CN115088547A - High-yield cultivation method for vigorous stock apple trees - Google Patents

High-yield cultivation method for vigorous stock apple trees Download PDF

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CN115088547A
CN115088547A CN202210798370.9A CN202210798370A CN115088547A CN 115088547 A CN115088547 A CN 115088547A CN 202210798370 A CN202210798370 A CN 202210798370A CN 115088547 A CN115088547 A CN 115088547A
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branches
fertilization
plant
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water
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许明晓
孙英杰
王继秋
王光明
韩佳俊
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Yantai Dawei Seedlings Co ltd
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Yantai Dawei Seedlings Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
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    • A01N43/06Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom five-membered rings
    • A01N43/12Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom five-membered rings condensed with a carbocyclic ring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/22Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom rings with more than six members
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/34Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom
    • A01N43/36Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings
    • A01N43/38Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings condensed with carbocyclic rings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01PBIOCIDAL, PEST REPELLANT, PEST ATTRACTANT OR PLANT GROWTH REGULATORY ACTIVITY OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OR PREPARATIONS
    • A01P21/00Plant growth regulators
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
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    • C05CNITROGENOUS FERTILISERS
    • C05C11/00Other nitrogenous fertilisers
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    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
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    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
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Abstract

The invention provides a high-yield cultivation method for arbor stock apple trees, and relates to the technical field of fruit tree cultivation. The arbor stock apple tree high-yield cultivation method comprises the following steps: s1, young tree planting: digging holes and changing soil, soaking seedlings, fixedly planting and burying soil, fixedly drying and coating pesticide, covering bags on seedlings, watering and covering black films, and watering and fertilizing; managing in the second year: the method comprises the following steps of fixing the trunk for the second time, throwing naturally, not pulling branches, releasing manpower by pressing branches of fruits, and ' one-smearing one-spraying multiple-feeding ' to achieve the effects of fruit hanging, tree growing and flower promoting ' without errors; s3, managing in the third year: branches are not pruned and naturally droop, the crown is expanded, the full branches of the coated flowers are completely smeared by one smearing, one spraying and multiple feeding, the complicated measures of bud carving are omitted, autumn control is promoted in spring, high-phosphorus and organic water-soluble fertilizer is not applied in ditches, the high yield is realized quickly, and the high yield is realized in successive years. In the invention, a chemical control formula is used for replacing a large amount of manual work, bud carving is omitted, branch pulling is reduced, moderate pruning is realized, pit digging and fertilizer application are avoided, water and fertilizer integration is realized, and the labor cost and other time-consuming and labor-consuming traditional management technical means are greatly reduced.

Description

High-yield cultivation method for vigorous stock apple trees
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of fruit tree cultivation, in particular to a high-yield cultivation method for arbor stock apple trees.
Background
The vigorous stock apple tree is an apple tree formed by directly grafting buds or branch sections of apples on a stock, and in a traditional vigorous stock orchard, the crown of the fruit tree is high and can generally grow to 5 meters, the fruit tree is sparse, and 20-30 fruits can be planted in one mu; fruits are produced in 5 years, and because the crown is large, the pruning and picking are troublesome; the traditional orchard is few in organic fertilizer and microbial inoculum usage, large in chemical fertilizer usage, causes the problems of soil hardening, soil salinization, soil acidification and the like, does not pay attention to vigorous control and flower promotion, and is obvious and common in large and small years.
The prior patent CN105379599B discloses a method for high-yield production of arbor-shoot apple seedlings, which comprises the following steps: building a garden, smearing a branch-drawing treasure to promote the fruit tree to branch, culturing a trunk type tree form, reasonably using water and fertilizer, filling the number of branches in the field operation of apple bud seedlings in the second year, thinning flowers and buds, artificially assisting pollination, killing aphids, preserving fruits, spraying calcium, bagging, topdressing, applying base fertilizer, harvesting fruits, adopting long-branch type apple varieties with relatively high quality to realize the effects of forming a basic tree form in the current year, breeding flower buds in the current year, bearing fruits in the next year and achieving high yield in the third year, and solving the technical problem that the apple trees are formed late.
The prior patent CN103299870B discloses a third-year high-yield technical method of vigorous stock long-branch apple bud seedlings, which belongs to the technical field of fruit tree cultivation and comprises the following steps: (1) building a garden; (2) coating a branch-drawing agent to promote the branching of the fruit tree: the temperature is above 15 ℃ in spring, and the sap starts to be smeared when the sap starts to flow; smearing on the bud body needing to germinate; each bud is coated with the amount of the small rice grains, and the bud is uniformly coated with light force; one bud is taken once; continuously smearing on new branches formed after the buds germinate, and repeating the steps; (3) culturing a trunk type tree form: when the height of the seedling is 100-120 cm, finding a bud in a big leaf axilla near 90cm from the ground and below a young sprout growing point by 10-15 cm, coating buds every 1-2 leaves along the branch in the anticlockwise axial direction until the height of the seedling reaches 180-200 cm; when each new shoot directly meristed from the central axis grows to 30-40 cm, finding lateral buds and back buds on the new shoots and coating a twig remover; softening and opening the angle of the new shoot directly merised on the central axis in 8-9 months; (4) and (5) reasonable water fertilizer.
However, in the prior art, the labor consumption is high, a large amount of manpower is needed for trimming, ditching and fertilizing, the labor is intensive, the labor cost is high, and the maintenance cost of the whole plantation is high.
Therefore, the prior art needs to be improved, and a high-yield cultivation method for arbor anvil apple trees is provided.
Disclosure of Invention
Technical problem to be solved
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides a high-yield cultivation method for arbor anvil apple trees, which solves the problems of high labor cost caused by large labor consumption, large amount of manual trimming, bud carving, branch pulling, ditching and fertilization and intensive labor in the existing arbor anvil apple tree orchard; solves the problems of vigorous growth, no flower formation and incomplete flower formation of the existing arbor anvil apple tree orchard.
(II) technical scheme
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention is realized by the following technical scheme: a high-yield cultivation method for arbor anvil apple trees comprises the following steps:
s1, planting the first young tree
S1-1, deeply ploughing and preparing soil by adopting an excavator, digging planting holes 50cm (deep) x100cm (wide), and arranging the plants at a row spacing of 4x5-6 meters, wherein 50 plants per mu are about;
s1-2, uniformly stirring the microbial inoculum and the excavated new soil, filling 3-4 jin per mu of land into the holes to form a microbial soil layer with the thickness of about 20cm and the distance of 28-32cm from the hole opening, covering the hole with new soil with the thickness of 5cm, and pouring large water to compact the soil in the holes before planting so as to prevent the root system growth from being influenced by large soil gaps;
s1-3, before planting, firstly soaking the whole plant of the nursery stock for 24-48 hours by using a root dipping package, leading the nursery stock to absorb enough water, then trimming and soaking the roots, removing the dead roots before planting, soaking the root system in the upper part of a grafting port for drying, then cutting the fracture and the wound which are provided with root cutting and water of 20-30 jin into neat stubbles, removing a plastic film at the base of the neck and soaking the roots for 0.5-2 hours;
s1-4, planting the seedlings, namely, completely stretching the root systems of the seedlings and then earthing up, lifting the seedlings when the root systems of the seedlings are half of the earthing up, then treading down, then earthing up again, treading down again, wherein the earthing-up height cannot exceed a grafting opening, firstly burying soil in the seedling-raising soil trace of the intermediate stock, and gradually burying soil in the intermediate stock 1/3 after survival;
s1-5, drying: fixing the height of 1.2 m to be about 75-85cm, fixing the height of 1.5 m to be 1 m, fixing the height of 1.8 m to be 1.2 m, fixing the height of 2.0 m to be 1.3 m, and selecting full buds to be fixed;
s1-6, coating: after drying, smearing the formula medicament from about 40cm away from the ground to the 4 th-5 th bud on the upper part: furfuryl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid, brassinolide and an amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer;
s1-7, sheathing the seedlings with a seedling sheathing bag, cutting two openings at the upper part of the plastic bag after germination, ventilating to dissipate heat, and when the young shoots grow, more small eyes can be punctured, the ventilation is increased, and the bags are removed in the evening when the sprouts germinate to 2 cm;
s1-8, watering in the planting holes thoroughly, adding 8kg of microbial inoculum per mu, covering the tree disc with black film or non-woven fabric after water seeps, pressing soil at the base of the tree trunk to prevent hot air from burning the tree body, watering 1 time after planting at intervals of 7-10 days, and watering for 3 times continuously to ensure no water shortage in the orchard;
s1-9, fertilizing for 1 time and a small amount of times at intervals of 30-40 days by using a fertilizing gun without ditching high-quality high-phosphorus water soluble fertilizer, alginic acid or humic acid and microbial inoculum for four times of nursery stock planting in the current year;
s1-10, when the branches of the 2 nd to 3 rd buds at the top end grow to about 40 centimeters, pinching or softening the branches to prevent competition on the main head, and leaving the upper and lower branches to grow evenly and leave more branches to grow fast.
S2, managing in the second year
S2-1, carrying out secondary trunk fixing on the middle trunk extension branches: selecting branches with vigorous growth at the upper parts as medium trunks, and reserving full buds for fixing the trunks;
s2-2, removing useless branches at the lower part: removing branches with trunk length of less than 30cm before germination;
s2-3, pruning main branches: for trees with branches more than 4 and branches more than 40cm in length, a polished rod is not shaved all the time, crown expansion is continued by utilizing the top end advantage, for small trees with poor growth vigor, the number of branches is only 2-3 and the length is less than 40cm, 1cm of main branches are pruned, and other buds on the trunk are subjected to pesticide smearing and flower promoting treatment, so that the branch quantity is increased;
s2-4, controlling vigorous growth and promoting flowering by feeding more than one time of smearing and spraying, and is simple and labor-saving, and the three steps of fruit hanging, tree growing and flower promoting are not mistaken;
(1) a erasing: when buds begin to appear white and sprout, 1 year-old branches with the length more than 40cm on main branches are selected, 10-15 cm are reserved from the upper part to the lower part, furfuryl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid, brassinolide and amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer are smeared, only the middle full buds of the branches are smeared, and uniform drug attachment of all bud eyes is guaranteed;
(2) first spraying: spraying the hydroxyolefine adenine to control vigorous growth and promote flowering, the seaweed essence and the boron at the bottom of May and early in six months, preventing spindling, balancing branch potential, promoting leaf buds to form flower buds, and continuously expanding crowns of other branches without smearing medicines or pulling branches;
(3) multiple feeding: the fruits are kept for two years, the branches are pressed by the fruits, the branch potential is balanced, and the leaf buds are continuously promoted to be converted into flower buds, so that the method is the key for ensuring high yield for three years; the fertilizer is applied in two years by adopting a non-ditching fertilization technology and a scientific formula, and is mainly applied by taking high-quality high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, alginic acid or humic acid and a microbial inoculum for three times and a small amount of fertilizer is applied for multiple times.
S3, managing in the third year
S3-1, pruning: thinning out excessively long branches on the back of autumn shoots or excessively dense non-flowering auxiliary branches before buds, and not trimming the rest branches, and carrying out fruiting and finishing;
s3-2, controlling vigorous growth and promoting flowering by feeding more than one time of smearing and spraying, simple and labor-saving, high yield in successive years and no big or small years;
(1) one erasing: before sprouting, applying furfuryl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid, brassinolide and an amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer to annual branches instead of bud carving to promote the formation of flower buds;
(2) first spraying: spraying the hydroxyolefine adenine to control vigorous growth and promote flowering, the seaweed essence and the boron at the bottom of May and early in six months, preventing spindling, balancing branch potential, promoting flowering, and continuously expanding crowns without smearing medicines and pulling branches on other branches;
(3) multiple feeding: reasonably loading, pressing branches with fruits, balancing branch potential, and promoting flower bud formation as a core; the scientific formula fertilization is labor-saving and does not need ditching, the method still mainly uses high-quality high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, alginic acid or humic acid and microbial inoculum, is carried out by four times, a small amount of times, simplicity and labor saving, and realizes tree growth, fruiting and flower promotion without errors.
Preferably, the formula of the smearing preparation in S1-6 comprises 60ml of 0.4% furfuryl aminopurine, 1g of 0.135% gibberellic acid, 1g of 0.00052% indoleacetic acid, 1g of 0.00031% moss lactone, 15ml of amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer, 10ml of biological lecithin and vitamin E, and is mixed with 500ml of water to smear intermediate plump buds to promote flower bud differentiation.
Preferably, the specific fertilization method in S1-8 comprises the following steps: the holes are watered thoroughly with a certain value, and the paenibacillus polymyxa is selected for root irrigation, so that continuous cropping resistance is achieved, and the survival rate is improved.
Preferably, the specific fertilization method in the S1-9 comprises the following steps: using a fertilizing gun to fertilize without ditching, wherein when the length of a main branch reaches 30cm in the first fertilizing time, the fertilizing amount is as follows: 1-2 two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers and 2 two microbial inoculums (5 hundred million/g paenibacillus polymyxa) per plant, wherein the second fertilization time is in late 5 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 3/plant of high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, 1/plant of mineral potassium fulvate and various trace elements; the third fertilization time is in late July, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 3 two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers and 2 two paenibacillus polymyxa/strain of 5 hundred million/gram; the fourth fertilization is carried out in the middle and last ten days of 9 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 5 per two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers, 2 jin/plant organic fertilizer, 4 per two paenibacillus polymyxa per 5 hundred million/g and 3 per plant calcium.
Preferably, the branches in the S2-1, S2-2 and S3-1 are not treated except for unnecessary branches at the lower part, and the branches are naturally thrown without pulling and shaving the light rod, so that the crown is enlarged, the branch amount is increased, the tree is intangible, the tree grows naturally, and the branches are not pruned for pursuing tree shapes.
Preferably, in the step S2-4: the fertilizer gun is used for fertilizing without ditching, the first fertilizing time is in the germination period, and the fertilizing amount is as follows: 4/two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers and 2/two paenibacillus polymyxa of 5 hundred million/g, wherein the fertilizing amount is as follows after the flowers are bloomed before the flowers are bloomed for the second time: 1 jin of calcium per plant, the third fertilization is performed at the end of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 4/plant of high phosphorus and 2-3/plant of mineral potassium fulvate, and the fourth fertilization is performed at the beginning of 7 months, wherein the fertilization amount is as follows: balancing 5 two/strain of water-soluble fertilizer and 2 two/strain of paenibacillus polymyxa in the amount of 5 hundred million/gram, and fertilizing at the end of 7 months and at the beginning of 8 months for the fifth time: 0.8-1 jin of calcium per plant, the sixth fertilization is at the end of 8 months and the beginning of 9 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 5 two high-potassium water-soluble fertilizers per plant, wherein the fifth fertilization is performed at the end of 9 months and at the beginning of 10 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 1 jin/plant of balanced water soluble fertilizer, 3 jin/plant of organic fertilizer, 5 hundred million/gram of paenibacillus polymyxa gold 4 two/plant and 0.8 jin/plant of calcium.
Preferably, the specific fertilization method in S3-2 comprises: the first fertilization time is in the germination stage, and the fertilization amount is as follows: two/plant of water soluble fertilizer containing amino acid 8 and two/plant of microbial inoculum 2 are used for cultivating roots and rooting, so that the nutrient utilization rate is improved; the second time is before and after the flower, the fertilizing amount is as follows: 1 jin of calcium per plant, the third fertilization is performed at the end of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 8 two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers per plant promote physiological differentiation of flower buds and reduce the growth and the growth of the flower buds; the fourth fertilization is carried out at the beginning of 7 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 5/plant of balanced water-soluble fertilizer, 2/plant of mineral humic acid and 2/plant of multiple trace elements, wherein the fifth fertilization is at the end of 7 months and at the beginning of 8 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 0.8-1 jin of calcium per plant, the sixth fertilization is at the end of 8 months and at the beginning of 9 months, the fertilization amount is as follows: 8 two high-potassium water-soluble fertilizers per plant, wherein the seventh fertilization is performed at the end of 9 months and at the beginning of 10 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: balance 1 jin/plant, organic fertilizer 3 jin/plant, microbial inoculum 4 bi/plant and calcium 0.8 jin/plant.
(III) advantageous effects
The invention provides a high-yield cultivation method for arbor anvil apple trees. The method has the following beneficial effects:
in the invention, a large amount of manual work is replaced by a chemical control formula, bud carving, branch pulling, mediocre pruning, pit digging and fertilizer application stopping and water and fertilizer integration are saved, the labor cost and other time-consuming and labor-consuming traditional management technical means are greatly reduced, and the steps are replaced by: the simple, effective and labor-saving process of smearing the medicine to form flowers, spraying the medicine to control the vigor, naturally forming and integrating water and fertilizer realizes the change of labor-intensive apple production to technology-intensive apple production. The branches are invisibly managed in the first three years to naturally droop, bearing branches are reserved, fruits are used for bearing branches, vigorous growth control and flower promotion, high-phosphorus flower promotion and water and fertilizer integration are continuously carried out, crown expansion of trees in one year is achieved, flower promotion and fruiting in two years are achieved, tree vigor is stabilized, high yield is gradually formed in the early three years, labor cost is reduced as much as possible, balance of self nutrition and reproductive growth of the fruit trees is regulated, the production period is greatly shortened, and fruit bearing is fast. The technical method greatly liberates manpower, reduces labor cost, is simple and easy to learn, and is deeply welcomed and accepted by vast fruit growers on the premise of aging of rural population in China.
In the method designed by the invention, the fertilizer is applied without ditching and is rooted and rooted through a scientific formula, the nutrient utilization rate is improved, the tree vigor is strong but not vigorous, the flower bud differentiation is promoted, the size of the tree is reduced, and the fertilizer is applied at the beginning of the seventh month after bagging: promoting fruit expansion, improving quality, improving apple surface gloss, reducing physiological diseases, and fertilizing at the end of July and early August: regulating soil and supplementing calcium, meeting the requirement of the fruits on calcium in the second expansion period, reducing the occurrence of bitter pox and scab, and fertilizing at the bottom of August and early September: promoting the fruits to quickly gain weight, color and sweeten, and the fertilizing mode is to use a fertilizing gun to thoroughly permeate water, thus being simple, efficient and labor-saving.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Example (b):
the embodiment of the invention provides a high-yield cultivation method of an arbor anvil apple tree, which comprises the following steps:
s1, planting the first young tree
S1-1, deeply ploughing and preparing soil by adopting an excavator, digging planting holes 50cm (deep) x100cm (wide), if not deeply ploughing, suggesting that the digging depth is 1 meter, the row spacing of plants is 4x5-6 meters, and each mu is about 50 plants;
s1-2, adding the microbial agent black, uniformly stirring with the excavated new soil, filling 3-4 jin per mu of land into the holes to form a microbial soil layer with the thickness of about 20cm and the distance of 28-32cm from the hole opening, covering new soil with the thickness of 5cm on the hole, and watering the soil in the holes with large water before planting to ensure that the soil in the holes are sunk to be solid so as to prevent the root system growth from being influenced by large soil gaps;
s1-3, before planting, firstly soaking the whole seedlings for 24-48 hours by using a root dipping package, making the seedlings absorb enough water, after planting, not easy to air dry and lose water, and capable of obviously improving the survival rate, then trimming and soaking the roots, removing the dead roots before planting, soaking the roots in the upper dry branches of the grafting openings, then cutting the fracture and the wound which are 20-30 jin of root pricking and water into uniform stubbles, removing the plastic film at the base of the neck and soaking the roots for 0.5-2 hours;
s1-4, planting the nursery stock, during planting, extending all nursery stock root systems, then earthing up, slightly lifting the nursery stock when half of the earthing up is carried out, treading tightly to ensure that the root systems are closely contacted with the soil, then earthing up, treading tightly again, wherein the earthing-up height cannot exceed a grafting opening, firstly burying soil to a seedling-raising soil mark position by an intermediate stock, and gradually burying soil to an intermediate stock 1/3 after survival;
s1-5, drying: fixing the height of 1.2 m of the nursery stock to about 75-85cm, fixing the height of 1.5 m of the nursery stock to 1 m, fixing the height of 1.8 m of the nursery stock to 1.2 m, fixing the height of 2.0 m of the nursery stock to 1.3 m, and selecting full buds for fixing;
s1-6, coating: after the flower buds are dried, coating a formula medicament from about 40cm away from the ground to the upper 4 th-5 th buds, wherein the formula of the medicament coating comprises 60ml of 0.4% furfuryl aminopurine, 1g of 0.135% gibberellic acid, 1g of 0.00052% indoleacetic acid, 1g of 0.00031% rutinoside, 15ml of amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer, 10ml of biological lecithin and vitamin E, adding 500ml of water, and coating middle plump buds to promote flower bud differentiation;
s1-7, sheathing the seedlings with a seedling sheathing bag, preventing insects, preventing water loss, improving survival rate and tidy germination, cutting two openings on the upper part of a plastic bag in time after germination, releasing wind and dissipating heat, and as the young shoots grow, more small eyes can be punctured, the ventilation is increased, and the bags are removed in the evening when the sprouts germinate to 2 cm;
s1-8, watering in the planting holes thoroughly, adding 8kg microbial inoculum per mu, covering the tree disc with black film or non-woven fabric after water seeps, preserving soil moisture, raising temperature to promote rooting, paying attention to the fact that soil must be pressed at the base of the tree trunk to prevent hot gas from burning the tree body, watering 1 time after planting at an interval of 7-10 days, and watering for 3 times to ensure that the orchard is not lack of water, wherein the specific watering method comprises the following steps: water is poured into the fixed-value holes, and the paenibacillus polymyxa is selected for root irrigation, so that continuous cropping resistance is achieved, and survival rate is improved;
s1-9, fertilizing 1 time at intervals of 30-40 days by using a fertilizing gun without ditching high-quality high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, alginic acid or humic acid and microbial inoculum by using a fertilizing gun without ditching four times in the current year of seedling planting, and fertilizing a small amount of time by using the fertilizing gun without ditching, wherein the fertilizing amount is simple, labor-saving and high-efficiency, and when the length of a main branch reaches 30cm in the first fertilizing time: 1-2 two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers and 2 two microbial inoculums (5 hundred million/g paenibacillus polymyxa) per plant, wherein the second fertilization time is in late 5 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 3/plant of high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, 1/plant of mineral potassium fulvate and various trace elements; the third fertilization time is in late July, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 3 two/strain of high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer and 2 two/strain of paenibacillus polymyxa; the fourth fertilization is carried out in the middle and last ten days of 9 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 5 g/strain of high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, 2 jin/strain of organic fertilizer, 4 g/strain of paenibacillus polymyxa and 3 g/strain of calcium;
s1-10, when the branches of the 2 nd to 3 rd buds at the top end grow to about 40 centimeters, pinching or softening the branches to prevent competition on the main head, and leaving the upper and lower branches to grow evenly and leave more branches to grow fast.
S2, managing in the second year
S2-1, secondary trunk fixing of the extension branches of the middle trunk: selecting branches with vigorous growth at the upper parts as medium trunks, and reserving full buds for fixing the trunks;
s2-2, removing useless branches at the lower part: removing branches with trunk length of less than 30cm before germination;
s2-3, pruning main branches: for trees with branches more than 4 and branches more than 40cm in length, a polished rod is not shaved all the time, crown expansion is continued by utilizing the top end advantage, for small trees with poor growth vigor, the number of branches is only 2-3 and the length is less than 40cm, 1cm of main branches are pruned, and other buds on the trunk are subjected to pesticide smearing and flower promoting treatment, so that the branch quantity is increased;
s2-4, controlling vigorous growth and promoting flowering by feeding more than one time of smearing and spraying, and is simple and labor-saving, and the three steps of fruit hanging, tree growing and flower promoting are not mistaken;
(1) one erasing: when buds begin to appear white and sprout, 1 year-old branches with the length more than 40cm on main branches are selected, 10-15 cm are reserved from the upper part to the lower part, furfuryl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid, brassinolide and amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer are smeared, only the middle full buds of the branches are smeared, and uniform drug attachment of all bud eyes is guaranteed;
(2) first spraying: spraying the hydroxyolefine adenine to control vigorous growth and promote flowering, the seaweed essence and the boron at the bottom of May and early in six months, preventing spindling, balancing branch potential, promoting leaf buds to form flower buds, and continuously expanding crowns of other branches without smearing medicines or pulling branches;
(3) multiple feeding: the fruits are kept for two years, the branches are pressed by the fruits, the branch potential is balanced, and the leaf buds are continuously promoted to be converted into flower buds, so that the method is the key for ensuring high yield for three years; fertilizing in two years by adopting a non-ditching fertilization technology and a scientific formula, wherein high-quality high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, alginic acid or humic acid and a microbial inoculum are mainly applied for three times, and a small amount of fertilizer is applied for multiple times;
the first fertilization time is in the germination period, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 4 two/strain of high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer and 2 two/strain of paenibacillus polymyxa, wherein the fertilizing amount is as follows in the second time before and after the flowers are bloomed: 1 jin of calcium per plant, the third fertilization is performed at the end of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 4/plant of high phosphorus and 2-3/plant of mineral potassium fulvate, and the fourth fertilization is performed at the beginning of 7 months, wherein the fertilization amount is as follows: balancing water soluble fertilizer 5 two/strain + Paenibacillus polymyxa 2 two/strain, and fertilizing for the fifth time at the bottom of 7 months and at the beginning of 8 months, wherein the fertilizing amount is as follows: 0.8-1 jin of calcium per plant, the sixth fertilization is at the end of 8 months and the beginning of 9 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 5 two high-potassium water-soluble fertilizers per plant, wherein the fifth fertilization is performed at the end of 9 months and at the beginning of 10 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: balanced water soluble fertilizer 1 jin/plant, organic fertilizer 3 jin/plant, paenibacillus polymyxa 4 two jin/plant and calcium 0.8 jin/plant.
S3, managing in the third year
S3-1, pruning: thinning out excessively long branches on the back of autumn shoots or excessively dense non-flowering auxiliary branches before buds, and not trimming the rest branches, and carrying out fruiting and finishing;
s3-2, controlling vigorous growth and promoting flowering by feeding more than one time of smearing and spraying, simple and labor-saving, high yield in successive years and no big or small years;
(1) one erasing: before sprouting, applying furfuryl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid, brassinolide and an amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer to annual branches instead of bud carving to promote the formation of flower buds;
(2) first spraying: spraying the hydroxyolefine adenine to control vigorous growth and promote flowering, the seaweed essence and the boron at the bottom of May and early in six months, preventing spindling, balancing branch potential, promoting flowering, and continuously expanding crowns without smearing medicines and pulling branches on other branches;
(3) multiple feeding: reasonable loading, pressing branches with fruits, balancing branch potential, and promoting flower bud formation as core; the scientific formula fertilization is labor-saving and does not need ditching, the method still mainly uses high-quality high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, alginic acid or humic acid and microbial inoculum, is carried out by four times, a small amount of times, simplicity and labor saving, and realizes tree growth, fruiting and flower promotion without errors.
The first fertilization time is in the germination stage, and the fertilization amount is as follows: two/plant of water soluble fertilizer containing amino acid 8 and two/plant of microbial inoculum 2 are used for cultivating roots and rooting, so that the nutrient utilization rate is improved; the second time is before and after the flower, the fertilizing amount is as follows: 1 jin of calcium per plant, the third fertilization is performed at the end of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 8 two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers per plant promote physiological differentiation of flower buds and reduce the growth and the growth of the flower buds; the fourth fertilization is carried out at the beginning of 7 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: balancing 5 two/plant of water-soluble fertilizer, 2 two/plant of mineral humic acid and 2 two/plant of multiple trace elements, wherein the fifth fertilization is at the end of 7 months and at the beginning of 8 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 0.8-1 jin of calcium per plant, the sixth fertilization is at the end of 8 months and the beginning of 9 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 8 two high-potassium water-soluble fertilizers per plant, wherein the seventh fertilization is performed at the end of 9 months and at the beginning of 10 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: balance 1 jin/plant, organic fertilizer 3 jin/plant, microbial inoculum 4 bi/plant and calcium 0.8 jin/plant.
Although embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes, modifications, substitutions and alterations can be made in these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims (7)

1. A high-yield cultivation method of arbor anvil apple trees is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
s1, planting the first young tree
S1-1, deeply ploughing and preparing soil by adopting an excavator, digging planting holes 50cm (deep) x100cm (wide), and arranging the plants at a row spacing of 4x5-6 meters, wherein 50 plants per mu are about;
s1-2, uniformly stirring the microbial inoculum and the excavated new soil, filling 3-4 jin per mu of land into the holes to form a microbial soil layer with the thickness of about 20cm and the distance of 28-32cm from the hole opening, covering the hole with new soil with the thickness of 5cm, and pouring large water to compact the soil in the holes before planting so as to prevent the root system growth from being influenced by large soil gaps;
s1-3, before planting, firstly, soaking the whole nursery stock in a root dipping package for 24-48 hours to ensure that the nursery stock absorbs enough water, then repairing and soaking the roots, removing the dead roots before planting, drying the upper part of a root system root soaking graft, then cutting fractures and wounds with 20-30 jin of water for root pricking into neat stubbles, removing a plastic film at the base of the neck and soaking the roots for 0.5-2 hours;
s1-4, planting the seedlings, namely, completely stretching the root systems of the seedlings and then earthing up, lifting the seedlings when the root systems of the seedlings are half of the earthing up, then treading down, then earthing up again, treading down again, wherein the earthing-up height cannot exceed a grafting opening, firstly burying soil in the seedling-raising soil trace of the intermediate stock, and gradually burying soil in the intermediate stock 1/3 after survival;
s1-5, drying: fixing the height of 1.2 m to be about 75-85cm, fixing the height of 1.5 m to be 1 m, fixing the height of 1.8 m to be 1.2 m, fixing the height of 2.0 m to be 1.3 m, and selecting full buds to be fixed;
s1-6, coating: after drying, smearing the formula medicament from about 40cm away from the ground to the 4 th-5 th bud on the upper part: furfuryl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid, brassinolide and an amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer;
s1-7, sheathing the seedlings with a seedling sheathing bag, cutting two openings at the upper part of the plastic bag after germination, ventilating to dissipate heat, and when the young shoots grow, more small eyes can be punctured, the ventilation is increased, and the bags are removed in the evening when the sprouts germinate to 2 cm;
s1-8, watering in the planting holes thoroughly, adding 8kg of microbial inoculum per mu, covering the tree disc with black film or non-woven fabric after water seeps, pressing soil at the base of the tree trunk to prevent hot air from burning the tree body, watering 1 time after planting at intervals of 7-10 days, and watering for 3 times continuously to ensure no water shortage in the orchard;
s1-9, fertilizing 1 time with a fertilizer gun for four times without ditching, a small amount of multiple times at intervals of 30-40 days by using a high-quality high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer without ditching, alginic acid or humic acid and a microbial inoculum in the current year of nursery stock planting;
s1-10, when the branches of the 2 nd to 3 rd buds at the top end grow to about 40 centimeters, pinching or softening the branches to prevent competition on the main head, and the other branches are not processed, so that the growth of the upper and lower branches is kept balanced, and the branches are left for growing trees more quickly;
s2, managing in the second year
S2-1, secondary trunk fixing of the extension branches of the middle trunk: selecting branches with vigorous growth at the upper parts as medium trunks, and reserving full buds for fixing the trunks;
s2-2, removing useless branches at the lower part: removing branches with trunk diameter less than 30cm before germination;
s2-3, pruning main branches: for trees with branches more than 4 and branches more than 40cm long, a polished rod is not shaved uniformly, crown expansion is continued by utilizing the top end advantage, for small trees with poor growth vigor, the number of branches is only 2-3 and the length is less than 40cm, 1cm is left for pruning main branches, and other buds on the trunk are subjected to pesticide smearing and flower promoting treatment to increase the branch quantity;
s2-4, controlling vigorous growth and promoting flowers by feeding with multiple feeds by one smearing and one spraying, and simply saving labor, and the three steps of fruit hanging, tree growing and flower promoting are achieved:
(1) one erasing: when buds begin to appear white and sprout, 1 year-old branches with the length more than 40cm on main branches are selected, 10-15 cm are reserved from the upper part to the lower part, furfuryl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid, brassinolide and amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer are smeared, only the middle full buds of the branches are smeared, and uniform drug attachment of all bud eyes is guaranteed;
(2) first spraying: spraying the hydroxyolefine adenine to control vigorous growth and promote flowering, the seaweed essence and the boron at the bottom of May and early in six months, preventing spindling, balancing branch potential, promoting leaf buds to form flower buds, and continuously expanding crowns of other branches without smearing medicines or pulling branches; (3) multiple feeding: the fruits are kept for two years, the branches are pressed by the fruits, the branch potential is balanced, and the leaf buds are continuously promoted to be converted into flower buds, so that the method is the key for ensuring high yield for three years; fertilizing in two years by adopting a non-ditching fertilization technology and a scientific formula, wherein high-quality high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, alginic acid or humic acid and a microbial inoculum are mainly applied for three times, and a small amount of fertilizer is applied for multiple times;
s3, managing in the third year
S3-1, pruning: thinning out excessively long branches on the back of autumn shoots or excessively dense non-flowering auxiliary branches before buds, and not trimming the rest branches, and carrying out fruiting and finishing;
s3-2, controlling vigorous growth and promoting flowering by one smearing, one spraying and multiple feeding, simple and labor-saving, high yield in successive years, no big or small year:
(1) one erasing: before sprouting, applying furfuryl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid, brassinolide and an amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer to annual branches instead of bud carving to promote the formation of flower buds;
(2) first spraying: spraying the hydroxyolefine adenine to control vigorous growth and promote flowering, the seaweed essence and the boron at the bottom of May and early in six months, preventing spindling, balancing branch potential, promoting flowering, and continuously expanding crowns without smearing medicines and pulling branches on other branches;
(3) multiple feeding: reasonably loading, pressing branches with fruits, balancing branch potential, and promoting flower bud formation as a core; the scientific formula fertilization is labor-saving and does not need ditching, the method still mainly uses high-quality high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, alginic acid or humic acid and microbial inoculum, is carried out by four times, a small amount of times, simplicity and labor saving, and realizes tree growth, fruiting and flower promotion without errors.
2. The intangible labor-saving high-yield cultivation method of arbor apple trees according to claim 1, characterized in that: the formula of the smearing preparation in the S1-6 comprises 60ml of 0.4% furfuryl aminopurine, 1g of 0.135% gibberellic acid, 1g of 0.00052% indoleacetic acid, 1g of 0.00031% moss lactone, 15ml of amino acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer, 10ml of biological lecithin and vitamin E, and is mixed with 500ml of water to smear middle plump buds to promote flower bud differentiation.
3. The intangible labor-saving high-yield cultivation method of arbor apple trees according to claim 1, characterized in that: the specific watering method in the S1-8 comprises the following steps: the holes are watered thoroughly with a certain value, and the paenibacillus polymyxa is selected for root irrigation, so that continuous cropping resistance is achieved, and the survival rate is improved.
4. The intangible labor-saving high-yield cultivation method of arbor apple trees according to claim 1, characterized in that: the specific fertilization method in the S1-9 comprises the following steps: the fertilizer gun is used for fertilizing without ditching, the fertilizer is simple, labor-saving and efficient, and the fertilizing amount is as follows when the length of the main branch reaches 30cm in the first fertilizing time: 1-2 two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers and 2 two Paenibacillus polymyxa/strain of 5 hundred million/gram, wherein the second fertilization time is in late 5 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 3 two/plant of high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, 1 two/plant of mineral potassium fulvate and various trace elements; the third fertilization time is in late July, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 3 two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers and 2 two paenibacillus polymyxa/strain of 5 hundred million/gram; the fourth fertilization is carried out in the middle and last ten days of 9 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 5 two/plant of high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizer, 2 jin/plant of organic fertilizer, 4 two/plant of paenibacillus polymyxa and 3 two/plant of calcium.
5. The intangible labor-saving high-yield cultivation method of arbor apple trees according to claim 1, characterized in that: except for useless branches and sparseness at the lower part in the S2-1, S2-2 and S3-1, other branches are not processed, and branches are naturally thrown and placed without pulling and shaving a polish rod, so that the tree crown is enlarged, the branch amount is increased, and the branch is intangible essence, grows naturally, does not pursue tree shapes, and prunes branches.
6. The intangible labor-saving high-yield cultivation method of arbor apple trees according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the S2-4: the fertilizer gun is used for fertilizing without ditching, the first fertilization time is in the germination period, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 4 two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers and 5 hundred million/g paenibacillus polymyxa 2 per plant, wherein the fertilizing amount is as follows in the second time before and after the flowers bloom: 1 jin of calcium per plant, the third fertilization is performed at the end of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 4/plant of high phosphorus and 2-3/plant of mineral potassium fulvate, and the fourth fertilization is performed at the beginning of 7 months, wherein the fertilization amount is as follows: balancing 5 two/strain of water-soluble fertilizer and 2 two/strain of paenibacillus polymyxa in the amount of 5 hundred million/gram, and fertilizing at the end of 7 months and at the beginning of 8 months for the fifth time: 0.8-1 jin of calcium per plant, the sixth fertilization is at the end of 8 months and at the beginning of 9 months, the fertilization amount is as follows: 5 two high-potassium water-soluble fertilizers per plant, wherein the fifth fertilization is performed at the end of 9 months and at the beginning of 10 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 1 jin/plant of balanced water soluble fertilizer, 3 jin/plant of organic fertilizer, 5 hundred million/gram of paenibacillus polymyxa gold 4 two/plant and 0.8 jin/plant of calcium.
7. The intangible labor-saving high-yield cultivation method of arbor apple trees according to claim 1, characterized in that: the specific fertilization method in the S3-2 comprises the following steps: the first fertilization time is in the germination stage, and the fertilization amount is as follows: two/plant of water soluble fertilizer containing amino acid 8 and two/plant of microbial inoculum 2 are used for cultivating roots and rooting, so that the nutrient utilization rate is improved; the second time is before and after the flower, the fertilizing amount is as follows: 1 jin of calcium per plant, the third fertilization is performed at the end of 5 months and at the beginning of 6 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 8 two high-phosphorus water-soluble fertilizers per plant promote physiological differentiation of flower buds and reduce the growth and the growth of the flower buds; the fourth fertilization is carried out at the beginning of 7 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: balancing 5 two/plant of water-soluble fertilizer, 2 two/plant of mineral humic acid and 2 two/plant of multiple trace elements, wherein the fifth fertilization is at the end of 7 months and at the beginning of 8 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 0.8-1 jin of calcium per plant, the sixth fertilization is at the end of 8 months and the beginning of 9 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: 8 two high-potassium water-soluble fertilizers per plant, wherein the seventh fertilization is performed at the end of 9 months and at the beginning of 10 months, and the fertilization amount is as follows: balance 1 jin/plant, organic fertilizer 3 jin/plant, microbial inoculum 4 bi/plant and calcium 0.8 jin/plant.
CN202210798370.9A 2022-07-08 2022-07-08 High-yield cultivation method for vigorous stock apple trees Pending CN115088547A (en)

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Application publication date: 20220923