the length of the rotary tillage blade;
fifth step: the plow harrow group carries out preliminary crushing and ploughing on the soil at the back ridge surface, after the plow harrow group works, large blocks of soil are separated from the ground surface and spread on the back ridge surface, the angle of the plow harrow group is adjusted through a strong pressing rod, and the plow harrow group is obliquely attached to a hillside to carry out the work on the soil;
sixth step: the vertical rotary tillage device loosens soil on the slope surface of the rear ridge, mixes weeds with the soil, throws the soil to one side far away from the mountain, and the small plow turns up the soil at the slope toe at the staggered position of the horizontal rotary tillage device and the vertical rotary tillage device to prevent the missing of tillage;
seventh step: the soil conveying auger conveys soil at the toe of the slope to one side, the soil on the reverse slope is cleaned, a front slope is gradually formed, the cam device enables the soil conveying auger to be lifted regularly, part of the soil is left, and transverse ridges on the reverse slope are formed;
eighth step: the soil compacting device compacts and plasticity of the soil on the rear ridge, the counter slope and the front slope surface, the three compacting rollers respectively compact the soil on the rear ridge surface, the counter slope surface and the front slope surface, the soil is compacted under the action of the strong compacting elastic rod, and the inclination angle of the rollers is adjusted by the length of the telescopic posture adjusting rod according to the slope surface angle;
ninth step: the water shaft is used for applying water to the rear ridge surface, the reverse slope surface and the front slope surface, so that the slope surface forms a soil hardening thin layer, the water shaft is used for uniformly applying water, water is applied to the same place for a plurality of times, and the hardening property of soil is improved.
CN202310286005.4A 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 Mountain land drought region forestation mechanized combined soil preparation equipment and method Active CN116158222B (en)

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CN2190398Y (en) * 1993-12-16 1995-03-01 郭进 Disk tillage and rake plough
RU2340137C1 (en) * 2007-04-23 2008-12-10 Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Ярославская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия" Combined tilling device and method for soil treatment
CN101663931A (en) * 2009-10-26 2010-03-10 天津拖拉机制造有限公司 Multifunctional rotary tillage ridger
CN201726653U (en) * 2010-05-14 2011-02-02 王泽文 Rake corn-straw plough machine
CN201911008U (en) * 2010-12-30 2011-08-03 王泽文 Compound minimum tillage land preparation machine
CN202799605U (en) * 2012-09-14 2013-03-20 哈尔滨红达农机有限公司 Compound stubble cleaning and deep ploughing combined land preparation machine
CN103081593A (en) * 2013-03-01 2013-05-08 湖南春燕机械制造有限公司 Multi-functional rotary tillage excavator with self-propelled track
CN213044092U (en) * 2020-03-28 2021-04-27 临邑盛隆农机服务有限公司 Multi-layer deep ploughshare plough set
CN213245577U (en) * 2020-06-30 2021-05-25 华中农业大学 Viscosity-reducing resistance-reducing deep-loosening rotary tillage combined tillage machine
CN218388558U (en) * 2022-10-17 2023-01-31 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 Straw cover strip subsoiling and raking combined soil preparation machine

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN2190398Y (en) * 1993-12-16 1995-03-01 郭进 Disk tillage and rake plough
RU2340137C1 (en) * 2007-04-23 2008-12-10 Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Ярославская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия" Combined tilling device and method for soil treatment
CN101663931A (en) * 2009-10-26 2010-03-10 天津拖拉机制造有限公司 Multifunctional rotary tillage ridger
CN201726653U (en) * 2010-05-14 2011-02-02 王泽文 Rake corn-straw plough machine
CN201911008U (en) * 2010-12-30 2011-08-03 王泽文 Compound minimum tillage land preparation machine
CN202799605U (en) * 2012-09-14 2013-03-20 哈尔滨红达农机有限公司 Compound stubble cleaning and deep ploughing combined land preparation machine
CN103081593A (en) * 2013-03-01 2013-05-08 湖南春燕机械制造有限公司 Multi-functional rotary tillage excavator with self-propelled track
CN213044092U (en) * 2020-03-28 2021-04-27 临邑盛隆农机服务有限公司 Multi-layer deep ploughshare plough set
CN213245577U (en) * 2020-06-30 2021-05-25 华中农业大学 Viscosity-reducing resistance-reducing deep-loosening rotary tillage combined tillage machine
CN218388558U (en) * 2022-10-17 2023-01-31 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 Straw cover strip subsoiling and raking combined soil preparation machine

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