CN1155799C  Laser linear scanning threedimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating method and equipment  Google Patents
Laser linear scanning threedimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating method and equipment Download PDFInfo
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 CN1155799C CN1155799C CNB011318163A CN01131816A CN1155799C CN 1155799 C CN1155799 C CN 1155799C CN B011318163 A CNB011318163 A CN B011318163A CN 01131816 A CN01131816 A CN 01131816A CN 1155799 C CN1155799 C CN 1155799C
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 finishing tool
 guide rail
 translation guide
 base station
 coordinate
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Abstract
Description
One, technical field
The invention belongs to the method and the device of measuring threedimensional profile, particularly a kind of laser linear scanning threedimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating method and device.
Two, background technology
In laser linear scanning threedimensional profile measurement system, the measuring principle that is adopted is a triangulation at present, promptly determines the threedimensional information of testee profile each point by the triangle geometric relationship between eye point, subpoint and the imaging point three.Measuring system generally adopts laser vertical incident and the vertical imaging mode of CCD, and the linear light source (to call finishing tool in the following text) of going into to hit laser formation in laser vertical impinges perpendicularly on the base plane of placing measured workpiece.The vertical imaging of CCD is the imaging optical axis of CCD target surface perpendicular to the CCD camera, and imaging optical axis and incident light form an angle α.Wherein, the point that laser light knife shines on the reference field is S apart from the object distance of video camera, and the imaging image distance is S ', and the distance that the imaging point of point on the CCD target surface on the measured workpiece departs from the benchmark picture point is L '.
The high computational formula of reduction that can get the point on the workpiece according to triangle geometric relationship and imaging relations is:
By abovementioned formula, as can be seen, if the measuring system structure is fixed, promptly under the situation that incident light nose angle degree, ccd video camera position and direction, reference plane etc. are fixed, the height value H of measured point can be determined by the sideplay amount L ' of its imaging point.Yet, object distance S in the formula, image distance S ' and angle α can't accurately obtain in real system, in addition, above formula is its desirable test macro mathematical model, because the optical system in the system, imaging system etc. are in the various errors of processing and installation process is produced, make ideal model and actual conditions differ greatly, in a word, can't use following formula, method by calculation of parameter directly accurately obtains test result, can only simulate the mathematical model of test macro by the method for demarcating, in the hope of measurement result.This shows that the quality of system calibrating method is the precondition and guarantee that measuring system realizes highacruracy survey, therefore, the design of scaling method is based on one of emphasis in the triangulation system development.Below be several scaling methods commonly used.
1) calibrated bolck standardization.One length (length value is less than measuring width range) calibrated bolck is placed on the precision surface plate, and it is parallel to make its length direction and CCD measure Width.At first, by the step pitch mobile platform of arranging in advance, so just obtain a series of height value h along measured short transverse _{i}(i=1,2 ... N) and imaging sideplay amount l _{i}(i=1,2 ... N), by least square method, can obtain function h=f (1).Secondly, in the process of mobile platform, in different positions, can obtain the different in width value of calibrated bolck imaging, so just can be in the hope of Width enlargement factor function k=f (h), so far CCD target surface both direction has all been demarcated and has been finished, and just can obtain its actual spatial value by the coordinate of putting on the target surface.
2) inclinedplane standardization.The surface normal direction of the length standard piece method 1) no longer is parallel to the laser incident direction, and have a certain degree, just needn't use precision surface plate at timing signal like this, as long as gauge head is moved horizontally, just can extrapolate the height change value, and other steps are with method 1) by triangle relation.The surface area of this calibrated bolck will be according to calibration range, and enough big, in addition, its flatness also has certain requirement.
3) abovementioned two kinds of methods isolate in the demarcating steps of both direction, be more satisfactoryization as the mathematical model of demarcating prerequisite, and actual conditions are more complex.The error of CCD camera lens work inprocess reaches desirable far away, exists the distortion of pillow type, and pillow type distortion (being exaggerated demonstration in Fig. 2) is wherein mainly caused by the distortion of CCD camera lens edge.Simultaneously as can be seen, any point on the tested physics space plane all has more accordingly on ccd video camera target surface imaging space plane, and be strictness one to one.This is explanation just, as long as find two mapped function relation between the plane, just can realize the correct demarcation of system, just can obtain accurate measurement result.
Method commonly used is in laser linear scanning threedimensional profile measurement mesh mapping is demarcated at present, in a standard flat, print in advance and go up highprecision grid or dot matrix (its spacing preestablishes), by capture, can obtain grid intersection point or the dot center coordinate on the CCD target surface, so just, between tested physical space and CCD target surface, set up mapping relations, and can obtain the physical coordinates value that is imaged on arbitrfary point on the target surface by method of interpolation.
The method tries hard to reduce the influence of lens distortion to measuring accuracy, but has brought other problems:
I) relation between standard flat coordinate system and the measuring system coordinate system can't accurately be determined;
Ii) the making precision of grid or dot matrix influences measurement result;
Iii) grid or dot matrix are in case making finishes, and its spacing just is fixed up, and can't be fit to the needs of different occasions;
Iv) grid intersection point or dot center's coordinate to ask for error bigger etc.
Three, summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome abovementioned existing methods shortcoming, a kind of simple, convenient, accurate laser linear scanning threedimensional measurement double liquid knife virtual grid mapping calibrating method and device are provided.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is: it comprises central processing unit, controller, test base station, central processing unit and controller link, be characterized in, the test base station is provided with and the joining Xaxis translation of controller guide rail, Yaxis translation guide rail and Z axle translation guide rail, and the lower end of Z axle translation guide rail is provided with photoelectric measuring head, is provided with dressing plate on the surface of test base station.
Another characteristics of the present invention are: be respectively arranged with the driving steady arm on Xaxis translation guide rail, Yaxis translation guide rail and the Z axle translation guide rail; The middle part of photoelectric measuring head is provided with adjuster, and the lower end of adjuster is provided with measures the finishing tool generator, and ccd video camera is arranged on the both sides of photoelectric measuring head inside, and measurement finishing tool generator, ccd video camera link with controller respectively; Ongauge plate is provided with the boost line parallel with the ongauge plate edge, is fixed with the fillin light knife support at ongauge plate one jiao, and the fillin light knife support is provided with and the joining auxiliary finishing tool generator of controller.
Scaling method of the present invention is:
1) base station adjustment
At first will test the base station plane and adjust level, again with Xaxis translation guide rail, Yaxis translation guide rail and test base station plane leveling row, Z axle translation guide rail is straight with test base station plane vertical adjustment, and Xaxis translation guide rail, Yaxis translation guide rail, the mutual vertical adjustment of Z axle translation guide rail are straight simultaneously;
2) finishing tool adjustment
Dressing plate is placed on the test base station, and one side and Yaxis leveling row of boost line will be arranged, utilize moving of three on boost line and Xaxis translation guide rail, Yaxis translation guide rail, Z axle translation guide rail, and measure the direction of finishing tool generator by the adjuster adjustment, make measurement finishing tool generator vertical with the test base station, the light that the light beam of measurement finishing tool generator forms on the test base station is parallel with Yaxis;
3) auxiliary finishing tool adjustment
The finishing tool that auxiliary finishing tool generator is produced projects on the dressing plate, by adjusting auxiliary finishing tool generator support, in that will to assist finishing tool to be adjusted on the dressing plate crossing with the angle of measuring about finishing tool becomes with 45 °;
4) obtain the intersection point imager coordinate
Gather a width of cloth with ccd video camera and measure finishing tool and the crossing image of auxiliary finishing tool, input to central processing unit, at first extract the center line of measuring finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool, fit out the straightline equation of measurement finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool center line again, obtain the intersecting point coordinate value of two straight lines at last;
5) form virtual grid
Drive steady arm, according to predetermined spacing and step pitch number, along Y and Z axle moving photoconductor measuring head, the intersection point of measuring finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool so just moves with respect to ccd video camera, form virtual grid, the coordinate figure of intersection point obtains by step 4), x, and the y coordinate figure obtains by driving steady arm;
If the employing method of interpolation is asked for x a little, the y coordinate, then the whole calibrating step so far finishes; If adopt the mapping function method, continue following steps:
6) ask for mapping function
If the image coordinate of ccd video camera target surface is that (u, v), the coordinate of space plane is that (X, Y), the mapping relations between these two planes can represent with a square recurrence polynomial of degree n, promptly
Wherein, u, each intersection point of v coordinate system constitutes M * N dot matrix on the CCD target surface.(u is v) with Y (u, error function E v) for X _{X}With E _{Y}For:
Coefficient Cij, Dij can be by formula
The present invention has set up mapped function relation between bidimensional image space and the twodimentional physical space by the thought of virtual grid, has realized the accurate demarcation of measuring system.When measuring, can obtain measuring each imaging point corresponding physical spatial value on the finishing tool, move by the scanning of measuring head again, just obtained the threeD profile information on testee surface.
Four, description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a structure principle chart of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the mapping relations figure between physical space and the ccd video camera target surface, and wherein Fig. 2 (a) is tested physical space; Fig. 2 (b) is a ccd video camera target surface imaging space.
Five, embodiment
Described in detail below in conjunction with the concrete steps of accompanying drawing structural principle of the present invention and principle of work and demarcation.
Referring to Fig. 1, the present invention includes central processing unit 1, controller 14, test base station 9, test base station 9 is provided with Xaxis translation guide rail 2, Yaxis translation guide rail 13 and the Z axle translation guide rail 3 of planertype vertical distribution, X, Y, Z axle all have the driving steady arm, as stepper motor or servomotor and grating chi or photoelectric coded disk etc.; Lower end at Z axle translation guide rail 3 is connecting photoelectric measuring head 6, center section is fixed with adjusting gear 5 in photoelectric measuring head 6, adjusting gear 5 lower ends are fixed with measures finishing tool generator 7, can carry out two direction adjustment to measuring finishing tool generator 7 by adjusting gear 5; The two ends, inside of photoelectric measuring head 6 two ccd video cameras 4 that are being symmetrically distributed adopt two ccd video cameras, are to measure the dead angle in order to enlarge measurement range, to reduce; On test base station 9, place dressing plate 10, portrayal in advance has boost line 8 on the dressing plate 10, the edge keeping parallelism of boost line 8 and dressing plate 10, one jiao of dressing plate 10 is fixed with auxiliary finishing tool generator support 11, on the auxiliary finishing tool generator support 11 auxiliary finishing tool generator 12 can be installed, the direction of auxiliary finishing tool generator 12 and height can be adjusted arbitrarily; Central processing unit 1 is responsible for the work such as motion control, signals collecting and processing of system, and promptly central processing unit 1 receives the picture signal of ccd video camera 4 by image card, and carries out message exchange by interface card and controller 14; Controller 14 receives the translation motion that comes control system X, Y, three directions of Z from the instruction of central processing unit 1, and the position and the spacing information of photoelectric measuring head 6 offered central processing unit 1, simultaneously controller 14 also for ccd video camera 4, measure finishing tool generator 7 and auxiliary finishing tool generator 12 provides power supply.
Referring to Fig. 1, Fig. 2, the concrete steps of virtual grid mapping calibrating method of the present invention are:
1) base station adjustment
At first will test base station 9 adjustment levels, with Xaxis translation guide rail 2, Yaxis translation guide rail 13 and test base station 9 leveling row, Z axle translation guide rail 3 is straight with test base station 9 vertical adjustments again, and X, Y, three mutual vertical adjustments of Z are straight simultaneously;
2) measure the finishing tool adjustment
Dressing plate 10 is placed on the test base station 9, and one side and Yaxis translation guide rail leveling row of boost line 8 will be arranged, utilize moving of boost line 8 and Xaxis translation guide rail 2, Yaxis translation guide rail 13, Z axle translation guide rail 3, and pass through adjuster 5 and adjust the direction of measuring finishing tool generators 7, make measurement finishing tool generator 7 vertical with test base station 9, the light beam of measuring finishing tool generator 7 is parallel with Yaxis at the light of testing formation on the base station 9;
3) auxiliary finishing tool adjustment
To assist finishing tool generator 12 to project on the dressing plate 10, and make auxiliary finishing tool and measure the angle of finishing tool about at 45 on the dressing plate and intersect by auxiliary finishing tool generator support 11;
4) find intersection imager coordinate
Gather a width of cloth with ccd video camera 4 and measure finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool intersection graph picture, input to central processing unit 1, at first extract the center line of measuring finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool, fit out the straightline equation of measurement finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool center line again, obtain the intersecting point coordinate value of two straight lines at last, certainly the coordinate figure of this moment is the coordinate figure u of intersection point on the CCD target surface, v.
5) form virtual grid
Owing to can estimate the approximate size that plane, measurement finishing tool place imaging scope on the CCD target surface in advance, therefore, as long as determined the spacing of grid both direction, just the step pitch that can determine both direction is counted M, N, by driving steady arm, according to predetermined spacing and step pitch number, come moving photoconductor measuring head 6 along Yaxis translation guide rail 13 and Z axle translation guide rail 3, the intersection point of measuring finishing tool and auxiliary finishing tool just moves with respect to ccd video camera 4, form virtual grid as shown in Figure 2, the u of intersection point, the v coordinate figure obtains by step 4), x, the y coordinate figure obtains by driving steady arm;
If the employing method of interpolation is asked for x a little, the y coordinate, then the whole calibrating step so far finishes; If adopt the mapping function method, also need carry out next step.In addition, when adopting method of interpolation, for reaching the purpose of accurate demarcation, mesh spacing should be got little as far as possible.
6) ask for mapping function
If the image coordinate of CCD target surface is that (u, v), the coordinate of space plane is that (X, Y), the mapping relations between these two planes can represent with a square recurrence polynomial of degree n, promptly
Wherein, u, v coordinate each point constitutes M * N dot matrix on the CCD target surface.X (u, v) with Y (u,
Error function E v) _{X}With E _{Y}For:
Coefficient Cij, Dij can by
So just, constructed virtual grid twodimensional map standardization.
The present invention has set up mapped function relation between twodimensional imaging space and the twodimentional physical space by the thought of virtual grid, has realized the accurate demarcation of measuring system.
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