CN1137003C - 气动喷涂装置 - Google Patents

气动喷涂装置 Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1137003C
CN1137003C CN 97199188 CN97199188A CN1137003C CN 1137003 C CN1137003 C CN 1137003C CN 97199188 CN97199188 CN 97199188 CN 97199188 A CN97199188 A CN 97199188A CN 1137003 C CN1137003 C CN 1137003C
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gad
dynamic
coating
apparatus
gad dynamic
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CN 97199188
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English (en)
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CN1235648A (zh )
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亚历山德拉・I・卡希林
亚历山德拉·I·卡希林
・F・克尔于夫
奥列格·F·克尔于夫
・V・布泽迪格
铁木尔·V·布泽迪格
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O・O・O・奥布宁克粉末喷涂中心
O·O·O·奥布宁克粉末喷涂中心
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B7/00Spraying apparatus for discharge of liquids or other fluent materials from two or more sources, e.g. of liquid and air, of powder and gas
    • B05B7/14Spraying apparatus for discharge of liquids or other fluent materials from two or more sources, e.g. of liquid and air, of powder and gas designed for spraying particulate materials
    • B05B7/1404Arrangements for supplying particulate material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B7/00Spraying apparatus for discharge of liquids or other fluent materials from two or more sources, e.g. of liquid and air, of powder and gas
    • B05B7/16Spraying apparatus for discharge of liquids or other fluent materials from two or more sources, e.g. of liquid and air, of powder and gas incorporating means for heating or cooling the material to be sprayed
    • B05B7/1606Spraying apparatus for discharge of liquids or other fluent materials from two or more sources, e.g. of liquid and air, of powder and gas incorporating means for heating or cooling the material to be sprayed the spraying of the material involving the use of an atomising fluid, e.g. air
    • B05B7/1613Spraying apparatus for discharge of liquids or other fluent materials from two or more sources, e.g. of liquid and air, of powder and gas incorporating means for heating or cooling the material to be sprayed the spraying of the material involving the use of an atomising fluid, e.g. air comprising means for heating the atomising fluid before mixing with the material to be sprayed
    • B05B7/162Spraying apparatus for discharge of liquids or other fluent materials from two or more sources, e.g. of liquid and air, of powder and gas incorporating means for heating or cooling the material to be sprayed the spraying of the material involving the use of an atomising fluid, e.g. air comprising means for heating the atomising fluid before mixing with the material to be sprayed and heat being transferred from the atomising fluid to the material to be sprayed
    • B05B7/1626Spraying apparatus for discharge of liquids or other fluent materials from two or more sources, e.g. of liquid and air, of powder and gas incorporating means for heating or cooling the material to be sprayed the spraying of the material involving the use of an atomising fluid, e.g. air comprising means for heating the atomising fluid before mixing with the material to be sprayed and heat being transferred from the atomising fluid to the material to be sprayed at the moment of mixing
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C24/00Coating starting from inorganic powder
    • C23C24/02Coating starting from inorganic powder by application of pressure only
    • C23C24/04Impact or kinetic deposition of particles
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C4/00Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge
    • C23C4/12Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge characterised by the method of spraying

Abstract

气动喷涂装置,包括一个压缩空气源,通过气体管道与加热装置相连;加热装置的出口与超声喷嘴进口相连,喷嘴的超声部分通过管道与供粉器相连。压缩空气源的压力P。的压缩空气通过气体管道传送到加热装置加热到要求温度。加热的空气进入超声喷嘴加速到每秒几百米。供粉器中粉末材料通过管道到超声喷嘴部分,在喷喷段由气体从喷射处加速到喷嘴出口。

Description

气动喷涂装置

技术领域

本发明涉及粉末材料气动喷涂装置,可用在机械制造业及其它工业用来制造使加工表面有不同性能的涂层、

这些问题可通过不同的方法解决,其中有气动喷涂粉末涂层的方法,它们是基于把粉末注射入气流中,和把用于涂料的最终的气体-粉末混合物加速到超音速(RU1618782,RU1618778)。为了提高粉末的利用系数及喷涂的质量,在供入超声喷嘴前,气体-粉末混合物加热到低于粉末材料熔点的温度(RU1773072,WO91/19016,RU2038411)。

为实施这些方法,使用了一些装置,包括一压缩气体源,一气体加热装置,一供粉器,该供粉器与气体加热装置的进口(RU16035811)或混合室连接,混合室装在超声喷嘴前面(RU1674585,WO91/19016,RU2010619)。

在第一种情形下,粉末材料与加热装置的发热元件接触,导致粉末颗粒材料的氧化及粘到加热元件上。

在第二种情形下,粉末材料不通过气体加热装置,但是与第一种情形一样,粉末必须穿过喷嘴的最窄部分(喉部),该部分特别受到粉末材料的磨损,特别是使用刚性粉末(金属、陶瓷颗粒等)。主要是喉部确定了超声喷嘴的操作及装置的效率。

这种设计是相当笨拙的,因为混合室是分开的元件,供粉器应当设成密封的,和在压力下工作,因此有相当的重量。

在加热装置和噪声喷嘴之间的混合室导致附加的加热损失,这意味着要更大的功率用来加热空气及在超声喷嘴进口保持预定的温度。

这导致装置的工作中有更大的危险,因为在供粉器密封的整体性破坏的情形下,粉末会在高压下冒出。

与已知的装置相比,这种喷涂结构没有喷嘴喉部的磨损,因而可以增加装置的工作稳定性。由于粉末不穿过喉部,因此不会造成磨损,不改变其特点及因此不影响喷嘴组件及装置的性能,因此工作稳定性增加。

当使用刚性金属或陶瓷粉末时,在喷嘴的超声部分,喷嘴壁发生磨损,而在喷嘴喉部不会发生磨损。由于超声喷嘴的性能(特别是空气流、马赫数等)主要由喉部面积确定,仅仅喷嘴的超声部分的磨损,则比当粉末在喷嘴的前方喷射到室中或到喷嘴的亚音声部分的情形,可使喷嘴的工作状态更慢地改变。因而使喷嘴有更长的工作寿命。

在这种情形下,不需要混合室,使设计筒化,及减轻了装置的重量,而加热装置与喷嘴进口连接允许消除混合室中的热损失。

把供粉器与喷嘴的超声部分连接允许供粉室保持比喷嘴进口更低的低压,因为在Laval(超声)喷嘴的超声部分比亚音速部分的压力低。这使得供粉器重量减小并增加了工作的安全性。

装置的设计允许使用空气,代替压缩空气把粉末从供粉器供到喷嘴。这样更加减轻了装置的重量及增加了工作的安全性,因为这种情形下,供粉器不需要密封。为此,在粉末喷入喷嘴处,应保持低于大气的压力以使粉末由空气流来传送。

为了使粉末被空气有效地传送,在喷嘴和供粉器管道连接处超声喷嘴的横截面积与超声喷嘴喉部的面积的关系符合下面公式:Si/Sk≥1.3po+0.8式中:Si-在喷嘴和供粉器管道连接处超声喷嘴的横截面积;Sk-超声喷嘴喉部的面积;Po-在超声喷嘴进口处的全气压,Mpa。

图1示意地示出了本发明的实施例。

在工作中,来自压缩空气源1的压力为Po的压缩空气通过管道2传送到加热装置3加热到要求的温度。加热的空气进入超声喷嘴,在其中加速到每秒几百米的速度。

粉末材料从供粉器7中通过管道6传到喷嘴的超声部分5,在该部分卷入气流中,并且在喷嘴段从进口加速到出口。在喷嘴中供粉器管道6与超声喷嘴4连接处的横剖面,保持低于大气的静压力,保证带着粉末的空气从供粉器有效地卷入。

如果在粉末喷入喷嘴处的超声喷嘴的横截面超过喉部一定的倍数,该部分的压力可以保持低于大气压。许多试验及计算表明为了装置有效地工作,在喷嘴及供粉器管道的连接处超声喷嘴的横截面积与喉部的关系为:Si/Sk≥1.3po+0.8

式中:Si-在喷嘴和供粉器管道连接处超声喷嘴的横截面积;Sk-超声喷嘴喉部的面积;Po-在超声喷嘴进口处的全气压,Mpa。

该设计保证了供粉器有(高于大气压的)过分的压力,这又提高了供粉器操作的安全性及简化了供粉器的维护。

本发明的装置可用来喷涂粉末材料使表面有各种性能,如表面的抗腐蚀性、耐热性、耐辐射性等。本装置也可用于喷涂装饰涂料。

Claims (2)

1.一种喷涂粉末材料的气动喷涂装置,包括一个压缩空气源;一个压缩空气的加热装置;一个供粉器及一个超声喷嘴,所述的压缩空气源通过气体管道与压缩空气的加热装置连接,其特征在于所述的压缩空气的加热装置与超声喷嘴进口直接相连,喷嘴的超声部分通过管道与供粉器出口相连。
2.按照权利要求1的装置,其特征在于供粉器是不密封的,在喷嘴和供粉器管道连接处超声喷嘴的横截面积与超声喷嘴喉部的面积的关系符合下面公式:Si/Sk≥1.3po+0.8式中:Si-在喷嘴和供粉器管道连接处超声喷嘴的横截面积;Sk-超声喷嘴喉部的面积;Po-在超声喷嘴进口处的全气压,Mpa。
CN 97199188 1996-11-18 1997-10-27 气动喷涂装置 CN1137003C (zh)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU96121833A RU2100474C1 (ru) 1996-11-18 1996-11-18 Устройство для газодинамического нанесения покрытий из порошковых материалов

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CN1235648A true CN1235648A (zh) 1999-11-17
CN1137003C true CN1137003C (zh) 2004-02-04

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US (1) US6402050B1 (zh)
EP (1) EP0951583B1 (zh)
KR (1) KR100387386B1 (zh)
CN (1) CN1137003C (zh)
CA (1) CA2270260C (zh)
DE (2) DE69718514D1 (zh)
RU (1) RU2100474C1 (zh)
WO (1) WO1998022639A1 (zh)

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KR20000053209A (ko) 2000-08-25 application
CA2270260A1 (en) 1998-05-28 application
KR100387386B1 (ko) 2003-06-12 grant
EP0951583A4 (en) 2001-05-30 application
WO1998022639A1 (en) 1998-05-28 application
RU2100474C1 (ru) 1997-12-27 grant
DE69718514D1 (de) 2003-02-20 grant
CA2270260C (en) 2004-01-06 grant
US6402050B1 (en) 2002-06-11 grant
EP0951583A1 (en) 1999-10-27 application
DE69718514T2 (de) 2003-11-20 grant
CN1235648A (zh) 1999-11-17 application
EP0951583B1 (en) 2003-01-15 grant

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