CN1155799C - Laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating method and equipment - Google Patents

Laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating method and equipment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1155799C
CN1155799C CNB011318163A CN01131816A CN1155799C CN 1155799 C CN1155799 C CN 1155799C CN B011318163 A CNB011318163 A CN B011318163A CN 01131816 A CN01131816 A CN 01131816A CN 1155799 C CN1155799 C CN 1155799C
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China
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finishing tool
guide rail
translation guide
base station
coordinate
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CNB011318163A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1354355A (en
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蒋庄德
李兵
田世杰
隋连升
罗意平
韩涛
陈伟
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西安交通大学
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Abstract

The present invention discloses a virtual grid mapping calibrating method of double light knives for laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement, and equipment thereof. The equipment comprises a central processor, a controller and a testing base station, wherein translation guide rails of an X axis, a Y axis and a Z axis are arranged on the testing base station; the lower end of the Z axis is provided with a photoelectric measuring head; the surface of the testing base station is provided with a standard flat plate. The present invention establishes a mapping function relationship between a two-dimensional imaging space and two-dimensional physical space by virtual grids, and realizes the accurate calibration of a measuring system. In a measuring process, the coordinate value of the physical space, which corresponds to each imaging point on measuring light knives, can be obtained; the three-dimensional contour information of the surface of a measured object is obtained by the scanning motion of the measuring head.

Description

Laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating method and device

One, technical field

The invention belongs to the method and the device of measuring three-dimensional profile, particularly a kind of laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating method and device.

Two, background technology

In laser linear scanning three-dimensional profile measurement system, the measuring principle that is adopted is a triangulation at present, promptly determines the three-dimensional information of testee profile each point by the triangle geometric relationship between eye point, subpoint and the imaging point three.Measuring system generally adopts laser vertical incident and the vertical imaging mode of CCD, and the linear light source (to call finishing tool in the following text) of going into to hit laser formation in laser vertical impinges perpendicularly on the base plane of placing measured workpiece.The vertical imaging of CCD is the imaging optical axis of CCD target surface perpendicular to the CCD camera, and imaging optical axis and incident light form an angle α.Wherein, the point that laser light knife shines on the reference field is S apart from the object distance of video camera, and the imaging image distance is S ', and the distance that the imaging point of point on the CCD target surface on the measured workpiece departs from the benchmark picture point is L '.

The high computational formula of reduction that can get the point on the workpiece according to triangle geometric relationship and imaging relations is:

H = S ( S ′ / L ′ ) Sinα + Cosα

By above-mentioned formula, as can be seen, if the measuring system structure is fixed, promptly under the situation that incident light nose angle degree, ccd video camera position and direction, reference plane etc. are fixed, the height value H of measured point can be determined by the side-play amount L ' of its imaging point.Yet, object distance S in the formula, image distance S ' and angle α can't accurately obtain in real system, in addition, above formula is its desirable test macro mathematical model, because the optical system in the system, imaging system etc. are in the various errors of processing and installation process is produced, make ideal model and actual conditions differ greatly, in a word, can't use following formula, method by calculation of parameter directly accurately obtains test result, can only simulate the mathematical model of test macro by the method for demarcating, in the hope of measurement result.This shows that the quality of system calibrating method is the precondition and guarantee that measuring system realizes high-acruracy survey, therefore, the design of scaling method is based on one of emphasis in the triangulation system development.Below be several scaling methods commonly used.

1) calibrated bolck standardization.One length (length value is less than measuring width range) calibrated bolck is placed on the precision surface plate, and it is parallel to make its length direction and CCD measure Width.At first, by the step pitch mobile platform of arranging in advance, so just obtain a series of height value h along measured short transverse i(i=1,2 ... N) and imaging side-play amount l i(i=1,2 ... N), by least square method, can obtain function h=f (1).Secondly, in the process of mobile platform, in different positions, can obtain the different in width value of calibrated bolck imaging, so just can be in the hope of Width enlargement factor function k=f (h), so far CCD target surface both direction has all been demarcated and has been finished, and just can obtain its actual spatial value by the coordinate of putting on the target surface.

2) inclined-plane standardization.The surface normal direction of the length standard piece method 1) no longer is parallel to the laser incident direction, and have a certain degree, just needn't use precision surface plate at timing signal like this, as long as gauge head is moved horizontally, just can extrapolate the height change value, and other steps are with method 1) by triangle relation.The surface area of this calibrated bolck will be according to calibration range, and enough big, in addition, its flatness also has certain requirement.

3) above-mentioned two kinds of methods isolate in the demarcating steps of both direction, be more satisfactoryization as the mathematical model of demarcating prerequisite, and actual conditions are more complex.The error of CCD camera lens work in-process reaches desirable far away, exists the distortion of pillow type, and pillow type distortion (being exaggerated demonstration in Fig. 2) is wherein mainly caused by the distortion of CCD camera lens edge.Simultaneously as can be seen, any point on the tested physics space plane all has more accordingly on ccd video camera target surface imaging space plane, and be strictness one to one.This is explanation just, as long as find two mapped function relation between the plane, just can realize the correct demarcation of system, just can obtain accurate measurement result.

Method commonly used is in laser linear scanning three-dimensional profile measurement mesh mapping is demarcated at present, in a standard flat, print in advance and go up high-precision grid or dot matrix (its spacing preestablishes), by capture, can obtain grid intersection point or the dot center coordinate on the CCD target surface, so just, between tested physical space and CCD target surface, set up mapping relations, and can obtain the physical coordinates value that is imaged on arbitrfary point on the target surface by method of interpolation.

The method tries hard to reduce the influence of lens distortion to measuring accuracy, but has brought other problems:

I) relation between standard flat coordinate system and the measuring system coordinate system can't accurately be determined;

Ii) the making precision of grid or dot matrix influences measurement result;

Iii) grid or dot matrix are in case making finishes, and its spacing just is fixed up, and can't be fit to the needs of different occasions;

Iv) grid intersection point or dot center's coordinate to ask for error bigger etc.

Three, summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is to overcome above-mentioned existing methods shortcoming, a kind of simple, convenient, accurate laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating method and device are provided.

For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is: it comprises central processing unit, controller, test base station, central processing unit and controller link, be characterized in, the test base station is provided with and the joining X-axis translation of controller guide rail, Y-axis translation guide rail and Z axle translation guide rail, and the lower end of Z axle translation guide rail is provided with photoelectric measuring head, is provided with dressing plate on the surface of test base station.

Another characteristics of the present invention are: be respectively arranged with the driving steady arm on X-axis translation guide rail, Y-axis translation guide rail and the Z axle translation guide rail; The middle part of photoelectric measuring head is provided with adjuster, and the lower end of adjuster is provided with measures the finishing tool generator, and ccd video camera is arranged on the both sides of photoelectric measuring head inside, and measurement finishing tool generator, ccd video camera link with controller respectively; On-gauge plate is provided with the boost line parallel with the on-gauge plate edge, is fixed with the fill-in light knife support at on-gauge plate one jiao, and the fill-in light knife support is provided with and the joining auxiliary finishing tool generator of controller.

Scaling method of the present invention is:

1) base station adjustment

At first will test the base station plane and adjust level, again with X-axis translation guide rail, Y-axis translation guide rail and test base station plane leveling row, Z axle translation guide rail is straight with test base station plane vertical adjustment, and X-axis translation guide rail, Y-axis translation guide rail, the mutual vertical adjustment of Z axle translation guide rail are straight simultaneously;

2) finishing tool adjustment

Dressing plate is placed on the test base station, and one side and Y-axis leveling row of boost line will be arranged, utilize moving of three on boost line and X-axis translation guide rail, Y-axis translation guide rail, Z axle translation guide rail, and measure the direction of finishing tool generator by the adjuster adjustment, make measurement finishing tool generator vertical with the test base station, the light that the light beam of measurement finishing tool generator forms on the test base station is parallel with Y-axis;

3) auxiliary finishing tool adjustment

The finishing tool that auxiliary finishing tool generator is produced projects on the dressing plate, by adjusting auxiliary finishing tool generator support, in that will to assist finishing tool to be adjusted on the dressing plate crossing with the angle of measuring about finishing tool becomes with 45 °;

4) obtain the intersection point imager coordinate

Gather a width of cloth with ccd video camera and measure finishing tool and the crossing image of auxiliary finishing tool, input to central processing unit, at first extract the center line of measuring finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool, fit out the straight-line equation of measurement finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool center line again, obtain the intersecting point coordinate value of two straight lines at last;

5) form virtual grid

Drive steady arm, according to pre-determined spacing and step pitch number, along Y and Z axle moving photoconductor measuring head, the intersection point of measuring finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool so just moves with respect to ccd video camera, form virtual grid, the coordinate figure of intersection point obtains by step 4), x, and the y coordinate figure obtains by driving steady arm;

If the employing method of interpolation is asked for x a little, the y coordinate, then the whole calibrating step so far finishes; If adopt the mapping function method, continue following steps:

6) ask for mapping function

If the image coordinate of ccd video camera target surface is that (u, v), the coordinate of space plane is that (X, Y), the mapping relations between these two planes can represent with a square recurrence polynomial of degree n, promptly

X ( u , v ) = Σ j = 0 n Σ i = 0 n - j C ij u i v j

Y ( u , v ) = Σ j = 0 n Σ i = 0 n - j D ij u i v j

Wherein, u, each intersection point of v coordinate system constitutes M * N dot matrix on the CCD target surface.(u is v) with Y (u, error function E v) for X XWith E YFor:

E X = Σ k = 0 M ( X k - X ) 2

E Y = Σ k = 0 N ( Y k - Y ) 2

Coefficient Cij, Dij can be by formula ∂ E X ∂ C ij = 0 ; ∂ E Y ∂ D ij = 0 Try to achieve, after obtaining coefficient, (X, Y), (u v) calculates respective value to the coordinate of any point on the tested physical space can to pass through recurrence polynomial expression substitution image target surface coordinate.

The present invention has set up mapped function relation between bidimensional image space and the two-dimentional physical space by the thought of virtual grid, has realized the accurate demarcation of measuring system.When measuring, can obtain measuring each imaging point corresponding physical spatial value on the finishing tool, move by the scanning of measuring head again, just obtained the three-D profile information on testee surface.

Four, description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a structure principle chart of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the mapping relations figure between physical space and the ccd video camera target surface, and wherein Fig. 2 (a) is tested physical space; Fig. 2 (b) is a ccd video camera target surface imaging space.

Five, embodiment

Described in detail below in conjunction with the concrete steps of accompanying drawing structural principle of the present invention and principle of work and demarcation.

Referring to Fig. 1, the present invention includes central processing unit 1, controller 14, test base station 9, test base station 9 is provided with X-axis translation guide rail 2, Y-axis translation guide rail 13 and the Z axle translation guide rail 3 of planer-type vertical distribution, X, Y, Z axle all have the driving steady arm, as stepper motor or servomotor and grating chi or photoelectric coded disk etc.; Lower end at Z axle translation guide rail 3 is connecting photoelectric measuring head 6, center section is fixed with adjusting gear 5 in photoelectric measuring head 6, adjusting gear 5 lower ends are fixed with measures finishing tool generator 7, can carry out two direction adjustment to measuring finishing tool generator 7 by adjusting gear 5; The two ends, inside of photoelectric measuring head 6 two ccd video cameras 4 that are being symmetrically distributed adopt two ccd video cameras, are to measure the dead angle in order to enlarge measurement range, to reduce; On test base station 9, place dressing plate 10, portrayal in advance has boost line 8 on the dressing plate 10, the edge keeping parallelism of boost line 8 and dressing plate 10, one jiao of dressing plate 10 is fixed with auxiliary finishing tool generator support 11, on the auxiliary finishing tool generator support 11 auxiliary finishing tool generator 12 can be installed, the direction of auxiliary finishing tool generator 12 and height can be adjusted arbitrarily; Central processing unit 1 is responsible for the work such as motion control, signals collecting and processing of system, and promptly central processing unit 1 receives the picture signal of ccd video camera 4 by image card, and carries out message exchange by interface card and controller 14; Controller 14 receives the translation motion that comes control system X, Y, three directions of Z from the instruction of central processing unit 1, and the position and the spacing information of photoelectric measuring head 6 offered central processing unit 1, simultaneously controller 14 also for ccd video camera 4, measure finishing tool generator 7 and auxiliary finishing tool generator 12 provides power supply.

Referring to Fig. 1, Fig. 2, the concrete steps of virtual grid mapping calibrating method of the present invention are:

1) base station adjustment

At first will test base station 9 adjustment levels, with X-axis translation guide rail 2, Y-axis translation guide rail 13 and test base station 9 leveling row, Z axle translation guide rail 3 is straight with test base station 9 vertical adjustments again, and X, Y, three mutual vertical adjustments of Z are straight simultaneously;

2) measure the finishing tool adjustment

Dressing plate 10 is placed on the test base station 9, and one side and Y-axis translation guide rail leveling row of boost line 8 will be arranged, utilize moving of boost line 8 and X-axis translation guide rail 2, Y-axis translation guide rail 13, Z axle translation guide rail 3, and pass through adjuster 5 and adjust the direction of measuring finishing tool generators 7, make measurement finishing tool generator 7 vertical with test base station 9, the light beam of measuring finishing tool generator 7 is parallel with Y-axis at the light of testing formation on the base station 9;

3) auxiliary finishing tool adjustment

To assist finishing tool generator 12 to project on the dressing plate 10, and make auxiliary finishing tool and measure the angle of finishing tool about at 45 on the dressing plate and intersect by auxiliary finishing tool generator support 11;

4) find intersection imager coordinate

Gather a width of cloth with ccd video camera 4 and measure finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool intersection graph picture, input to central processing unit 1, at first extract the center line of measuring finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool, fit out the straight-line equation of measurement finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool center line again, obtain the intersecting point coordinate value of two straight lines at last, certainly the coordinate figure of this moment is the coordinate figure u of intersection point on the CCD target surface, v.

5) form virtual grid

Owing to can estimate the approximate size that plane, measurement finishing tool place imaging scope on the CCD target surface in advance, therefore, as long as determined the spacing of grid both direction, just the step pitch that can determine both direction is counted M, N, by driving steady arm, according to pre-determined spacing and step pitch number, come moving photoconductor measuring head 6 along Y-axis translation guide rail 13 and Z axle translation guide rail 3, the intersection point of measuring finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool just moves with respect to ccd video camera 4, form virtual grid as shown in Figure 2, the u of intersection point, the v coordinate figure obtains by step 4), x, the y coordinate figure obtains by driving steady arm;

If the employing method of interpolation is asked for x a little, the y coordinate, then the whole calibrating step so far finishes; If adopt the mapping function method, also need carry out next step.In addition, when adopting method of interpolation, for reaching the purpose of accurate demarcation, mesh spacing should be got little as far as possible.

6) ask for mapping function

If the image coordinate of CCD target surface is that (u, v), the coordinate of space plane is that (X, Y), the mapping relations between these two planes can represent with a square recurrence polynomial of degree n, promptly

X ( u , v ) = Σ j = 0 n Σ i = 0 n - j C ij u i v j

Y ( u , v ) = Σ j = 0 n Σ i = 0 n - j D ij u i v j

Wherein, u, v coordinate each point constitutes M * N dot matrix on the CCD target surface.X (u, v) with Y (u,

Error function E v) XWith E YFor:

E X = Σ k = 0 M ( X k - X ) 2

E Y = Σ k = 0 N ( Y k - Y ) 2

Coefficient Cij, Dij can by ∂ E X ∂ C ij = 0 ; ∂ E Y ∂ D ij = 0 Try to achieve, after obtaining coefficient, (X, Y), (u v) calculates respective value to the coordinate of any point on the tested physical space can to pass through recurrence polynomial expression substitution image target surface coordinate.

So just, constructed virtual grid two-dimensional map standardization.

The present invention has set up mapped function relation between two-dimensional imaging space and the two-dimentional physical space by the thought of virtual grid, has realized the accurate demarcation of measuring system.

Claims (4)

1, a kind of device of laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating, it comprises central processing unit [1], controller [14], test base station [9], central processing unit [1] links with controller [14], it is characterized in that: test base station [9] is provided with and controller [14] joining X-axis translation guide rail [2], Y-axis translation guide rail [13] and Z axle translation guide rail [3], the lower end of Z axle translation guide rail [3] is provided with photoelectric measuring head [6], surface at test base station [9] is provided with dressing plate [10], on-gauge plate [10] is provided with the boost line [8] parallel with on-gauge plate [10] edge, one jiao at on-gauge plate [10] is fixed with fill-in light knife support [11], and fill-in light knife support [11] is provided with and the joining auxiliary finishing tool generator of controller [14] [12].
2, the device of laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating according to claim 1 is characterized in that: be respectively arranged with the driving steady arm on said X-axis translation guide rail [2], Y-axis translation guide rail [13] and the Z axle translation guide rail [3].
3, the device of laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the middle part of said photoelectric measuring head [6] is provided with adjuster [5], the lower end of adjuster [5] is provided with measures finishing tool generator [7], ccd video camera [4] is arranged on the inner both sides of photoelectric measuring head [6], and measurement finishing tool generator [7], ccd video camera [4] link with controller [14] respectively.
4, a kind of scaling method of laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping is characterized in that:
1) base station adjustment
At first will test base station [9] adjustment level, again with X-axis translation guide rail [2], Y-axis translation guide rail [13] and test base station [9] leveling row, Z axle translation guide rail [3] is straight with test base station [9] vertical adjustment, and vertical adjustment is straight mutually for X-axis translation guide rail [2], Y-axis translation guide rail [13], Z axle translation guide rail [3] simultaneously;
2) finishing tool adjustment
Dressing plate [10] is placed on the test base station [9], and one side and Y-axis leveling row of boost line [8] will be arranged, utilize moving of [3] three on boost line [8] and X-axis translation guide rail [2], Y-axis translation guide rail [13], Z axle translation guide rail, and adjust to measure the direction of finishing tool generator [7] by adjuster [5], make measurement finishing tool generator [7] vertical with test base station [9], the light that the light beam of measurement finishing tool generator [7] is gone up formation at test base station [9] is parallel with Y-axis;
3) auxiliary finishing tool adjustment
To assist finishing tool generator [12] to project on the dressing plate [10], will assist finishing tool and the angle of measurement finishing tool about being adjusted on the dressing plate to intersect with 45 ° by auxiliary finishing tool generator support [11];
4) obtain the intersection point imager coordinate
Gather a width of cloth with ccd video camera [4] and measure finishing tool and the crossing image of auxiliary finishing tool, input to central processing unit [1], at first extract the center line of measuring finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool, fit out the straight-line equation of measurement finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool center line again, obtain the intersecting point coordinate value of two straight lines at last;
5) form virtual grid
Drive steady arm, according to pre-determined spacing and step pitch number, along Y and Z axle moving photoconductor measuring head [6], the intersection point of measuring finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool so just moves with respect to ccd video camera [4], form virtual grid, the coordinate figure of intersection point obtains by step 4), x, and the y coordinate figure obtains by driving steady arm;
If the employing method of interpolation is asked for x a little, the y coordinate, then the whole calibrating step so far finishes; If adopt the mapping function method, continue following steps:
6) ask for mapping function
If the image coordinate of CCD target surface is that (u, v), the coordinate of space plane is that (X, Y), the mapping relations between these two planes can represent with a square recurrence polynomial of degree n, promptly
X ( u , v ) = Σ j = 0 n Σ i = 0 n - j C ij u i v j
Y ( u , v ) = Σ j = 0 n Σ i = 0 n - j D ij u i v j
Wherein, u, v coordinate each point constitutes M * N dot matrix on the CCD target surface.X (u, v) with Y (u,
Error function E v) XWith E YFor:
E X = Σ k = 0 M ( X k - X ) 2
E Y = Σ k = 0 N ( Y k - Y ) 2
Coefficient Cij, Dij can be by formula ∂ E X ∂ C ij = 0 ; ∂ E Y ∂ D ij = 0 Try to achieve, after obtaining coefficient, (X, Y), (u v) calculates respective value to the coordinate of any point on the tested physical space can to pass through recurrence polynomial expression substitution image target surface coordinate.
CNB011318163A 2001-12-10 2001-12-10 Laser linear scanning three-dimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating method and equipment CN1155799C (en)

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