CN113084006A - Step-by-step extrusion die capable of effectively reducing box forming load - Google Patents

Step-by-step extrusion die capable of effectively reducing box forming load Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113084006A
CN113084006A CN202110361365.7A CN202110361365A CN113084006A CN 113084006 A CN113084006 A CN 113084006A CN 202110361365 A CN202110361365 A CN 202110361365A CN 113084006 A CN113084006 A CN 113084006A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
cavity
die
extrusion
shaped
load
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Pending
Application number
CN202110361365.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
徐健
张治民
张慧芳
穆崇礼
韩瑞
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North University of China
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North University of China
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Priority to CN202110361365.7A priority Critical patent/CN113084006A/en
Publication of CN113084006A publication Critical patent/CN113084006A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D37/00Tools as parts of machines covered by this subclass
    • B21D37/10Die sets; Pillar guides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D22/00Shaping without cutting, by stamping, spinning, or deep-drawing
    • B21D22/02Stamping using rigid devices or tools

Abstract

The invention discloses a step-by-step extrusion die for effectively reducing box forming load, which comprises an upper die plate connected with an upper press machine, a lower die plate connected with a lower press machine, a male die assembly detachable from the upper die plate, a female die and a mandril, wherein the female die and the mandril are arranged on the lower die plate; the male die component comprises an insert corresponding to each of the front cavity and the rear cavity, a base plate connected below the upper die plate and a T-shaped groove bolt; the side edge of the base plate is provided with a T-shaped groove for placing a T-shaped groove bolt, and the tail end of the T-shaped groove bolt is connected with the insert in a threaded fit manner; the female die is provided with an inner cavity for placing the box body blank below the male die component, and the middle of the bottom of the inner cavity is provided with a push hole, and the size of the push hole is matched with that of the push rod. The problem of too big load in the box extrusion forming process is solved to this case, and reasonable design substep extrusion process reaches the purpose that reduces the load, effectively takes shape.

Description

Step-by-step extrusion die capable of effectively reducing box forming load
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of die extrusion forming, and particularly relates to a step-by-step extrusion die capable of effectively reducing box forming load.
Background
With the requirements of energy conservation and emission reduction, the light alloys of the magnesium alloy series are widely applied in production and life, and have obvious effect particularly in the industries of automobile manufacturing, transportation and the like. With the development of production technology, the lightweight replacement of small parts cannot meet the actual production activity requirements of people, and more large-size parts begin to be explored in a lightweight way. For the large-size forming target, the realization of light weight and the application of the light-weight forming target have important economic value in the aspects of energy conservation and emission reduction, but the overlarge forming load caused by the overlarge blank size is always a difficult problem in the extrusion forming process.
The box body, this kind of component has characteristics such as complicated structure, size great, can not once perfect under limited technical conditions and take shape, wherein the load of taking shape is too big the most important. In addition, the box body is formed for many times, a large amount of manpower and material resources are consumed, and unnecessary troubles are brought to actual production and processing. By combining the structural characteristics of the box body and the actual requirements of load reduction forming and rapid production, an effective and feasible step-by-step extrusion die for reducing the forming load of the large box body is urgently needed.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a step-by-step extrusion die capable of effectively reducing the forming load of a box body, solves the problem of overlarge load in the extrusion forming process of the box body, and reasonably designs a step-by-step extrusion process in a numerical simulation mode to achieve the purposes of reducing the load and effectively forming.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the solution of the invention is: a step-by-step extrusion die for effectively reducing the forming load of a box body, the box body structure is divided into a front cavity and a rear cavity,
the front cavity comprises a vertical cavity, a left U-shaped cavity, a right U-shaped cavity and a dumbbell-shaped cavity, the front end of the vertical cavity is opened on the front side, the left U-shaped cavity and the right U-shaped cavity are respectively positioned on the left side and the right side of the front end of the vertical cavity, and the dumbbell-shaped cavity is coaxially positioned on the rear sides of the left U-shaped cavity and the right U-shaped cavity; the rear cavity comprises a wide cavity and a long-strip cavity, the wide cavity stretches across the rear side of the dumbbell-shaped cavity, and the long-strip cavity stretches across the rear side of the wide cavity and exceeds the left end and the right end of the wide cavity; semi-circular grooves are coaxially formed in the cavity wall between each cavity and the adjacent cavity and on the front end face and the rear end face of the box body;
the die comprises an upper die plate connected with an upper press, a lower die plate connected with a lower press, a male die assembly detachable from the upper die plate, a female die and an ejector rod, wherein the female die and the ejector rod are installed on the lower die plate;
the male die component comprises an insert corresponding to each of the front cavity and the rear cavity, a base plate connected below the upper die plate and a T-shaped groove bolt; the front and the side of the base plate are provided with T-shaped grooves for placing T-shaped groove bolts, and the tail ends of the T-shaped groove bolts are connected with the insert in a threaded fit manner; the female die is provided with an inner cavity for placing the box body blank below the male die component, and the middle of the bottom of the inner cavity is provided with a push hole, and the size of the push hole is matched with that of the push rod.
Further, the bottom of the lower template and the bottom of the female die are outwards diverged and uniformly distributed with mounting holes by taking the ejection hole as a circle center, and the mounting holes are used for mounting bolts to connect the lower template and the female die.
Furthermore, the periphery of the insert is provided with a die drawing angle.
The invention effectively achieves the purpose of reducing the extrusion forming load of the box body in a step-by-step extrusion mode. By analyzing the characteristics of the complex box body, the formed part is effectively split, so that the purpose of reducing the load is achieved. And (4) realizing optimization of the step-by-step extrusion mode by combining a finite element simulation analysis technology, and judging whether the step-by-step extrusion mode is reasonable or not according to a simulation result. And if the extrusion conditions are not met, the extrusion part is detached, so that the load is reduced, and the process is repeated until a proper extrusion mode is designed. The characteristic of a method for reducing forming load by step-by-step extrusion is combined, and the die is designed to adopt a detachable pin structure to fix the insert and the upper die plate. And after extrusion is completed, the insert is disassembled and placed into a forming cavity, and then next extrusion work is carried out. The invention is suitable for solving the problem of overlarge load in extrusion forming of large-size blanks. The invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) effective load reduction: the step-by-step extrusion design of the invention takes the extrusion forming characteristics and mode characteristics of the box body into consideration, reasonably splits a plurality of preformed cavities and effectively reduces the forming load. And a multi-step extrusion mode is used for replacing a one-step extrusion mode, so that the extrusion requirements of balanced stress and complete forming are met.
(2) The economic efficiency is as follows: according to the invention, by means of a finite element simulation technology, the feasibility of the forming scheme is verified and continuously optimized in a modeling and simulation mode according to the actual production condition, so that the forming difficulty in the actual production process is avoided and unnecessary waste is effectively reduced.
(3) High efficiency: the invention combines the step-by-step extrusion mode with the placement of the backing plate, and the insert is used as a cushion block to be placed in the cavity after the die realizes the extrusion of each step of cavity by a detachable structure. The idea saves the complex steps of disassembly and assembly in the production process and realizes rapid production in the actual processing production.
(4) And (3) perfecting and forming: the step-by-step extrusion forming is designed in an adjacent and continuous dividing mode, the forming of adjacent cavities is continuous, and the influence of the forming of subsequent cavities on the formed cavities in the front is reduced in the step-by-step mode.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a target box according to a first embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a front view of a mold structure according to a first embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along A-A of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a top view of a mold according to a first embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of a lower template according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is an elevation view of an insert for a vertical cavity according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 7 is a top view of an insert for a vertical cavity according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view taken along B-B of FIG. 6;
FIG. 9 is an elevational view of an insert for a left and right U-shaped cavity according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 10 is a top plan view of an insert for left and right U-shaped cavities according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view taken along C-C of FIG. 9;
FIG. 12 is an elevational view of an insert for a dumbbell shaped cavity in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 13 is a top view of an insert for a dumbbell shaped cavity in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 14 is an elevational view of an insert for a wide cavity according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 15 is a top view of an insert for a wide cavity according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 16 is an elevation view of an insert for an elongated cavity according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 17 is a top view of an insert for an elongated cavity according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 18 is an elevation view of a shim plate according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 19 is a top view of a backing plate according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 20 is a cross-sectional view taken along D-D of FIG. 18;
FIG. 21 is an elevation view of a pin according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 22 is a top view of a pin according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 23 is a sequence view of a step-by-step extrusion molding according to the embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 24 is a flow chart of the step-by-step extrusion method of the embodiment of the invention in the process of extruding a large box.
Description of reference numerals:
the die comprises a front cavity 1, a vertical cavity 11, a left U-shaped cavity 12, a right U-shaped cavity 13, a dumbbell-shaped cavity 14, a rear cavity 2, a wide cavity 21, a long-strip cavity 22, a semicircular groove 3, an upper template 4, a male die assembly 5, an insert 51, a backing plate 52, a T-shaped groove bolt 53, a lower template 6, a female die 7 and an ejector rod 8.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments.
The invention relates to a design method of a step-by-step extrusion die for effectively reducing the forming load of a box body, which comprises the following steps:
firstly, preliminarily splitting the shape of the integral internal cavity, splitting the integral internal cavity into a plurality of cavity shapes at different positions, preliminarily determining the extrusion process according to the shape of each cavity, and preliminarily determining the extrusion process according to the position sequence of each cavity;
modeling to carry out a simulation experiment, designing the sizes of the female die 7 and the male die by UG modeling in combination with the extrusion characteristics and the sizes, presetting the maximum extrusion load meeting the forming requirements, carrying out an extrusion simulation experiment, judging whether the primary splitting mode of each cavity is proper or not by the extrusion load data and the maximum extrusion load of the simulation experiment, carrying out the next step if the primary splitting mode is proper, further splitting the extrusion forming characteristics of the cavities exceeding the preset maximum extrusion load if the primary splitting mode is not proper, carrying out reasonable arrangement and modification again, modeling again after the modification is finished, carrying out the simulation experiment, and judging whether the modified splitting mode is proper or not until the judgment result is proper;
step three, determining a split mode of step-by-step extrusion;
step four, repeating the operation of step two and step three until the optimal extrusion design scheme is determined, and referring to fig. 23.
In this embodiment, a box structure with a complicated internal cavity structure is designed according to the mold design method provided above, and the target box structure is shown in fig. 1, the box structure is divided into a front cavity 1 and a rear cavity 2,
the front cavity 1 comprises a vertical cavity 11, a left U-shaped cavity 12, a right U-shaped cavity 13 and a dumbbell-shaped cavity 14, wherein the front end of the vertical cavity 11 is opened at the front, the left U-shaped cavity 12 and the right U-shaped cavity 13 are respectively positioned at the left side and the right side of the front end of the vertical cavity 11, and the dumbbell-shaped cavity 14 is coaxially positioned at the rear sides of the left U-shaped cavity 12 and the right U-shaped cavity 13;
the rear cavity 2 comprises a wide cavity 21 and a long-strip cavity 22, the wide cavity 21 spans the rear side of the dumbbell-shaped cavity 14, and the long-strip cavity 22 spans the rear side of the wide cavity 21 and exceeds the left end and the right end of the wide cavity 21;
semi-circular grooves 3 are coaxially arranged on the cavity wall between each cavity and the adjacent cavity and on the front end surface and the rear end surface of the box body.
In order to realize the design of the forming die of the box body, the die design method comprises the following specific steps:
step one, analyzing and preliminarily determining the extrusion characteristics and the size of the box body, and preliminarily splitting the box body into the following cavity parts: the method comprises the following steps of (1) primarily determining an extrusion process to be positive extrusion by a front cavity 1 and a rear cavity 2, and sequentially forming the front cavity 1 and the rear cavity 2 in the extrusion process;
modeling, carrying out a simulation experiment, designing the size of the die through UG modeling by combining the extrusion characteristics and the size, and presetting the maximum extrusion load meeting the forming requirement;
the invention provides a step-by-step extrusion die capable of effectively reducing box forming load, which is combined with a graph from 1 to 5 and comprises an upper template 4 connected with an upper press machine, a lower template 6 connected with a lower press machine, a male die assembly 5 detachable from the upper template 4, a female die 7 installed on the lower template 6 and a mandril 8;
fig. 1, 2 and 6 to 22, the male die assembly 5 includes an insert 51 corresponding to each of the front cavity 1 and the rear cavity 2, a backing plate 52 attached below the upper die plate 4, and a T-shaped groove bolt 53; the front and the side edges of the backing plate 52 are provided with T-shaped grooves for placing T-shaped groove bolts 53, and the tail ends of the T-shaped groove bolts 53 are connected with the insert 51 in a thread fit mode, so that the backing plate is convenient to disassemble; the upper template 4 and the backing plate 52 are fixed by inner hexagon bolts; the female die 7 is provided with an inner cavity for placing the box body blank below the male die component 5, the middle of the bottom of the inner cavity is provided with an ejection hole, and the size of the ejection hole is matched with that of the ejection rod 8; the bottom of the lower template 6 and the bottom of the female die 7 are outwards diverged and uniformly distributed with mounting holes by taking the ejection hole as a circle center, and the mounting holes are used for mounting bolts to connect the lower template 6 and the female die 7.
The insert 51 has a certain drawing angle around, which is convenient for demoulding after extrusion.
The connecting structure of the insert 51 and the backing plate 52 is designed to be a detachable structure for reasonable arrangement, the insert 51 can be detached after extrusion is completed and placed in a formed cavity to serve as a cushion block, subsequent extrusion is prevented from damaging the formed cavity, interference reaction caused by next extrusion is avoided, and forming effect is effectively guaranteed.
After the insert 51 connected by the T-shaped groove bolt 53 slides into the T-shaped groove of the backing plate 52, the insert 51 is limited to slide in the T-shaped groove by the cylindrical pin which can be split into three parts, as shown in fig. 20 and 22, the connection function is realized by mutual matching, and the matched cylindrical pin is rotated by 90 degrees to achieve the fixing purpose of the insert 51 and the backing plate 52.
The shim plate 52 is provided with "T-shaped" slots on the sides and front for connection to T-slot bolts 53, taking into account the structural features of the extrusion machine: the side edge of the extruder is provided with a lifting rod, so that the operation is inconvenient, after the extrusion work of the front cavities 11, 12 and 13 of the box body is completed, the T-shaped groove bolt 53 is drawn out, the detached insert 51 is placed into the formed cavity, the whole die is rotated anticlockwise by 90 degrees, so that the T-shaped groove on the side surface of the backing plate 52 faces the front surface of the machine, and the next extrusion step is smoothly carried out;
setting extrusion simulation parameters: the blank temperature is 450 ℃, the material and attribute of the blank are rare earth magnesium alloy and plastomer, and the grid number is 50000; the male die component 5 is a rigid body, the temperature is 450 ℃, the extrusion speed is 0.6mm/sec, and the pressing depth is 145 mm; the die 7 and the pad 52 are rigid bodies and the temperature is 450 ℃. The extrusion forming condition is that the maximum extrusion load is not more than 3000T, the reserved subsequent machining allowance is 3mm, and the effective working height of the insert 51 is 155mm in consideration of blank surface leveling and machining allowance. Then exporting an STL format, importing the STL format into software Deform to set parameters, carrying out an extrusion simulation test, judging whether the preliminary splitting mode of each cavity is proper or not according to the extrusion load data and the maximum extrusion load of the simulation test, if the preliminary splitting mode is proper, carrying out the next step, if the preliminary splitting mode is not proper, further splitting the extrusion forming characteristics of the cavities exceeding the preset maximum extrusion load, carrying out reasonable arrangement and modification again, modeling again after the modification is finished, carrying out the simulation test, and judging whether the modified splitting mode is proper or not until the judgment result is proper;
step three, determining a split mode of step-by-step extrusion, extruding and forming the integral cavity, performing a first step of trial, combining extrusion conditions and forming requirements: the box body is formed more perfectly within the requirement that the maximum extrusion load is 3000T. Under the set extrusion condition and the requirement of pressing depth, although the surface of the blank is already subjected to the extrusion force, the contact area of the punch and the blank is too large, so that the extrusion load is rapidly increased, the rated load is reached in a short time, and the forming depth of the cavity cannot meet the expected requirement.
And step four, repeating the operation of the step two and the operation of the step three until the optimal extrusion design scheme is determined. Under the set requirement of the pressing depth, the half-split front cavity 1 and the half-split rear cavity 2 are extruded and formed, and the pressing load is reduced to a certain degree but the actual production condition cannot be met. Because the clearance between the dumbbell-shaped cavity 14 and the left and right U-shaped cavities is too small, the metal flows faster than other positions, so that the metal in the gap contacts the backing plate 52 too early, the load rises quickly, and as a result, the load reaches the production requirement when the insert 51 is not pressed down to the set position, and further optimization is further carried out;
and repeating the second operation and the third operation again, dividing the primarily divided front cavity 1 and the primarily divided rear cavity 2 again, dividing the front cavity 1 into a vertical cavity 11, a left U-shaped cavity 12, a right U-shaped cavity 13 and a dumbbell-shaped cavity 14, dividing the rear cavity 2 into a wide cavity 21 and a long cavity 22, and finally processing the semicircular groove 3. Furthermore, to ensure that the forming effect limits the billet flow, the extrusion sequence is determined: the vertical cavity 11, the left U-shaped cavity 12, the right U-shaped cavity 13, the dumbbell-shaped cavity 14, the wide cavity 21, the long cavity 22, and the semicircular groove 3 are shown in fig. 24 for visually reflecting the design idea and facilitating understanding of the present invention. The step extrusion mode can complete extrusion work under the pressure condition of 3000T. There are still some deficiencies in the forming requirements and further forming optimization is achieved by modifying the shape of the insert 51 to optimize the metal flow orientation. However, with the wide cavity 21, the large contact area makes the pressing load excessive and it is difficult to reduce the load by modifying the shape of the insert 51. The step-extrusion method is particularly important in the case of the problem that the wide cavity 21 is difficult to achieve load reduction by modifying the shape of the insert 51;
and repeating the second step and the third step again, considering the forming effect, avoiding mutual interference in the forming of the cavities and leaving machining allowance among the cavities. Finally, the semicircular groove 3 is pressed, and the excessive load also occurs. Because the semicircular groove 3 is arranged on the wall of the box-shaped cavity, the lower surface of the backing plate 52 is in contact with the formed blank in the process of pressing down, so that the load is overlarge;
and repeating the second step and the third step again, dividing the semicircular groove 3 into a front cavity and a rear cavity for extrusion forming, and correspondingly placing the formed insert 51 into the formed cavity before the extrusion of the semicircular groove 3, so as to avoid damaging the integrity of the formed cavity.
In summary, the present invention employs a step-by-step extrusion method to effectively reduce extrusion forming loads. And dividing the characteristics to be extruded and formed, verifying whether the dividing mode meets the production requirements through a modeling and simulation means to judge the rationality of the dividing mode, if not, dividing again to reduce the load to meet the forming requirements, and finally determining the most complete forming mode.
It should be noted that the front cavity 1 has forming imperfection in the extrusion process, forming allowance is left at the part of the blank difficult to form, and the backing plate 52 is combined to limit the metal flow, so as to achieve the purpose of perfect forming. The lug plate structures on two sides of the box wide cavity 21 belong to regions difficult to form in a backward extrusion mode, and the lug plate forming is realized by guiding metal flow in a mode of placing limiting blocks at the positions of the two sides of the female die strip cavity 22.
In addition, supplementary explanation is given to the operation problems brought by the mold structure in the production process. The insert 51 and the backing plate 52 are mounted through a T-shaped groove bolt 53, the T-shaped grooves of the vertical cavity 11, the left U-shaped cavity 12 and the right U-shaped cavity 13 are formed in the front surface of the backing plate 52, and the T-shaped grooves of the rest cavities are formed in the side surface of the backing plate 52. After the extrusion of the vertical cavity 11, the left U-shaped cavity 12 and the right U-shaped cavity 13 is completed, the whole die needs to be rotated by 90 degrees counterclockwise and then the subsequent extrusion work is performed. The insert 51, disassembled, is placed in the formed cavity as in the simulation. As shown in fig. 21 and 22, the detachable pin structure is configured to insert a detachable cylindrical pin to fix the insert 51 and the pad 52, rotate 90 ° after connection to complete the fixing operation, rotate 90 ° after extrusion to take out the detachable pin, and then pull out the T-shaped slot bolt 53 for detachment. After all extrusion work is finished, the ejector rod 8 at the bottom ejects out the formed piece for demoulding, and the formed blank is taken out.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the design of the present invention, and all equivalent changes made in the design key point of the present invention fall within the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. The utility model provides an effectively reduce substep extrusion die of box load that takes shape which characterized in that: the box body structure is divided into a front cavity and a rear cavity,
the front cavity comprises a vertical cavity, a left U-shaped cavity, a right U-shaped cavity and a dumbbell-shaped cavity, the front end of the vertical cavity is opened on the front side, the left U-shaped cavity and the right U-shaped cavity are respectively positioned on the left side and the right side of the front end of the vertical cavity, and the dumbbell-shaped cavity is coaxially positioned on the rear sides of the left U-shaped cavity and the right U-shaped cavity; the rear cavity comprises a wide cavity and a long-strip cavity, the wide cavity stretches across the rear side of the dumbbell-shaped cavity, and the long-strip cavity stretches across the rear side of the wide cavity and exceeds the left end and the right end of the wide cavity; semi-circular grooves are coaxially formed in the cavity wall between each cavity and the adjacent cavity and on the front end face and the rear end face of the box body;
the die comprises an upper die plate connected with an upper press, a lower die plate connected with a lower press, a male die assembly detachable from the upper die plate, a female die and an ejector rod, wherein the female die and the ejector rod are installed on the lower die plate;
the male die component comprises an insert corresponding to each of the front cavity and the rear cavity, a base plate connected below the upper die plate and a T-shaped groove bolt; the front and the side of the base plate are provided with T-shaped grooves for placing T-shaped groove bolts, and the tail ends of the T-shaped groove bolts are connected with the insert in a threaded fit manner; the female die is provided with an inner cavity for placing the box body blank below the male die component, and the middle of the bottom of the inner cavity is provided with a push hole, and the size of the push hole is matched with that of the push rod.
2. The step extrusion die for effectively reducing the forming load of the box body as claimed in claim 1, wherein: and mounting holes are uniformly distributed at the bottoms of the lower template and the female die in an outward diverging manner by taking the ejection hole as a circle center, and are used for mounting bolts to connect the lower template and the female die.
3. The step extrusion die for effectively reducing the forming load of the box body as claimed in claim 1, wherein: and the periphery of the insert is provided with a die drawing angle.
CN202110361365.7A 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 Step-by-step extrusion die capable of effectively reducing box forming load Pending CN113084006A (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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CN113094951A (en) * 2021-04-02 2021-07-09 中北大学 Design method of step-by-step extrusion die capable of effectively reducing box forming load

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