CN113684395A - Nickel-based alloy resistant to high temperature molten salt corrosion and easy to process - Google Patents

Nickel-based alloy resistant to high temperature molten salt corrosion and easy to process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113684395A
CN113684395A CN202010422654.9A CN202010422654A CN113684395A CN 113684395 A CN113684395 A CN 113684395A CN 202010422654 A CN202010422654 A CN 202010422654A CN 113684395 A CN113684395 A CN 113684395A
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alloy
equal
percent
molten salt
nickel
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CN113684395B (en
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欧新哲
马天军
黄妍凭
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Baowu Special Metallurgy Co ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/051Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W
    • C22C19/055Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W with the maximum Cr content being at least 20% but less than 30%
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C2200/00Crystalline structure

Abstract

A nickel-based alloy which resists high temperature molten salt corrosion and is easy to process comprises the following chemical components in percentage by weight: c: 0.02-0.04%, Cr: 20.0-24.0%, Mo: 5.0-7.0%, W: 9.5-11.5%, Al: 0.20 to 0.50%, Si: 0.25 to 0.75%, Mn: 0.30 to 1.00%, and the balance of Ni and inevitable impurities, wherein the contents of the components must satisfy the following relational expression: (Mo + W)/C is 375-850. The nickel-based alloy disclosed by the invention not only has higher strength, but also has good high-temperature molten salt corrosion resistance and excellent cold processing performance, the tensile strength of the nickel-based alloy at 650 ℃ is more than or equal to 550MPa, the yield strength is more than or equal to 250MPa, and the elongation is more than or equal to 60%; the tensile strength at 750 ℃ is more than or equal to 480MPa, the yield strength is more than or equal to 240MPa, and the elongation is more than or equal to 60 percent; under the environment of 650 ℃ high-temperature molten salt (53 percent of potassium nitrate, 40 percent of sodium nitrite and 7 percent of sodium nitrate), the corrosion rate is less than or equal to 0.035 mm/year; the elongation is more than or equal to 10 percent under 40 percent of cold deformation.

Description

Nickel-based alloy resistant to high temperature molten salt corrosion and easy to process
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of nickel-based alloys, and particularly relates to a nickel-based alloy which is high in temperature-resistant molten salt corrosion and easy to process.
Background
The solid solution strengthening nickel-based alloy represented by GH3230 alloy (the alloy comprises, by weight, 0.05-0.15% of C, 20.0-24.0% of Cr, 1.0-3.0% of Mo, 13.0-15.0% of W, 0.20-0.50% of Al, 0.005-0.05% of La, 0.25-0.75% of Si, 0.30-1.00% of Mn, less than or equal to 3.0% of Fe, and the balance Ni and inevitable impurities) has high strength, cold and heat fatigue resistance and stable structure, is a traditional material in the aviation industry, and is widely applied to important hot end parts of aeroengines. The alloy is added with high solid solution strengthening elements C and W, and simultaneously added with trace rare earth elements La, Al, Mn and Si to improve the oxidation resistance of the alloy, and the strength of the alloy is ensured through the solid solution strengthening effect.
Through the corrosion resistance research of the traditional GH3230 alloy, particularly the structure observation and the mechanism analysis research of intergranular corrosion and high-temperature molten salt corrosion behaviors, a large amount of M is easily precipitated in the alloy structure due to the fact that the alloy contains higher carbon element and rare earth element La6C、M23C6The precipitated phases can form a corrosion source, and the corrosion resistance of the alloy is reduced; in addition, the alloy contains higher W element, so that the W element can be changed into WO when the alloy is used in a high-temperature molten salt environment4-The form dissolves from the surface into the molten salt, accelerating corrosion of the alloy. M precipitated in a large amount in the tissue6The C phase and the large amount of solid solution strengthening element W in the alloy remarkably promote the cold working hardening of the alloy, so that the cold working performance of the alloy is reduced sharply. Tests show that when the cold working deformation of the alloy is 20%, the elongation of the alloy is reduced to below 7%, so that the cold working is difficult, and microcracks are easy to generate (as shown in figure 1).
With the rapid development of the solar photo-thermal power generation industry, the demand on a heat collecting system of core equipment is increasing day by day, the equipment needs to adopt an ultra-long thin-walled pipe (general specification: phi 32 mm-57 mm in outer diameter, 1.0 mm-1.5 mm in wall thickness and 10-30 m in length), is in severe service condition, and withstands the test of 650 plus one year and 750 ℃ high-temperature molten salt corrosion, and not only requires the material to have very high strength, but also provides higher requirements on the high-temperature molten salt corrosion resistance of the material.
The traditional GH3230 alloy is a main candidate material for a thin-walled tube of a heat absorber, the mechanical property of the alloy meets the requirement, but the corrosion resistance is poor in a high-temperature molten salt corrosion environment, and the risk exists when the alloy is used for a long time under the working condition. In addition, the alloy is extremely fast in cold working hardening, extremely high in difficulty in manufacturing the ultra-long thin-walled tube, and has to be processed in multiple times with small deformation in production, otherwise, microcracks are easily generated and the tube is scrapped, so that the processing cost of the tube is extremely high. How to improve the high-temperature molten salt corrosion resistance and cold processing performance of the alloy on the basis of maintaining the original strength of the alloy by redesigning alloy components and regulating and controlling the alloy structure and performance, and the comprehensive performance has good matching property, thereby becoming a development direction for developing the potential performance of the nickel-based alloy.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a nickel-based alloy which is high in temperature-resistant molten salt corrosion and easy to process, has high strength, good high temperature-resistant molten salt corrosion performance and excellent cold processing performance, is suitable for manufacturing an ultra-long thin-walled tube for heat absorber equipment, and meets the use requirement of a 650-750 ℃ high-temperature molten salt corrosion environment. The tensile strength of the nickel-based alloy at 650 ℃ is more than or equal to 550MPa, the yield strength is more than or equal to 250MPa, and the elongation is more than or equal to 60 percent; the tensile strength at 750 ℃ is more than or equal to 480MPa, the yield strength is more than or equal to 240MPa, and the elongation is more than or equal to 60 percent; under the environment of 650 ℃ high-temperature molten salt (53 percent of potassium nitrate, 40 percent of sodium nitrite and 7 percent of sodium nitrate), the corrosion rate is less than or equal to 0.035 mm/year; the elongation is more than or equal to 10 percent under 40 percent of cold deformation.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
a nickel-based alloy which resists high temperature molten salt corrosion and is easy to process comprises the following chemical components in percentage by weight: c: 0.02-0.04%, Cr: 20.0-24.0%, Mo: 5.0-6.0%, W: 10.5-12.5%, Al: 0.20 to 0.50%, Si: 0.25 to 0.75%, Mn: 0.30 to 1.00%, and the balance of Ni and inevitable impurities, wherein the contents of the components must satisfy the following relational expression: (Mo + W)/C is 500-900.
Preferably, the microstructure of the nickel-based alloy is equiaxial crystal, and the grain size is 5.5-7.5.
Preferably, the tensile strength of the nickel-based alloy at 650 ℃ is more than or equal to 550MPa, the yield strength is more than or equal to 250MPa, and the elongation is more than or equal to 60%; the tensile strength at 750 ℃ is more than or equal to 480MPa, the yield strength is more than or equal to 240MPa, and the elongation is more than or equal to 60 percent; under the environment of 650 ℃ high-temperature molten salt (53 percent of potassium nitrate, 40 percent of sodium nitrite and 7 percent of sodium nitrate), the corrosion rate is less than or equal to 0.035 mm/year; the elongation is more than or equal to 10 percent under 40 percent of cold deformation.
In the composition design of the nickel-based alloy, the following components are adopted:
the invention optimizes the traditional GH3230 alloy component system, reduces the precipitation of a second phase by adjusting the solid solution strengthening element proportion, improves the corrosion resistance and cold working performance of the alloy while the alloy strength is not obviously changed, expands the application range of the alloy in a high-temperature molten salt corrosion environment, is suitable for manufacturing ultra-long thin-walled tubes for heat absorber equipment, and meets the application requirements of a 650-750 ℃ high-temperature molten salt corrosion environment.
The traditional GH3230 alloy is not suitable for manufacturing an ultra-long thin-walled tube and is used in a high-temperature molten salt environment, and is mainly determined by the following aspects:
1. the strengthening mechanism of the traditional GH3230 alloy is mainly solid solution strengthening and carbide dispersion strengthening, strengthening elements W, Mo and the like are fully dissolved in a matrix through solid solution heat treatment, so that lattice distortion is caused, the alloy strength is improved, and M precipitated in an alloy structure6C、M23C6And the lanthanum-rich phase can play a role in dispersion strengthening, but excessive carbides and the lanthanum-rich phase in the alloy can be a preferential corrosion source in a corrosion environment, and the corrosion resistance of the alloy can be reduced in a high-temperature molten salt corrosion environment.
2. High content of W element is easy to combine with C element to form high temperature tungsten carbide, and excessive W element can be mixed with WO in high temperature molten salt environment4-The form dissolves from the surface into the molten salt, accelerating corrosion of the alloy.
3. Carbide precipitated in alloy structure and excessive W element are dissolved in the matrix in a solid way, so that the hardening of the alloy in cold working is accelerated, the cold working of the alloy is not facilitated, and the alloy is not suitable for manufacturing the ultra-long thin-wall pipe.
The alloy of the invention has the design characteristics that: the alloy disclosed by the invention has the advantages that the effect of strengthening solid solution strengthening elements is reduced, the cold processing performance of the alloy is improved through the proportion adjustment of alloy elements, the corrosion resistance of the alloy is improved, and the alloy is named as BG 230.
The invention mainly considers the selection of the strengthening elements, the control of the element content and the matching relationship among the elements:
1. c: the C element is an essential element formed by carbide in the nickel-based high-temperature alloy, excessive carbide can be formed due to excessive C element content, and the carbide can become a preferential corrosion source in a corrosion environment and is unfavorable for the corrosion resistance of the alloy, so that the content of the C element is reduced and controlled to be 0.02-0.04%, and the precipitation of the high-temperature carbide is reduced.
2. Selection of strengthening elements: the strengthening effects of different strengthening elements are different, for example, W, Co has good solid solution strengthening effect, but too much W element is added to increase the brittleness of the alloy, which is not beneficial to cold and hot working of the alloy, and in addition, too much W element is used as WO in the high-temperature molten salt environment4-The form dissolves from the surface into solution, thereby accelerating corrosion of the alloy. While Mo is also a solid solution strengthening element, the strengthening effect is small compared with W and Co, and the work hardening is not easy to be too fast after adding. Therefore, the content of the W element is properly reduced, the W element in the alloy is reduced to 9.5-11.5%, the alloy processing performance is improved, and the corrosion resistance of the alloy in high-temperature molten salt is improved. In order to compensate for the alloy strength reduction caused by the reduction of the W element content, the Mo element content is increased to 5.0-7.0%.
3. Coordination among elements: C. while the W and Mo elements satisfy the respective content ranges, the relationship: and (Mo + W)/C is 375-850, and through the related matching design of C element, W element and Mo element, the reasonable solid solution strengthening effect is controlled, the number of carbides is reduced, and the corrosion resistance and cold working performance of the alloy in a high-temperature molten salt environment are obviously improved on the basis of ensuring the high strength of the alloy.
4. Rare earth element La in the traditional GH3230 alloy is removed, and rare element La in China is removed from the alloy components, so that on one hand, lanthanum-rich phase precipitation in the alloy structure in a high-temperature molten salt environment is eliminated, the influence of the relative corrosion performance of lanthanum-rich is eliminated, the corrosion performance of the alloy high-temperature resistant molten salt is improved, and on the other hand, the manufacturing cost of the alloy is reduced.
The four aspects are mutually influenced, one is not necessary, any design is unreasonable, and the alloy has high strength, good high-temperature molten salt corrosion resistance and excellent cold processing performance.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. compared with the traditional GH3230 alloy, the number of second phases is reduced by adjusting the proportion of solid solution strengthening elements, the high-temperature molten salt corrosion resistance of the alloy is greatly improved on the basis of ensuring the high strength of the alloy, the application of the alloy in a high-temperature molten salt corrosion environment is expanded, the use requirement of the high-temperature molten salt corrosion environment at 650-750 ℃ is met, the 650-DEG C tensile strength of the nickel-based alloy is not less than 550MPa, the yield strength of the nickel-based alloy is not less than 250MPa, and the elongation of the nickel-based alloy is not less than 60%; the tensile strength at 750 ℃ is more than or equal to 480MPa, the yield strength is more than or equal to 240MPa, and the elongation is more than or equal to 60 percent; the corrosion rate is less than or equal to 0.035 mm/year in the environment of 650 ℃ high-temperature molten salt (53% of potassium nitrate, 40% of sodium nitrite and 7% of sodium nitrate).
2. Compared with the traditional GH3230 alloy, the elongation of the alloy is greatly improved under the same cold working deformation, the cold working performance of the alloy is obviously improved, and the alloy is suitable for manufacturing ultra-long thin-walled tubes, and the elongation is more than or equal to 10% under 40% cold deformation.
3. The alloy does not contain the rare element La, so that the manufacturing cost of the alloy is reduced, the precipitation of a lanthanum-rich phase is reduced, and the corrosion resistance of the alloy in a high-temperature molten salt environment is improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the situation that microcracks are generated on the surface when the cold-working deformation of the conventional GH3230 alloy is 20%.
FIG. 2 is a distribution diagram of carbides in a conventional GH3230 alloy structure.
FIG. 3 is a distribution diagram of carbides in the alloy structure of example 1 of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a graph showing the change of elongation with cold work deformation of the alloy of example 1 and the conventional GH3230 of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram showing the change of the alloy corrosion rate with time under the environment of 650 ℃ high-temperature molten salt corrosion of the GH3230 alloy in the embodiment 1 of the invention and the traditional alloy.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated by the following examples and figures.
The components of the nickel-based alloy in the embodiment of the invention are shown in table 1, and the corresponding nickel-based alloy is prepared by adopting a vacuum induction and electroslag smelting process.
Table 1 units: weight percent of
Serial number C Cr Mo W Al Si Mn Ni (Mo+W)/C
Example 1 0.024 20.50 6.80 10.60 0.20 0.25 0.30 Balance of 725
Example 2 0.028 21.68 6.56 10.80 0.23 0.53 0.35 Balance of 620
Example 3 0.030 21.20 5.90 10.30 0.30 0.30 0.50 Balance of 540
Example 4 0.035 22.60 6.15 11.00 0.35 0.40 0.60 Balance of 490
Example 5 0.037 23.00 7.00 11.50 0.47 0.50 0.50 Balance of 500
Example 6 0.033 23.70 6.70 11.45 0.40 0.64 0.45 Balance of 550
Example 7 0.020 20.00 5.85 11.15 0.28 0.47 0.30 Balance of 850
Example 8 0.040 24.00 5.30 9.70 0.50 0.75 1.00 Balance of 375
The quantity of carbides in the nickel base alloy structure prepared by the method is obviously less than that of carbides in the conventional GH3230 alloy structure, the distribution diagram of the carbides in the conventional GH3230 alloy structure is shown in figure 2, and the distribution diagram of the carbides in the alloy structure of the example 1 of the invention is shown in figure 3.
The nickel-based alloy BG230 and the GH3230 prepared in the embodiments 1 to 8 of the invention are subjected to the same solution heat treatment, and then are subjected to high-temperature mechanical property tests, wherein the specific performance parameters are shown in Table 2:
TABLE 2
As can be seen from the data in Table 2, the yield strength and tensile strength of the nickel-based alloy are equivalent to those of the conventional GH3230 alloy at 650 ℃ and 750 ℃, but the elongation is obviously higher than that of the conventional GH3230 alloy, so that the nickel-based alloy prepared by the method is excellent in cold working performance and more suitable for manufacturing ultra-long thin-wall pipes.
The change of the elongation of the GH3230 alloy of the invention and the conventional GH3230 alloy along with the deformation caused by cold working is shown in a schematic diagram in FIG. 4. The elongation of the nickel-based alloy BG230 and GH3230 prepared in examples 1-8 of the present invention at 40% cold deformation was tested, and the specific performance parameters are shown in Table 3:
TABLE 3
As can be seen from fig. 4 and table 3, compared with the conventional GH3230 alloy, the elongation of the nickel-based alloy of example 1 of the present invention is significantly higher than that of the conventional GH3230 alloy at the same cold working deformation, which indicates that the alloy of the present invention has excellent cold working performance and is suitable for manufacturing ultra-long thin-walled tubes.
The same solution heat treatment as that of the conventional GH3230 alloy is carried out in the inventive example 1, and the corrosion rate of the alloy with time under the environment of 650 ℃ high-temperature molten salt (53% potassium nitrate, 40% sodium nitrite and 7% sodium nitrate mixed medium) is shown in FIG. 5.
The nickel-based alloy BG230 prepared in the embodiments 1 to 8 of the invention and the GH3230 alloy are subjected to the same solution heat treatment, and then are treated for 1000 hours to test the corrosion rate of the alloy in a 650 ℃ high-temperature molten salt (mixed medium of 53% potassium nitrate, 40% sodium nitrite and 7% sodium nitrate), wherein the specific performance parameters are shown in Table 4:
TABLE 4
As can be seen from fig. 5 and table 4, the corrosion rate of the conventional GH3230 alloy is much higher than that of the nickel-based alloy in example 1 of the present invention when the alloy is treated in the same environment for the same time, which means that the alloy of the present invention has better corrosion resistance to molten salt.

Claims (3)

1. A nickel-based alloy which resists high temperature molten salt corrosion and is easy to process comprises the following chemical components in percentage by weight: c: 0.02-0.04%, Cr: 20.0-24.0%, Mo: 5.0-7.0%, W: 9.5-11.5%, Al: 0.20 to 0.50%, Si: 0.25 to 0.75%, Mn: 0.30 to 1.00%, and the balance of Ni and inevitable impurities, wherein the contents of the components must satisfy the following relational expression: (Mo + W)/C is 375-850.
2. The high-temperature molten salt corrosion resistant and easy-to-process nickel-based alloy as claimed in claim 1, wherein the microstructure of the nickel-based alloy is equiaxial, and the grain size is 5.5-7.5.
3. The nickel-based alloy resistant to high temperature molten salt corrosion and easy to process as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the tensile strength of the nickel-based alloy at 650 ℃ is not less than 550MPa, the yield strength is not less than 250MPa, and the elongation is not less than 60%; the tensile strength at 750 ℃ is more than or equal to 480MPa, the yield strength is more than or equal to 240MPa, and the elongation is more than or equal to 60 percent; under the environment of 650 ℃ high-temperature molten salt (53 percent of potassium nitrate, 40 percent of sodium nitrite and 7 percent of sodium nitrate), the corrosion rate is less than or equal to 0.035 mm/year; the elongation is more than or equal to 10 percent under 40 percent of cold deformation.
CN202010422654.9A 2020-05-19 Nickel-based alloy resistant to high temperature molten salt corrosion and easy to process Active CN113684395B (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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GB1465439A (en) * 1974-09-06 1977-02-23 Nippon Steel Corp Nickel-based alloys
JPS586927A (en) * 1981-07-03 1983-01-14 Sumitomo Metal Ind Ltd Production of high-strength oil well pipe of high stress corrosion cracking resistance
GB8329487D0 (en) * 1982-11-04 1983-12-07 Nippon Steel Corp Nickel-based alloys
JPH073369A (en) * 1993-04-21 1995-01-06 Sumitomo Metal Ind Ltd High ni base alloy excellent in hydrogen embrittlement resistance and production thereof
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