CN113410538B - 一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构 - Google Patents

一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构 Download PDF

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CN113410538B
CN113410538B CN202110501545.0A CN202110501545A CN113410538B CN 113410538 B CN113410538 B CN 113410538B CN 202110501545 A CN202110501545 A CN 202110501545A CN 113410538 B CN113410538 B CN 113410538B
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曲杰
王超
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South China University of Technology SCUT
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,包括电池箱体、电池模组、强制循环水冷模块。箱体由铝合金组成,被隔板分成两块区域。一块区域放置电池模组和导热装置;另一块区域放置散热器、冷却风扇与水泵。强制循环水冷模块中各结构件间由铝合金水管连接。导热板、导热丝将电池模组的热量传递给集热板,集热板被开孔泡沫铝包裹,冷却液通过水泵增压,通过水管进入密封管套,在密封管套中的开孔泡沫铝孔隙间流动,从集热板与开孔泡沫铝表面吸热升温,然后流向散热器降温,最后冷却液经散热器出水管返回水泵,如此循环下去实现对电池包的散热。

Description

一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构
技术领域
本发明涉及电动汽车电池包结构领域,尤其是涉及一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构。
背景技术
随着电动汽车的保有量大幅度增长,电动汽车中动力电池的碰撞安全和热安全问题逐渐受到重视,电动汽车在行驶过程和充电过程中,由于充放电电流较大,将产生较多的热量。汽车动力电池空间狭小,如何高效、快速的散热,保证电池适宜的工作温度等一系列动力电池散热问题一直困扰着人们,因此改善并提高动力电池包结构的热安全性工作具有重要意义。
期刊文献(Caiping Zhang,Gong Cheng,Qun Ju,Weige Zhang,Jiuchun Jiang,Linjing Zhang.Study on Battery Pack Consistency Evolutions during ElectricVehicle Operation with Statistical Method[J].Energy Procedia,2017,105.)指出现如今的电池包大都未采用自然散热,在高温环境下电池包工作时由于温度过高导致效率低下,严重情况下电池包还会自燃;液冷散热系统因其液体强制流动而带走大量的热量,散热效果好而得到广泛的应用,本发明是基于该原理的基础上开发出一种电池包强制循环水冷散热装置,从而提高动力电池包的散热效果,增加其热安全性。
发明内容
本发明的目的是提供一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,当电动汽车在各种恶劣的工况下,均可保证整个电池组具有良好的温度一致性。
本发明至少通过如下技术方案之一实现。
一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,包括箱体、能够拆卸与安装的箱盖;箱体内部被隔板分成两个区域,一块区域放置电池包,另一块区域放置强制循环水冷模块;
所述强制循环水冷模块包括冷却液驱动装置、导热装置、散热装置;
所述电池包内设有若干电池模组,相邻的电池模组之间放置所述导热装置;导热装置之间通过管道连接,冷却液驱动装置控制冷却液通过水管在导热装置与散热装置中循环流动,实现电池包的散热。
优选的,所述导热装置包括集热板、导热板和密封管套;所述导热板插在电池包之间的间隙中,所述导热板通过导热丝与集热板连接,所述集热板固定在密封管套中。
优选的,相邻的密封管套通过铝合金管道连接。
优选的,所述密封管套内部内部填充开孔泡沫铝,所述集热板固定在开孔泡沫铝中,开孔泡沫铝内部有许多孔隙,冷却液在孔隙间流动,并带走集热板与开孔泡沫铝表面的热量。
优选的,所述密封管套外部采用铝合金外壳密封。
优选的,所述冷却液驱动装置为水泵。
优选的,所述导热板和导热丝采用材料硅,集热板采用金属材料铜。
优选的,所述散热器装置为纵流式散热器,在放置散热器的区域内,箱体两侧开槽,保证空气能穿过散热器。
优选的,所述箱体的材料为铝合金材料。
优选的,所述强制循环水冷模块还包括冷却风扇,冷却风扇为电动风扇,需要提高散热效率时打开冷却风扇。
与现有的技术相比,本发明的有益效果为:
1.该装置内部设计结构导热、散热更加高效;
2.利用开孔泡沫铝材料特性,使液体在开孔泡沫铝之间循环流动,提高散热效率;
3.采用强制循环水冷系统和冷却风扇,使电池包散热效果更明显;
4.采用硅材料、金属铜等多种导热性好的材料,能够更好地吸热,导热与散热,实现电池包的冷却功能。
附图说明
为了更清楚地说明本发明实施例中的技术方案,下面将对实施例描述中所需要使用的附图作简单说明。显然,所描述的附图只是本发明的一部分实施例,而不是全部实施例,本领域的技术人员在不付出创造性劳动的前提下,还可以根据这些附图获得其他设计方案和附图。
图1为本发明实施例一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构的电池包外壳图;
图2为本发明实施例一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构电池包内部结构图;
图3为本发明实施例一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构导热装置结构图;
图4为本发明实施例一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构泡沫铝示意图;
图5为本发明实施例一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构热量传递示意图;
其中,1-电池箱体;2-散热器;3-冷却风扇;4-水泵;5-水管;6-密封管套;7-电池模组;8-开孔泡沫铝;9-集热板;10-导热丝;11-导热板。
具体实施方式
以下结合附图实施例对本发明作进一步详细描述。
本部分将详细描述本发明的具体实施例,本发明之较佳实施例在附图中示出,附图的作用在于用图形补充说明书文字部分的描述,使人能够直观地、形象地理解本发明的每个技术特征和整体技术方案,但其不能理解为对本发明保护范围的限制。
在本发明的描述中,需要理解的是,涉及到方位描述,例如上、下、前、后、左、右等指示的方位或位置关系为基于附图所示的方位或位置关系,仅是为了便于描述本发明和简化描述,而不是指示或暗示所指的装置或元件必须具有特定的方位、以特定的方位构造和操作,因此不能理解为对本发明的限制。
在本发明的描述中,若干的含义是一个或者多个,多个的含义是两个以上,大于、小于、超过等理解为不包括本数,以上、以下、以内等理解为包括本数。如果有描述到第一、第二只是用于区分技术特征为目的,而不能理解为指示或暗示相对重要性或者隐含指明所指示的技术特征的数量或者隐含指明所指示的技术特征的先后关系。
本发明的描述中,除非另有明确的限定,设置、安装、连接等词语应做广义理解,所属技术领域技术人员可以结合技术方案的具体内容合理确定上述词语在本发明中的具体含义。
如图1~5所示,本发实施例的一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,包括电池箱体1、能够拆卸与安装的箱盖、电池包、强制循环水冷模块;
强制循环水冷模块包括冷却液驱动装置、冷却液、密封管套6、开孔泡沫铝8、集热板9、导热丝10、导热板11、冷却风扇3和散热装置。
如图1和图2所示,电池箱体1上层的箱盖可以开启,方便箱体1内部结构器件的安装与拆卸。电池箱体1内部有一块隔板,将电池箱体1分成两部分,一部分放置电池包与导热装置,另一部分放置散热装置、冷却风扇3、冷却液驱动装置。
所述电池包内设有若干电池模组7阵列排放,相邻的电池模组7之间留有间隙放置导热装置;
所述导热装置包括集热板9、导热板11和密封管套6;导热板11边缘连接许多细长的单质硅导热丝10,导热丝10与铜合金集热板9相连,将导热板11中的热量传递到铜合金集热板9上。
所述导热板11插在电池包之间的间隙中,所述集热板9固定在密封管套6中。
所述密封管套6内部填充开孔泡沫铝8,所述集热板9固定在开孔泡沫铝8中,开孔泡沫铝8内部有许多孔隙,冷却液在孔隙间流动,并带走集热板9与开孔泡沫铝8表面的热量,密封管套6外部采用铝合金外壳密封。
作为优选的实施例,所述导热板11和导热丝采用热传导性能优秀的材料硅,集热板9采用金属材料铜。
如图3和图4所示,相邻的电池模组7之间放置薄的导热板11,电池模组7的热量由导热板11、导热丝10传递给集热板9。
集热板9被开孔泡沫铝8包裹,冷却液从开孔泡沫铝8的孔隙中流过,带走集热板9和开孔泡沫铝8上的热量。
所述开孔泡沫铝8用密封管套6密封,密封管套6保证冷却液不会泄露出去只在泡沫铝空隙与连接管道中流动,冷却液能通过这些管道流通,实现冷却循环。
在制作过程中,由于单质硅相较于金属具有更好的导热性,所制成的导热板更有利于将电池模组产生的热量传导至集热板;且集热板为导热性能更好的薄壁状铜合金制成,更有利于收集单质硅传导来的热量从而被冷却液冷却,实现更高效率的散热,进一步提高动力电池的热安全性。
作为优选的实施例,所述散热装置为散热器2,散热器2采用纵流式散热器;冷却风扇3为电动风扇,需要提高散热效率时打开冷却风扇3。
作为优选的实施例,所述冷却液驱动装置采用水泵4。
当电池处于高功率运作时,或者电池包附近环境温度过高,导致电池包内部温度过高,冷却风扇开启以提高散热效率。
冷却液通过控制水泵4的输出功率调节冷却效果。
所述箱体1的材料为铝合金材料,在放置散热器2的区域内,箱体1两侧开槽,保证空气能穿过散热器2。
冷却液的循环路径为:冷却液通过水泵4增压,经过水管5进入密封管套6中,冷却液在密封管套6中的开孔泡沫铝8孔隙间流动,带走集热板9与开孔泡沫铝9上的热量。然后经过水管5流向散热器2。在散热器2中冷却液向流过散热器2周围的空气散热而降温,最后冷却液返回水泵4,如此循环下去实现对电池包的散热。冷却风扇3的工作可提高散热器散热效果。
如图5,电池包中电池模组7的热量经导热板11、导热丝10传递给集热板9,集热板9传递给开孔泡沫铝8和冷却液。冷却液带走热量,实现了电池包的液冷散热。
根据流体力学原理,若无开孔泡沫铝8存在,冷却液越靠近集热板9,流速越慢,越远离集热板9其流速越快,导致流过单位体积的冷却液所带走的热量很少;当开孔泡沫铝8存在,使管道内冷却液的流速大致相同,因此流过单位体积的冷却液所带走的热量大大提高;泡沫铝与集热板9接触,集热板9上的部分热量传递到泡沫铝上,冷却液从开孔泡沫铝8的孔中流过带走这部分热量。开孔泡沫铝8的增添极大提高了水冷的冷却能力。
以上公开的本发明优选实施例只是用于帮助阐述本发明。优选实施例并没有详尽叙述所有的细节,也不限制该发明仅为所述的具体实施方式。显然,根据本说明书的内容,可作很多的修改和变化。本说明书选取并具体描述这些实施例,是为了更好地解释本发明的原理和实际应用,从而使所属技术领域技术人员能很好地理解和利用本发明。本发明仅受权利要求书及其全部范围和等效物的限制。

Claims (7)

1.一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,其特征在于,包括箱体、能够拆卸与安装的箱盖;箱体内部被隔板分成两个区域,一块区域放置电池包,另一块区域放置强制循环水冷模块;
所述强制循环水冷模块包括冷却液驱动装置、导热装置、散热装置;
所述电池包内设有若干电池模组,相邻的电池模组之间放置所述导热装置;导热装置之间通过管道连接,冷却液驱动装置控制冷却液通过水管在导热装置与散热装置中循环流动,实现电池包的散热;
所述导热装置包括集热板、导热板和密封管套;所述导热板插在电池模组之间的间隙中,所述导热板通过导热丝与集热板连接,所述集热板固定在密封管套中;
所述密封管套内部填充开孔泡沫铝,所述集热板固定在开孔泡沫铝中,开孔泡沫铝内部有许多孔隙,冷却液在孔隙间流动,并带走集热板与开孔泡沫铝表面的热量;所述导热板和导热丝采用材料硅,集热板采用金属材料铜。
2.根据权利要求1所述的一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,其特征在于,相邻的密封管套通过铝合金管道连接。
3.根据权利要求2所述的一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,其特征在于,所述密封管套外部采用铝合金外壳密封。
4.根据权利要求3所述的一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,其特征在于,所述冷却液驱动装置为水泵。
5.根据权利要求4所述的一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,其特征在于,所述散热装置为纵流式散热器,在放置散热器的区域内,箱体两侧开槽,保证空气能穿过散热器。
6.根据权利要求5所述的一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,其特征在于,所述箱体的材料为铝合金材料。
7.根据权利要求1~6任一项所述的一种开孔泡沫铝散热流道的液冷电池包结构,其特征在于,所述强制循环水冷模块还包括冷却风扇,冷却风扇为电动风扇,需要提高散热效率时打开冷却风扇。
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