CN113588262A - Machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device and dynamic torque application method - Google Patents

Machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device and dynamic torque application method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113588262A
CN113588262A CN202110927269.4A CN202110927269A CN113588262A CN 113588262 A CN113588262 A CN 113588262A CN 202110927269 A CN202110927269 A CN 202110927269A CN 113588262 A CN113588262 A CN 113588262A
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China
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base
loading
torque
dynamometer
main shaft
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CN202110927269.4A
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CN113588262B (en
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孔令达
杨兆军
陈传海
陈玮峥
刘严
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Jilin University
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Jilin University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M13/00Testing of machine parts
    • G01M13/02Gearings; Transmission mechanisms
    • G01M13/025Test-benches with rotational drive means and loading means; Load or drive simulation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M13/00Testing of machine parts
    • G01M13/02Gearings; Transmission mechanisms
    • G01M13/027Test-benches with force-applying means, e.g. loading of drive shafts along several directions

Abstract

The invention discloses a machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device and a dynamic torque application method, aiming at overcoming the problem that the dynamic torque loading cannot be realized at present and the adjusting process is complicated, the machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device comprises a dynamometer device, a loading direction adjusting device, a hydraulic loading unit, a torque measuring device, an axis track measuring device, a spindle device, a loading conversion unit and a grade iron; the dynamometer device and the spindle device are arranged at the left end and the right end of the front side of the floor iron, the loading conversion unit and the torque measurement device are arranged between the dynamometer device and the spindle device from left to right, a No. 3 cutter simulation gear of the loading conversion unit and a No. 1 cutter simulation gear of the dynamometer device are meshed with a No. 2 cutter simulation gear of the spindle device, a torque sensor of the torque measurement device is sleeved on a spindle of the spindle device, the loading direction adjusting device is arranged at the rear side of the floor iron, the hydraulic loading unit is arranged at the top end of the loading direction adjusting device, and the axis track measurement device is arranged at the left end of the spindle device. Dynamic torque application methods are also provided.

Description

Machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device and dynamic torque application method
Technical Field
The invention relates to a test device, belonging to the technical field of mechanical test equipment, in particular to a machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device and a dynamic torque application method.
Background
The main shaft is used as a key functional part of the numerical control machine tool, and the reliability and the comprehensive performance of the main shaft greatly influence the running state of the numerical control machine tool. The final aim of the main shaft reliability research is to improve the reliability of the main shaft, and reliability test equipment is the basis for achieving the aim. The existing spindle reliability experiment table has some problems:
first, a static load with a constant value or a dynamic load with a simple rule, such as a dynamic load of a sine function, a step function or a linear function, can be applied. In the aspect of torque loading, only constant load or slowly-varying load can be loaded due to the working principle of the dynamometer, and the actual loading frequency is dozens of hertz or even hundreds of hertz considering the rotating speed of the main shaft and the number of the cutting edges of the milling cutter. Therefore, the existing spindle reliability test bed is difficult to consider and realize the application of dynamic torque in load simulation, so that a certain difference exists between a test result and the real working condition of cutting machining;
the spindle cutting torque loading scheme of the test device under the existing simulation working condition generally adopts a torque loading mode that the front end of a spindle tool handle is connected with a dynamometer or a counter-dragging motor in series, for example, the Chinese patent application No. CN201610082282.3, the application No. 2016.02.05, the invention name of the spindle reliability test stand and the reliability test method, the Chinese patent application No. CN201210370120.1, the application No. 20120928, the invention name of the loading mode in the application of the machine tool spindle reliability test stand loaded by electro-hydraulic servo and the dynamometer in a mixed mode actually orthogonally decomposes the actually measured radial force, axial force, tangential force and torque, and the torque is static; in actual processing, the cutting force is a space resultant force, the cutting force tangential component which is dynamically changed generates a dynamically changed torque, the cutting force and the cutting torque have the same dynamic frequency, and a proportional relation between numerical values exists;
when a torque loading test is carried out, the loading mode mainly adopts dynamometer loading or loading of two main shafts in a drag test mode, and the two loading modes can only load static torque or dynamic torque with smaller change frequency and amplitude and cannot truly reproduce torque change in actual working conditions. Therefore, only by designing a loading device which can cooperatively control and accurately simulate the mixing of the three-way cutting force magnitude, the three-way cutting force direction and the dynamic torque under various working conditions, accurate main shaft reliability and comprehensive performance test data can be obtained.
The guiding rule of the existing load working condition is not enough, in the published patent, the base value of the load comes from some actual processing and measuring results, the typicality is not available, the main shaft rotating speed is taken as the loading frequency, and the difference is different from the actual load rule. According to the description of the load law in Unifield cutting for model for turning, ringing, dri l l and mi l operating by Altatitas Canada. In the machining center, regardless of the machining method, the cutting load infinitesimal for the spindle can be simplified to F in the machine coordinate systemx、FyAnd FzForce loads in three directions and moment loads around the Z axis are obtained, and a universal load model in a machining mode of milling, drilling, boring and the like in a machining center is obtained. According to the conclusion of the model, the cutting load can be regarded as the superposition of a basic value and the amplitude of sinusoidal variation of a first frequency multiplication or a second frequency multiplication relative to the rotating speed in all cutting modes of the machining center, so that in a reliability test platform, the basic value and the amplitude of additional sinusoidal variation can be used for simulating the load applied to the spindle by real cutting. Therefore, the invention innovatively designs the test device which is arranged on the main shaft reliability test table and is used for accurately simulating and loading all working conditions of the main shaft, so that real and effective main shaft test data are obtained, and the invention has important value for improving the reliability of the main shaft of the numerical control machine tool and the accuracy of performance tests.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the technical problems that the prior art cannot realize dynamic torque loading and torque loading, force and torque are required to be decoupled when cutting force and torque are loaded, independent loading is realized, and the problem of complicated adjustment process is solved, and provides a machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device and a dynamic torque application test method.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention is realized by adopting the following technical scheme:
the machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device comprises a dynamometer device, a loading direction adjusting device, a hydraulic loading unit, a torque measuring device, an axis track measuring device, a spindle device, a loading conversion unit and floor iron;
the dynamometer device and the spindle device are longitudinally arranged at the left end and the right end of the front side of the horizontally placed terrace iron, and the rotation axes of the dynamometer in the dynamometer device and the spindle in the spindle device are collinear; the loading conversion unit and the torque measurement device are arranged between the dynamometer device and the spindle device from left to right, a No. 3 cutter simulation gear in the loading conversion unit and No. 1 cutter simulation gears in the dynamometer devices on the left side and the right side are meshed with a No. 2 cutter simulation gear in the spindle device at the same time, a torque sensor at the top end of the torque measurement device is sleeved on an output shaft of the spindle, and the torque sensor and the spindle are coaxial; the loading direction adjusting device is arranged in the middle of the rear side of the floor iron through 2 front rotating shaft bases and rear bases with the same structure, the hydraulic loading unit is arranged at the top end of a rotating tray in the loading direction adjusting device, and the loading axis of the hydraulic loading unit is vertically intersected with the rotating axis of the dynamometer device and the main shaft device; the axis track measuring device is arranged at the left end of a main shaft base of the main shaft device, and the rotation axis of the axis track measuring device is collinear with the rotation axis of the main shaft.
The dynamometer device in the technical scheme further comprises a dynamometer supporting seat; the dynamometer supporting seat consists of a supporting seat main body, a base and 4 right-angled triangular rib plates with the same structure, the supporting seat main body is a cuboid box, and 2 through holes which are collinear with the rotation axis with the same diameter as the dynamometer and used for mounting the dynamometer are processed on the left box wall and the right box wall at the upper end of the supporting seat main body along the horizontal direction; the base is a rectangular plate type structural member, the left and right length of the base is equal to the left and right length of the supporting seat main body, the front and back width of the base is greater than the front and back width of the supporting seat main body, three open slots for installing bolts are respectively arranged at the two ends of the front and back sides of the base, the supporting seat main body is vertically installed at the top end of the base through the front and back symmetry of the bottom end of the supporting seat main body, and the outer side wall surfaces of the left and right box walls of the supporting seat main body are coplanar with the left and right end surfaces of the base; 4 right-angled triangle rib plates with the same structure are symmetrically arranged between the front and rear box walls of the supporting seat main body and the top end of the base in front and rear and left and right directions; the dynamometer is installed in two through holes on the supporting seat main body and is fixed along the axial direction, and the No. 1 simulation gear is fixedly connected with the output end of the dynamometer rotating shaft through the spline pair.
The loading direction adjusting device in the technical scheme comprises a base frame, an X-axis rotation adjusting part and a Z-axis adjusting part; the base frame comprises a rear base, 2 longitudinal beams, 2 upright columns with the same structure, 2 triangular support frames, 2 front bases with the same structure and a cross beam; the Z-axis adjusting part comprises a Z-axis rotating shaft, a rotating bracket, a rotating tray and a fixing bolt; the X-axis rotation adjusting part comprises a telescopic rod, an upper rotating shaft and a front rotating shaft; the 2 front rotating shaft bases are symmetrically sleeved at two ends of the front rotating shaft and are fixedly connected, the 2 stand columns are symmetrically sleeved on the front rotating shaft at the inner side of the 2 front rotating shaft bases through holes at the bottom ends, and the bottom ends of the 2 stand columns are rotatably connected with the front rotating shaft; the top ends of the 2 stand columns are fixedly connected with the bottom end faces of the front ends of the 2 longitudinal beams through bolts, the inner side column walls of the upper ends of the 2 stand columns are fixedly connected with the left end face and the right end face of the cross beam through bolts, and the top end faces of the 2 stand columns are coplanar with the top end faces of the cross beam; the 2 triangular support frames are respectively and symmetrically fixedly connected with the bottom end surfaces of the middle sections of the 2 longitudinal beams and the rear side column walls of the 2 stand columns through two right-angle walls; the rotary bracket is fixedly connected with the bottom end faces of the rear ends of the 2 longitudinal beams by bolts, the front end of the rotary tray is provided with a hole for mounting a Z-axis stand column, the front end of the rotary tray is sleeved on the Z-axis stand column, the Z-axis stand column is inserted into a through hole in the middle of the cross beam, the bottom end face of the front end of the rotary tray is in contact connection with the top end face of the cross beam, and the rear end of the rotary tray is fixed on the circular arc-shaped through groove of the rotary bracket through a fixing bolt; the two ends of the upper rotating shaft are arranged in through holes on the inner side walls of the 2 triangular supports, and the upper rotating shaft) is fixedly connected with the inner side walls of the 2 triangular supports; the upper end suit of telescopic link is in the centre department of last pivot, connects for rotating between the two, and the lower extreme suit of telescopic link is on the pivot of back, connects for rotating between the two, and the hinge joint is constituteed with the back base to the back pivot through 2 back base bearing frames that the structure is the same.
The hydraulic loading unit in the technical scheme comprises a hydraulic base, a hydraulic cylinder, a hydraulic servo valve, a pressure sensor and a loading rod; the hydraulic cylinder is longitudinally arranged on the hydraulic base, the hydraulic servo valve is fixedly arranged at the top end of the hydraulic cylinder, the pressure sensor is arranged at the extending end of the hydraulic rod in the hydraulic cylinder through one end of the pressure sensor, the other end of the pressure sensor is connected with one end of the loading rod, and the hydraulic cylinder, the pressure sensor and the rotation axis of the loading rod are collinear.
The axle center track measuring device in the technical scheme comprises a circular turntable, 2 sensor connecting plates with the same structure, 2 displacement sensors with the same structure, and 2 guide rails and 2T-shaped sliding blocks with the same structure; 2 guide rails are symmetrically installed at the front side and the rear side of the left end of a main shaft base in a main shaft device through No. 5 connecting bolts, T-shaped grooves in the 2 guide rails are parallel to the rotary axis of a main shaft in the main shaft device, a circular turntable is installed on the T-shaped grooves in the 2 guide rails through 2T-shaped sliders with the same structure, the T-shaped sliders with the same structure are connected with the T-shaped grooves in the 2 guide rails in a sliding mode, the rotary center of the circular turntable is collinear with the rotary axis of the main shaft in the main shaft device, 2 displacement sensors are installed at one end of a sensor connecting plate, and the sensor connecting plate is fixed on a circular arc-shaped bolt through groove of the circular turntable through a sliding groove at the other end of the sensor connecting plate and a No. 3 bolt.
The main shaft device in the technical scheme also comprises 3 main shaft clamping pieces with the same structure; the main shaft clamping piece is a V-shaped plate type structural piece, two ends of the main shaft clamping piece are provided with horizontal mounting lugs extending outwards, and the horizontal mounting lugs at the two ends are respectively provided with 2 bolt through holes; the main shaft base is a casting structural member, the bottom of the main shaft base is a rectangular plate base, 8 open grooves which are the same in structure and used for installing bolts are symmetrically arranged in the front and back direction, the upper portion of the main shaft base is a V-shaped groove used for placing a main shaft, the top ends of two groove walls of the V-shaped groove are vertically and symmetrically provided with 3 groups of 2 pairs of 4 threaded holes, each group of 2 pairs of threaded holes are symmetrically arranged on the front side wall and the back side wall of one end of the main shaft base, threaded holes used for installing 2 guide rails are symmetrically arranged on the front side wall and the back side wall of one end of the main shaft base, the base of the main shaft base and the V-shaped groove are aligned in parallel, the width of the base is larger than that of the V-shaped groove, a longitudinal supporting wall and 4 transverse supporting walls which are the same in structure are symmetrically and vertically arranged between the base of the main shaft base, the longitudinal supporting wall is a rectangular plate structural member, the length of the longitudinal supporting wall is equal to that of the V-shaped groove and the base, and the 4 transverse supporting walls which are the same in structure are rectangular structural members, the 4 transverse supporting walls with the same structure are symmetrically arranged on the front side and the rear side of the longitudinal supporting wall, and the 4 transverse supporting walls with the same structure are simultaneously vertical to the V-shaped groove and the longitudinal supporting wall; the main shaft adopts 3 main shaft clamping pieces which are arranged in parallel and have the same structure and are fixedly arranged in a V-shaped groove at the top end of a main shaft base, and the No. 2 cutter simulation gear is arranged at the front end of a rotating shaft of the main shaft by adopting key connection.
The loading conversion unit in the technical scheme comprises a conversion unit base, 2 return springs with the same structure, a stand column, a No. 3 cutter simulation gear, a ball bearing, a loading rod, 2 side baffles with the same structure and a connecting piece; the rectangular plate in the connecting piece is connected with a T-shaped block in a T-shaped groove at the top end of the conversion unit base by 2 No. 5 connecting bolts with the same structure, the T-shaped block is in sliding connection with the T-shaped groove, 2 side baffles with the same structure are arranged on the side walls at two ends of the T-shaped groove, and a return spring is arranged between the side baffles at two ends and the T-shaped block; the column is sleeved on the cylindrical column of the connecting piece through the cylinder at the lower end of the column, the column and the column are in rotary connection, one end of the loading rod is connected with a threaded hole of the square block at the upper end of the column, the rotation axis of the loading rod is vertically intersected with the symmetry axis of the column, the No. 3 cutter simulation gear is sleeved on the loading rod through a ball bearing, and the inner ring of the ball bearing is in interference fit with the loading rod.
The conversion unit base in the technical scheme is formed by welding steel plates, 4 open slots for mounting bolts are symmetrically arranged at the front and back of the bottom of the conversion unit base, a T-shaped groove is formed in the top end of the conversion unit base, T-shaped sliding blocks with the same section are mounted in the T-shaped groove, and the T-shaped sliding blocks are connected in a sliding mode; the bottom of the conversion unit base is parallel to the T-shaped groove at the top end, a longitudinal trapezoidal support wall and 2 transverse right-angle trapezoidal support walls with the same structure are arranged between the bottom of the conversion unit base and the T-shaped groove at the top end, the longitudinal trapezoidal support wall is vertical to the T-shaped groove at the bottom of the conversion unit base, and the 2 transverse right-angle trapezoidal support walls with the same structure are symmetrically arranged on the front side and the rear side of the longitudinal trapezoidal support wall and are vertical to the longitudinal trapezoidal support wall; the connecting piece constitute by rectangular plate and cylindrical stand, cylindrical stand bottom adopts welded mode to be connected with the center department of rectangular plate, sets up 2 bolt holes on the rectangular plate of cylindrical stand both sides, cylindrical stand diameter equals with the drum internal diameter in the stand.
In the technical scheme, the loading rod is a round rod-shaped steel piece with one end being a sphere, the other end of the loading rod is a screw rod, the screw rod of the loading rod is vertically inserted into the upper end of the upright post, and the loading rod and the upright post are in threaded connection; the stand constitute by square piece and drum, the bottom of square piece is in the same place with the top welding of drum, the axis of symmetry of square piece and the axis of revolution collineation of drum, the internal diameter of drum is the same with the diameter of the cylindrical stand of connecting piece, be normal running fit between the two, at square piece and along a screw hole of horizontal direction processing in the terminal surface center department of being on a parallel with the drum axis of revolution, the screw hole diameter on the square piece equals with the screw rod diameter of loading stick.
The dynamic torque applying method adopting the machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device comprises the following steps of:
1) inputting dynamic torque to be loaded
Dynamic torque M-M needing loading1+A1sin ω t, dynamic torque includes a base value M1Amplitude A1And frequency ω, the base value M1The input is a dynamometer, and the dynamometer outputs a static torque M1
2) Hydraulic loading unit load calculation
Basic value M of torque1Amplitude A1And the frequency omega is calculated, the calculated basic value, amplitude and frequency of the dynamic load are input to a hydraulic loading unit, the hydraulic loading unit realizes dynamic loading by controlling the size and opening direction of an oil way through a hydraulic servo valve, and the calculation process is as follows:
the loading of the machine tool spindle load condition simulator for the base value and the additional sine amplitude is realized by providing a static torque M through the dynamometer1For the No. 1 cutter simulation gear stress analysis,
circumferential force Ft1Comprises the following steps:
radial force Fr1Comprises the following steps:
axial force Fa1Comprises the following steps:
for the No. 3 cutter simulation gear, the analysis principle is similar to that of the No. 1 cutter simulation gear, and when no dynamic load exists, the force generated by the No. 1 cutter simulation gear to the No. 3 cutter simulation gear is as follows:
circumferential force F't1Comprises the following steps:
radial force F'r1Comprises the following steps:
axial force F'a1Comprises the following steps:
in the absence of dynamic loads, the forces generated by the tool simulated gear No. 2 against the tool simulated gear No. 3 are as follows:
circumferential force F't2Comprises the following steps:
radial force F'r2Comprises the following steps:
axial force F'a2Comprises the following steps:
according to the transformation-distribution relation delta1=δ2And the interaction principle of force, the load received on the No. 2 cutter simulation gear is as follows:
circumferential force Ft2
Radial force Fr2
Axial force Fa2
Torque M2:M2=M1
According to the static balance relation, the axial force F of the loading rod on the No. 3 cutter simulation gear is as follows:
due to delta1=δ2The above formula is rewritten as:
that is, the base load value of the hydraulic loading unit isIn order to obtain a dynamic load, the load of the hydraulic loading unit is a periodic load that varies sinusoidally around a base value, as follows:
because the dynamometer is a constant torque output, its circumferential force Ft1The radial force F is kept unchanged and can be known from force analysisr1And axial force Fa1Are all unchanged, so the No. 2 cutter simulates the radial force F on the gearr2Amount of change Δ F ofr2Comprises the following steps:
ΔFr2=ΔF=A sinωt
the three simulated gears are all conical gears, and the variation delta F of the circumferential force of the three simulated gears is determined according to the stress relation of the conical gearst2Comprises the following steps:
variation amount of axial force Δ F thereofa2Comprises the following steps:
ΔFa2=ΔFr2tanδ2=Asinωt tanδ2
amount of change in torque Δ M on main shaft2Comprises the following steps:
according to the requirements of conical gear assembly relation, dm1=dm2,δ1=δ2
The four varying loads above can be expressed as:
variation amount of circumferential force Δ Ft2
Variation of radial force Δ Fr2:ΔFr2=A sin ωt
Amount of change Δ F of axial forcea2:ΔFa2=A sinωt tanδ1
Amount of change Δ M of torque2
Assuming the required dynamic torque is: m is M1+ΔM1=M1+A1sinωt
Wherein:
by combining the two equations, the amplitude A of the hydraulic loading can be determined as:
i.e. the base value of the hydraulic loading unit isAmplitude of
3) Dynamic load loading
The torque M of the basic value output by the dynamometer1And inputting the dynamic load of the hydraulic loading unit obtained by calculation of the upper computer into a hydraulic loading controller as an input quantity, and realizing dynamic load loading on the No. 2 cutter simulation gear by controlling a hydraulic servo valve, wherein the dynamic load is as follows:
total circumferential force FTotal t2
Total radial force FTotal r2
Total axial force FGeneral a2
Total torque MGeneral 2:MGeneral 2=M2+ΔM2=M1+A1sinωt。
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device can simulate the cutting force borne on the tool shank and the additional torque generated by the cutting force on the spindle under the real working condition through the stress of the bevel gear installed on the spindle, and the mechanism is consistent with the mechanism that the torque of the spindle comes from the circumferential cutting force; the root of the load generated on the main shaft is consistent with that of the load generated in actual processing, the simulation effect of the invention is closer to the real stress state, the cutting load borne by the main shaft can be accurately reproduced, the existing equipment needs to decompose and apply the radial force, the axial force and the torque respectively according to the actual stress condition, and the structure of the device is relatively complex;
2. the device for simulating the load working condition of the machine tool spindle can select the model of the bevel gear according to the size of an actual cutter, accurately simulate the stress point position on the real cutter under different machining conditions, and have adjustability, so the device has the characteristics of wide adaptability and strong universality;
3. the simulation device for the load working condition of the machine tool spindle directly converts high-frequency dynamic force into dynamic torque and dynamic force by applying the high-frequency dynamic force, can realize synchronous loading of the dynamic torque and the cutting force, and is consistent with the dynamic frequency generation mechanism of the cutting force and the cutting torque on a cutter in the actual cutting process;
4. the device for simulating the load working condition of the machine tool spindle has strong adaptability to the installation precision, and can automatically correct when the axes of the dynamometer and the spindle have certain errors.
Drawings
The invention is further described with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is an axonometric projection view of the structural components of the load condition simulator of the main shaft of the machine tool.
FIG. 2 is an axonometric view of the dynamometer device used in the simulation apparatus for the loading condition of the main shaft of the machine tool according to the present invention;
FIG. 3 is an axonometric view of the structure of a loading direction adjusting device employed in the device for simulating the loading condition of the spindle of a machine tool according to the present invention;
FIG. 4 is an axonometric view of the structure of a hydraulic loading unit employed in the device for simulating the loading condition of the main shaft of the machine tool according to the present invention;
FIG. 5 is an axonometric view of the torque measurement device structure used in the load condition simulator of the spindle of the machine tool according to the present invention;
FIG. 6 is an axonometric projection view of the structure of the axle center trajectory measuring device adopted in the device for simulating the loading condition of the main axle of the machine tool according to the present invention;
FIG. 7 is an axonometric view of the spindle device structure used in the device for simulating the loading condition of the spindle of the machine tool according to the present invention;
FIG. 8 is an axonometric view of the loading conversion unit structure employed in the device for simulating the loading condition of the spindle of the machine tool according to the present invention;
FIG. 9 is a schematic structural diagram of an X-axis adjusting mechanism employed in the device for simulating the load condition of the spindle of the machine tool according to the present invention;
FIG. 10 is a schematic diagram of a dynamic load loading conversion unit of a load condition simulation apparatus for a spindle of a machine tool according to the present invention;
FIG. 11 is a schematic diagram of a dynamic load loading process of a load condition simulation apparatus for a spindle of a machine tool according to the present invention;
FIG. 12 is a flow chart of a dynamic torque application method of a machine tool spindle load condition simulation apparatus according to the present invention;
in the figure: 1. dynamometer device 101, dynamometer support seat 102, dynamometer, tool simulation gear 103.1, loading direction adjusting device 2, rear base 201, rear base 202, rear base bearing seat 203, rear rotating shaft 204, telescopic rod 205, upper rotating shaft 206, fixing bolt 207, rotating bracket 208, rotating tray 209, longitudinal beam 210, triangular support frame 211, upright post 212, front rotating shaft 213, front rotating shaft base 214, Z-axis upright post 215, cross beam 3, hydraulic loading unit 301, hydraulic base 302, hydraulic cylinder 303, hydraulic servo valve 304, pressure sensor 305, loading rod 305, torque measuring device 4, fixing bolt 401, 402, base 403.1, connecting bolt 404, torque sensor 5, axis track measuring device 501, circular turntable 502, sensor 503.2, connecting bolt 504.3, 505. the device comprises a displacement sensor, a connecting bolt No. 506.4, a guide rail No. 507, a T-shaped sliding block No. 6, a main shaft device, a main shaft 601, a main shaft 602, a main shaft clamping piece, a cutter simulation gear No. 603.2, a main shaft base 604, a loading conversion unit No. 7, a conversion unit base 701, a reset spring 702, a connecting bolt No. 703.5, a stand column 704, a cutter simulation gear No. 705.3, a ball bearing 706, a loading rod 707, a side baffle 708, a connecting piece 709 and floor iron 8.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in detail below with reference to the attached drawing figures:
referring to fig. 1, the device for simulating the loading condition of the machine tool spindle comprises a dynamometer device 1, a loading direction adjusting device 2, a hydraulic loading unit 3, a torque measuring device 4, an axis track measuring device 5, a spindle device 6, a loading conversion unit 7 and a grade iron 8;
referring to fig. 2, the dynamometer device 1 includes a dynamometer support base 101, a dynamometer 102, and a No. 1 cutter simulation gear 103.
The dynamometer supporting seat 101 consists of a supporting seat main body, a base and 4 right-angled triangular rib plates with the same structure, the supporting seat main body is a cuboid box body formed by welding plates with the thickness of 10mm, and 2 through holes which are collinear with a rotation axis with the same diameter as the dynamometer 102 and are used for mounting the dynamometer 102 are processed on the left box wall and the right box wall at the upper end of the supporting seat main body along the horizontal direction;
the base is a rectangular plate type structural member, the left and right length of the base is equal to the left and right length of the supporting seat main body, the front and back width of the base is greater than the front and back width of the supporting seat main body, three open grooves for installing bolts are respectively processed at two ends of the front and back sides of the base and are used for fixing the dynamometer device 1 on a T-shaped groove of the floor iron 8 by adopting bolts and T-shaped blocks; the supporting seat main body is vertically and symmetrically arranged on the top end of the base through the front and back symmetry of the bottom end of the supporting seat main body, and the outer side wall surfaces of the left box wall and the right box wall of the supporting seat main body are coplanar with the left end surface and the right end surface of the base; 4 right-angled triangle rib plates with the same structure are symmetrically arranged between the front and rear box walls of the supporting seat main body and the top end of the base in front and rear and left and right directions.
The dynamometer 102 is a Siemens SIMOTICS3 type alternating current dynamometer, the maximum torque is 148Nm, and the maximum rotating speed is 10000 rpm. The motor is composed of a three-phase AC commutator motor, a dynamometer and a tachogenerator, wherein a casing is provided with a force measuring arm which is matched with the dynamometer and can detect the torque applied to the stator. The dynamometer can be used as a generator to operate and is used as the load of the tested power machine to measure the output torque on the shaft of the tested machine; DJC alternating current variable frequency feedback loading is adopted, and the loaded energy is fed back to the power grid through an alternating current load generator.
The No. 1 cutter simulation gear 103 is a straight-tooth conical gear, is a standard component, is fixedly connected with a dynamometer rotor on the same axis, is meshed with the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 and is used for transmitting torque generated by the dynamometer;
the dynamometer 102 is arranged in two through holes on the supporting seat main body and is fixed in the annular groove along the axial direction; the No. 1 simulation gear 103 is fixedly connected with the output end of the rotating shaft of the dynamometer 102 through a spline pair.
Referring to fig. 3, the loading direction adjusting device 2 includes a base frame, an X-axis rotation adjusting portion, and a Z-axis adjusting portion.
The base frame comprises a rear base 201, 2 longitudinal beams 209, 2 upright posts 211 with the same structure, 2 triangular support frames 210, 2 front bases 213 with the same structure and a cross beam 215.
The rear base 201 comprises a rear base mounting seat, 2 rear base bearing seats 202 with the same structure and a rear rotating shaft 203, the rear rotating shaft 203 is tightly matched with the rear bearing seats 202 without relative rotation, and a fixed hinge pair is formed; the rear base mounting seat is a flat plate with the thickness of 10mm and the length and width of 30 multiplied by 20cm, screw holes are symmetrically formed in the middle of the rear base mounting seat and used for mounting 2 rear base bearing seats 202 with the same structure, the 2 rear base bearing seats 202 with the same structure are coaxially and serially arranged along the longitudinal direction of the rear base mounting seat, rotating shafts 203 with the diameters of two ends equal to the inner diameter of the rear base bearing seats 202 are mounted on the 2 rear base bearing seats 202 with the same structure, the diameter of the middle part of each rear rotating shaft 203 is larger than the diameters of two ends, and the rear rotating shafts 203 mounted on the rear base bearing seats 202 are prevented from moving along the axial direction;
the 2 longitudinal beams 209 are rectangular groove-shaped structural members formed by welding 5 rectangular steel plate members respectively, the 2 longitudinal beams 209 are mirror symmetry identical members, the thickness of the steel plate is 5mm, and connecting holes respectively connected with the rotating bracket 207, the triangular support frame 210 and the upright post 211 are processed on the steel plate;
the 2 triangular support frames 210 with the same mirror symmetry are right-angled triangular groove-shaped structural members formed by welding 3 rectangular steel plate members and 1 right-angled triangular steel plate member, the thickness of the steel plate is 5mm, through holes respectively connected with the longitudinal beam 209 and the upright post 211 are arranged on 2 rectangular plate members serving as right-angled side groove walls in the triangular support frames 210, upper rotating shaft through holes for installing the upper rotating shafts 205 are arranged on the steel plate members of the right-angled triangular groove walls, and the triangular support frames 210 mainly play a supporting role;
the 2 upright posts 211 with the same structure are rectangular groove-shaped structural members formed by casting, through holes connected with the longitudinal beams 209, the triangular support frames 210 and the cross beams 215 are processed on the groove-shaped structural members, front rotating shaft through holes with the same diameter as that of the front rotating shaft 212 are arranged at the bottom ends of the upright posts 211, two ends of the front rotating shaft 212 are arranged in the front rotating shaft through holes at the bottom ends of the 2 upright posts 211 with the same structure, and the front rotating shaft 212 is rotatably connected with the front rotating shaft through holes at the bottom ends of the 2 upright posts 211 with the same structure;
the front base 213 is a casting, the front base 213 comprises a bearing seat with an annular structure, a supporting wall and a front base bottom plate, the bearing seat, the supporting wall and the front base bottom plate are sequentially and symmetrically connected into a whole from top to bottom, wherein the aperture size of the bearing seat is the same as the diameter of two shaft ends of the front rotating shaft 212, the front base bottom plate is fixedly connected with the floor iron by bolts, and 2 front bases 213 with the same structure are symmetrically arranged at two ends of the front rotating shaft 212;
the cross beam 215 is a rectangular groove-shaped structural member formed by casting, through holes connected with the upright posts 211 are formed in the groove walls of the left end and the right end of the cross beam 215, a circular ring body used for mounting the Z-axis upright post 214 is arranged in the center of the cross beam 215, the diameter of the central through hole in the circular ring body is equal to that of the Z-axis upright post 214, and the Z-axis upright post 214 can rotate in the central through hole;
the rear base 201 and the 2 front rotating shaft bases 213 are provided with bolt holes, the rear base 201 and the 2 front rotating shaft bases 213 are fixed on the floor iron 8 by bolts, the 2 front rotating shaft bases 213 with the same structure are symmetrically sleeved at two ends of the front rotating shaft 212, the 2 upright posts 211 are symmetrically sleeved at two ends of the front rotating shaft 212 through the bottom ends and are positioned at the inner sides of the two front bases 213, and the bottom ends of the 2 upright posts 211 and the front rotating shaft 212 are in static fit; the top ends of 2 upright posts 211 are fixedly connected with the bottom end surfaces of the front ends of 2 longitudinal beams 209 through bolts, the inner side column walls of the upper ends of the 2 upright posts 211 are fixedly connected with the left end surface and the right end surface of the cross beam 215 through bolts, and the top end surfaces of the 2 upright posts 211 and the top end surface of the cross beam 215 are coplanar; two right-angle walls of the triangular support frames 210 are fixedly connected with the bottom end face of the middle section of the longitudinal beam 209 and the column wall at the rear side of the upright post 211 respectively, so that the overall rigidity of the base frame is enhanced, holes with collinear rotation axes and the same diameter as that of the upper rotating shaft 205 are machined in the inner side walls of the 2 triangular support frames 210, the upper rotating shaft 205 is installed in the holes, and the upper rotating shaft 205 is fixedly connected with the inner side walls of the 2 triangular support frames 210;
the Z-axis adjusting part comprises a Z-axis upright post 214, a rotating bracket 207, a rotating tray 208 and a fixing bolt 206.
The Z-axis upright column 214 is a cylindrical structural member and is arranged in a central through hole on the cross beam 215, the upper end of the Z-axis upright column 214 is sleeved with the rotating tray 208, and the rotating tray 208 and the cross beam are in static fit, so that the rotating tray 208 can freely rotate around the Z-axis rotating shaft 214 to adjust the angle;
the rotating bracket 207 is a rectangular plate with the thickness of 10mm, an arc-shaped through groove for adjusting the position of the rotating tray 208 is formed in the rotating bracket 207, and bolt holes for mounting the rotating bracket 207 on a longitudinal beam 209 are formed in the outer sides of two ends of the arc-shaped through groove;
the rotary tray 208 is a cuboid groove piece, a round hole is formed in the inner end of the rotary tray 208 and matched with the Z-axis upright column 214, a bolt through hole for mounting the hydraulic loading unit 3 is formed in the bottom of the rotary tray 208, and a bolt through hole for mounting the rotary tray 208 on the rotary support 207 is also formed in the bottom of the rotary tray 208;
the rotary bracket 207 is fixedly connected with the bottom wall of the rear end of 2 longitudinal beams 209 by bolts, the front end of the rotary tray 208 is sleeved on a Z-axis upright post 214, the Z-axis upright post 214 is inserted into a through hole at the center of a cross beam 215, the bottom end surface of the front end of the rotary tray 208 is in contact connection with the top end surface of the cross beam 215, the rear end of the rotary tray 208 is fixed on a circular arc through groove arranged on the rotary bracket 207 by a fixing bolt and can rotate around the Z-axis upright post 214 within a certain range, and the top end of the rotary tray is provided with a hydraulic loading unit 3;
the X-axis rotation adjusting part comprises a telescopic rod 204, an upper rotating shaft 205 and a front rotating shaft 212.
The telescopic rod 204 comprises a sleeve with internal threads and 2 screw rods with opposite rotation directions, the rotation directions of the internal threads at two ends of the sleeve are also opposite and are respectively matched with the two screw rods with different rotation directions, when the sleeve is screwed, the two screw rods move in opposite directions, the diameter of the threads is smaller than a friction angle, and the screw rods can be ensured to be self-locked at any position;
the upper rotating shaft 205 is a cylindrical structural member, and is respectively matched with a sleeve of a screw of the telescopic rod 204 and a through hole on the triangular bracket 210 to form a hinge pair, wherein the upper rotating shaft 205 is fixedly connected with the triangular bracket 210 and can rotate relative to the sleeve of the screw of the telescopic rod 204;
the front rotating shaft 212 is a cylindrical structural member, and is respectively matched with the bottom ends of the rotating shaft base 213 and the upright post 211 to form a hinge pair, wherein the front rotating shaft 212 is fixedly connected with the rotating shaft base 213 and can rotate relative to the upright post 211;
referring to fig. 9, the rear rotating shaft 203 and the rear base bearing seat 202 in the rear base 201 form a rear rotating shaft fixing hinge pair; the front rotating shaft 212 and the front rotating shaft base 213 form a front rotating shaft fixed hinge pair; the upper rotating shaft 205, a round sleeve of a screw rod of the telescopic rod 204 and the triangular bracket 210 form a movable hinge pair; the telescopic rod 204 is a sliding block structure formed by a sleeve with internal threads and two screw rod structures with opposite rotation directions. When the sleeve is screwed, the two telescopic rods move relatively to form a sliding block to move, so that the longitudinal beam 209 is driven to rotate around the front rotating shaft 212, and the position of a loading point on the longitudinal beam is driven to change.
Referring to fig. 3 and 9, the loading direction adjusting device 2 of the present patent can implement the movement and fixation of the loading point at the end of the loading rod 305 in the hydraulic loading unit 3 in the horizontal direction and the vertical direction, which mainly includes the following implementation manners:
(1) rotation about, and up-and-down movement of, the X axis
Referring to fig. 9, the extension and contraction of the telescopic rod 204 is the movement of the sliding block, which drives the longitudinal beam 209 and the like to rotate around the front rotating shaft 212 (set as the X axis), so that the loading device installed on the longitudinal beam 209 swings up and down around the X axis to realize the up-and-down movement of the loading position and self-lock;
(2) rotation about the Z-axis and movement of left and right range values
The rotating tray 208 can rotate around the Z-axis upright post 214, so that the hydraulic loading unit 3 mounted on the rotating tray 208 also rotates around the Z axis, so that the loading position moves left and right, and after the specified position is found, the rotating tray 208 and the rotating bracket 207 are fixed together through the fixing bolt 206, so that the loading position is fixed in the horizontal direction;
(3) longitudinal movement
The hydraulic cylinder 302 of the hydraulic loading unit 3 can directly move within a certain stroke, and in combination with the rotation around the X axis and the Z axis, the positioning of the loading point at any position can be theoretically achieved.
Referring to fig. 4, the hydraulic loading unit 3 includes a hydraulic base 301, a hydraulic cylinder 302, a hydraulic servo valve 303, a pressure sensor 304, and a loading lever 305.
The hydraulic base 301 is a square groove-shaped structural member with an opening on one side of 40 multiplied by 20cm welded by adopting a plate with the thickness of 5mm, a screw hole is processed on the bottom of the hydraulic base 301 for installing the hydraulic base 301 on the rotary tray 208, and a screw hole for fixedly installing the hydraulic cylinder 302 is also arranged on the bottom of the hydraulic base 301;
the hydraulic servo valve 303 is an MOOG H19JOGM4VPL type electro-hydraulic servo valve;
the pressure sensor 304 is a spoke sensor with the model of LZ-JX 1;
the front end of the loading rod 305 is provided with a key groove which is connected with a No. 3 cutter simulation gear key, and the rear end of the loading rod is provided with a thread which is connected with a hydraulic servo valve 303 through a thread;
the hydraulic base 301 is installed on the rotary tray 208 through bolts, the hydraulic cylinder 302 is fixedly installed on the hydraulic base 301 through bolts, namely, installed in a groove, the hydraulic servo valve 303 for controlling the flow direction and the flow rate of hydraulic pressure is installed on the hydraulic cylinder 302, the pressure sensor 304 is fixed on the extending end of a hydraulic rod of the hydraulic cylinder 302 through one end of the pressure sensor 304 through bolts, the other end of the pressure sensor 304 is fixedly connected with one end of the loading rod 305 through bolts, and the rotation axes of the hydraulic cylinder 302, the pressure sensor 304 and the loading rod 305 are collinear.
The loading of the sine-law dynamic force with certain frequency can be realized after the basic value, the amplitude and the frequency of the force are set by the upper computer.
Referring to fig. 5, the torque measuring device 4 includes a fixing bolt 401, a base 402, a connection bolt 403 No. 1, and a torque sensor 404.
The base 402 is formed by welding plates with the thickness of 5mm, the upper part and the lower part of the base are rectangular plates with the sizes of 15 x 10mm and 20 x 15mm respectively, a supporting rib plate is arranged in the middle of the base, bolt holes are formed in the upper plate and the lower plate, the upper plate is connected with the base of the torque sensor 404 through the bolt holes and bolts, and the lower plate is connected with the floor iron 8 through the bolt holes and foundation screws;
the torque sensor 404 is a strain type torque sensor of type YB2 produced by chengpang, a bolt hole is processed on the base of the torque sensor 404, and the torque sensor is installed on the top end of the base 402 through a No. 1 connecting bolt 403;
an open slot for installing a bolt is arranged on the lower plate at the bottom of the base 402 and is fastened on the floor iron 8 through a fixing bolt 401, a torque sensor 404 is installed on the top end of the base 402 through a No. 1 connecting bolt 403, the torque sensor 404 is connected with a rotating shaft of the spindle device 6, and the torque is measured while the torque is transmitted.
Referring to fig. 6, the axial trajectory measuring device 5 includes a circular turntable 501, 2 sensor connection plates 502 having the same structure, 4 connection bolts 503 2, 4 connection bolts 504 3, 2 displacement sensors 505 having the same structure, 6 connection bolts 506 4, 2 guide rails 507, and 2T-shaped sliders 508 having the same structure.
The circular turntable 501 is a circular structural member with the thickness of 5mm, the outer diameter of 30cm and the inner diameter of 22cm, 4 sections of bolt through grooves with the same circular arc structure are arranged on the circular turntable 501, the bolt through grooves are used for fixedly mounting the sensor connecting plate 502, and the sensor connecting plate 502 can be fixed by bolts at any angle of the circular turntable 501;
the sensor connecting plate 502 is a rectangular plate-shaped structural member with the thickness of 5mm and the length and width of 30 multiplied by 10cm, three parallel sliding grooves with the width of 6cm and the length of 10cm are arranged at one end of the sensor connecting plate 502 and used for installing and fixing the sensor connecting plate 502 on a bolt through groove of the circular turntable 501 by using bolts, the sensor connecting plate 502 can move along the radial direction by the three parallel sliding grooves with the same structure, and two bolt holes are diagonally arranged at the other end of the sensor connecting plate 502 and used for installing the displacement sensor 505;
the displacement sensor 505 is a Ginzhi LJ-X8000 series line laser measuring instrument, is provided with a mounting hole and is fixed on the sensor connecting plate 502 through a No. 3 connecting bolt 504;
the guide rail 507 is a rectangular steel block which is provided with a T-shaped groove and is 10cm long, a connecting plate is arranged above one end of the guide rail 507, and bolt holes are formed in the connecting plate and used for installing the guide rail 507 on the front side wall and the rear side wall of one end of the spindle base 604;
the cross section of the T-shaped sliding block 508 is the same as that of the T-shaped groove on the guide rail 507, the T-shaped sliding block is a T-shaped steel block with a threaded hole at the top end, the T-shaped steel block can move along the T-shaped groove on the guide rail 507, and the T-shaped sliding block 508 is fixedly connected with a radial side lug on the circular turntable 501 through the threaded hole and a bolt;
2 guide rails 507 are symmetrically installed at the front side and the rear side of one (left) end of a spindle base 604 in a spindle device 6 through a No. 4 connecting bolt 506, T-shaped grooves on the 2 guide rails 507 are parallel to the rotation axis of a spindle 601 in the spindle device 6, a circular turntable 501 is installed on the T-shaped grooves of the 2 guide rails 507 through 2T-shaped sliders 508 with the same structure, the 2T-shaped sliders 508 with the same structure can slide along the T-shaped grooves on the 2 guide rails 507, the rotation center of the circular turntable 501 is collinear with the rotation axis of the spindle 601 in the spindle device 6, two displacement sensors 505 are installed at the other end of a sensor connecting plate 502, the sensor connecting plate 502 is fixed on a circular-arc-shaped bolt through groove of the circular turntable 501 through a sliding groove thereon by using the No. 2 bolt 503, and therefore the displacement sensors 505 can move along the radial direction of the circular turntable 501.
A guide rail sliding block mechanism consisting of the circular turntable 501, the T-shaped sliding block 508 and the guide rail 507 can enable the displacement sensor 505 to move and be fixed along the axial direction; the displacement sensor 505 can move to any position around the rotor on the circular arc bolt through groove of the circular turntable 501, and points to the spindle 601 in the spindle device 6 from any angle; the sensor connecting plate 502 is provided with a sliding groove, so that the displacement sensor 505 can move along the radial direction of the circular turntable 501, and the distance between the displacement sensor 505 and the surface of the main shaft 601 is adjusted, thereby realizing the radial movement, the axial movement and the angular rotation of the two displacement sensors 505.
The axis track measuring device 5 mainly collects the real-time position of the main shaft 601 through two displacement sensors 505 which are vertically arranged, calculates the motion track of the axis on the axial section, and uses the motion track as a key index for representing the degradation of the main shaft 601, and is also a main index for the reliability test of the main shaft 601 by the testing device.
Referring to fig. 7, the spindle device 6 includes 3 spindle holders 602, a tool simulation gear No. 2, and a spindle base 604.
The spindle clamping piece 602 is a V-shaped plate structure, the thickness of the spindle clamping piece 602 is 5mm, two ends of the spindle clamping piece 602 are provided with horizontal mounting lugs extending outwards, and the horizontal mounting lugs at the two ends are respectively provided with 2 bolt through holes;
the No. 2 simulation gear 603 is a straight-tooth conical gear, is a standard part, is fixedly connected with the output end of a main shaft on a rotor of a main shaft motor on the same axis through a spline, is meshed with the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 and is used for transmitting torque generated by the main shaft motor;
the main shaft base 604 is a cast structural member, the bottom of the main shaft base is a rectangular plate base provided with 8 open grooves which are the same in structure and used for installing bolts in a front-back symmetrical mode, the main shaft base is fixedly installed on the floor iron 8 through bolts, the upper portion of the main shaft base is a V-shaped groove used for placing the main shaft 601, the top ends of two groove walls of the V-shaped groove are vertically and symmetrically provided with 3 groups of 2 pairs, and the 4 groups of threaded holes are formed in a vertically symmetrical mode, and the main shaft 601 is fixed through the bolts and three main shaft clamping pieces 602 which are placed in parallel; the front and rear side walls of one (right) end of the main shaft base 604 are symmetrically provided with 4 threaded holes with the same structure for installing 2 guide rails 507; the base of the main shaft base 604 and the V-shaped groove on the upper portion are aligned in parallel, the width of the base is larger than that of the V-shaped groove, a longitudinal supporting wall and 4 transverse supporting walls with the same structure are symmetrically and vertically arranged between the base of the main shaft base 604 and the V-shaped groove on the upper portion, the longitudinal supporting wall is a rectangular plate type structural member, the length of the longitudinal supporting wall is equal to that of the V-shaped groove and the base, the 4 transverse supporting walls with the same structure are rectangular structural members, the 4 transverse supporting walls with the same structure are symmetrically arranged on the front side and the rear side of the longitudinal supporting wall, and the 4 transverse supporting walls with the same structure are simultaneously perpendicular to the V-shaped groove and the base and the longitudinal supporting wall.
The spindle 601 is installed in a V-shaped groove at the top end of a spindle base 604 by adopting 3 spindle clamping pieces 602 which are arranged in parallel and have the same structure, the spindle is fixed by adopting bolts, the length of the bolts can be adjusted according to the diameter of the spindle 601, the installation of spindles 601 with different diameters in a certain range is adapted, and a No. 2 cutter simulation gear 603 is installed at the front end of an output shaft of the spindle 601 through spline pair connection.
The main shaft 601 is an electric main shaft for a numerical control machine tool, the model is a Hao Zhi electromechanical DGZX series main shaft, and the output end of the main shaft 601 is provided with a spline groove for mounting a No. 2 cutter simulation gear 603;
referring to fig. 8, the loading conversion unit 7 includes a conversion unit base 701, 2 return springs 702 with the same structure, 2 connecting bolts 703 with the same structure, a column 704, a No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705, a ball bearing 706, a loading rod 707, 2 side baffles 708 with the same structure, and a connecting member 709.
The conversion unit base 701 is formed by welding steel plates, 4 open slots for installing bolts are symmetrically formed in the front and back of the bottom of the conversion unit base 701, the conversion unit base 701 is fixed on a terrace iron 8 through bolts, a T-shaped groove is formed in the top end of the conversion unit base 701, a T-shaped sliding block with the same section is installed in the conversion unit base 701, and the conversion unit base can freely move in the groove; the bottom of the conversion unit base 701 is parallel to the T-shaped groove at the top end, the vertical trapezoid supporting walls and the 2 transverse right-angle trapezoid supporting walls with the same structure are vertically arranged between the bottom of the conversion unit base 701 and the T-shaped groove at the top end, and the 2 transverse right-angle trapezoid supporting walls with the same structure are symmetrically arranged on the front side and the rear side of the vertical trapezoid supporting walls and are vertical to each other.
The connecting piece 709 is composed of a rectangular plate and a cylindrical upright column, the bottom end of the cylindrical upright column is connected with the center of the rectangular plate in a welding mode, the rectangular plates on the two sides of the cylindrical upright column are provided with 2 bolt holes and are connected with a T-shaped block in a T-shaped groove of the conversion unit base 701 through a No. 6 connecting bolt 703, the T-shaped block can slide in the T-shaped groove, side baffles 708 are respectively arranged on the side walls of the two ends of the T-shaped groove, a reset spring 702 is arranged between the side baffles 708 on the two ends and the T-shaped block, and the connecting piece 709 is ensured to be positioned in the middle of the T-shaped groove under the condition that the loading rod 702 is not stressed;
the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 is a straight bevel gear and is a standard part, the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 is sleeved on the outer ring of the ball bearing 706 and is in static fit connection with the outer ring, and the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 is respectively meshed with the No. 1 cutter simulation gear 103 and the No. 2 cutter simulation gear 603 and is used as a transition gear for transmitting torque between a spindle motor and a dynamometer rotor;
the loading rod 707 is a round rod-shaped steel piece with one end being a spheroid, one end with a sphere is in contact with the loading rod 305 and receives a dynamic load transmitted by the loading rod 305, the other end of the loading rod 707 is a screw section, the screw section of the loading rod 707 is vertically inserted into the upper end of the upright post 704 and is in threaded connection with the upper end of the upright post, and the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 is sleeved on the loading rod 707 through a ball bearing 706;
the stand 704 constitute by square piece and drum, the bottom of square piece is in the same place with the top welding of drum, the internal diameter of drum is the same with the cylindrical stand's of connecting piece 709 diameter, a screw hole is processed along the horizontal direction on the face that square piece is on a parallel with drum axis of rotation, square piece passes through the screw rod section of screw hole and loading stick 707, insert the cylindrical stand on the connecting piece 709 in the drum of stand 704, can rotate relatively between the two, 3 # cutter simulation gear 705 adopts ball bearing 706 suit on loading stick 707, adopt interference fit between ball bearing 706's inner circle and the loading stick 707.
The dynamic force applied to the loading rod 707 is transmitted to the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 through the ball bearing 706, and the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 can move back and forth along the T-shaped groove and swing around the upright 704 for an angle, so that the transmission of force and displacement is realized.
The method comprises the following steps that a terrace iron 8 is horizontally placed on a foundation, a dynamometer device 1, a loading conversion unit 7, a spindle device 6, a loading direction adjusting device 2 and a torque measuring device 4 are all installed on the terrace iron 8 by adopting connecting bolts, the dynamometer device 1 and the spindle device 6 are installed at the left end and the right end of one (front) side of the terrace iron 8 along the longitudinal direction of the terrace iron 8, and a dynamometer 102 in the dynamometer device 1 is collinear with the rotation axis of a spindle 601 in the spindle device 6; the loading conversion unit 7 and the torque measurement device 4 are installed between the dynamometer device 1 and the spindle device 6, the loading conversion unit 7 is located on the left side of the torque measurement device 4, the rotation axis of a stand column 704 in the loading conversion unit 7 is vertically intersected with the rotation axis of the dynamometer 102 in the dynamometer device 1, a No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 in the loading conversion unit 7 and No. 1 cutter simulation gears 103 in the dynamometer devices 1 on the left side and the right side are simultaneously meshed and connected with a No. 2 cutter simulation gear 603 in the spindle device 6, a torque sensor 405 at the top end of the torque measurement device 4 is sleeved on an output shaft of the spindle 601, and the torque sensor 405 at the top end of the torque measurement device 4 is coaxial with the spindle 601; the loading direction adjusting device 2 is arranged in the middle of the other (rear) side of the floor iron 8 through 2 front rotating shaft bases 213 and a rear base 201 which are identical in structure, the hydraulic loading unit 3 is arranged at the top end of a rotating tray 208 in the loading direction adjusting device 2, and the loading axis of the hydraulic loading unit 3 is vertically intersected with the rotating axis of the dynamometer device 1 and the spindle device 6; the axis locus measuring device 5 is installed on the inner end of the main shaft base 604 of the main shaft device 6, and the rotation axis of the axis locus measuring device 5 is collinear with the rotation axis of the main shaft 601 in the main shaft device 6.
Referring to fig. 1, 2, 7 and 8, the rotation axis of the dynamometer device 102 of the dynamometer device 1 of the reliability test device for simulating dynamic cutting force and torque loading of real working conditions in the patent is collinear with the motor axis of the spindle 601 of the spindle device 6, but since the middle connecting device is a set of straight bevel gears, small-range movement along the tooth surface direction does not have too great influence on load transmission, and a certain range of installation errors are allowed during installation.
Referring to fig. 12, the steps of the method for applying dynamic torque by using the device for simulating the load condition of the machine tool spindle according to the present invention are as follows:
1. inputting dynamic torque to be loaded
Dynamic torque M-M needing loading1+A1sin ω t, dynamic torque includes a base value M1Amplitude A1And frequency ω, the base value M1The static torque M is input to the dynamometer 102, and the output of the dynamometer 102 is static torque M1
2. Hydraulic loading unit load calculation
Basic value M of torque1Amplitude A1And the frequency omega is calculated, the calculated basic value, amplitude and frequency of the dynamic load are input to the hydraulic loading unit 3, the hydraulic loading unit 3 controls the size and opening direction of an oil way through the hydraulic servo valve 303 to realize dynamic loading, and the calculation process is as follows:
referring to fig. 1, 2, 7, 8 and 10, the loading conversion unit 7 described in this patent is a core component of the entire device, and is a key link for realizing dynamic transmission of torque and force, and the implementation of its function is mainly completed by the No. 1 tool simulation gear 103 of the dynamometer device 1, the No. 2 tool simulation gear 603 and the No. 3 tool simulation gear 705 of the spindle 601, and their supporting components, and its structural schematic diagram is shown in fig. 10.
The loading of the basic value and the additional sine amplitude value by the machine tool spindle load condition simulation device is realized by providing a static torque M by the dynamometer 1021For the No. 1 cutter simulation gear 103 force analysis referring to fig. 10,
circumferential force Ft1Comprises the following steps:
radial force Fr1Comprises the following steps:
axial force Fa1Comprises the following steps:
for the tool simulation gear No. 3 705, the analysis principle is similar to that of the tool simulation gear No. 1 103, and when no dynamic load exists, the forces generated by the tool simulation gear No. 1 103 on the tool simulation gear No. 3 705 are as follows:
circumferential force F't1Comprises the following steps:
radial force F'r1Comprises the following steps:
axial force F'a1Comprises the following steps:
in the absence of dynamic loads, the forces generated by tool simulated gear 2 603 against tool simulated gear 3 705 are as follows:
circumferential force F't2Comprises the following steps:
radial force F'r2Comprises the following steps:
axial force F′a2Comprises the following steps:
according to the transformation-distribution relation delta1=δ2And the interaction principle of the forces, the load received on the No. 2 tool simulation gear 603 is:
circumferential force Ft2
Radial force Fr2
Axial force Fa2
Torque M2:M2=M1
According to the static balance relationship, the axial force F of the loading rod 707 to the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 is as follows:
due to delta1=δ2The above formula is rewritten as:
that is, the base load value of the hydraulic loading unit 3 isIn order to obtain a dynamic load, the load of the hydraulic loading unit 3 is a periodic load that varies sinusoidally around a base value, as follows:
because the dynamometer 102 is a constant torque output, its circumferential force Ft1The radial force F is kept unchanged and can be seen from the stress analysis chart 10r1And axial force Fa1Are all unchanged, so the No. 2 tool simulates the radial force F on the gear 603r2Amount of change Δ F ofr2Comprises the following steps:
ΔFr2=ΔF=A sin ωt
the three simulated gears are all conical gears, and the variation delta F of the circumferential force of the three simulated gears is determined according to the stress relation of the conical gearst2Comprises the following steps:
variation amount of axial force Δ F thereofa2Comprises the following steps:
ΔFa2=ΔFr2tanδ2=A sinωt tanδ2
amount of change in torque Δ M on main shaft 6012Comprises the following steps:
according to the requirements of conical gear assembly relation, dm1=dm2,δ1=δ2
The four varying loads above can be expressed as:
variation amount of circumferential force Δ Ft2
Variation of radial force Δ Fr2:ΔFr2=A sinωt
Amount of change Δ F of axial forcea2:ΔFa2=A sinωt tanδ1
Amount of change Δ M of torque2
Assuming the required dynamic torque is: m is M1+ΔM1=M1+A1sinωt
Wherein:
by combining the two equations, the amplitude A of the hydraulic loading can be determined as:
i.e. the base value of the hydraulic loading unit 3 isAmplitude of
3. Dynamic load loading
The basic value torque M output by the dynamometer 1021And the dynamic load of the hydraulic loading unit 3 obtained by calculation of the upper computer is input into a hydraulic loading controller as an input quantity, and the dynamic load loading on the No. 2 cutter simulation gear 603 is realized by controlling the hydraulic servo valve 303, wherein the dynamic load has the following size:
total circumferential force FTotal t2
Total radial force FTotal r2
Total axial force FGeneral a2
Total torque MGeneral 2:MGeneral 2=M2+ΔM2=M1+A1sinωt
Principle of dynamic Torque and force Loading Process referring to FIG. 11, a base value M1 and an amplitude Δ M of dynamic torque are given in a dynamometer1And an angular frequency ω, wherein the base value M1Via PID control as an input value to the dynamometer 102 and via the torque sensor 404, forming a closed loop control, based on the base value M1And calculating the basic value F of the loading device according to the shape and the size of the bevel gearGeneral assemblyCalculating the amplitude delta F of the loading device according to the amplitude and the angular frequencyGeneral assembly,FGeneral assemblyWill sum up to Δ FGeneral assemblyThe dynamic load loading of the main shaft 601 to be tested is realized under the combined action of the dynamometer 102 and the hydraulic loading unit 3 by using the PID controller as a base value and an amplitude value of hydraulic loading.
The working principle of the machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device is as follows:
the main shaft 601 operates at a given rotating speed, the dynamometer 102 is dragged to operate at the rotating speed, and the dynamometer 102 operates at an opposite and constant torque with the main shaft 601; the main shaft 601 is connected with the dynamometer 102 through a loading conversion unit 7, three vertically-mounted conical gears consisting of a No. 3 cutter simulation gear in the loading conversion unit 7, a No. 2 cutter simulation gear on the electric main shaft 601 and a No. 1 cutter simulation gear on the dynamometer 102 transmit torque and rotating speed between the two, and additional radial force and axial force with constant values are generated when the torque is transmitted due to the existence of the conical gears; the hydraulic loading unit 3 provides a dynamic force with a certain rule for the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 in the middle, so that the torque, the radial force and the axial force transmitted to the main shaft 601 also become dynamic loads, the change rule of the dynamic torque is measured by the torque measuring device 4, and the loading direction of the No. 3 cutter simulation gear 705 can be adjusted by the loading direction adjusting device 2; the line laser displacement sensor 505 in the axis locus measuring device 5 monitors the axis locus of the main spindle 601 as the main amount of performance degradation of the main spindle 601.

Claims (10)

1. The device for simulating the load working condition of the machine tool spindle is characterized by comprising a dynamometer device (1), a loading direction adjusting device (2), a hydraulic loading unit (3), a torque measuring device (4), an axis track measuring device (5), a spindle device (6), a loading conversion unit (7) and a terrace iron (8);
the dynamometer device (1) and the spindle device (6) are longitudinally arranged at the left end and the right end of the front side of the horizontally placed terrace iron (8), and the dynamometer (102) in the dynamometer device (1) is collinear with the rotation axis of the spindle (601) in the spindle device (6); the loading conversion unit (7) and the torque measurement device (4) are arranged between the dynamometer device (1) and the spindle device (6) from left to right, a No. 3 cutter simulation gear (705) in the loading conversion unit (7) and a No. 1 cutter simulation gear (103) in the dynamometer device (1) on the left side and the right side are simultaneously meshed and connected with a No. 2 cutter simulation gear (603) in the spindle device (6), a torque sensor (405) at the top end of the torque measurement device (4) is sleeved on an output shaft of the spindle (601), and the torque sensor (404) and the spindle (601) are coaxial; the loading direction adjusting device (2) is arranged in the middle of the rear side of the floor iron (8) through 2 front rotating shaft bases (213) and a rear base (201) which are identical in structure, the hydraulic loading unit (3) is arranged at the top end of a rotating tray (208) in the loading direction adjusting device (2), and the loading axis of the hydraulic loading unit (3) is vertically intersected with the rotating axis of the dynamometer device (1) and the spindle device (6); the axis track measuring device (5) is arranged at the left end of a main shaft base (604) of the main shaft device (6), and the rotation axis of the axis track measuring device (5) is collinear with the rotation axis of the main shaft (601).
2. The machine tool spindle load condition simulator according to claim 1, wherein the dynamometer device (1) further comprises a dynamometer support base (101);
the dynamometer supporting seat (101) consists of a supporting seat main body, a base and 4 right-angled triangular rib plates with the same structure, the supporting seat main body is a cuboid box, and 2 through holes which are collinear with a rotation axis with the same diameter as the dynamometer (102) and used for mounting the dynamometer (102) are processed on the left box wall and the right box wall at the upper end of the supporting seat main body along the horizontal direction;
the base is a rectangular plate type structural member, the left and right length of the base is equal to the left and right length of the supporting seat main body, the front and back width of the base is greater than the front and back width of the supporting seat main body, three open slots for installing bolts are respectively arranged at the two ends of the front and back sides of the base, the supporting seat main body is vertically installed at the top end of the base through the front and back symmetry of the bottom end of the supporting seat main body, and the outer side wall surfaces of the left and right box walls of the supporting seat main body are coplanar with the left and right end surfaces of the base; 4 right-angled triangle rib plates with the same structure are symmetrically arranged between the front and rear box walls of the supporting seat main body and the top end of the base in front and rear and left and right directions;
the dynamometer (102) is installed in two through holes in the supporting seat main body and is fixed along the axial direction, and the No. 1 simulation gear (103) is fixedly connected with the output end of the rotating shaft of the dynamometer (102) through a spline pair.
3. The machine tool spindle load condition simulator according to claim 1, wherein the loading direction adjusting device (2) comprises a base frame, an X-axis rotation adjusting part and a Z-axis adjusting part;
the base frame comprises a rear base (201), 2 longitudinal beams (209), 2 upright columns (211) with the same structure, 2 triangular support frames (210), 2 front bases (213) with the same structure and a cross beam (215);
the Z-axis adjusting part comprises a Z-axis rotating shaft (214), a rotating bracket (207), a rotating tray (208) and a fixing bolt (206);
the X-axis rotation adjusting part comprises a telescopic rod (204), an upper rotating shaft (205) and a front rotating shaft (212);
the 2 front rotating shaft bases (213) are symmetrically sleeved at two ends of the front rotating shaft (212) and are fixedly connected, the 2 upright posts (211) are symmetrically sleeved on the front rotating shaft (212) at the inner side of the 2 front rotating shaft bases (213) through holes at the bottom ends, and the bottom ends of the 2 upright posts (211) are rotatably connected with the front rotating shaft (212); the top ends of the 2 upright columns (211) are fixedly connected with the bottom end surfaces of the front ends of the 2 longitudinal beams (209) through bolts, the inner side column walls of the upper ends of the 2 upright columns (211) are fixedly connected with the left and right end surfaces of the cross beam (215) through bolts, and the top end surfaces of the 2 upright columns (211) are coplanar with the top end surface of the cross beam (215); the 2 triangular support frames (210) are respectively and symmetrically fixedly connected with the bottom end surface of the middle section of the 2 longitudinal beams (209) and the rear side column wall of the 2 upright columns (211) through two right-angle walls;
the rotary bracket (207) is fixedly connected with the bottom end surfaces of the rear ends of the 2 longitudinal beams (209) by bolts, the front end of the rotary tray (208) is provided with a hole for mounting a Z-axis upright post (214), the front end of the rotary tray (208) is sleeved on the Z-axis upright post (214), the Z-axis upright post (214) is inserted into a through hole in the middle of the cross beam (215), the bottom end surface of the front end of the rotary tray (208) is in contact connection with the top end surface of the cross beam (215), and the rear end of the rotary tray (208) is fixed on an arc-shaped through groove of the rotary bracket (207) by a fixing bolt (206);
two ends of the upper rotating shaft (205) are arranged in through holes on the inner side walls of the 2 triangular supports (210), and the upper rotating shaft (205) is fixedly connected with the inner side walls of the 2 triangular supports (210); the upper end of the telescopic rod (204) is sleeved in the middle of the upper rotating shaft (205) and is in rotating connection with the upper rotating shaft, the lower end of the telescopic rod (204) is sleeved on the rear rotating shaft (203) and is in rotating connection with the rear rotating shaft, and the rear rotating shaft (203) and the rear base (201) form a hinge connection pair through 2 rear base bearing seats (202) with the same structure.
4. The machine tool spindle load condition simulator according to claim 1, wherein the hydraulic loading unit (3) comprises a hydraulic base (301), a hydraulic cylinder (302), a hydraulic servo valve (303), a pressure sensor (304) and a loading rod (305);
the hydraulic cylinder (302) is longitudinally arranged on the hydraulic base (301), the hydraulic servo valve (303) is fixedly arranged at the top end of the hydraulic cylinder (302), the pressure sensor (304) is arranged at the extending end of a hydraulic rod in the hydraulic cylinder (302) through one end of the pressure sensor, the other end of the pressure sensor (304) is connected with one end of the loading rod (305), and the rotary axes of the hydraulic cylinder (302), the pressure sensor (304) and the loading rod (305) are collinear.
5. The machine tool spindle load condition simulator according to claim 1, wherein the axis locus measuring device (5) comprises a circular turntable (501), 2 sensor connecting plates (502) with the same structure, 2 LJ-X8000 series line laser measuring displacement sensors (505) with the same structure, 2 guide rails (507) and 2T-shaped sliders (508) with the same structure;
2 guide rails (507) are symmetrically arranged at the front side and the rear side of the left end of a main shaft base (604) in a main shaft device (6) by using No. 5 connecting bolts (506), T-shaped grooves on the 2 guide rails (507) are parallel to the rotation axis of a main shaft (601) in the main shaft device (6), a circular turntable (501) is arranged on the T-shaped grooves of the 2 guide rails (507) through 2T-shaped sliders (508) with the same structure, the 2T-shaped sliders (508) with the same structure are in sliding connection with the T-shaped grooves on the 2 guide rails (507), the rotation center of the circular turntable (501) is collinear with the rotation axis of the main shaft (601) in the main shaft device (6), 2 displacement sensors (505) are arranged at one end of a sensor connecting plate (502), and the sensor connecting plate (502) is fixed on a circular arc-shaped bolt through groove of the circular turntable (501) through a sliding groove at the other end of the sensor connecting plate and a No. 3 bolt (503).
6. The machine tool spindle load condition simulator according to claim 1, wherein said spindle unit (6) further comprises 3 spindle holders (602) having the same structure;
the main shaft clamping piece (602) is a V-shaped plate type structural piece, two ends of the main shaft clamping piece (602) are provided with horizontal mounting lugs extending outwards, and the horizontal mounting lugs at the two ends are respectively provided with 2 bolt through holes;
the main shaft base (604) is a casting structural member, the bottom of the main shaft base is a rectangular plate type base, 8 open grooves which are the same in structure and used for installing bolts are symmetrically arranged in the front and back direction, the upper portion of the main shaft base is a V-shaped groove used for placing a main shaft (601), the top ends of two groove walls of the V-shaped groove are vertically and symmetrically provided with 3 groups of 2 pairs of 2 threaded holes, each group of 2 pairs of 4 threaded holes are symmetrically arranged in the front and back side walls at the right end of the main shaft base (604), the base of the main shaft base (604) is aligned with the V-shaped groove in parallel, the width of the base is larger than that of the V-shaped groove, a longitudinal supporting wall and 4 transverse supporting walls which are the same in structure are symmetrically and vertically arranged between the base of the main shaft base (604) and the V-shaped groove at the upper portion, the longitudinal supporting wall is a rectangular plate type structural member, and the length of the longitudinal supporting wall is equal to that of the V-shaped groove and the base, the 4 transverse supporting walls with the same structure are rectangular structural members, the 4 transverse supporting walls with the same structure are symmetrically arranged on the front side and the rear side of the longitudinal supporting wall, and the 4 transverse supporting walls with the same structure are simultaneously vertical to the V-shaped groove and the base and the longitudinal supporting wall;
the main shaft (601) adopts 3 main shaft clamping pieces (602) which are arranged in parallel and have the same structure and are fixedly arranged in a V-shaped groove at the top end of a main shaft base (604) with bolts, and a No. 2 cutter simulation gear (603) is arranged at the front end of a rotating shaft of the main shaft (601) by adopting key connection.
7. The machine tool spindle load condition simulation device according to claim 1, wherein the loading conversion unit (7) comprises a conversion unit base (701), 2 return springs (702) with the same structure, a vertical column (704), a No. 3 cutter simulation gear (705), a ball bearing (706), a loading rod (707), 2 side baffles (708) with the same structure and a connecting piece (709);
the rectangular plate in the connecting piece (709) is connected with a T-shaped block in a T-shaped groove at the top end of the conversion unit base (701) by 2 No. 5 connecting bolts (703) with the same structure, the T-shaped block is in sliding connection with the T-shaped groove, 2 side baffles (708) with the same structure are arranged on the side walls at two ends of the T-shaped groove, and a reset spring (702) is arranged between the side baffles (708) at the two ends and the T-shaped block; the column (704) is sleeved on a cylindrical column of the connecting piece (709) through a cylinder at the lower end of the column, the column and the column are in rotary connection, one end of the loading rod (707) is connected with a threaded hole of a square block at the upper end of the column (704), the rotation axis of the loading rod (707) is vertically intersected with the symmetry axis of the column (704), the No. 3 cutter simulation gear (705) is sleeved on the loading rod (707) through a ball bearing (706), and the inner ring of the ball bearing (706) is in interference fit with the loading rod (707).
8. The machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device according to claim 7, characterized in that the conversion unit base (701) is formed by welding steel plates, 4 open grooves for installing bolts are symmetrically arranged at the front and back of the bottom of the conversion unit base (701), a T-shaped groove is arranged at the top end of the conversion unit base (701), a T-shaped sliding block with the same section is arranged in the T-shaped groove, and the T-shaped sliding block are connected in a sliding manner; the bottom of the conversion unit base (701) is parallel to the T-shaped groove at the top end, a longitudinal trapezoidal support wall and 2 transverse right-angle trapezoidal support walls with the same structure are arranged between the bottom of the conversion unit base (701) and the T-shaped groove at the top end, the longitudinal trapezoidal support wall is vertical to the bottom of the conversion unit base (701) and the T-shaped groove, and the 2 transverse right-angle trapezoidal support walls with the same structure are symmetrically arranged on the front side and the rear side of the longitudinal trapezoidal support wall and are vertical to the longitudinal trapezoidal support wall;
connecting piece (709) constitute by rectangular plate and cylindrical stand, cylindrical stand bottom adopts the welding mode to be connected with the center department of rectangular plate, sets up 2 bolt holes on the rectangular plate of cylindrical stand both sides, cylindrical stand diameter equals with the drum internal diameter in stand (704).
9. The device for simulating the load condition of the main shaft of the machine tool according to claim 7, wherein the loading rod (707) is a round rod-shaped steel member with one end being a sphere, the other end of the loading rod (707) is a screw rod, the screw rod of the loading rod (707) is vertically inserted into the upper end of the upright post (704), and the loading rod and the upright post are in threaded connection;
the upright column (704) is composed of a square block and a cylinder, the bottom end of the square block is welded with the top end of the cylinder, the symmetry axis of the square block is collinear with the rotation axis of the cylinder, the inner diameter of the cylinder is the same as the diameter of the cylindrical upright column of the connecting piece (709), the square block and the cylindrical upright column are in running fit, a threaded hole is processed in the center of the end face of the square block parallel to the rotation axis of the cylinder along the horizontal direction, and the diameter of the threaded hole in the square block is equal to the diameter of a screw rod of the loading rod (707).
10. The dynamic torque application method of the machine tool spindle load condition simulation device according to claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) inputting dynamic torque to be loaded
Dynamic torque M-M needing loading1+A1sin ω t, dynamic torque includes a base value M1Amplitude A1And frequency ω, the base value M1The static torque M is input into a dynamometer (102), and the dynamometer (102) outputs the static torque M1
2) Hydraulic loading unit load calculation
Basic value M of torque1Amplitude A1And the frequency omega is calculated, the calculated basic value, amplitude and frequency of the dynamic load are input to the hydraulic loading unit (3), the hydraulic loading unit (3) controls the size and opening direction of an oil way through a hydraulic servo valve (303) to realize dynamic loading, and the calculation process is as follows:
the loading of the basic value and the additional sine amplitude value by the machine tool spindle load condition simulation device is realized by providing a static torque M by the dynamometer (102)1For the stress analysis of the No. 1 cutter simulation gear (103),
circumferential force Ft1Comprises the following steps:
radial force Fr1Comprises the following steps:
axial force Fa1Comprises the following steps:
for the No. 3 cutter simulation gear (705), the analysis principle is similar to that of the No. 1 cutter simulation gear (103), and when no dynamic load exists, the force generated by the No. 1 cutter simulation gear (103) to the No. 3 cutter simulation gear (705) is as follows:
circumferential force F't1Comprises the following steps:
radial force F'r1Comprises the following steps:
axial force F'a1Comprises the following steps:
when no dynamic load is applied, the force generated by the No. 2 cutter simulation gear (603) to the No. 3 cutter simulation gear (705) is as follows:
circumferential force F't2Comprises the following steps:
radial force F'r2Comprises the following steps:
axial force F'a2Comprises the following steps:
according to the transformation-distribution relation delta1=δ2And the interaction principle of the force, the load received on the No. 2 cutter simulation gear (603) is as follows:
circumferential force Ft2
Radial force Fr2
Axial force Fa2
Torque M2:M2=M1
According to the static balance relation, the axial force F of the loading rod (707) to the No. 3 cutter simulation gear (705) is as follows:
due to delta1=δ2The above formula is rewritten as:
that is, the load base value of the hydraulic loading unit (3) isIn order to obtain a dynamic load, the load of the hydraulic loading unit (3) is a periodic load that varies sinusoidally around a base value, as follows:
because the dynamometer (102) is a constant torque output, its circumferential force Ft1The radial force F is kept unchanged and can be known from force analysisr1And axial force Fa1Are all unchanged, so the No. 2 cutter simulates the radial force F on the gear (603)r2Amount of change Δ F ofr2Comprises the following steps:
ΔFr2=ΔF=Asinωt
the three simulated gears are all conical gears, and the variation delta F of the circumferential force of the three simulated gears is determined according to the stress relation of the conical gearst2Comprises the following steps:
variation amount of axial force Δ F thereofa2Comprises the following steps:
ΔFa2=ΔFr2tanδ2=Asinωttanδ2
the amount of change in torque Δ M on the main shaft (601)2Comprises the following steps:
according to the requirements of conical gear assembly relation, dm1=dm2,δ1=δ2
The four varying loads above can be expressed as:
variation amount of circumferential force Δ Ft2
Variation of radial force Δ Fr2:ΔFr2=Asinωt
Amount of change Δ F of axial forcea2:ΔFa2=Asinωttanδ1
Amount of change Δ M of torque2
Assuming the required dynamic torque is: m is M1+ΔM1=M1+A1sinωt
Wherein:
by combining the two equations, the amplitude A of the hydraulic loading can be determined as:
i.e. the base value of the hydraulic loading unit (3) isAmplitude of
3) Dynamic load loading
A base value torque M output by the dynamometer (102)1And the dynamic load of the hydraulic loading unit (3) obtained by calculation of the upper computer is input into a hydraulic loading controller as an input quantity, and the dynamic load loading on the No. 2 cutter simulation gear (603) is realized by controlling a hydraulic servo valve (303), wherein the dynamic load is as follows:
total circumferential force FTotal t2
Total radial force FTotal r2
Total axial force FGeneral a2
Total torque MGeneral 2:MGeneral 2=M2+ΔM2=M1+A1sinωt。
CN202110927269.4A 2021-08-06 2021-08-06 Machine tool spindle load working condition simulation device and dynamic torque application method Active CN113588262B (en)

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CN110608873A (en) * 2019-09-25 2019-12-24 吉林大学 High-speed electric main shaft reliability test device based on ultrasonic vibrator loading
CN111397891A (en) * 2020-05-25 2020-07-10 吉林大学 Non-contact all-working-condition loaded electric spindle reliability test device
CN111649931A (en) * 2020-06-21 2020-09-11 吉林大学 Double-combination loading power servo tool rest power head reliability test bed and test method
CN212567887U (en) * 2020-06-21 2021-02-19 吉林大学 Double-combination loading power servo tool rest power head test stand

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA1088345A (en) * 1979-07-24 1980-10-28 Ex-Cell-O Corporation Load measurement device
DE102009024041B3 (en) * 2009-06-05 2010-12-23 Steinbeis Innovation Ggmbh Device under test e.g. centrifugal clutch, testing device, has bevel gears torque-proofly connected with each other over torque transmission member, and torque applying unit subjecting one gear case relative to another gear case with torque
CN102889983A (en) * 2012-09-28 2013-01-23 吉林大学 Machine tool spindle reliability test bed based on mixed loading of electro-hydraulic servo and dynamometer
CN104289976A (en) * 2014-09-15 2015-01-21 沈机集团昆明机床股份有限公司 Machine tool spindle torque loading test system
CN107202689A (en) * 2017-07-14 2017-09-26 吉林大学 The plane milling and boring machine accessories mill-head reliability test bench loaded with moment of torsion
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CN110608873A (en) * 2019-09-25 2019-12-24 吉林大学 High-speed electric main shaft reliability test device based on ultrasonic vibrator loading
CN111397891A (en) * 2020-05-25 2020-07-10 吉林大学 Non-contact all-working-condition loaded electric spindle reliability test device
CN111649931A (en) * 2020-06-21 2020-09-11 吉林大学 Double-combination loading power servo tool rest power head reliability test bed and test method
CN212567887U (en) * 2020-06-21 2021-02-19 吉林大学 Double-combination loading power servo tool rest power head test stand

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