CN1155833A - Articulated arm for medical procedures - Google Patents

Articulated arm for medical procedures Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1155833A
CN1155833A CN95194664A CN95194664A CN1155833A CN 1155833 A CN1155833 A CN 1155833A CN 95194664 A CN95194664 A CN 95194664A CN 95194664 A CN95194664 A CN 95194664A CN 1155833 A CN1155833 A CN 1155833A
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articulated robot
drive assembly
member
support
medical instrument
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CN95194664A
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Chinese (zh)
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伍云升
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伍云升
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Abstract

An articulated arm can be used to firmly support and position a variety of medical tools, including surgical or diagnostic instruments flexibly in spce. Through some of its subassemblies may be computer controlled, thus autonomous in accordance to some pre-programmed sequence, manual control is also possible. The articulated arm is a universal computer assisted holder for a wide range of medical tools, in particular endoscopes for treatment of urological disorders.

Description

用于医疗处理的活节机械手 Articulated robot for medical treatment

本发明涉及用来进行医疗处理的活节机械手,本发明尤其(并非仅仅)涉及适宜于手术、治疗或诊断等医学应用的机器人系统。 The present invention relates to articulated robot for performing a medical treatment, the present invention is particularly (but not exclusively) suitable relates to, surgery, therapy or diagnosis and other medical applications of the robot system. 该活节机械手可用来为某一类治疗或诊断工具提供可靠的支承。 The articulated robot may be used to provide a reliable support for a class of therapeutic or diagnostic tools.

目前,计算机和机器人技术已非常成功地应用于许多工业领域,这一点在要求迅速完成多重复性(因而繁杂)、高精度或危险性任务的领域表现尤为显著。 Currently, computer and robotics technology has been very successfully used in many industrial fields, it called for the speedy completion of the multi-repetitive (and therefore complex), the field of high-precision performance or dangerous task is particularly significant. 由于其在定位重复性、可靠性、准确性及精密性方面的优势,机器人在手术示范室中的医疗工具定位技术上具有良好的应用前景。 Due to its advantages in positioning repeatability, reliability, accuracy and precision in terms of the medical tool positioning robotic surgery demonstration in the chamber is technically a good prospect. 而对于侵入性操作最小化的要求来讲,机器人技术更将显示出极大的潜力。 For invasive procedures in terms of minimizing the requirements, robotics but they will show great potential.

用来破碎肾结石的ESWL(体外冲击波碎石术)及高强度超声波是典型的非侵入性手术。 Used for breaking kidney stones ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy) and high intensity ultrasound is typically non-invasive surgery. 目前,在这类手术及与其相反的侵入性手术中,计算机辅助定位系统已被用来找准手术目标。 Currently, this type of surgery and in the opposite invasive surgery, computer assisted positioning systems have been used to identify the operation target. 手术目标在患者体内,而用操作工具对手术目标的第一线操作却可以在患者体外进行。 The operation target in a patient, it may be performed in vitro and patients with first-line operation of the operation tool operation target.

然而,大多数侵入性最小化的手术操作(MIS)都需要使用具有如下特性的医疗工具(或若干个被称为内窥镜的低倍观察镜):它可以是刚性或柔性体,可以进入患者身体上小的自然口或切割口并经由这些开口对患者体内器官的病区进行处理。 However, most of the minimally invasive surgical procedures (MIS) are required to use a medical instrument having a characteristic (referred to as an endoscope or several times lower sight glass): It may be rigid or flexible body, can enter the patient's body on a small natural mouth or mouth cut and processed through these openings ward of internal organs of the patient. 上述景像可以从目镜看到,也可以出于视觉效果及比例放大的考虑而显示在电视显示器上(所谓影像手术)。 The scene can be seen from the above the eyepiece, and displayed on the television display (so-called video surgery) and visual effects to be scaled up for consideration. 然而,这些由内窥镜直接获得的影像仅仅涉及了手术操作直接触及的环境。 However, these direct images obtained by the endoscope operator merely involves direct contact with the environment. 手术医生无法由此清楚地获得影像以外的情况。 Thus the surgeon can not get a clear image of the situation outside. 手术医生是在已切割组织显现出来之后才确认自己的操作进度的,这样做显然比较危险,为此,手术医生必须具备足够的技能和经验。 After the surgeon has to cut tissue is revealed only to confirm their progress of the operation, and this is clearly more dangerous, to this end, the surgeon must have sufficient skills and experience.

目前已出现一些现代化的医学成像方法,如计算机X线断层成像(CT)、核磁共振成像(MRI)及超声波成像。 At present, some modern medical imaging methods have emerged, such as X-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound imaging. 这些方法造就了计算机辅助三维成像的可能性,亦即,用平面监视器显示被处理或被观察器官的三维图像。 The possibility of computer-assisted method of creating a three-dimensional imaging, i.e., three-dimensional image to be displayed or processed by the flat panel display organs observed. 上述图像被叠加到患者身体上(效果类似于用一副特制目镜观察)以便在MIS中引导手术医生。 The image is superimposed on the body of a patient (similar to the effect observed with a special eyepiece) to guide the surgeon in MIS. 由于获得了手术部位的清晰图像,使用上述方法将缩短切除及缝合所花的时间。 Since the clear images of the surgical site, using the above method to shorten the time of resection and stapling spent. 由计算机建立的三维图像数据文件可用于图像显示,除此之外,借助于运动控制系统的相应监视及控制软件,这些数据还可被用来控制手术刀/内窥镜(装在具有适当结构的机械手上)的运动。 Three-dimensional image created by a computer data files can be used for image display, in addition, by means of the corresponding motion control system monitoring and control software, these data can also be used to control the scalpel / endoscope (having a suitable structure mounted the mechanical hand) movement. 这样,手术医生和计算机系统便可以获得手术操作直接触及区域以外的信息。 In this way, the surgeon and the computer system will be able to obtain information directly touch the surgical procedure outside the area.

在MIS操作中采用机械手主动介入的例子有很多,如TURP(经尿道前列腺切除术),自动式结肠镜检查,镫骨切除术以及ENT(耳鼻喉)手术。 Examples of use of the robot in operation MIS there are many active intervention, such as TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate), automatic colonoscopy, stapedectomy and ENT (ENT) surgery. 无粘固粉髋骨植入/更换是采用机械手介入的一种切口手术操作,其方式是用一个载有铣刀的工业机械手在股骨中铣出一个尺寸及位置精度均比较高的精密空腔,由此来配合预定的植入。 Cementless hip implant / replacement surgical incision is to use a manipulator intervention, there is a way using a cutter mill an industrial robot carrying out a size and positional accuracy of high precise than the cavity in the femur , thereby with predetermined implantation.

EP0,416,863(WICKHAN)介绍了一种用于医疗工具定位及引导的框架结构,该医疗工具可以是用于非侵入性前列腺手术的前列腺切除器。 EP0,416,863 (WICKHAN) describes a medical resectoscope positioning and guiding tool for the frame structure, the medical tool may be used for non-invasive prostate surgery. 该框架结构由框架构件(10,50)及环形件(15,57)构成,环形件的运动限于在平行于框架构件平面内围绕自身的轴旋转。 The frame structure consists of frame members (10, 50) and the ring member (15, 57), the annular member is limited in movement parallel to the plane of the frame member to rotate about its own axis. 穿过环形件的拱形件(18,65)载有医疗工具的安装座(20,66),控制医疗工具运动的方法是:使安装座沿着拱形件移动,同时使环形件作相对于框架构件的移动。 Arch through the annular member (18,65) contains a medical instrument mounting seat (20, 66), a method of controlling movement of the medical instrument is: moving the seat along the mounting arch, while the annular member relative to each other moving the frame member. 通过合理设置环形件半径、拱形件曲率半径以及医疗工具端梢至拱形件的距离,医疗工具围绕环形件及穿过拱形件的运动便会在环形件上远离拱形件的一侧扫出两个大致为锥状的区域。 Reasonable radius of an annular member, and the radius of curvature of the arcuate member to the tip end of the medical instrument from the arch, the medical instrument and moving around the annular member through the side away from the arch of the arch will be in the ring two substantially conical sweep area. 如果所用的医疗工具是前列腺切除器,那么较小的锥状区域便是前列腺上被切除的部分(因而遗留下一个锥状孔)。 If the medical instrument is used resectoscope, the tapered region is smaller portions (and thus left behind a tapered hole) is cut on the prostate. 框架结构可以由夹持装置安装在台架上,也可以被固紧在某一悬挂装置上。 The frame structure may be mounted on the bench by the holding means, may be secured on a suspension means. 环形件的旋转、医疗工具在拱形件上的往返以及医疗工具的手术动作都可由电机来驱动。 Rotation of the ring member, in the medical instrument and surgical arch reciprocating operation of the medical instrument to be driven by a motor.

如EP0,416,863所述的框架结构难以经过改装而适应除TURP或TURP中除电灼术之外的治疗任务。 The frame structure of claim EP0,416,863 difficult to adapt a modified TURP or TURP treatment of other tasks in addition to fulguration. 确切地讲,安装座(20,66)很不适于装载其它型式的医疗工具,而且,由于医疗工具的运动受到环形件之环形面面积的限制,框架结构上可安装医疗工具的种类也将受到限制。 Rather, the mount (20, 66) are suitable for loading other types of medical instrument, and, since the movement of the medical instrument is restricted annular face area of ​​the annular member, the frame structure of the type of medical instrument may be mounted will also be limit. 此外,EP0,416,863所述框架结构必须安装或连接在操作台上,而这又进一步限制了使用其它型式医疗工具的功能及改装可能性。 Furthermore, the frame structure must be installed or EP0,416,863 connecting the operating table, which further limits the possibility of using the conversion function and other types of medical instruments. 在手术示范室中预置该框架结构的工作难度非常大。 The frame structure preset in the working chamber exemplary operation very difficult. 为使安装座(20,66)与前列腺切除器上的托架对接,需要有一名助手用人工方法移动受到安装支架之球关节约束的系统整体。 To mount (20, 66) and the docking bracket on the prostatectomy, we need to have an assistant by the overall system ball joint mounting brackets of the constraints of manual methods for moving. 该助手还需在对接完成之后用人工方法锁紧两个球关节。 The assistant needed after the completion of the docking two locking ball joint with an artificial methods. 助手的存在可能带来消毒区受干扰的问题。 There is an assistant could be a problem disinfection area disturbed. 另外,该框架结构不具备在应急条件下迅速改为手动操作的功能。 Further, in the frame structure it does not have the function of emergency conditions to rapidly manually. 由于框架结构设计方面的原因,电气驱动方案存在走线不合理的问题,这可能妨碍手术,同时也是安全隐患。 Due to the design of the frame structure, there is an electrical drive program traces the problem of irrational, which may hinder the operation, but also a security risk.

本发明的目的是使活节机械手能够配装型式繁多的各种医疗工具,从而使之胜任更多种类的手术操作任务。 Object of the present invention is that the articulated robot can be equipped with a variety of many types of medical tools, thus making it more competent kind of surgical operation tasks.

如本发明所述,提出了一种用医疗工具完成医疗处理的活节机械手,它包括:以滑动方式装在第一可动支承构件上的拱形构件;将医疗工具夹持在某工作位置的工具夹持器,该工具夹持器被装载在拱形构件上;以及设在上述第一支承构件上的第一驱动组件,其作用是使上述拱形构件及上述工具夹持器滑动,其特征在于,上述工具夹持器可沿弧线轨迹运动,从而使医疗工具的工作位置按预定方式改变。 According to the invention, it proposes a complete medical treatment medical instrument with articulated robot, comprising: an arcuate member slidably mounted on the first movable support member; the medical instrument held in a working position the tool holder, the tool holder is mounted on an arcuate member; and a first drive assembly disposed on the first support member which functions so that the arcuate member and said sliding tool holder, wherein said tool holder is movable in an arc trajectory so that the working position of the medical instrument is changed in a predetermined manner.

作为优选方案,该活节机械手还包括与上述工具夹持器相接的第二驱动组件,其作用是使上述工具夹持器沿直线轨迹滑动,上述直线轨迹与通过上述弧线轨迹曲率中心的某一轴线相交。 As a preferred embodiment, the articulated robot further includes a second drive assembly in contact with said tool holder, and its role is to make the sliding of the tool holder along a straight path, the linear path and through said center of curvature of the arc locus intersecting the axis a. 拱形构件以可拆形式装在上述第一支承构件上,其特征还在于:如果需要,可将另一曲率半径不同的拱形构件以滑动形式装在第一支承构件上。 Removably mounted in the form of arcuate member on said first support member, characterized in further comprising: if desired, a different radius of curvature of the other arcuate member may be slidably mounted to the first support member in the form.

作为优选方案,该活节机械手还包括以机械方式接在上述第一支承构件上、并因此而使之绕第一驱动轴转动的第三驱动组件,这样,由拱形构件支承的上述工具夹持器也将可以绕上述第一驱动轴转动。 As a preferred embodiment, the articulated robot further comprising mechanically connected to said first support member, and therefore the drive assembly about a third of the first drive shaft, so that the tool member is supported by said arcuate clip also the holder is rotatable about a first rotation of the driving shaft.

作为优选方案,上述第一支承构件上通过连接器与第三驱动组件相连,该连接器可使上述第一驱动轴与上述第一支承构件纵轴之间形成一定的偏移量,在工作时,夹持在工具夹持器中的医疗工具的中轴线将与上述第一驱动轴相交,由此确定了医疗工具的转动中心。 As a preferred embodiment, it said first support member by a connector connected to the third drive assembly, the connector causes said first drive shaft between the first support member is formed with a certain longitudinal offset, at work , the central axis of the tool holder clamped in the medical instrument intersects said first drive shaft, thereby determining the rotational center of the medical instrument.

作为优选方案,上述连接器应具有可拆卸性,更换不同的连接器即可获得不同的偏移量,由此达到容纳不同医疗工具的目的。 As a preferred embodiment, the connector having a removable nature should switch to a different connector to obtain different offset, so as to achieve the purpose of accommodating different medical tools.

作为优选方案,该活节机械手还包括用来支承上述第三驱动组件的第二支承构件,该第二支承构件上设有用来使上述第三驱动组件沿直线方向移动的第四驱动组件,这样,在其工作时,上述工具夹持器也将连同拱形构件一起沿上述直线方向移动。 As a preferred embodiment, the articulated robot further comprising a second support member for supporting said third drive assembly, is provided on the second member for supporting said third drive assembly of the fourth drive assembly moves in a linear direction, so in its work, said tool holder will move along with the arcuate members together along said linear direction.

下文的描述将主要着眼于活节机械手在TURP(经尿道前列腺切除术)中的应用,TURP是一种广为人知的手术方法,它在良性前列腺增生(BPH)治疗方法中的地位类似于经济领域中的金本位制。 The following description will mainly focus on the articulated robot in TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate) applications, surgical TURP is a well-known, its position in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment method is similar to the economic sphere the gold standard. 本说明书以电灼技术为假定的手术切割模式。 In the present specification assumes the electrocautery surgical cutting technology mode. TURP中的医疗工具有泌尿内窥镜和前列腺切除器,在此尤需提及的是前列腺切除器,它包括远焦透镜、电极、外壳及配有标准型弹簧加载手柄的工作单元。 TURP has a medical tool and endoscopic urological resectoscope, it should be mentioned here in particular are resectoscope comprising afocal lenses, electrodes, and a housing unit with a working standard spring-loaded handle. 需要指出,该活节机械手的使用场合并不仅限于TURP,它在其它许多手术医疗中同样可以获得成功的运用。 It should be noted that the articulated robot usage scenarios is not limited to TURP, it can also obtain successfully applied in many other surgical medical treatment. 此外,该活节机械手可装载的医疗工具并不仅限于泌尿内窥镜,它完全可以装载其它许多种类的医疗器具。 Furthermore, the articulated robot may load medical tools and is not limited to urinary tract endoscopy, it can load many other kinds of medical device.

方便起见,以下结合附图对本发明的介绍将仅以活节机械手的某一项实施例为范例,其中:图1是表示活节机械手各组件的投影视图;图2是活节机械手和在手术室中用于TURP手术的平衡支承系统的投影视图;图3表示优选的活节机械手枢轴纵向驱动组件,该图中也含有优选的工具夹持器;图4表示采用图3所示工具夹持器的C形托架组件;图5表示经尿道超声波探头在枢轴纵向驱动组件之工具夹持器上的安装方式;图6表示经尿道超声波探头在枢轴纵向驱动组件之工具夹持器上的安装方式;图7是活节机械手之弧线运动驱动组件的透视图;图8是活节机械手之弧线运动驱动组件的剖视图;图9表示活节机械手之环形运动驱动组件的一种形式; Convenience, hereinafter in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of the described invention will only be a one articulated robot of an embodiment as an example, in which: FIG. 1 is a projection view of the components of the articulated robot; FIG. 2 is an articulated robot and a surgical balancing chamber for projecting a view of the support system of TURP; FIG. 3 shows a preferred vertical articulated robot drive assembly pivot, the figure also contains the preferred tool holder; figure 4 shows use of the tool holder shown in FIG. 3 C-shaped bracket assembly of the holder; FIG. 5 shows a transurethral ultrasound probe mounting on a tool holder of the drive assembly pivot longitudinally; Figure 6 shows a transurethral ultrasound probe tool holder in the longitudinal pivot axis of the drive assembly mounting on; FIG. 7 is a perspective view of an arc movement of the drive assembly articulated robot of; FIG. 8 is a sectional view of an arc movement of the drive assembly of the articulated robot of; an endless movement of the drive assembly of FIG. 9 showing articulated robot of form;

图10表示可用于活节机械手的某一种连接器;图11表示活节机械手之头架行走驱动组件的一种形式;图12表示含台车系统及配重的主立柱组件;图13表示使用活节机械手的平衡支承结构;图14表示平衡支承系统中X、Y及Z臂所用的可锁紧连续缆绳;图15草绘了活节机械手夹持的前列腺切除器在焦点之外的桶形轮廓轨迹;图16表示手术医生界面软件的模块结构,其设计功能可保证活节机械手以事件自引导方式工作;图17是整个系统的功能框图,该图表示了系统组元及其内在关系和控制关系。 Figure 10 shows a certain kind of connector may be used articulated robot; FIG. 11 represents articulated robot of the headstock travel form the drive assembly; FIG. 12 represents containing vehicle system and the counterweight main post assembly; FIG. 13 shows use articulated robot balanced support structure; lockable continuous cable FIG. 14 shows the balance of the support system of X, Y and Z arm used; FIG. 15 sketched articulated manipulator holding the resectoscope barrel out of focus of shaped profile track; block configuration Figure 16 shows the surgeon interface software designed function ensures articulated robot in the event bootstrapping work; FIG. 17 is a functional block diagram of the overall system, which shows a system element and the intrinsic relationship and controlling relationship.

图1表示如本发明所述活节机械手的某一优选实施例。 FIG 1 shows as one of the articulated robot of the present invention a preferred embodiment. 该机械手包括象拱形件124那样的拱形元件(见图7),拱形件124装在拱形件支座300那样的第一活动支承元件上并可在其上滑动。 The robot comprises an arcuate element like that arcuate member 124 (see FIG. 7), arch support 124 is mounted on the first movable member such as a support arch 300 and slidable thereon. 拱形件124上装有象托架137那样的工具夹持器(见图3),其作用是使医疗工具保持在工作位置。 The arcuate member 124 with a bracket 137 like that of the tool holder (see FIG. 3), which act to move the medical instrument held in the operating position. 上述拱形件支座137上设有象拱形件驱动组件302(见图8)那样的第一驱动组件,它可以使拱形件124及上述托架137滑动并因此而使托架沿弧形轨迹运动,从而使医疗工具按预定的方式变换工作位置。 Above the arch support arch 137 is provided as the drive assembly 302 (see FIG. 8) as the first drive assembly, which allows arcuate member 124 and the bracket 137 and thus the slide carriage along the arc shaped trajectory, thereby converting the working position of the medical instrument in a predetermined manner. 托架137配有象枢轴纵向驱动组件304那样的第二驱动组件,它使托架沿直线轨迹运动。 A second carriage 137 with a drive assembly 304 as a pivot as the longitudinal drive assembly that enables movement of the carriage along a linear track. 为操作方便,托架作直线运动的轨迹应与拱形件124柱面的曲率中心线相交。 To facilitate operation, the carriage with a straight line intersecting the axis of curvature of the trajectory should arch cylinder 124.

活节机械手的拱形件支座300又通过连接器275而受到象垂直支柱84那样的第二活动支承元件的支承。 300 has been supporting the second movable support member 84 as the vertical support such as a connector 275 through articulated robot arch support. 支柱84与一个象环形驱动组件306那样的第三驱动组件相连,该驱动组件的驱动轴轴线180即为连接器275的回转枢轴。 84 as a strut and a third annular drive assembly 306 drive assembly that is connected to the drive shaft axis of the drive assembly pivot axis 180 is the connector 275. 连接器275的存在使得拱形支承件300纵轴308与环形驱动组件306回转轴180之间形成了偏移量272。 There is a connection 275 such that the arcuate support member 300 with the longitudinal axis 308 of the annular offset drive assembly 272 is formed between the rotary shaft 306 180. 环形驱动组件306又连接在象头架行走驱动组件310(见图11)那样的第四驱动组件上,该第四驱动组件位于支柱84的底座处。 Annular drive assembly 306 and drive assembly is connected to the fourth traveling headgear as drive assembly 310 (see FIG. 11) as the fourth drive assembly is located at the base of strut 84. 头架行走驱动组件可以使拱形件支座300、拱形件124以及包括环形驱动组件306在内的上述所有驱动组件一同在大体水平的方向上作直线运动。 Headgear traveling drive assembly 300 can support arch, the arch member 124 and all of the above drive assembly 306 includes a drive assembly including an annular linear motion along a generally horizontal direction on.

如优选实施例所述的活节机械手具有四个独立方向上的运动自由度。 Articulated manipulator as described in the preferred embodiment has a freedom of movement in the four directions independently. 它们是:头架运行方向1、枢轴纵向2、拱形轨迹方向3以及环形回转方向4。 They are: running direction of the head holder 1, the longitudinal pivot 2, 3 in the track direction, and an annular arcuate rotational direction 4. 活节机械手一般以拱形驱动组件302上拱形件124的曲率中心为转动中心182(图1及15)。 Usually articulated robot drive assembly 302 to the arcuate curvature of the arcuate member 124 of the center as the rotation center 182 (FIG. 1 and 15). 装夹在机械手上的医疗工具的中轴线应优先通过上述转动中心,而转动中心也最好能落在环形回转轴线180上。 Installation in the medical instrument on the robot axis via the center of rotation should be given priority, and the center of rotation is also preferably will sit on the annular pivot axis 180. 为此,拱形件与拱形件驱动组件之间应保持偏移量272。 For this reason, should be maintained between the arch and the arch offset drive assembly 272. 治疗或诊断工具可以经由托架137而接在活节机械手上(图3)。 Therapeutic or diagnostic tool may be connected to the articulated robotic arm (FIG. 3) via a bracket 137. 一般来说,应使上述医疗工具的中轴线(或理想中轴线)在任何时间及任何工作状态下都能通过上述转动中心。 In general, it should be the central axis of the medical instrument (or over center axis) at any time and in any working condition can pass the rotation center. 这样,医疗工具轴线便成为拱形件的径向轴线。 In this way, the medical tool axis becomes the axis of the radial arch (26). 尽管转动中心相对于拱形件124是固定的,但它相对于医疗工具本体的位置却是可变的。 Although the center of rotation with respect to the arcuate member 124 is fixed, but it is a medical instrument with respect to the position of the body it is variable. 这一点对于下文所述手术方案的优化来说是必需的。 This scheme for optimizing the operation described below is required.

最接近患者的装置是枢轴纵向驱动组件304(图3)。 It means closest to the patient is a longitudinal pivot drive assembly 304 (FIG. 3). 该组件由以下部分构成:托架137、电机罩144、伺服电机139、印刷电路板140、导轨145、球窝143、锁杆150、成对止动螺钉147及齿条135和齿轮136。 The assembly consists of the following parts: a bracket 137, the motor cover 144, the servo motor 139, a printed circuit board 140, a guide rail 145, the ball 143, the locking bar 150, the pair of stopper screws 135 and 147 and the rack gear 136. 托架的构形应留有可绕过阴茎头及前列腺切除器机体的间距/偏心距134。 The configuration should be left bracket spacing may bypass the penis head and body resectoscope / 134 eccentricity. 托架的中心线(也是前列腺切除器的中心轴线)应对准环形回转中心线180。 Carrier centerline (the center axis is prostate resectoscope) should be aligned with the centerline 180 of the endless rotary.

托架137是用罩在电机罩内的球窝143支承在导轨145上的。 Cover bracket 137 is a ball within the motor housing 143 is supported on the guide rail 145. 由图3可以清楚地看出,伺服电机139因驱动轴向下伸出而部分地被封在罩壳中。 It can be clearly seen from Figure 3, the servo motor drive shaft 139 extending downwardly due partially sealed in the housing. 齿条135和齿轮136的配合可使电机139驱动托架前后运动。 With a rack 135 and gear 136 may cause motor 139 drives the carriage back and forth motion. 用三个螺钉298(见图7)使电机罩144的狭槽142固紧在拱形件124上铣削出的凸耳299上,由此使电机罩保持相对静止。 (See FIG. 7) so that the motor cover 298 by three screws 144 on the slots 142 milled in the fastening member 124 on the arcuate ledge 299, whereby the motor cover remains relatively stationary. 拱形件的任何运动都会使整个枢轴纵向驱动组件304与之一同移动。 Any movement of the arcuate member will pivot the entire longitudinal drive assembly 304 moves together therewith.

装在印刷电路板140上的差动式行激励器可以减弱噪声对编码器信号的影响。 Mounted on the printed circuit board 140 of the differential actuator line attenuate the effects of noise on encoder signals. 该电路板被装在电机罩144旁边,用适当的屏蔽方法可以排除对电路板的电磁干扰(需要指出,手术示范室中常用的电灼装置往往会产生电磁干扰)。 The circuit board is mounted next to the motor housing 144 with a suitable masking method may preclude the circuit board electromagnetic interference (It is noted that exemplary surgical electrocautery means commonly used in the chamber tends to produce electromagnetic interference). 这种电路板上设有电接头,因而可以方便地从电机上更换。 Such a circuit board is provided with electrical contacts, it is possible to easily change from the motor.

托架137上设有两对以上按图3所示形状开成的定位槽138。 It is provided with two or more pairs shape shown in Figure 3, open into the positioning groove 138 on the carriage 137. 其中特定的一对定位槽可用来连接C形托架151。 Wherein the particular pair of positioning slots used to connect the C-shaped bracket 151. 可以根据转动中心182相对于前列腺切除器机体179的设定位置来选择用哪一对定位槽连接C形托架。 A set position relative to the body 179 of the resectoscope according to the rotation center 182 which is connected with the selected positioning groove C-shaped bracket. 用螺钉将C形托架151(见图4)半永久地固定并封紧在前列腺切除器179上的某一适当部位。 The C-shaped bracket with screws 151 (see FIG. 4) semi-permanently fixed and sealed tight in a suitable portion of the resectoscope 179. C形托架151与另一C形托架157分别是托架组件的一部分。 C-shaped bracket 151 and the other C-shaped brackets 157 are part of the carriage assembly. 当托架组件的两部分被装配在医疗工具(如内窥镜)的柱体部位时,两部分之间间隙的存在可以使装配获得足够可靠的箍紧。 When the two portions of the bracket assembly is mounted in the medical instrument (e.g. an endoscope) of the cylinder portion, there is a gap between two parts of the assembly can be obtained sufficiently reliable tightening. 同样,用于固定在其它非圆柱体医疗工具上的其它形状托架也可以方便地制做出来。 Also, other shapes for the brackets to the other non-cylindrical body of the medical instrument may be easily produced to make it.

如图4所示,托架157的凸部设有导槽159,导槽中可以穿入相应直径的心轴154。 The convex portion 4, the bracket 157 is provided with a guide groove 159, the guide groove may penetrate the respective diameters of the mandrel 154. 凸部厚度方向的两侧设有凹座160。 Both sides of the projecting portion in the thickness direction of the recess 160 is provided. 一副由两个半边构成的锁键156可以在手动或弹簧的作用下被推向导槽159或从中退出(见图4)。 A lock button 156 may be pushed by the two halves configured manually or under the action of a spring or a guide groove 159 to exit therefrom (see FIG. 4). 已装在牵开器(如格林堡式牵开器)端梢部的心轴154可以滑入凸部的导槽159中。 Attached to the retractor (e.g., Greenberg retractor) mandrel tip end portion 154 can be slid into the guide groove 159 of the convex portion. 为便于装入,导槽的入口处开有小倒角。 To facilitate the loading, the guide grooves at the inlet opening and a small chamfer. 心轴154上设有键槽155。 Key groove 155 provided on the mandrel 154. 可以通过旋转心轴或C形托架而使键槽正好对准锁键156。 The carrier may be by rotation of the spindle keyway or C-shaped catches 156 align exactly. 对准之后,将锁键向下推(用手动方式),使之嵌入心轴上铣削出的键槽155中,或者靠弹簧的作用将锁键156推入键槽155中。 After the alignment, the locking key is pushed down (manual mode), so that the mandrel insert milled keyway 155, or by the action of the spring 156 of the lock button 155 is pushed into the keyway. 这样将限制两个自由度286及287,所以内窥镜与工具夹持器之间将不会有相对运动。 This will limit the two degrees of freedom 286 and 287, so there will be no relative motion between the endoscope and the tool holder. 因此,对内窥镜的操纵只能按照工具夹持器的工作方式进行。 Thus, manipulation of the endoscope according to the mode of operation only the tool holder. 内窥镜的拆卸方法很简单,只要向上提起锁键156,使之脱离键槽即可。 Removing the endoscope is very simple, as long as the lift lock button 156 so as to from the keyway. 这样,从凸部和内窥镜上便可拆下工具夹持器及与之相接的心轴。 Thus, the convex portion and the endoscope can be removed and the tool holder in contact with the mandrel.

C形托架151上开有半圆形槽152,其作用是在C形托架嵌入托架137上的定位槽138时将托架组件锁紧。 Semi-circular grooves 152 are opened, and its role in the C-shaped bracket is fitted on the positioning groove 138 of the carrier 137 on the carriage assembly locking C-shaped bracket 151. 锁杆150本体的某一适当长度范围内具有铣削成的平面部分149。 Within a suitable length of the locking bar 150 has a planar body portion 149 milled. 锁杆是插在一钻成的孔146中的,孔146的位置应按如下原则设置:通过将锁杆150旋转至某一特定角度方向,可以使锁杆的平面部分与定位槽138齐平,从而实现C形托架的嵌接。 A lock bar is inserted in the drilled hole 146, the position of the hole 146 should be set as follows principle: a certain angle to the direction of rotation by the lock lever 150, the lock lever can be flat portion 138 flush with the positioning groove in order to achieve engagement of the C-shaped bracket. 锁杆配有防松用的定位螺钉147。 With a locking lever with a locking screw 147. 在C形托架就位之后,将锁杆转动约90度,以使其圆柱部分充入开在C形托架上的半圆形槽152中,从而将托架137锁住。 After the C-shaped bracket in place, the locking lever is rotated about 90 degrees, so as to open into the cylindrical portion filled semicircular grooves 152 on the C-shaped bracket, whereby the bracket 137 is locked.

图8表示拱形件驱动组件的某一实施例。 8 shows a drive assembly arch embodiment. 如图8所示,该驱动组件由以下部分构成:驱动轴130;轴承118及129;差动式光学编码器106(或其它型式的位置敏感元件);电磁制动器131(推荐使用常闭式);轴承座117及伸长部分113;以及伺服电机119。 8, the drive assembly consists of the following parts: a drive shaft 130; bearings 118 and 129; differential optical encoder 106 (or other type of position-sensitive device); an electromagnetic brake 131 (normally closed recommended) ; bearing housing 117 and elongated portion 113; and a servo motor 119. 轴承座117和伸长部分113一同构成为拱形件支座300。 Bearing housing 117 and elongated portion 113 together form an arch support member 300. 轴承座117的圆形表面上开有用来使导线通过的轴向导槽(图8未加表示)。 Circular bearing seat surface 117 of the shaft is opened for guide wire passing groove (FIG. 8 plus not shown). 这些导线是从拱形件驱动电机119、编码器106、制动器131及拱形件124本身(限位开关及其它附件)引出的,它们在凹部288处集束,而来自枢轴纵向驱动组件的另一股导线也在此处通过电接头108而端接。 The arch wires are driven from the motor 119, the encoder 106, 131 and brake arch 124 itself (limit switches and other accessories) withdrawn, they cluster recess 288, and the drive assembly from the other longitudinal pivot an electric wire connector is also here by 108 and termination. 引向枢轴纵向驱动组件的导线集束于一根高柔度的绝缘套管115中,为适应拱形件124的移动,导线束及相应套管应具有充裕的悬伸长度。 The drive assembly pivot towards the longitudinal wires bundled in an insulating sleeve 115 in a high degree of flexibility, to accommodate movement of the arch, the harness 124 and the corresponding sleeve should have sufficient overhang.

集束于凹部288中的导线均需穿过外壳伸长部分113的中心孔112,而伸长部分113的端部设有另一个电接头109。 Bundling the concave portion 288 elongated wire required through the housing portion 113 of the central bore 112, while the end 113 of the elongated portion 109 is provided with another electrical connector. 如上所述,使用电接头是为了针对不同径向偏移量272及医疗工具长度而方便地更换连接器275。 As described above, the use of different electrical connections to the radial offset 272 and length of the medical instrument easily replace the connector 275. 从外壳伸长部分113(图7和8)端部伸出的另一套管具有柔性、绝缘性及屏蔽性,其悬伸长度应足以保证回转运动的行程,该套管将其内部的导线束松驰地引入立柱84(图4)中。 From the elongated portion of the housing 113 (FIGS. 7 and 8) the other end of the cannula projecting portion having flexibility, insulation and shielding, which overhang is sufficient to ensure that rotary motion stroke, the guide sleeve to its internal harness loosely introduced into the column 84 (FIG. 4).

拱形件驱动组件302支承并驱动着拱形组件(见图7及8)中的拱形件。 Arch arch support and drive assembly 302 drives the arcuate assembly (see FIG. 7 and 8). 拱形组件由以下部分构成:圆弧形(具有适当的半径及张角),其周缘开有外齿形120;刚性构件121及125;横轴126;伞齿轮副128;挡块297;支承座紧定螺钉301;限位开关294(位于刚形构件125内部,不可见);以及轴承座127。 Arcuate assembly consists of the following parts: a circular arc (having a radius and an opening angle appropriate), which toothed outer peripheral edge 120 are opened; rigid member 121 and 125; 126 and the horizontal axis; sub-bevel gear 128; 297 stopper; support seat set screw 301; 294 limit switch (located just shaped inner member 125, not visible); and a bearing housing 127. 如前所述,拱形件124的凸耳299上可以安装枢轴纵向驱动组件。 As described above, the drive assembly can be pivotally mounted longitudinal lug 299 on the arcuate member 124. 弧线运动驱动电机119可将其驱动轴130的回转运动经由伞齿轮副128及120传递给拱形件124。 Arc movement drive motor 119 may drive shaft 130 is transmitted to the rotational movement of the arcuate member 124 via a bevel gear pair 128 and 120. 装在枢轴纵向驱动组件之托架137上的医疗工具会在相应驱动源的作用下沿弧形轨迹运动,而作为转动中心的拱形件曲率中心则落在医疗工具本体纵向的某一适当位置处。 Mounted on the carriage 137 in the longitudinal direction of the drive assembly pivot medical tool along an arcuate trajectory under the action of the respective drive source, and a center of curvature of the arch of the longitudinal center of rotation of the body of a medical instrument suitable to fall position. 调整这一位置的方法是,用枢轴纵向驱动方法移动托架137,或者,以手动方式用C形托架将医疗工具装在托架137上已有的另一对定位槽138上。 The method for adjusting the position of that longitudinal movement of the carriage 137 by a pivot driving method, or manually by the C-shaped bracket mounted on another medical instrument positioned in the existing grooves 138 on the carriage 137.

托架137上设有限于其长度范围内的若干对定位槽138,在手动方式下,操作者可以选择其中合适的一对来安装C形托架。 Is provided with a suitable pair limited to certain C-shaped bracket mounted to the positioning groove 138 in the manual mode, the operator may select its length wherein the upper bracket 137. 在另一种具有自动及程控特点的定位方式中,枢轴纵向驱动组件可以使装在其上的医疗工具作相对于拱形件及其中心的运动。 In another automatic and programmable features targeting the pivot allows the longitudinal drive assembly mounted thereon for movement relative to the medical instrument and the center of the arch. 此外,在活节机械手已被锁紧在平衡支承系统上之后,头架行走驱动组件310的移动也可以使转动中心的绝对空间位置得到调整。 Further, after the articulated robot has been locked to the support system balance, headgear traveling drive assembly 310 may also move absolute spatial position of the center of rotation is adjusted.

刚性构件121、125的作用是提高拱形件124的支承强度并为其提供光滑的滑动支承面。 Role of rigid member 121, 125 is to improve the strength of the arch support 124 and provide a smooth sliding bearing surface. 拱形件本体上开有沿一定弧度间隔分布的孔组293及294。 A hole 293 in a certain group of arc and spaced arcuate member 294 on the body. 孔293中可拧入硬性挡块以确保拱形件124不发生越程。 Holes 293 can be screwed into the stopper to ensure rigid arch member 124 overtravel does not occur. 可推荐采用两个硬性挡块以使拱形件在两个运动方向上的行程均受到限制。 It can be recommended to make the two rigid arch stops travel in both directions of movement are limited. 其中某一挡块的位置是不变的,同时另一挡块之安装孔的位置则是在软件指导下根据手术对象的尺寸而选定的。 Wherein a position of the stopper is constant, while the other stop position of the mounting hole of the block is under the guidance of the software according to the size of the selected operation target. 这样就实现了拱形件总行程的可调节性。 This realization of the adjustability of the total travel arch. 较长的行程要求将需要采用具有较大张角及(或)不同曲率半径的拱形元件。 It requires a longer stroke having a large aperture angle need and (or) different radii of curvature arch elements. 实用拱形元件的曲率半径可以是5mm至无穷大(后者指大体为直线型的拱形元件,此种场合下的工具夹持器运动轨迹亦为直线)之间的任意值。 Practical radius of curvature of the arch elements may be any value between 5mm to infinity (which refers generally rectilinear arcuate member, the tool holder is also rectilinear trajectory in this case). 对于经尿道电切术的前列腺手术来说,拱形件的最适宜行程应该是250至300曲率半径下的0到40度。 For transurethral resection of the prostate surgery, the most suitable stroke arch should be 0 to 40 degrees at a radius of curvature from 250 to 300.

除了采用多种曲率半径的拱形元件之外,另一种兼容不同半径的方法是采用具有加长部分、因而可设置更多定位槽138的工具夹持器或托架137。 Except that the radius of curvature arch element more than the other methods are compatible with different radii employed has an elongated portion, which may be provided more positioning grooves 138 of the tool holder or cradle 137. 其中,不同的定位槽上可安装曲率半径要求不同的医疗工具。 Wherein the radius of curvature may be mounted in different medical tools required different positioning groove.

以下结合图9介绍环形驱动组件的某一优选实施例。 Example embodiments described below with reference to FIG 9 a preferably endless drive assembly. 该组件包括以下部分:电机96;轴承98及105;壳体94;传动轴97及100;位置敏感元件103;齿轮组95和102;以及制动器104。 The assembly comprises following parts: a motor 96; 105 and bearing 98; a housing 94; 100 and the drive shaft 97; position sensing member 103; gearset 95 and 102; 104 and a brake. 环形驱动组件通过连接器275(图10)支承着拱形件支座300、拱形件124乃至枢轴纵向驱动组件。 The drive assembly is supported by an annular connector 275 (FIG. 10) with the arch support 300, a longitudinal arch 124 and the pivot drive assembly. 环形驱动组件回转运动的范围限于±180度,它对拱形件驱动组件及枢轴纵向驱动组件的回转驱动作用可以实现医疗工具相对于患者的角位置181的变化(图15)。 Range of rotational movement of the annular drive assembly is limited to ± 180 °, its role in the rotary drive and the pivot drive assembly arch longitudinal drive assembly may be implemented with respect to the medical instrument changes the angular position of the patient 181 (Fig. 15). 出自环形驱动组件的导线289被穿入一根具有绝缘及屏蔽性的套管290中并被端接在立柱84的下部。 By an annular drive assembly 289 is penetrated a wire having insulation and shielding sleeve 290 and terminating at a lower portion of the column 84.

出于节省空间的考虑,拱形件支座纵轴308与枢轴纵向驱动组件纵轴被安排在同一个平面285内(图1)。 The interest of saving space, the longitudinal axis of the arch support 308 and the pivot longitudinal drive assembly is arranged in the longitudinal axis (FIG. 1) with a plane 285. 当环形驱动组件动作时,平面285会产生旋转并与包含头架驱动组件轴线及环形驱动组件轴线的平面夹成某一角度。 When the annular drive assembly operation, 285 is a rotational plane with a plane including the axis of the headstock drive assembly and the axis of the annular drive assembly is sandwiched at an angle. 这两个平面之间具有可变更的偏移量272。 Offset has changed between these two planes 272.

偏移量272的变更借助于图10所示的连接器275。 The connector 272 shown in FIG. 10 is changed by means of the offset 275 of FIG. 拱形件支座300的伸长部分113以非回转方式插在连接器275的内槽274中,同时环形驱动组件的传动轴100也以非回转方式插在连接器的内槽273中。 Elongated support arch portion 113 in a non-rotary manner 300 is inserted in the connector in the groove 274,275, while the endless drive assembly drive shaft 100 is also inserted in a non-rotary manner in the groove 273 of the connector. 这样,轴100的旋转便造就了使连接器275的铰支回转运动,而这一回转运动又形成了拱形件支座及其相关附件围绕环形驱动组件中轴180的圆周运动。 Thus, the rotation shaft 100 will be created so that the connector 275 is hinged rotational motion, and this rotational movement and the formation of arch support and its associated accessories around the circular movement of the annular axis 180 of the drive assembly. 可以通过更换不同长度的连接器275而方便地改变圆周运动的轨道半径(亦即偏移量272)。 275 can be easily changed radius of the circular orbital motion (i.e., offset 272) by replacing the connector of different lengths. 换句话说,所引入的偏移量因长度可变而具有可调节性。 In other words, the offset introduced by variable-length adjustability.

拱形件支座300伸长臂113的长度可以根据医疗工具长度的不同而变化。 The length of the elongated arm 113 300 may vary depending on the length of the medical instrument arch support. 可以使用伸缩式的伸长臂。 You may be used telescopic extension arm. 连接器内腔274可以适应插入其中的伸长臂在一定范围内的长度变化。 The connector 274 can accommodate lumen length variations of the elongated arm inserted therein within a certain range. 另外,模块化设计提供了具有不同长度的多种备选伸长臂113。 Further, the modular design provides a number of alternative elongate arm 113 having different lengths. 不过,过长的伸长臂会使以球关节163为支点的挠曲位移过大,因此是不可取的。 However, long extension arm to cause the ball joint 163 as a fulcrum flexing displacement is too large, and therefore is not preferable. 尽管可以对球关节163进行尺寸及(或)结构改进以满足上述需要,但这样将使活节机械手的加工成本达到难以接受的程度。 Although the size may be performed and (or) to improve the structure of the ball joint 163 to satisfy the above needs, but so will articulated robot tooling costs unacceptable extent.

最后结合图11介绍设在立柱84底部的头架行走驱动组件。 Finally, FIG. 11 described uprights 84 provided at the bottom of the headgear traveling drive assembly. 该头架行走驱动组件由以下部分构成:电机89;位置编码器(图中未加表示);齿条81与齿轮91;导轨79;端板87;外壳83;限位开关86及基板88(图11)。 The traveling headstock drive assembly constituted by: a motor 89; the position encoder (not shown in the drawing plus); rack 81 and gear 91; rail 79; the end plate 87; the housing 83; limit switch 86 and the substrate 88 ( Figure 11). 头架行走驱动组件使上文所述的所有组件作相对于患者的水平方向运动(如图1中箭头1所示)。 Headgear travel drive means that all the components as described above with respect to the horizontal direction of movement of the patient (as shown by arrow 11). 这样将有助于处理不同的前列腺长度。 This will help to deal with different lengths of the prostate. 端接在立柱84上的所有导线及套管与立柱顶端的四个或五个插座相接。 All the wires and the sleeve with the column to the top of the column 84 terminates in a four or five socket contact. 装在平衡支承系统之Y臂上的相应插头可以接在上述插座上以备自动遥控。 Y corresponding plug mounted balance support arm systems can be connected to the remote control automatically to prepare the socket.

立柱84顶端设有固紧在一起的螺栓和球头164。 The top of the column 84 secured together with bolts 164 and ball. 球头164可嵌入某一球关节组件312中,设置该组件是为了简化活节机械手在平衡支承系统上的装拆(图11)。 Ball 164 may be embedded in a ball joint assembly 312 is provided in order to simplify the assembly is detachably articulated robot (FIG. 11) on the counterweight support system. 头架行程中设有可动的限位挡块78,这样,既便头架行程电机的驱动软件出现误差,挡块78也可以通过锁紧螺栓85及限位开关而确保装在机械手上的医疗工具不走出安全限。 Headgear provided with a movable stroke limit stop 78, so that not only drives the travel motor headstock software error occurs, the stopper 78 may be by a lock bolt 85 and the limit switch is mounted on a robot arm ensuring medical tool is not out of the safe limit.

出于便捷的考虑,枢轴纵向驱动组件应该是具有独立作用的、自主性的可拆解台架。 For convenience considerations, the pivot having a longitudinal drive assembly should be independent action, autonomy disassemblable stand. 因此,可以采用包括Elmed式牵开器在内的机械化工具夹持器来夹持枢轴纵向驱动组件,这样就可以使之完成象尿动力学研究之类的实用任务,在这类任务中,诊断探头必须按精确的固定步长移动。 Therefore, use of mechanized tool holder comprises Elmed retractor including longitudinal drive assembly to clamp the pivot, so you can make it practical to complete the task as urodynamic study or the like, in such a task, diagnostic probe must move in precise fixed step length. 这些直线运动可单独由枢轴纵向驱动组件来实现。 The linear movement can be implemented by a separate longitudinal drive assembly pivot axis. 上述模块化设计原则也见于活节机械手其它自由度的独立或组合运动。 The modular design principle described above is also found in other degrees of freedom articulated robot movement independently or in combination.

在本发明的优选实施例中,活节机械手是通过一个由手柄人工锁紧的球关节164(图1)而被悬挂在平衡支承系统(图13)上的。 In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the manipulator is articulated by the handle via a locking artificial ball joint 164 (FIG. 1) is suspended on the counterweight support system (FIG. 13). 平衡支承系统提供了三个直线自由度8(X)、7(Y)、6(Z)及一个转角自由度5(R)。 Balance support system provides three linear degrees of freedom 8 (X), 7 (Y), 6 (Z) and a rotational degree of freedom 5 (R). 后者可以在应急状态下需要人工干预时使整套机械手迅速摇开。 The latter may require manual intervention in emergency state so that the entire robot quickly swing open.

Z向运动6是由含在主体立柱28中的适量静重248来补偿的(见图12)。 6 is a Z-direction movement amount contained in the body by the uprights 28 to compensate for dead weight 248 (see Figure 12). 平衡支承系统包含悬挂活节机械手的Y向和X向水平悬臂17、18及垂直主体立柱28。 Balance support system comprises a suspension articulated robot X and Y direction perpendicular to the main boom 17, 18 and 28 in the horizontal column. 通过适当的转动,Y向和X向水平悬臂17、18以及活节机械手(图2)的总重便可获得平衡。 By appropriate rotation, Y and X in the horizontal direction and a boom articulated manipulator 17, 18 (FIG. 2) of the total weight balance can be obtained. 因此,架立仪器过程中为移动各组件所需的手工操作工作量是很少的。 Thus, during the erection of the mobile equipment required for each manual assembly work is minimal.

平衡支承系统中X、Y、Z方向的运动在其相应座标轴上是连续的。 Balance support system X, Y, Z direction movement in their respective coordinate axes is continuous. 其具体配置如下:X悬臂由Y悬臂支承,Y悬臂则由立柱的回转组件支承,而立柱的回转组件又经由摆动托架组件19(见图13)被支承在主体立柱28上的Z悬臂上。 The specific configuration is as follows: X cantilever cantilevered by the Y, Y by the boom swivel assembly support column, while the column via a swivel pivot assembly and carriage assembly 19 (see FIG. 13) is supported on a cantilevered Z posts 28 on the body . 负载是跨在支承导轨30a和30b(图12)以及240a和240b(图14)上的,从而使之承担了弯矩和扭矩。 Across the load is a support rail 30a and 30b (FIG. 12) and 240a and 240b on (FIG. 14), thus making it bear bending moments and torque. 在摆动托架组件19中,Y悬臂17在一个以旋臂轴29为中心的滑动轴承上旋转(图13)。 In the pivot bracket assembly 19, Y 17 on a cantilever arm shaft 29 to the center of rotation of the slide bearing (FIG. 13). 与直线座标轴上的运动方式不同,转角座标轴上的回转运动为步进方式。 Coordinate axes and the linear motion is different rotary motion angle coordinate axis is stepwise manner. 受弹簧加载的冲杆36可插入一系列的锥孔39中,从而实现非常可靠的锁紧。 The spring loaded plunger 36 can be inserted into the taper hole 39 in a series, thereby realizing a very reliable locking. 要想解除锁紧状态,可以通过启动螺线管35或按下冲杆按钮32而使冲杆从其插孔中升起,如此便可使水平的Y悬臂17自由摆动(图13)。 To release the locked state, the solenoid 35 or by pressing the start button punch 32 is raised from the socket punch, and so would allow the level of the boom 17 to swing freely in the Y (FIG. 13).

X、Y悬臂17、18及主体立柱28中的每一个组件都分别设有使活节机械手在X、Y及Z方向移动的装置。 X, Y cantilever body posts 17, 18 and 28 each of the components of the device are respectively provided with articulated robot movable in X, Y and Z directions. 图14所示的X悬臂剖视图表示了具有上述移动作用的优选装置。 X boom 14 shown in FIG cross-sectional view showing a preferred apparatus having the above-described effect of moving. 其中所用的缆绳及滑轮系统包括设在悬臂两端、并绕在导辊237上的环形缆绳239。 Wherein the cable and pulley system used comprises at both ends of the boom and wound on the guide roller 237 of the annular cable 239. 配有安装支座的滑动组件240b与直线导轨240a具有滑配合关系,其上的球关节附件241与球关节312相接。 With a mounting seat 240b of the slide assembly having a slide with linear guide 240a mating relationship, on which the ball joint attachment 241 engaged with the ball joint 312. 滑动组件240b与缆绳239固接,其在直线导轨240a上的滑动受到橡胶挡块243的限制。 240b slide assembly 239 fixed to the cable, which slides on the linear guide 240a is limited by the stopper rubber 243. 在缆绳轨迹上装有按照行程长度设置的一个或两个锁紧机构。 With one or two locking means provided on a cable run length according to the track. 作为一项故障弱化措施,缆绳及其负载以静止为常设状态。 As a fail-soft measures, and its load in a static rope a permanent state. 为此采用了夹杆268、轴销266及弹簧269,缆绳239便是在265所示枢距的弹性力作用下被夹杆夹紧的。 Used for this purpose clamping bar 268, pivot pin 266 and the spring 269, the cable 239 is clamped in the clamping bar under the action of an elastic force from the pivot 265 shown in FIG. 缆绳的锁紧状态可由电动的螺线管236(图14)解除,该螺线管通过将缆绳上的夹杆拉开而将其放开。 Electric cable may be locked state of the solenoid 236 (FIG. 14) is released, the solenoid rod by the cable clamp and pull it can be released. 人工代用手柄34是为应付电源失效或其它意外情况而设置的手动操作代用装置。 Replacement manually handle the override means 34 to cope with a power failure or other exceptional conditions provided. 以上缆绳与滑轮传动方式仅需做很少的改动(实际上是指行程长度方面)便可适用于本系统其它所有直线方向的传动(见图12中的螺线管249及手动夹杆247)。 Transmission cable pulley over only a few changes made (actually refers to the stroke length aspect) will be applicable to all other transmission system in a linear direction (see FIG. 12 in the solenoid 249 and clamp rod 247 manually) .

在本发明述实施例中,平衡支承系统以有轮滑车系统的形式被移动或存放。 In the above embodiment of the present invention, balance support system is moved or stored in the form of roller vehicle system. 滑车上配有可将微型计算机、手术器械及运动控制系统框入其中的机箱25、26及27(图13)。 The trolley is equipped with a microcomputer, a surgical instrument and can block motion control system 25, 26 and the chassis 27 (FIG. 13) therein. 滑车的可升降基座可以使包括整套机械手在内的全套系统经由四个底脚落在地面上。 The trolley can lift base can complete a full system comprising a robot including falls on the ground via four feet. 系统重量经过了校核,既使Y悬臂呈现出相当大的外伸量,系统在一次或多次手术过程中仍可以充分地保持相对于患者的刚度及稳定性。 After checking the weight of the system, even if Y cantilever exhibits a considerable overhang, the system in one or more surgical procedure may still be sufficiently stable to maintain rigidity and relative to the patient. 在手术完成或不需要手术时,整套机械手及其滑车(平衡支承)系统将以轮载形式移开。 Upon completion of the operation or no operation, the entire robot and its block (support balance) system will be removed form the carrier wheel. 为此需要对脚架254加力以提升基座,从而使车轮257接触地面并支承全套系统的重量。 This requires for urging the stand 254 to lift base 257 so that the wheels contact the ground and support the weight of the complete system.

在经尿道切除术的手术预置过程中,作为整套机械手位置基准的手术目标是射精管与前列腺尿道的结合部—精阜。 Transurethral resection surgery preset process, the reference position of the robot as a whole surgical goal is the ejaculatory ducts and prostatic urethra binding portion - verumontanum. 精阜是通过内窥镜直观确认的。 Verumontanum is confirmed visually through an endoscope. 一旦确认精阜,相应的工具夹持器(如Greenberg式及Elmed式牵开器)便可将内窥镜/膀胱镜/前列腺切除器的空间位置确定下来。 Once confirmed the verumontanum, the respective tool holder (e.g., Greenberg and Formula Elmed retractor) can endoscope / cystoscopy / spatial position of the resectoscope determined. 需要指出,内窥镜在精阜被确认时的方向是任意的,它在定位之后即被接在活节机械手上。 It is noted that, when the direction of the endoscope is confirmed fine Fu is arbitrary, i.e. it is connected after positioning articulated robot arm.

平衡支承系统主要通过三个直线自由度的驱动及球关节而改变活节机械手相对于患者的方向及位置,在此之前,必须通过启动相应的螺线管(如螺线管236、249)来解除各自由度的锁紧状态,而且应利用患者体重或借助于适当的捆扎方法固定患者的位置。 Balance support system changes mainly driven by three linear degrees of freedom and the articulated joint ball machine direction and the position of the hand relative to the patient, before, must (solenoid 236,249) by activating the corresponding solenoid to releasing the locked state of each degree of freedom, and weight of the patient should be used or by means of an appropriate method of tying a stationary patient. 第一种定位方法是由手术医生操纵活节机械手上移、下移、斜移或使之绕球关节摆动,直至C形托架151嵌入活节机械手之托架137上的定位槽中为止(见图3)。 The first orientation was manipulated by the surgeon articulated robot arm move up, down, or so that skew swing about a ball joint, until the C-shaped bracket until the positioning groove 137 on the carriage 151 of the articulated robot fitted ( See Figure 3). 另一种方法没有被动地使用夹持装置,在使活节机械手及工具夹持器靠近内窥镜之后,通过在基准位置附近的小位移而使内窥镜接在托架137上;在此之后,通过活节机械手和内窥镜合为一体(不改变整套机械手的运动自由度)的移动而重新确认精阜的位置。 Another method used is not passively holding means, after the articulated manipulator and an endoscope close to the tool holder, by small displacements in the vicinity of the reference position of the endoscope connected to the carriage 137; here Thereafter, the articulated manipulator and an endoscope into one (without changing the complete freedom of movement of the robot) is moved again confirm the position of the fine Fu. 上述两种方法都是合用的,选择何者取决于手术医生的偏好和技能。 Both methods are used in combination, may elect depend on the surgeon's preference and skill.

平衡框架上可以设置若干个与X悬臂处于同一水平位置的摄像头。 X may be provided with a plurality of cantilever at the same level on the equilibrium position of the camera frame. 摄像头将用来观察按一定规律设在机械手装置上的标记或条纹,通过对摄像头的适当标定即可由观察结果获得最优的精度。 Observation camera according to certain rules to be used in the robot apparatus is provided markings or stripes, to obtain optimum results by the observation accuracy of the camera calibration appropriately. 由于可以通过计算机图像直接观察机械手各关节的转动或平移,而且机械手的运动学及几何学特征也是已知的,所以能确保手术刀的端部自始至终在一个预定的安全工作范围内运动。 Since each of the robot can be directly observed in the joints from rotating or translating the image by computer, and the robot kinematics and geometric characteristics are also known, it is possible to ensure that the end portion of the scalpel throughout movement within a predetermined safe operating range. 任何超出这一范围的运动都将导致运动过程的暂停以及对用户发出警报。 Any movement outside this range will result in suspension of movement and alerts the user.

C形托架151被预先固接在前列腺切除器/内窥镜上并一同作消毒处理。 C-shaped bracket 151 is fixed in advance on the resectoscope / and with the endoscope for disinfection. 对C形托架151乃至内窥镜的固紧方法是通过旋拧两个手柄150而避免其从托架137的定位槽上松脱。 Method for fastening and the C-shaped bracket 151 and avoid the endoscope is released from the positioning groove 137 of the bracket by screwing the two handles 150. 此后,通过释放相应的螺线管236、249及35而锁紧平衡支承系统上的X、Y及R方向自由度。 Thereafter, by releasing the respective solenoids 236,249 and 35 and the locking X, Y and R directions of the degrees of freedom balance support. 各自由度的运动在螺线管断电时是被锁紧的,这种以锁紧为常设状态的处理具有失效安全保障作用。 Freedom of movement of each of the solenoid is de-energized in the lock, such as a permanent locking state to deal with the fail-safe protection. 其后,放松手柄156并使心轴154滑离C形托架,牵开器便会因此而被拆下。 Thereafter, the release handle 156 and the mandrel slipping off the C-shaped bracket 154, retractor will therefore removed. 这样便结束了手术预置过程。 This will be the end of the pre-surgery process. 以上关于经尿道切除术预置过程的叙述是以精阜为目标的,需要指出,对于由内窥镜确认并定位的其它目标以及其它种类的手术操作来说,上述预置方法同样可显示出其优越性。 Described above with respect to transurethral resection of the verumontanum preset process is aimed, to be noted that an acknowledgment by the endoscope and the positioning of other objects as well as other kinds of surgical operations, the above-described predetermined method may exhibit the same its superiority.

象其它已有的机械手系统一样,本发明所述活节机械手也受控于运动控制器47,该控制器又通过RS232通迅总线76受控于便携式微型计算机48(见图17)。 Like other conventional robot systems, the articulated robot of the present invention is also controlled by the motion controller 47 to the controller via RS232 communications bus 76 and controlled by a portable microcomputer 48 (see FIG. 17). 各自由度上的运动参数73(位置、速度、加速度及协调性)是由基于多自由度运动控制系统47的普通PID控制环来控制的,该控制环因采用微处理器技术而具备数字化功能。 Motion parameters on each 73 degrees of freedom (position, velocity, acceleration and coordination) is based on the ordinary PID control loop multi-DOF motion control system 47 controlled by the control loop by microprocessor technology with digital features . 用诸如差动式光学编码器71之类的位置敏感元件为控制环提供位置及速度信息。 The position of the optical differential encoder 71 or the like to provide sensitive element such as a position and speed information to the control loop. 该运动控制系统还具有输入输出一些信号的功能59。 The motion control system further includes a signal input and output function number 59. 这些所谓的I/O功能一般起到如下作用:为“归位”而捕获限位开关74、75的状态;使相关于机械手系统的设备处于运行或停机状态;针对危急或其它重要事件发出警报或提供发光指示。 These so-called I / O functions generally function as follows: the "Homing" state captured limit switch 74, 75; related to the robot system the device is running or stopping state; alarm for emergency or other important events or to provide light emission instruction. 上述运动控制系统是一种常见并极易市购的产品,在此不对其加以详介。 It said motion control system is a common and easily commercially available products, this is not to be referred in detail it.

桶形空腔构形是一种由活节机械手设计所能保证的典型手术方案形式,如图15所示。 Barrel-shaped cavity configuration is typically in the form of one design operation can guarantee the articulated robot shown in Figure 15. 在该手术方案中,任一时刻都会涉及一个或多个自由度的运动。 In this embodiment the operation, will be moving at any one time involving one or more degrees of freedom. 弧线运动与枢轴纵向运动的协同应跟踪所谓的理想矢线185。 Cooperative arc movement and the longitudinal movement of the pivot should be tracked over a so-called arrow line 185. 对超声波图像的计算机重构有助于确定时钟形式圆图181上的一系列矢线。 Computer ultrasonic image reconstructed series of vectors helps to determine the form of a circle on the clock line 181 in FIG. 环形运动轴线的存在使得前列腺切除器可以抵达上述每个矢线的位置。 There is an annular axis of movement so that the position of the resectoscope of each vector line can be reached. 在电灼手术中,沿矢线方向的跟踪及切除动作以顺时针—反时针的方式重复进行并逐步向外侧移动,直至到达手术区的囊膜279(图15)。 In electrocautery surgery, along the arrow line direction tracking and cutting operation in a clockwise - counter-clockwise manner is repeated and gradually moved outward until the capsule surgical field 279 (FIG. 15) reach. 在经尿道前列腺激光切除术(如VLAP,即可视前列腺激光蚀切术)中,对激光纤维回缩速度及其空间能量模式可以进行在线(即动态)控制,从而可以获得手动操作无法实现的最优切除效果。 In transurethral resection of the laser (e.g., VLAP, laser ablation can view prostate resection), the retraction speed of the laser energy and spatial mode fibers can be online (i.e., dynamic) control, can be obtained manually unachievable optimal removal effect. 上述工作原理同样适用于TUNA(经尿道前列腺针蚀术)中,在这类手术中,手术针必须在不同的极座标位置做不同深度的伸缩,而且用人工操作进行能量控制也非常麻烦。 The same applies to the above-described operation principle TUNA (transurethral needle etching technique), the type of surgery, the surgical needles must be done at different depths in the different telescoping pole coordinate position, and manually control the operation of the energy is also very troublesome.

图17所示电路框图表示了与机械手相连、并与之协同实现有效且安全操作的主要部件,这些部件是:为系统持续供电的不间断电源45。 A circuit block diagram shown in FIG. 17 shows a manipulator connected and coordinated with effective and safe operation of the main components, which are: continuous supply system for the uninterruptible power supply 45. 在出现供电故障时,它可以维持系统的至少10分钟运行(取决于备用电池44的容量)。 In the event of a power failure, it can maintain operation of the system at least 10 minutes (depending on the capacity of the backup battery 44).

可间断工作、并具有输入—输出功能59的4自由度运动控制器47。 Intermittent work, and having an input - output 59 of the controller 47 4 degrees of freedom. 该控制器可单独使用,也可装在微型计算机48的扩展槽上。 The controller may be used alone may also be mounted on the expansion slot 48 of the microcomputer. 单独使用时可通过RS232线与微机接通,而插在微机中时则利用其本机总线。 RS232 cable may be turned on by the microcomputer when used alone, while it is inserted in the microcomputer with its native bus.

微型计算机48。 Microcomputer 48. 它具有以下配置:显示器58;硬盘58;软盘驱动器;RAM及ROM管理内存;操作系统;打印机57;以及诸如小型软盘驱动器及光盘驱动器之类的备用外设存储设备。 It has the following configuration: display 58; a hard disk 58; floppy disk drive; the RAM and ROM memory management; operating system; the printer 57; and a spare peripheral storage device such as a floppy disk drive and a compact optical disk drive or the like.

超声波诊断扫描系统49。 The ultrasound diagnostic scanning system 49. 其中可同时或单独配备直肠探头或尿道探头。 Wherein simultaneously or separately with a rectal probe or urethral probe. 装在微机48上的抓图器62可以通过一副视频信号同轴电缆捕获来自超声波扫描器的超声波图像。 48 mounted on the microcomputer 62 may capture a capture ultrasound images from the ultrasound scanner to the video signal by a coaxial cable. 超声波扫描器与计算机之间的通迅方式是任选的,但它应符合由IEEE488,77限定的GPIB标准。 Communication between the ultrasonic scanner and the way the computer is optional, but it should conform to a standard GPIB IEEE488,77 defined.

盒式录像机50。 VCR 50. 其作用是在手术前后及手术期内对超声波及(或)内窥镜图像进行归档。 Its role is to archive ultrasound and (or) before and after surgery and endoscopic image during surgery.

远程光源51。 Remote light source 51. 它通过光导纤维为手术部位及CCD式(充电联配式)摄像机69的捕获区域提供高效率的冷光照明。 It provides efficient luminescence through the optical fiber illuminating the surgical site to capture region, and a CCD type (charge associated with the formula) of the camera 69. 图像以电子信号的形式被处理及增强,最后出现在内窥镜的显示屏70上。 And enhanced images are processed in the form of electronic signals, and finally appears on the display screen 70 of the endoscope.

形成切除作用的能源52。 Energy 52 is formed cutting action. 电外科学将其称为透热单元。 Electrosurgical unit is referred to as diathermy. 在激光外科中,它是可产生高强度激光源的发电机。 In laser surgery, it can produce high-intensity laser generator source.

强制性安全监视器53。 Mandatory safety monitor 53. 其中的可编程逻辑系统可以监视各关键参数的逻辑状态,还可发出暂停机械手动作的中断信号或在手术出现意外时对用户发出警报信号。 Wherein the programmable logic system may monitor the logic state of each key parameters, also issued to suspend operation of the robot interrupt signal or an alarm signal to the user at the time of surgery unexpected.

微型计算机上可运行名为APUI(前列腺切除术自动用户界面)的界面软件191,该软件的任务执行方式如图16所示。 Apui called run (Automatic prostatectomy User Interface) interface software on the microcomputer 191, task execution mode of the software shown in Figure 16. 由于采用弹出式窗口及下拉式菜单进行通用性选项,该用户界面可使任务设计过程在一页屏幕上实现。 As a result pop-ups and pull-down menus versatile option, the user interface allows the design process to achieve the task on a screen.

支持系统192通过由控制按钮及状态单元执行的屏显来综合或分项控制平衡支承系统的锁紧/释放动作。 Comprehensive support system 192 or sub-system to control the balance of the support the locking / release operation by the control buttons and on-screen by the execution state of the cell. 它也可以显示平衡支承系统中除B,200之外每个自由度(即X,201,Y,202,A,203,R,204,它们分别对应于图13所示平衡支承系统的8,7,6及5自由度)运动的锁紧状态。 It can also display other balance support system B, each degree of freedom than the 200 (i.e. X, 201, Y, 202, A, 203, R, 204, which respectively correspond to the balance of the support system 8 shown in FIG. 13, 7,6 and 5 the locked state DOF) of motion.

手术预置过程前后的机械手归位批处理是由名为HOME,193的界面子程序执行的。 Homing robot before and after surgery preset batch process is called HOME, interface routine 193 executed. 该子程序使机械手在各个自由度方向上到达适当的基准位置,该基准与机械手作用对象的尺寸及方向有关。 The subroutine of the robot to the appropriate position in the respective reference degrees of freedom, relating to the reference direction and the size of the objects the robot action. HOME占用一页显示屏,为增强选项的通用性,HOME也设有弹出式窗口及下拉式菜单。 HOME occupy a display, to enhance the versatility of options, HOME also has pop-ups and pull-down menu.

抓图器插件板F.GRB62及双轴电缆可捕获并传输由超声波扫描器得到的相应图像。 F.GRB62 capture board plug and twinaxial cable may capture and transmit a corresponding image obtained by the ultrasonic scanner. 图像处理同时使用了通用的和定制的图像处理软件。 Image processing using both generic and customized image processing software. 最后的处理结果被用来引导由活节机械手执行的手术操作。 Final processing results are used to guide the surgical procedure performed by the articulated robot.

预定的单向或复合运动(指到达患者体内的指定工作区)以及电源的开合、调节等事项被编制成可由运动控制器识别的指令,微型计算机通过RS232(或串行)线76将指令发出。 A predetermined one-way or complex (refer to the patient reaches the specified work area), and the opening and closing of the power source is adjusted such matters are compiled into instructions recognizable by the motion controller, the microcomputer via RS232 (or serial) instruction line 76 issue. 处理上述转换的程序被汇集在BARREL程序组中。 Processing said converted program are collected in BARREL program group.

活节机械手也可由人工方法控制,经合理布局的控制杆及脚动、指动开关构成了针对机械手运动的人工方式柔性控制系统。 Articulated robot can also be artificially controlled, via the control lever and rational distribution of the movable pin, constitutes a switch means manually flexible control system for the robot movements. 由程序MAN199执行的切换可以使控制杆类的控制模式中断。 MAN199 program executed by the switching of the control mode can interrupt class lever.

患者的生理数据由APUI的PAT196程序获得。 Patient's physiological data obtained from APUI the PAT196 program. 这些数据可以是被切除组织的切除量、切除时间、患者年龄等等,它们可以为有关的研究者所用。 These data can be cut by the amount of excised tissue, clearing time, age and so on, they can be used for the relevant researchers. PAT196中汇集了各种标准的或定制的统计工具软件。 PAT196 brings together a variety of standard or customized statistical tools.

机械手系统的供电状况是由APUI中的PWR.M197部分监控的。 Electrical conditions manipulator system is composed of PWR.M197 portion APUI monitored. 在出现供电故障时,该部分可以通过必要的动作来保证机械手系统在不发生功率衰变的状态下运行。 When power failure occurs, the portion can be necessary to ensure the operation of the robot system is operating in the state of the power decay does not occur. 系统在经过某一期限之后可进入故障弱化阶段。 After a certain period of the system may enter fail-soft phase.

故障处理程序195可以处理可预见故障(对内存溢出、通迅缺失等常规故障的处理)及意外故障(异常处理)。 Fault handler 195 can handle predictable failure (failure of conventional treatment of memory overflow, lack of communications, etc.) and unexpected failures (exception handling). 对于第一类故障模式,可以通过恢复程序的启动来还原系统的运行状态。 For the first type of failure mode, you can restore the operating state of the system by starting the recovery program. 对意外故障也将做出启动恢复程序的尝试,但一般都最终实行保护性停机。 Unexpected failure of attempts will be made to start the recovery program, but generally the eventual introduction of protective shutdown. 程序195也包括安全监控程序。 195 program also includes safety monitoring program. 例如,在工具夹持器不发生纵向运动时,用于导致切除作用的功率源是不可能被打开的。 For example, when the tool holder longitudinal movement does not occur, leading to a power source for removal effect is unlikely to be open.

为了找准医疗工具或其它辅助工具(装在机械手上)在患者手术部位中的工作区,同时也为了确定该工作区的范围,必须对活节机械手加以某种形式的图像引导。 In order to identify the medical instruments or other aids (mounted on the robot) in a patient in the work area of ​​the surgical site, but also to determine the extent of the working area, the image guide must be some form of articulated robot. 超声波图像(经直肠或经尿道均可)对于该任务来说是适宜且安全的。 Ultrasound image (transrectal or transurethral available) is suitable and safe for the task is. 为处理患者体位变化,亦即手术前与手术期间(有时包括手术后)图像数据匹配的问题,最好使图像处理系统与机械手系统共享座标基准。 Patient position changes to process, i.e. before surgery and during surgery (sometimes including surgery) image data matching problem, it is preferable that the image processing system and the robot coordinate system shared reference. 这意味着,手术期间的图像处理应配有图像探头与医疗工具(或其它辅助工具)间的适配器。 This means that the image processing during surgery should be equipped with an adapter between the probe and the medical image tool (or other aids). 手术期间,目标的尺寸及位置测定应随时地快速完成,以便最大可能地降低图像处理在整个手术过程中所占的时间比例。 During surgery, the size and position of the measurement object should be completed quickly at any time, the maximum possible in order to reduce the proportion of time occupied by the whole of the image processing procedure.

这一目的可以由计算机图像处理技术达到。 This object is achieved by a computer image processing technology.

为增强上述方法的功能,本发明还包含如下的优选内容,亦即对目标的手术期内扫描应兼容经尿道及经直肠两种方式。 To enhance the functions of the above methods, the present invention preferably further contains the following contents, i.e., during the scanning of the target should be compatible surgical transurethral and transrectal two ways. 经尿道扫描可按如下方法实现:将附着在活节机械手托架(工具夹持器)上的内窥镜外壳留在患者体内,将有效工作单元更换为经尿道超声波探头186(见图5)。 Transurethral scanning can achieve a method of: housing an endoscope attached in articulated robot carriage (tool holder) is left in the patient, an effective working unit replacement transurethral ultrasound probe 186 (see FIG. 5) . 扫描时只移动头架行程组件,通过使探头出入患者体内而获得所需的横向扫描数据。 Moving stroke headgear assembly only scan, to obtain the desired horizontal scanning data out of the probe through the patient. 扫描结束后用工作单元换下探头,从而实现座标基准的共享。 After scanning probe is replaced with a unit of work, in order to achieve the shared reference coordinates. 在整个扫描过程中,拱形件持续地停留在其零位或水平位置。 Throughout the scan, the arch continuously stays in its zero position or a horizontal position.

经直肠扫描功能是由一个具有扩展段188的附件(见图6)实现的,该扩展段的两端可分别与内窥镜外壳及探头体190托架187相配合。 Rectally having a scan function by attachment of the extension segment 188 (see FIG. 6) to achieve the two ends of the extension segments respectively endoscope housing 187 and bracket 190 cooperate probe. 扩展段是可调的,调节偏移量189即可使探头准确地进入直肠。 Extended segment is adjustable, to adjust the offset of the probe 189 accurately into the rectum. 可以根据预置状态及患者情况的不同来改变探头体在其长度方向上的受夹持位置。 May be changed by the position of the probe holding body in the longitudinal direction depending on the patient's condition and a preset state. 与经尿道扫描方法类似,在进行经直肠扫描时只移动头架行程组件,而且扫描结束后须用工作单元换下探头及扩展段。 Similar scanning method transurethral, ​​transrectal scanning movement during the stroke only headgear assembly, and after scanning the probe must be replaced with a working unit and an extended section.

在针对良性前列腺增生的前列腺切除手术中,由超声波扫描得到的信息是所谓手术被膜的边界坐标值。 Excision for benign prostatic hyperplasia prostate surgery, information obtained by the ultrasonic scanning operation is called the coordinate values ​​of the film. 应避免发生超出手术被膜范围的切割,因为这可能导致患者失禁、阳萎或大出血。 Avoid cutting beyond the range of coating operation occurs, as this may cause the patient incontinence, impotence or bleeding. 出现前两种并发症是由于紧靠被膜背后的大量神经末梢因切割而受到损坏。 Before there are two complications are close behind the film because a large number of nerve endings from damage due to the cut. 出现大出血的原因很明显—被膜外侧往往有大脉管。 The reason for the bleeding obvious - the outer envelope often large vessels.

在进行横向超声波扫描时,被膜边界往往不能迅速地被确认。 During transverse ultrasonic scanning, the film boundaries are often not be confirmed quickly. 可以用经过训练的目测方式来探测被膜边界,但结果往往不够完整、精确。 Visual way can be trained to detect the envelope boundary, but the results are often incomplete and precise. 如本发明所述的活节机械手可以半自动或自动地进行手术期内的超声波扫描。 The articulated manipulator according to the present invention can be semi-automatically or automatically performed ultrasonic scanning operation period. 程序194适宜于实现该目的。 Procedure 194 suitable for this purpose. 在进行半自动扫描时,手术医生须用鼠标一类的数字器框出被膜边界。 During semi-automatic scanning, the surgeon must be a boundary film with a mouse, digitizer frame class. 在进行自动扫描时,上述工作由图像分析算法来完成(当然应被手术医生确认)。 During automatic scanning, the work done by the above-described image analysis algorithms (of course, should be recognized surgeon). 选择扫描模式时应权衡方便性和安全性,但二者都不应该附加过长的手术时间。 Trade-off when selecting the scan mode convenience and safety, but they should not be too long additional surgery.

应推荐采用在手术前用消毒包将所有驱动组件包裹起来的措施。 Measures should be recommended with a sterile package will all drive components wrapped up before surgery. 可以简单地将包裹扎紧在头架驱动组件的立柱结构84上。 It can simply be wrapped fastened on the column structure 84 of the drive assembly frame. 无菌袋的下垂空间足够保证活节机械手在仍保持消毒状态的手术期间内的运动。 Sterile bag hanging space enough to ensure articulated robot movement during the surgery still remains sterile's. 全套系统最好按图2所示方式布置,其中,活节机械手系统被悬挂在平衡支承系统上,而平衡支承系统又通过其滑车式工作台框住计算设备和手术器械。 The complete system is preferably arranged in the manner shown in FIG. 2, wherein the articulated manipulator system is suspended on the counterweight support system, the support system balance and stay worktable through which pulley block computing devices and surgical instruments. 内窥镜景像在显示器259上出现,显示器259的支承形式21应便于对显示器自如查看。 The endoscope scene appears on the display 259, the display 259 in the form of the support 21 should be easy to see the display with ease.

为最大可能地保证系统的安全性及操作简便性,轨道平台(见图2)上计算机控制台258的附近设有控制面板218。 To ensure the greatest possible safety and ease of operation, the rail platform system (see FIG. 2) on the computer console 218 is provided near the control panel 258. 控制面板上的视觉指示器显示着位移控制器在每一个自由度上的操作状态。 A visual indicator on the control panel displays the operation state of the controller displacement on each degree of freedom. 某一应急开关在启动时会切断电机的电源,但除了切断电源外,系统的所有其它部分仍处于可操作状态。 A emergency switch off the power when the motor will start, but in addition to cut off the power, all the other parts of the system remains operational. 即使如此,其强制性仍高于由用户界面程序提交的键盘中断模式。 Even so, it is still higher than the mandatory keyboard submitted by the user interface interrupt mode. 键盘中断模式在任一或若干电机运转之后仍会启动。 Keyboard interrupt mode will start after any one or several motor running. 敲击计算机键盘的任一个键会使所有电机停住或悬挂起来。 A computer keyboard key causes all of any motor is stopped or suspended.

以上介绍将前列腺列为活节机械手的最适宜对象,但事实上可以看出,该机械手也适宜于其它对象,如囊、腹部等等。 Prostate described above as the most suitable target articulated robot, but in fact it can be seen that the robot is also suitable for other objects, such as bladder, stomach and the like. 而且手术模式也不仅限于电灼术,还可包含其它诸如激光、高强度超声波TUNA(经尿道针蚀术)等手术模式。 And also the operation mode is not limited to fulguration, surgery may also comprise other modes such as a laser, high-intensity ultrasound TUNA (transurethral needle etching technique) and the like. 该活节机械手的设计目标在于:可夹持很多种类的医疗器具,而且提高手术室内手术操作的精确性。 The articulated robot design goal is: can clamp wide variety of medical devices, but also improve the accuracy of operating room surgical procedures. 借助于程控驱动,本系统可加载多个手术工具(每次一个)并实施有效的手术操作。 By means of program-controlled drive, the system a plurality of surgical tools may be loaded (one at a time) and effective surgical procedure. 这样,它将辅助手术操作者在手术的时间、技巧、准确性乃至安全性方面均圆满地完成任务。 In this way, it will assist the operator in the time of surgery, techniques, as well as the accuracy of safety are to complete the task successfully. 此外,本系统的优点还表现在死亡率及发病率的降低,助手及护士人数的减少以及因手术时间缩短而带来的低成本及低风险上。 In addition, the advantage of this system is also reflected in the decrease in the number of nurse aides and reduce mortality and morbidity due to low cost and operation time and brought low risk.

设计上述机械手时一般使驱动组件具备模块化特征。 Usually wherein the drive assembly includes a modular design of the robot. 这样,只要更换现有的驱动组件及支承构件便可以全面变更机械手的运动机构。 In this way, as long as the replacement of the existing drive components and support members will be able to completely change the kinematics of the robot. 驱动组件自含其相应的导线,控制及驱动指令是通过接头而到达或离开驱动组件的。 The drive assembly from its respective wire containing, by control and drive command and the arrival or departure linker drive assembly.

以上详细介绍了关于活节机械手的一个优选实施例,然而除以上已提及的之外,在不脱离本发明基本概念的前提下,本领域专业人士还可能提出其它一些变化型及改进型。 More details about a preferred embodiment of the articulated manipulator embodiment, however, in addition to the above already mentioned, without departing from the basic concept of the invention, professionals in the art may also make some additional and improved variable. 所有这些变化及改进型都应被认为属于本发明的范围,而本发明的特征则由以上说明书及所附权利要求来限定。 All such variations and modification are to be considered within the scope of the present invention, and features of the invention by the foregoing specification and defined in the appended claims.

Claims (20)

1.一种用医疗工具进行医疗处理的活节机械手,它包括:以滑动方式装在第一可动支承构件上的拱形构件;将医疗工具夹持在某工作位置的工具夹持器,该工具夹持器被装载在拱形构件上;以及设在上述第一支承构件上的第一驱动组件,其作用是使上述拱形构件及上述工具夹持器滑动,其特征在于,上述工具夹持器可沿弧线轨迹运动,从而使医疗工具的工作位置按预定方式改变。 A medical treatment with a medical instrument articulated robot, comprising: an arcuate member slidably mounted on the first movable support member; medical tool holder of a tool holder in the operating position, the tool holder is mounted on an arcuate member; and a first drive assembly disposed on the first support member which functions so that the arcuate member and said sliding tool holder, wherein said tool the holder can move in an arc trajectory so that the change in position of the medical instrument operating in a predetermined manner.
2.如权利要求1所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:还包括与上述工具夹持器相接的第二驱动组件,其作用是使上述工具夹持器沿直线轨迹滑动,上述直线轨迹与通过上述弧线轨迹曲率中心的某一轴线相交。 The linear track assembly and further comprising a second driving said tool holder in contact, so that the effect of the tool holder is slid along a straight line trajectory: 2. The articulated robot as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that intersects the axis of the arc by a center of curvature of the track.
3.如权利要求1或权利要求2所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述拱形构件以可拆形式装在上述第一支承构件上,如果需要,可将另一曲率半径不同的拱形构件以滑动形式装在第一支承构件上。 3. The articulated robot according to claim 1 or claim 2 preceding claims, wherein: the arcuate member is releasably attached to form on said first support member, if desired, another different radius of curvature arch shaped member is mounted on the first support member in the form of slides.
4.如权利要求1所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述工具夹持器包括设有一对定位槽的可滑动托架,定位槽中可装入可拆卸的医疗工具安装托架,各定位槽配有用来将医疗工具安装托架锁紧在可滑动托架上的锁杆,上述锁杆上设有沿其纵向分布的平面部分,这样,只要转动锁杆,使其平面部分与相应定位槽齐平,医疗工具安装托架便可被方便地装上或拆下。 4. The articulated robot according to claim 1, wherein: said tool holder includes a pair of positioning grooves slidable carriage can be loaded detachably positioning groove medical instrument mounting bracket, each with positioning grooves for locking the medical instrument mounting bracket on the slidable carriage lock lever, said lock lever part is provided along its longitudinal profile plane, so long as the rotation of the locking lever, so that the respective planar portions flush positioning groove, medical instrument mounting bracket can be conveniently mounted or removed.
5.如权利要求4所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述一对定位槽是可滑动托架上若干对定位槽中的一对,由此可以变更医疗工具安装托架的位置,从而改变医疗工具的工作位置。 5. The articulated robot according to claim 4, wherein: the pair of positioning grooves on a slidable carriage is a plurality of positioning groove pair, thereby changing the position of the medical instrument mounting bracket, whereby changing the operating position of the medical instrument.
6.如权利要求4所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述医疗工具安装托架是构成某一托架组件半部的C形托架,托架组件的另一半为夹持托架,它可将C形托架夹紧在医疗工具本体上。 6. The articulated robot according to claim 4, wherein: the medical instrument is composed of a mounting bracket of the carriage assembly of C-shaped bracket halves, the other half of the carriage assembly holding bracket, it may be clamped on the C-shaped bracket medical instrument body.
7.如权利要求4所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:以滑动方式装在一对导轨上的上述可滑动托架配有使其沿上述导轨滑动的齿条—齿轮组,为驱动该齿条—齿轮组以实现可滑动托架的滑动,工具夹持器还应包括电机。 7. The articulated robot according to claim 4, wherein: the above-described manner in a sliding carriage slidably mounted on a pair of rails with the guide rail so as to slide along the rack - gear set to drive the a rack - gear set to achieve a slidable carriage sliding tool holder also includes an electric motor.
8.如权利要求1所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述第一支承构件上设有第一和第二刚性构件,上述拱形构件便在二者之间受到滑动支承。 8. The articulated robot according to claim 1, wherein: said first support member is provided with first and second rigid members, the arcuate members will be subject to the above-described sliding bearing therebetween.
9.如权利要求8所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述拱形构件上设有外齿形,而且,上述第一驱动组件含有与上述外齿形相接的电机,由此可实现上述拱形构件沿上述弧线轨迹的滑动。 9. The articulated robot according to claim 8, wherein: an outer toothing provided on said arcuate member, and said first drive assembly comprises a toothed in contact with the outer motor, can be achieved thereby the above-described arcuate member slidable along said arc trajectory.
10.如权利要求2所述的活节机械手还包括以机械方式接在上述第一支承构件上、并因此而使之绕第一驱动轴转动的第三驱动组件,这样,由拱形构件支承的上述工具夹持器也将可以绕上述第一驱动轴转动。 10. The articulated robot as claimed in claim 2 further comprising mechanically connected to said first support member, and therefore the drive assembly about a third of the first drive shaft, so that, supported by the arcuate member the tool holder is also rotatable about a first rotation of the driving shaft.
11.如权利要求10所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述第一支承构件上通过连接器与第三驱动组件相连,该连接器可使上述第一驱动轴与上述第一支承构件纵轴之间形成一定的偏移量,在工作时,夹持在工具夹持器中的医疗工具的中轴线将与上述第一驱动轴相交,由此确定了医疗工具的转动中心。 11. The articulated robot according to claim 10, wherein: said first support member is connected via a third drive assembly to the connector, the connector causes said first drive shaft and said first longitudinal support member a certain offset between the axes, during operation, the axis of the tool holder clamped in the medical instrument intersects said first drive shaft, thereby determining the rotational center of the medical instrument.
12.如权利要求11所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述连接器具有可拆卸性,更换不同的连接器即可获得不同的偏移量,由此达到容纳不同医疗工具的目的。 12. The articulated robot according to claim 11, wherein: said connector has removability, the replacement of different connectors to obtain different offset, so as to achieve the purpose of accommodating different medical tools.
13.如权利要求10所述的活节机械手还包括用来支承上述第三驱动组件的第二支承构件,该第二支承构件上设有用来使上述第三驱动组件沿直线方向移动的第四驱动组件,这样,在其工作时,上述工具夹持器也将连同拱形构件一起沿上述直线方向移动。 13. The articulated robot as claimed in claim 10 further comprising a second support member for supporting said third drive assembly, with said third drive assembly for causing movement of the fourth linear direction on the second support member drive assembly, so that, during its work, said tool holder will move along with the arcuate members together along said linear direction.
14.如权利要求13所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述第一、第二、第三及第四驱动组件均含有驱动电机,上述每个驱动组件都由基于多自由度运动控制系统的微处理器控制。 14. The articulated robot according to claim 13, wherein: said first, second, third and fourth drive assembly comprising a drive motor each, each of said drive assembly by a multi-degree of freedom motion control system based on microprocessor control.
15.如权利要求13所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述第二支承构件被悬挂在一个至少可提供X,Y,Z及R四个运动自由度的平衡支承系统上。 15. The articulated robot according to claim 13, wherein: said second supporting member is suspended on a balance support may be provided at least four degrees of motion of the system X, Y, Z and R. 运动自由度R可以保证在应急条件下迅速由人工操作替换活节机械手。 R can ensure the freedom of movement articulated robot quickly replaced by a manual operation in emergency conditions.
16.如权利要求15所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述平衡支承系统上设有彼此相互垂直的第一、第二支承臂及垂直支柱。 16. The articulated robot according to claim 15, wherein: the first is provided perpendicular to each other, and a second support arm on said vertical strut support system balance. 三者可分别保证活节机械手在X、Y及Z自由度的运动。 Three articulated respectively to ensure movement of the robot X, Y and Z freedom.
17.如权利要求16所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述活节机械手通过上述第二支承构件以滑动方式安装在上述第一支承臂上,上述第一支承臂以滑动方式安装在上述第二支承臂上,而上述第二支承臂又以滑动方式安装在上述支柱上,其特征还在于:上述第一、第二支承臂及上述第二支承构件分别被相应的第一、第二、第三锁定装置锁紧、定位。 17. The articulated manipulator according to claim 16, wherein: the aforementioned articulated robot through said second support member slidably mounted on said first support arm, said first support arm slidably mounted on said a second support arm, and said second support arm is in turn slidably mounted on the pillar, which is further characterized in that: said first and second support arm and the second supporting member are respective first, second third locking means locked positioned.
18.如权利要求17所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述平衡支承系统上各支承臂的滑动是通过缆绳—滑轮系统实现的,上述锁定装置包括缆绳夹具。 18. The articulated robot according to claim 17, wherein: each support arm is slidable on said balance by a cable support system - to achieve a pulley system, said locking means comprises a cable clamp.
19.如权利要求16所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述第二支承臂的滑座设有摆动托架组件,由此可使第二支承臂围绕其在支柱上的滑座而水平转动。 19. The articulated manipulator according to claim 16, wherein: said second support arm carriage pivot bracket assembly is provided, thereby allowing the support arm about a second carriage on which the strut and the horizontal rotation.
20.如权利要求19所述的活节机械手,其特征在于:上述平衡支承系统还包括作为垂直支柱安装基座的台车及台车上用来支承其它设备的若干个搁板。 20. The articulated robot according to claim 19, wherein: the balancing system further comprises a mounting base supporting a vertical column of the carriage and the carriage for supporting a plurality of shelves other devices.
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