CN113973672A - Ecological planting method of American ginseng - Google Patents

Ecological planting method of American ginseng Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113973672A
CN113973672A CN202111389554.1A CN202111389554A CN113973672A CN 113973672 A CN113973672 A CN 113973672A CN 202111389554 A CN202111389554 A CN 202111389554A CN 113973672 A CN113973672 A CN 113973672A
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american ginseng
biochar
soil
sowing
seeds
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CN113973672B (en
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周洁
冉志芳
段婉莹
方磊
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University of Jinan
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University of Jinan
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/25Root crops, e.g. potatoes, yams, beet or wasabi
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0231Tunnels, i.e. protective full coverings for rows of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0262Mulches, i.e. covering material not-pre-formed in mats or sheets
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G20/00Cultivation of turf, lawn or the like; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion

Abstract

The invention relates to an ecological planting method of American ginseng, after the American ginseng is sown, a biological charcoal layer loaded with a microbial agent and a wheat straw layer are covered on a bed surface, and the purpose of the two-layer covering is to optimize the micro-ecological environment of the root system of the American ginseng by utilizing the slow release and eluviation effects of the microbial charcoal layer and increase the microbial diversity; the wheat straw layer is utilized to preserve soil moisture, prevent freezing and weed, prevent water evaporation in summer and avoid overhigh temperature. The method is simple and convenient, is easy to implement, remarkably increases the yield per unit area, remarkably reduces the usage amount of pesticides and fertilizers, and remarkably improves the quality of medicinal materials.

Description

Ecological planting method of American ginseng
Technical Field
The invention relates to a planting method of American ginseng, in particular to an ecological planting method of American ginseng with less chemical fertilizer and pesticide consumption and good American ginseng yield and quality.
Background
American ginseng is derived from Panax quinquefolium of AraliaceaePanax quinquefoLiumThe dry root of L. originally recorded in the New materia Medica, has cool nature, sweet taste and slight bitter taste, has the effects of tonifying qi and yin, clearing fire and relieving restlessness, and has been applied for more than 300 years in China. The pharmacological properties of replacing American ginseng for people who are not affected by the warm tonifying of ginseng, tonifying without dryness and the like enable the American ginseng to be widely used, and the economic value in the fields of medicines, health care products, cosmetics and the like is gradually highlighted. American ginseng is native to Canada and America, the 20 th century and the 80 th century are successful in introduction of American ginseng in China, and the American ginseng becomes the first major consumer nation, the marketing country and the second major producer country in the world at present. With the increasing market demand of American ginseng, in order to pursue the yield of medicinal materials, a large amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used in production, so that the number of rhizosphere microorganisms is sharply reduced, soil is deteriorated, soil and water source pollution is caused, the quality and safety of the medicinal materials are reduced, and great threat is brought to clinical medication. The adoption of effective measures to improve the yield and the quality of the American ginseng medicinal material has important significance. The ecological agriculture planting mode is an ecological agriculture planting mode which applies the integral, coordination, circulation and regeneration principles of an ecological system, combines the design of a system engineering method, comprehensively considers economic, ecological and social benefits, fully applies multilevel utilization of energy and cyclic regeneration of substances and realizes ecological and economic virtuous cycles. The ecological agriculture of traditional Chinese medicines is a necessary way for the production of traditional Chinese medicines, and the ecological planting mode of the American ginseng is an important measure for improving the yield and the quality of the American ginseng and ensuring the medication safety.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide an ecological planting method of American ginseng, which adopts an ecological planting mode, improves the root micro-ecological environment of the American ginseng by treatment methods such as biochar sustained-release pills and the like which are subjected to microbial treatment, reduces the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers as much as possible in the whole planting period of the American ginseng, improves the yield and quality of American ginseng medicinal materials, and ensures the safety of American ginseng medication.
The specific technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
an ecological planting method of American ginseng comprises the step of sowing American ginseng, wherein after the American ginseng is sown, a layer of biochar loaded with a microbial agent is covered on the surface of an American ginseng bed, and then a layer of wheat straw is covered. The microbial agent-loaded biochar laid on the ginseng bed can increase microbial diversity of the American ginseng rhizosphere, beneficial microbes enter soil in a slow release mode through the leaching effect by utilizing the characteristic of large inner surface of the biochar, the micro-ecological environment of the American ginseng root system is optimized, and the microbial diversity is increased. The wheat straw covering can preserve soil moisture, prevent freezing and avoid grass in winter, can prevent water evaporation in summer and avoid overhigh temperature in the shed and the ridge surface.
Further, the preparation method of the biochar loaded with the microbial agent comprises the following steps:
a. processing the wood of the broad-leaved tree species into small slices, and carrying out anoxic carbonization at the high temperature of 250 ℃ in the air isolation and at 200-;
b. respectively activating and culturing bacillus subtilis and bacillus megatherium to obtain bacillus subtilis liquid and bacillus megatherium liquid;
c. mixing the bacillus subtilis liquid and the bacillus megaterium liquid to enable the ratio of the bacillus subtilis to the bacillus megaterium to be 1:0.5-2, then adding biochar into the bacillus subtilis and the bacillus megaterium to enable the biochar to fully adsorb the bacillus subtilis and the bacillus megaterium until the number of effective live bacteria adsorbed by the biochar is more than or equal to 2 multiplied by 103cfu/g, taking out the biochar;
d. and coating a lac resin protective layer on the surface of the adsorbed biochar to obtain the biochar loaded with the microbial agent.
Further, the broad-leaved tree species refers to a tree species having a broad leaf, such as cypress, elm, albizzia julibrissin, magnolia alba, etc.
Further, the wood of the broad-leaved tree species is processed into small slices with the thickness of 0.2-0.3cm, the width of 1-2cm and the length of 2-3 cm.
Further, the Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium are commercially available.
Further, the bacillus subtilis and the bacillus megaterium are activated and cultured by adopting an LB liquid culture medium.
Further, in the step c, the content of the bacillus subtilis in the mixed bacterial liquid is more than or equal to 103cfu/mL, the content of the bacillus megaterium is more than or equal to 103cfu/mL。
Furthermore, in the step d, the lac resin is coated on the surface of the activated carbon to play a role of a protective layer, so that the loss of the microbial inoculum cannot be caused in the storage and transportation processes, and after the lac resin is applied to soil, the lac resin can be dissolved with water, so that the microbial inoculum is slowly released. The preparation method of the lac resin protective layer comprises the following steps: and (3) fully and uniformly stirring the adsorbed biochar and 2-4wt% of lac aqueous solution according to the mass ratio of 3-5:1, and then drying to obtain the biochar loaded with the microbial agent.
Further, the thickness of the biochar loaded with the microbial agent is 2-3 cm; the length of the wheat straw is 30-40cm, and the thickness of the wheat straw cover is 10-15 cm.
Further, a mode of intercropping gramineous plants and American ginseng is adopted, and gramineous plants are planted on flat ground and ridge slopes between two ridges of the American ginseng, wherein the gramineous plants are a mixture of bluegrass, bentgrass, zoysia japonica and festuca arundinacea. The purpose of planting the gramineous plants is to improve the micro-ecological environment of root systems, increase the diversity of the microorganisms of the root systems of American ginseng planting areas and prevent pathogenic bacteria from 'making wind and wave'; secondly, the water can be stored in rainy season, and the evaporation of surface water can be reduced in dry season to deal with spring drought; thirdly, the roots of the plants of the gramineae are rich in mycorrhizal fungi, can promote the growth of the American ginseng and the accumulation of active ingredients, and has important significance for improving the yield and the quality of the American ginseng medicinal materials. Through biological carbon coverage loaded with a microbial agent and planting of gramineous plants, the microbial diversity of the root system of the American ginseng can be greatly improved, the rhizosphere micro-ecological environment is improved, and the quality and the yield of the American ginseng medicinal material are improved.
Tests prove that the effect of uniformly mixing and sowing the seeds of the bluegrass, the glume grass, the zoysia japonica, the evergreen and the festuca arundinacea according to the mass ratio of 2-4:1:1:2-4:1-3 on the American ginseng is better.
Furthermore, the total amount of seeds used by the gramineous plants per mu of land is 50kg-60 kg.
Further, in a specific embodiment of the present invention, a specific method for planting american ginseng is provided, which comprises the following steps:
(1) land preparation: in ten days of 11 months, after selecting a proper land, carrying out soil preparation and tedding, combining application of base fertilizer to plough and rotary tillage for 6-8 times in the idle period of the whole land, wherein the depth is 15-25 cm, the soil is refined and harrowed, and the land is made into a bed with the width of 140 cm, the working channel of 60 cm and the height of 20-25 cm, and the surface of the land is arched so as to facilitate drainage;
(2) treating American ginseng seeds: collecting mature seeds of 3-4 years in the middle ten days of the next month, rubbing off pulp, washing, spreading out, airing, filling into a bag or a wooden case, storing at 13-26 ℃ for 8-9 months, and storing before the next 5 th month;
(3) sowing American ginseng: sowing in late autumn and early winter or in spring for 2 and 3 months, sowing in a dibbling mode, wherein the row spacing of the seeds is 5cm multiplied by 10 cm, flattening the surface of the ridge, continuously pressing holes by using a wooden hole pressing device from one end of the ridge, sowing 2 seeds in each hole, covering 3cm of soil after sowing, and sowing every 667 m of seeds2The seeding amount is 5-6 kg;
(4) covering: covering a layer of biochar loaded with a microbial agent on the surface of the sowed American ginseng bed, wherein the thickness of the biochar is 2-3cm, and then covering a layer of wheat straw, wherein the thickness of the wheat straw is 10-15 cm;
(5) building a shed: the method comprises the following steps that a shade shed is erected before American ginseng seedlings come out of the earth, a wooden or bamboo material is used as a support, one or two layers of shade nets are covered on the support to form a double-turbine shed, the light transmittance is determined according to the age of the American ginseng, the height of the shade shed is 1.6-1.8 m, and wind barriers are erected on the periphery of the shade shed;
(6) a gramineous plant: planting gramineae plants such as bluegrass, glume grass, zoysia japonica, Chinese holly and fescue on a flat ground between two ridges of American ginseng and a ridge slope, mixing the bluegrass, the glume grass, the zoysia japonica, the Chinese holly and the fescue according to the mass ratio of 3:1:1:3:2, then sowing, sowing 50kg-60kg of seeds per mu of land, covering 3-5cm of soil after sowing, rolling by adopting a roller vehicle to fully contact the seeds with the soil layer, and watering sufficient moisture;
(7) topdressing: in the vigorous growth period of 6-7 months, 2wt% of calcium superphosphate solution is added with 0.3wt% of urea liquid fertilizer, and the weight ratio of the urea liquid fertilizer is 10: before 00 or 3 pm: after 00, performing topdressing on roots, and 1-3 times per year; when the overground part withers in 10 months, shallow trenches of 3-5cm are opened among the plants, and 2-2.5 kg of decomposed fertilizer and 0.05 kg of compound fertilizer are applied to each square meter; watering in time after topdressing if the surface of the ridge is dry;
(8) irrigation: the furrow surface in the whole seedling emergence period is kept moist, the soil water content is required to be 20-30% in the early stage and the later stage of growth, the soil water content is required to be 40-50 wt% in the growth period of American ginseng, and the soil humidity is kept by sprinkling irrigation or furrow irrigation except natural rainfall so as to meet the requirement of American ginseng on moisture;
(9) draining stagnant water: before the bed enters a rainy season, cleaning a drainage ditch in the field, and opening the American ginseng shed to put the bed in the sun and ventilate when the humidity in the American ginseng shed is overlarge to evaporate water in the bed as soon as possible;
(10) and (3) flower making: timely flowering of American ginseng which is not planted for more than 3 years, generally in the middle ten days of 6 months, removing buds when the inflorescence stems grow to be 1-2cm, and picking the buds;
(11) harvesting: american ginseng grows for four years and is collected in the middle 10 th month when the stem leaves turn yellow.
Furthermore, biological pesticides such as polyoxin, JunkeDuke and the like can be used for assisting in preventing and treating diseases during planting, but the days between the date of using the pesticides and the date of harvesting should be at least 30 days apart to prevent pesticide residues.
Furthermore, the American ginseng grows in a suitable low mountain area with the altitude of more than 500 m. The annual frost period is generally about 200 d. The annual average temperature is about 11-14 ℃. The average annual rainfall is suitable for 1000 mm. The soil is sandy loam with loose soil, deep and fertile soil layer, good air permeability, water permeability, fertilizer retention and water retention performance, and the pH value of the soil is preferably 5.0-7.0. The soil is preferably selected to have good physical and chemical properties (the thickness of the plough layer is more than 40 cm), fertile and loose soil, good water permeability, air permeability, fertilizer retention and water retention performance, and particularly, sandy loam is preferred. The soil is arranged in layers, preferably in the upper deficiency and the lower excess. Heavy clay, sandy soil and saline-alkali soil are not suitable for selection. The previous crop is preferably gramineous crops such as wheat and corn, and the land parcels of the crops such as peanut land, vegetables, tobacco, old orchards, old mulberry gardens and the like are not suitable to be selected.
Further, in the step (1), the base fertilizer is farmyard manure and a ternary compound fertilizer, or is a microbial fertilizer and a ternary compound fertilizer, the using amount of the farmyard manure is 2000-2500 kg/mu, the using amount of the microbial fertilizer is 300-500 kg/mu, and the using amount of the ternary compound fertilizer is 50-100 kg/mu.
Further, in the step (2), the sand reservoir treatment method comprises: soaking seeds in clean water for 2-3 days, frequently changing water, fishing out flat seeds floating on the water surface, fishing out full seeds sinking to the water bottom, uniformly mixing the full seeds with clean wet sand with the seed amount being 2-3 times by mass, putting the mixture into a wooden box, burying the wooden box in a cellar dug under an outdoor forest, covering the wooden box with fine soil with the thickness of 20 cm, being higher than the ground, enabling the top of the cellar to be in a turtle back shape, and covering the wooden box with fallen leaves or branches to prevent the seeds from being washed away by rainwater.
Further, in the step (5), the light transmittance in spring is greater than the light transmittance in summer, the light transmittance of the American ginseng in 1 to 2 years is 15 to 20 percent, and the light transmittance of the American ginseng in 3 to 4 years is 30 to 35 percent.
The invention has the following advantages:
1. according to the invention, after American ginseng is sown, a microbial charcoal layer and a wheat straw layer are covered on a bed surface, and the purpose of covering the microbial charcoal layer and the wheat straw layer is to optimize the root system micro-ecological environment of the American ginseng by utilizing the slow release and eluviation effects of the microbial charcoal layer and increase the microbial diversity; the wheat straw layer is utilized to preserve soil moisture, prevent freezing and weed, prevent water evaporation in summer and avoid overhigh temperature. Meanwhile, gramineae plants are planted on the flat ground and the ridge slopes between two ridges of the American ginseng, so that the root system micro-ecological environment can be improved, the infection of the arbuscular mycorrhiza of the root system of the American ginseng can be increased, and the method has important significance on the yield and the quality of the American ginseng medicinal material; and secondly, the water can be stored in rainy season, and the evaporation of surface water can be reduced in dry season, so that the spring drought can be responded. The ecological planting mode method for American ginseng is simple and easy to implement, the yield per unit area is obviously increased, the usage amount of pesticides and fertilizers is obviously reduced, and the quality of medicinal materials is obviously improved.
2. The bacillus subtilis and the bacillus megatherium plant rhizosphere growth-promoting bacteria can compete with pathogenic bacteria for nutrition around plants in a mode of successfully colonizing to the rhizosphere, the body surface or the body, secrete antibacterial substances to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic bacteria, induce a plant defense system to resist the invasion of the pathogenic bacteria, change the microbial community structure in plant rhizosphere soil, promote the growth of the plants and maintain ecological balance. The biochar is a porous body with a rectangular pore structure on the surface, and has the characteristics of large specific surface area, rich pores and the like from the physical characteristics, so that the biochar not only can improve the soil microbial community structure, improve the porosity and the ventilation porosity of soil capillary tubes and increase the water holding capacity of soil fields, but also has stronger adsorption capacity, effectively avoids leaching loss, is beneficial to maintaining the soil fertility, and increases the soil cation exchange capacity. The biochar is applied in cooperation with the microbial inoculum, hypha can penetrate through the porous structure of the biomass charcoal particles and is combined with the porous structure of the biomass charcoal to form a soil aggregate structure with higher stability. The improvement of the soil granular structure further improves the capillary structure of the soil, and is beneficial to the transportation of soil nutrients.
3. The gramineous plants are plants with the highest economic value in the world, have various activities, have growth-promoting colony structures such as rich and various mycorrhizal fungi and the like in the rhizosphere, and have obvious insecticidal activity and pathogenic bacterium inhibiting effects, so that the gramineous plants are favorable for further promoting the growth and development of the American ginseng, slowing down the occurrence of diseases, using chemical fertilizers and pesticides and improving the rhizosphere micro-ecological environment during the growth of the American ginseng in the process of intercropping with the American ginseng.
4. The invention is beneficial to promoting the growth and development of American ginseng and the accumulation of biomass, improving the activity of soil enzyme, enriching the microbial diversity of rhizosphere, improving the microbial structure of rhizosphere soil, slowing down the generation of American ginseng diseases and the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and has important significance for improving the quality and the yield of American ginseng and ensuring the safety of medication.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further illustrated with reference to the following examples, but the present invention is not limited to the following examples. In the following examples, unless otherwise specified, the terms are defined as defined in the prior art and the procedures are reported in the prior art.
In the following examples, unless otherwise specified, the concentrations are mass percent concentrations.
In the examples described below, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium were purchased from Biotechnology Ltd of the family Chloraceae of Jiangsu.
Example 1
The experiments were performed in the university of denna plant greenhouse culture room using pot controlled experiments.
The planting method of American ginseng single cropping and American ginseng and other crops is adopted, under the intercropping mode, the row ratio of American ginseng and other crops is 3:2 (2 rows of other crops are intercropped in every 3 rows of American ginseng), the line spacing of American ginseng is 15cm, the line spacing of other crops and American ginseng is 7.5cm, and the line spacing of other crops is 15 cm.
The whole experiment is provided with 5 treatments, namely a control group (American ginseng single crop, non-intercropping crop), scirpus ellipticus (Cyperaceae) and American ginseng intercropping treatment, bluegrass (gramineae) and American ginseng intercropping treatment, seeds of bluegrass, spikemoss glauca and zoysia japonica are intercropped with the American ginseng according to the mass ratio of 3:1:1, and seeds of bluegrass, spikemoss glauca, zoysia japonica, ilex purpurea and aegillus arundinacea are intercropped with the American ginseng according to the mass ratio of 3:1:1:3: 2. Each treatment pot has 30 pots, each pot contains 10 kg of the substrate, the sowing quantity of the American ginseng in each pot is 20g, and the sowing quantity of other crops is 160 g. Firstly, uniformly sowing other crop seeds, then uniformly sowing American ginseng seeds in the seeds, placing the seeds in a greenhouse culture chamber for culture, wherein the growth conditions of the American ginseng are as follows: day and night temperature of 25 ℃/20 ℃, day and night relative humidity of 70%/65%, day and night of 16h/8h, and 50 mu mol/(m)-2S) Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD), light being provided by fluorescent lamps. Watering at proper time to maintain the normal growth of the crops. Each treatment was repeated 3 times.
After planting for 60 days, the plant height, root length and biomass (using root fresh weight as an index) of each treated American ginseng seedling were measured and recorded, and the results were averaged as shown in Table 1 below.
Therefore, the method has the obvious effect of intercropping the five gramineous crops of the bluegrass, the glume grass, the zoysia japonica, the evergreen and the festuca arundinacea with the American ginseng.
Example 2
1. Selecting land: the American ginseng planting base in the Shandong Wendeng area is selected as an experimental area, and the method is characterized in that: the method is characterized in that the Wednden place is in the east of the Jiaodong peninsula, the north latitude is 36 degrees 52 degrees to 37 degrees 18 degrees, the east longitude is 121 degrees 43 degrees to 122 degrees 19 degrees, the endangered yellow sea and the Bohai sea belong to the temperate humid region, the annual rainfall is 800-950 mm, the frost-free period is 190-197 d, and the sunshine duration is 2540.7 h/a. The average temperature in 1 month is 3.6 ℃, the average air temperature in 7 months is 24.5 ℃, the average air temperature in years is 11 ℃, and the temperature difference in years is small. Due to the influence of marine climate, the American ginseng is mild and rainy, has humid climate, does not have summer heat, does not have severe cold in winter, is very similar to the geographical climate which is regulated by five lakes and is endangered in the Atlantic ocean in the northeast of the American ginseng native place and the southeast of Canada, and has mild humid climate conditions suitable for the growth of the American ginseng. The soil is sandy soil, and the pH value is about 6.0.
2. Treating American ginseng seeds: collecting mature seeds of 3-4 years old in the middle ten days of 9 months, removing pulp by rubbing, washing, spreading, drying, bagging or placing in a wooden box, and storing indoors (room temperature is 13-26 ℃) for 8-9 months. The sand storage treatment method comprises the following steps of (1) sand storage treatment before 5 months and later in the next year: soaking seeds in clean water for 2-3 days, frequently changing water, fishing out shriveled seeds floating on the water surface, fishing out full seeds sinking to the water bottom, uniformly mixing the full seeds with clean wet sand with the seed amount being 2-3 times by mass, putting the mixture into a wooden box, burying the wooden box in a cellar dug under an outdoor forest, covering the wooden box with fine soil with the thickness of 20 cm, and covering the wooden box with leaves or branches which are higher than the ground, wherein the top of the cellar is in a turtle back shape, and the top of the cellar is covered with leaves or branches to prevent the seeds from being washed away by rainwater. The seeds are subjected to physiological after-ripening through sand storage, and the emergence rate after sowing is high.
3. Sowing American ginseng: sowing in late autumn and early winter or sowing in spring for 2 and 3 months. Sowing by dibbling, the row spacing of the plants is 5cm × 10 cm, flattening the surface of the furrow, continuously pressing holes from one end of the furrow by using a wooden hole pressing device, sowing 2 seeds into each hole, covering soil of 3cm after sowingEvery 667 m2The seeding rate is 5-6 kg.
4. Covering: covering a layer of biochar loaded with a microbial agent on the surface of the sowed American ginseng bed, wherein the thickness of the biochar is 2-3cm, and then covering a layer of wheat straw, wherein the length of the wheat straw is 30-40cm, and the thickness of the wheat straw is 10-15 cm.
The preparation method of the biochar loaded with the microbial agent comprises the following steps:
a. processing wood of broad wood such as cypress, elm, albizia and magnolia into small slices with the thickness of 0.2-0.3cm, the width of 1-2cm and the length of 2-3cm, and carrying out anoxic carbonization at the high temperature of 250 ℃ in the air isolation and at the temperature of 200-;
b. respectively inoculating bacillus subtilis and bacillus megatherium into 250 mL triangular flasks filled with 150 mL LB liquid culture medium, performing shake culture for 14 h at 37 ℃ under the condition of 180 r/min, activating, then respectively inoculating the obtained activated liquid into 250 mL triangular flasks filled with 150 mL LB liquid culture medium according to the inoculation amount of 5%, and performing shake culture for 24 h at 34 ℃ under 185 r/min to obtain bacillus subtilis liquid and bacillus megatherium liquid;
c. mixing the bacillus subtilis liquid and the bacillus megaterium liquid according to a certain proportion to obtain a mixed liquid, wherein the content of bacillus subtilis in the mixed liquid is 105cfu/mL, the content of the bacillus megaterium in the bacillus megaterium liquid is 105cfu/mL, adding biochar into the mixed bacterial liquid according to the concentration of 30g/L, and soaking for 10-12h until the number of effective viable bacteria adsorbed by the biochar is more than or equal to 2 multiplied by 103cfu/g, taking out the biochar;
d. adding lac resin into absolute ethyl alcohol (mass ratio is 3: 97), stirring and dissolving to obtain a lac resin ethanol solution, adding the lac resin ethanol solution into deionized water (the volume ratio of the deionized water to the lac resin ethanol solution is more than or equal to 3) to obtain a lac resin collagen solution, carrying out reduced pressure distillation treatment on the lac resin collagen solution, removing the ethanol, and concentrating to obtain the lac resin aqueous solution with the mass percentage of 3 wt%.
e. And fully and uniformly stirring the adsorbed biochar and 3wt% of lac aqueous solution according to the mass ratio of 5:1 to obtain the biochar loaded with the microbial agent.
5. Building a shed: the double turbo shed is adopted, one layer or double layers of shading nets are used, the light transmittance is determined according to the age of the ginseng, the ginseng is cool in spring generally, and the light transmittance can be higher; the transmittance in summer may be less. The light transmittance of the seedling bed is 15% -20% for 1-2 years, the light transmittance of the seedling bed is 30% -35% for 3-4 years, a shading shed is built by using wooden or bamboo materials as stand columns, the stand columns are located on the inclined plane on one side of the seedling bed, basically, each seedling bed needs one row of stand columns, the height of the shading shed is 1.6-1.8 m, and the periphery of the shading shed is clamped by corn straws and the like to form a wind barrier. In addition, in early summer, a shed is required to be erected just before the American ginseng seedlings come out of the soil, so that the young stems are prevented from being burnt by the sun during the period of erecting the shed after the seedlings emerge.
6. A gramineous plant: planting gramineae plants such as bluegrass, glume-cutting, zoysia japonica, ilex purpurea and festuca arundinacea on the flat ground between two ridges of American ginseng and a ridge slope according to the mass ratio of 3:1:1:3:2, sowing the seeds in a quantity of 50kg-60kg per mu, covering soil for 3-5cm after sowing, rolling by adopting a roller vehicle to fully contact the seeds with the soil layer, and watering the seeds with enough water.
7. Topdressing: when the overground part withers in 10 months, shallow trenches of 3-5cm are opened among plants, 2-2.5 kg of decomposed fertilizer and 0.05 kg of compound fertilizer are applied per square meter, topdressing needs to be emphasized in the growth period, for example, in the vigorous growth period of 6-7 months, 2wt% of calcium superphosphate solution is added with 0.3wt% of urea liquid fertilizer, and in 10 am: before 00 or 3 pm: and (5) performing topdressing after roots after 00 days, wherein the topdressing is performed for 1-3 times per year. Watering should be carried out in time after topdressing if the surface of the furrow is dry.
8. Irrigation: the water content of the soil is required to be kept between 40 and 50 percent in the growth period of the American ginseng, and except natural rainfall, the soil humidity can be kept by adopting spray irrigation or ditch irrigation when the drought occurs, so that the requirement of the American ginseng on the water content is met. The furrow surface in the whole seedling emergence period is kept moist to prevent young stems and leaves from being burnt due to drought of surface soil. The soil water content is required to be 20-30% in the early stage and the later stage of growth.
9. Draining stagnant water: before entering a rainy season, the drainage ditch in the field needs to be cleaned, and when the humidity in the ginseng shed is too high, the ginseng shed can be opened to put the sun and ventilate, so that the water in the bed can be evaporated as soon as possible.
10. And (3) flower making: timely flower picking is carried out on American ginseng which is not planted for more than 3 years, and buds are pinched off and picked when the inflorescence stems grow to 1-2cm generally in the middle ten days of 6 months. Bud picking operation needs to be carried out in sunny days, and wounds are not easy to heal in rainy days and are easy to infect. The method comprises the following steps: one hand holds the ginseng stem, the other hand pinches off the flower bud from the middle of the flower stalk or shears the flower bud, and the hand cannot pull hard to avoid damaging the plant.
11. And (3) pest control: biological pesticides such as polyoxin with 250 times of liquid spraying and bacterium-killing-poison-gram with 500 times of liquid spraying are used for assisting in preventing and treating diseases, and the days between the date of using the pesticides and the date of harvesting need 30d intervals to prevent pesticide residues.
12. Harvesting: american ginseng grows for four years and is collected in the middle 10 th month when the stem leaves turn yellow.
Comparative example 1
American ginseng was cultivated as in example 2, except that: the bed surface of the American ginseng is only covered with 2-3cm of biochar loaded with the microbial agent, and is not covered with wheat straws.
Comparative example 2
American ginseng was cultivated as in example 2, except that: the bed surface of the American ginseng is only covered with 10-15cm of wheat straw, and is not covered with biochar loaded with a microbial agent.
Comparative example 3
American ginseng was cultivated as in example 2, except that: the bed surface of the American ginseng is not covered with biochar loaded with microbial agents, nor is the bed surface covered with wheat straws.
Comparative example 4
American ginseng was cultivated as in example 2, except that: the American ginseng bed surface is covered with a layer of simple biochar which is not loaded with a microbial agent and is 2-3cm thick, and then covered with a layer of wheat straw, wherein the length of the wheat straw is 30-40cm, and the thickness of the wheat straw is 10-15 cm.
In order to verify the influence of the planting method on the biomass (taking the fresh weight of roots as an index) and the content of secondary metabolites, a cultivation experiment is carried out on Shandongdong. The experimental method comprises the following steps: dividing the American ginseng planting field into a plurality of cells, wherein each cell has an area of 66.7m2The random block arrangement is adopted, and each block of cells is respectivelyThe plants were planted according to the methods of example 2 and comparative examples 1 to 4, and each planting method was repeated 4 times. Except for the difference of the American ginseng bed surface coverings, the method keeps other field management consistent, such as seeding, shed building, topdressing, watering, intercropping of gramineous plants, flower beating, insect pest control and the like.
In the experimental process, the growth condition of the American ginseng plant is recorded to detect the ginsenoside Rg1Re and Rb1The content of (b) represents the secondary metabolites in American ginseng to evaluate the effect of various methods on the content of secondary metabolites.
The method for detecting the content of the ginsenoside comprises the following steps:
1. preparation of reference substance solution 3 kinds of ginsenoside Rb1、Re、Rg1Adding methanol to the scale mark of the reference substance in a 5 mL volumetric flask to prepare mixed standard solutions with the concentrations of 1.76 mg/mL, 1.36 mg/mL and 0.21 mg/mL respectively, and setting 7 sample-feeding gradients of 1 muL, 2 muL, 3 muL, 5 muL, 10 muL, 15 muL and 20 muL to obtain the standard curve of each ginsenoside.
2. Preparation of test solution 0.50 g of American ginseng powder is precisely weighed, placed in a volumetric flask, precisely added with 25 mL of methanol to weigh, ultrasonically extracted at 100 Hz for 40 min, cooled, kept stand, weighed, added with methanol to complement the original weight, shaken and filtered, and the filtrate passes through a 0.22 mu m filter membrane to prepare the test solution.
3. Subjecting ginsenoside (Rb) in radix Panacis Quinquefolii to HPLC1、Re、Rg1) And (5) carrying out content measurement. Chromatographic conditions and system applicability: ZorbaxSB-C18 (4.6 mm. times.250 mm, 5 μm), column chromatography; mobile phase acetonitrile (a) -water (B), elution gradient: 0-25 min, 19-20% A, 25-60 min and 20-40% A; 60-90 min, 40-55% A, 90-100 min and 55-60% A; the flow rate is 1 mL/min; the column temperature is 30 ℃; the sample volume is 10 mu L; the detection wavelength was 203 nm.
The experimental process shows that when the method of the embodiment 2 is adopted for planting the American ginseng, the rate of emergence of the American ginseng is faster than that of the comparative examples 1-4, and the rate of emergence is improved by 15%, 19%, 22% and 16% compared with that of the comparative examples 1-4. The results of the ginsenoside content detection are shown in the following table 2, and it can be seen from the table that the biomass and the ginsenoside content obtained by the method of the example 2 are obviously higher than those of the methods of various proportions, and the method of covering the biochar and the wheat straw loaded with the microbial agent has a good promotion effect on the accumulation of the yield and the quality of the American ginseng.

Claims (10)

1. An ecological planting method of American ginseng comprises the step of sowing American ginseng, and is characterized in that: after the American ginseng is sowed, a layer of biochar loaded with a microbial agent is covered on the surface of the American ginseng bed, and then a layer of wheat straw is covered.
2. The ecological planting method of claim 1, wherein: the preparation method of the biochar loaded with the microbial agent comprises the following steps:
a. processing the wood of the broad-leaved tree species into small slices, and carrying out anoxic carbonization at the high temperature of 250 ℃ in the air isolation and at 200-;
b. respectively activating and culturing bacillus subtilis and bacillus megatherium to obtain bacillus subtilis liquid and bacillus megatherium liquid;
c. mixing the bacillus subtilis liquid and the bacillus megaterium liquid to enable the ratio of the bacillus subtilis to the bacillus megaterium to be 1:0.5-2, then adding biochar into the bacillus subtilis and the bacillus megaterium to enable the biochar to fully adsorb the bacillus subtilis and the bacillus megaterium until the number of effective live bacteria adsorbed by the biochar is more than or equal to 2 multiplied by 103cfu/g, taking out the biochar;
d. and coating a lac resin protective layer on the surface of the adsorbed biochar to obtain the biochar loaded with the microbial agent.
3. The ecological planting method of claim 2, wherein: in the step a, the wood of the broad-leaved tree species is processed into thin slices with the thickness of 0.2-0.3cm, the width of 1-2cm and the length of 2-3 cm.
4. The ecological planting method of claim 2, wherein: in the step b, the bacillus subtilis and the bacillus megaterium are activated and cultured by adopting an LB liquid culture medium.
5. The ecological planting method of claim 2, wherein: in the step d, the preparation method of the lac resin protective layer comprises the following steps: and (3) fully and uniformly stirring the adsorbed biochar and 2-4wt% of lac aqueous solution according to the mass ratio of 3-5:1, and then drying to obtain the biochar loaded with the microbial agent.
6. The ecological planting method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that: the covering thickness of the biochar loaded with the microbial agent is 2-3 cm; the length of the wheat straw is 30-40cm, and the thickness of the wheat straw cover is 10-15 cm.
7. The ecological planting method according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that: the method is characterized in that graminaceous plants are planted on flat ground and ridge slopes between two ridges of the American ginseng in an intercropping mode, and the graminaceous plants are a mixture of bluegrass, glume trifoliata, zoysia japonica, ilex purpurea and festuca arundinacea.
8. The ecological planting method of claim 7, wherein: seeds of bluegrass, glume grass, zoysia japonica, evergreen and festuca arundinacea are uniformly mixed according to the mass ratio of 2-4:1:1:2-4:1-3, and then sowed.
9. The ecological planting method of claim 7, wherein: the seed consumption of the gramineous plants is 50kg-60kg per mu of land.
10. An ecological planting method according to any one of claims 1-9, characterized by comprising in particular the steps of:
(1) land preparation: in ten days of 11 months, after selecting a proper land, carrying out soil preparation and tedding, combining application of base fertilizer to plough and rotary tillage for 6-8 times in the idle period of the whole land, wherein the depth is 15-25 cm, the soil is refined and harrowed, and the land is made into a bed with the width of 140 cm, the working channel of 60 cm and the height of 20-25 cm, and the surface of the land is arched so as to facilitate drainage;
(2) treating American ginseng seeds: collecting mature seeds of 3-4 years in the middle ten days of the next month, rubbing off pulp, washing, spreading out, airing, filling into a bag or a wooden case, storing at 13-26 ℃ for 8-9 months, and storing before the next 5 th month;
(3) sowing American ginseng: sowing in late autumn and early winter or in spring for 2 and 3 months, sowing in a dibbling mode, wherein the row spacing of the seeds is 5cm multiplied by 10 cm, flattening the surface of the ridge, continuously pressing holes by using a wooden hole pressing device from one end of the ridge, sowing 2 seeds in each hole, covering 3cm of soil after sowing, and sowing every 667 m of seeds2The seeding amount is 5-6 kg;
(4) covering: covering a layer of biochar loaded with a microbial agent on the surface of the sowed American ginseng bed, wherein the thickness of the biochar is 2-3cm, and then covering a layer of wheat straw, wherein the thickness of the wheat straw is 10-15 cm;
(5) building a shed: the method comprises the following steps that a shade shed is erected before American ginseng seedlings come out of the earth, a wooden or bamboo material is used as a support, one or two layers of shade nets are covered on the support to form a double-turbine shed, the light transmittance is determined according to the age of the American ginseng, the height of the shade shed is 1.6-1.8 m, and wind barriers are erected on the periphery of the shade shed;
(6) a gramineous plant: planting gramineae plants such as bluegrass, glume grass, zoysia japonica, Chinese holly and fescue on a flat ground between two ridges of American ginseng and a ridge slope, mixing the bluegrass, the glume grass, the zoysia japonica, the Chinese holly and the fescue according to the mass ratio of 3:1:1:3:2, then sowing, sowing 50kg-60kg of seeds per mu of land, covering 3-5cm of soil after sowing, rolling by adopting a roller vehicle to fully contact the seeds with the soil layer, and watering sufficient moisture;
(7) topdressing: in the vigorous growth period of 6-7 months, 2wt% of calcium superphosphate solution is added with 0.3wt% of urea liquid fertilizer, and the weight ratio of the urea liquid fertilizer is 10: before 00 or 3 pm: after 00, performing topdressing on roots, and 1-3 times per year; when the overground part withers in 10 months, shallow trenches of 3-5cm are opened among the plants, and 2-2.5 kg of decomposed fertilizer and 0.05 kg of compound fertilizer are applied to each square meter; watering in time after topdressing if the surface of the ridge is dry;
(8) irrigation: the furrow surface in the whole seedling emergence period is kept moist, the soil water content is required to be 20-30% in the early stage and the later stage of growth, the soil water content is required to be 40-50 wt% in the growth period of American ginseng, and the soil humidity is kept by sprinkling irrigation or furrow irrigation except natural rainfall so as to meet the requirement of American ginseng on moisture;
(9) draining stagnant water: before the bed enters a rainy season, cleaning a drainage ditch in the field, and opening the American ginseng shed to put the bed in the sun and ventilate when the humidity in the American ginseng shed is overlarge to evaporate water in the bed as soon as possible;
(10) and (3) flower making: timely flowering of American ginseng which is not planted for more than 3 years, generally in the middle ten days of 6 months, removing buds when the inflorescence stems grow to be 1-2cm, and picking the buds;
(11) harvesting: american ginseng grows for four years and is collected in the middle 10 th month when the stem leaves turn yellow.
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