CN112931383B - Method for transporting Luhai relay spats - Google Patents

Method for transporting Luhai relay spats Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112931383B
CN112931383B CN202110312329.1A CN202110312329A CN112931383B CN 112931383 B CN112931383 B CN 112931383B CN 202110312329 A CN202110312329 A CN 202110312329A CN 112931383 B CN112931383 B CN 112931383B
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water
transportation
cabin
land
frame
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CN112931383A (en
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赵旺
于刚
马振华
温为庚
孟祥君
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South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy Fishery Sciences
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South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy Fishery Sciences
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Priority to ZA2021/08344A priority patent/ZA202108344B/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/02Receptacles specially adapted for transporting live fish
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/04Arrangements for treating water specially adapted to receptacles for live fish
    • A01K63/042Introducing gases into the water, e.g. aerators, air pumps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/04Arrangements for treating water specially adapted to receptacles for live fish
    • A01K63/045Filters for aquaria
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Marine Sciences & Fisheries (AREA)
  • Animal Husbandry (AREA)
  • Biodiversity & Conservation Biology (AREA)
  • Zoology (AREA)
  • Farming Of Fish And Shellfish (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for transporting sea relay spats, which relates to the field of spat transportation and comprises the following steps: filling the shell seedlings into the transportation mesh bags of the transportation frame, and placing the transportation frame in a seedling pool for cultivation; screening out the spat meeting the transportation requirement; adding seawater into the land transportation container, and transferring the transportation frame carrying the spats meeting the transportation requirements into the land transportation device; and filling the filtered seawater into the running water cabin of the marine transportation device, transferring the transportation frame into the running water cabin, opening the second oxygen supply device, and adjusting the water control plate to enable the water control plate to be always positioned below the filtered seawater liquid level in the running water cabin so as to maintain the water body in the running water cabin to be calm. The method for transporting the sea relay spats can transport the spats for a long time and in a long distance, and survival rate of the spats is improved.

Description

Method for transporting Luhai relay spats
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of spat transportation, in particular to a method for transporting relay spat in land and sea.
Background
In recent years, coastal water quality is seriously deteriorated and diseases are various, and artificial breeding and pearl culture of pearl shells are difficult. The open sea is far away from the human activity area, has good water quality conditions required by the growth of the pearl shells, and is suitable for the development of artificial propagation and cultivation of the pearl shells. However, the first problem of developing the open-sea aquaculture of the pearl shells is breaking through long-time and long-distance transportation. The prior oxygenation packaging method has the defects that the PE packaging bag has limited space and small transportation volume, and the charged oxygen is not enough to ensure the supply of long-distance transportation for a long time, so that the survival rate of the transportation is influenced; although the low-temperature transportation can be successful in a short time, the long-time low-temperature transportation causes difficultly-recovered damage to the pearl oyster, and the pearl oyster can die; the land transportation can be carried out by adopting a bucket loaded by a van, and with the increase of the transportation time, excrement, mucus and putrefaction generated by metabolism, stress reaction, death and the like of the spat can easily pollute the transportation water body, breed harmful bacteria and reduce dissolved oxygen in the water body, so that the spat transported is anoxic and dead and cannot be transported for a long time and in a long distance; the marine transportation is influenced by sea conditions, stress reaction of the spat is easy to occur, and the survival rate of the spat is low when the spat is transported for a long time in a long distance.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for transporting sea relay spats, which solves the problems in the prior art, can transport the spats for a long time and can improve the survival rate of the spats.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following scheme:
the invention provides a method for transporting sea relay spats, which comprises the following steps:
step 1: filling the shell seedlings into the transportation mesh bags of the transportation frame, and placing the transportation frame in a seedling pool for cultivation;
step 2: screening out the spat meeting the transportation requirement;
and step 3: using land transportation devices to transport the spat on land: the land transportation device comprises a land transportation container, a first oxygen supply device and a water circulation filtering device, seawater is added into the land transportation container, the transportation frame carrying the spat meeting the transportation requirement is transferred into the land transportation container, the water circulation filtering device can enable the water body in the land transportation container to circularly flow and remove impurities in the water body, the first oxygen supply device can supply oxygen to the water body in the land transportation container, and the land transportation device is placed in a closed carriage of a transportation vehicle for transportation; regularly checking whether the first oxygen supply device and the water circulation filtering device work normally or not;
and 4, step 4: marine transportation of the spat using a marine transport device: the sea transportation device comprises a running water cabin, a second oxygen supply device and a water control system, wherein the running water cabin is filled with filtered seawater, the transportation frame which meets the transportation requirement of the spat is transferred into the running water cabin, the second oxygen supply device is opened, the second oxygen supply device and the water control system are fixedly arranged inside the running water cabin, the second oxygen supply device can supply oxygen to the filtered seawater inside the running water cabin, the water control system comprises a water control plate, the water control plate can move up and down inside the running water cabin, and the water control plate is adjusted to enable the water control plate to be always positioned below the filtered seawater liquid level inside the running water cabin so as to maintain the water body inside the running water cabin to be calm.
Preferably, the marine transportation of the spat by using the marine transportation device in the step 4 further comprises the following steps:
opening the running water cabin regularly to exchange the filtered seawater in the sea area, and treating dead seedlings until the dead seedlings reach a target sea area;
after the water reaches the target sea area, opening the water-activating cabin to enable the water body in the water-activating cabin to be successively replaced by filtered seawater of the target sea area, and temporarily culturing the shellfish seedlings in the water-activating cabin to enable the shellfish seedlings to adapt to the water quality environment of the target sea area;
and taking out the transportation frame after the spats adapt to the water quality environment of the target sea area, and hanging and cultivating the spats in the target sea area.
Preferably, the land transportation device further comprises a sieve plate, wherein the sieve plate is fixedly arranged inside the land transportation container, and the sieve plate can divide the land transportation container into an upper cavity and a lower cavity.
Preferably, when the field transportation device is used for short-distance field transportation of the spats, the transportation frame carrying the spats meeting the transportation requirements is transferred to the upper cavity and placed on the sieve plate in step 3, seawater not exceeding the height of the sieve plate is added into the field transportation container, ice blocks are added into the seawater, cloth pieces are laid on the transportation mesh bags, the cloth pieces are soaked by the seawater in advance, the field transportation device is placed in the closed carriage for transportation, and a small amount of seawater is regularly sprayed on the cloth pieces.
Preferably, when the shellfish is transported by land for a long distance by using the land transportation device, the first oxygen supply device and the water circulation filtering device are turned on in step 3, and whether the first oxygen supply device and the water circulation filtering device work normally is checked every 1 hour.
Preferably, in the step 4, after the transport ship travels to 70-100 seas away from the coast, the water-activating cabin is opened to exchange filtered seawater, the daily water exchange amount is 100% -200% of the volume of the water body in the water-activating cabin, the water exchange is carried out at 8:00-11:00 in the morning, water quality detection is carried out before water exchange, and the water body in the water-activating cabin and the water body outside the water-activating cabin are ensured to have the temperature difference of less than or equal to 2 ℃, the salinity difference of less than or equal to 2 and the pH difference of less than or equal to 0.5, and then water exchange operation is carried out.
Preferably, after the target sea area is reached in the step 4, detecting the water quality inside and outside the water-activating tank, opening the water-activating tank to change water when the temperature difference of the water inside and outside the water-activating tank is less than or equal to 2 ℃, the salinity difference is less than or equal to 2 and the pH difference is less than or equal to 0.5, wherein the water change amount is about 50 percent, and the water change is continued for 50 percent after 2 hours; and when the temperature difference of the water bodies inside and outside the water-activating cabin is greater than 2 ℃, the salinity difference is greater than 2 and the pH difference is greater than 0.5, opening the water-activating cabin for water change, wherein the water change amount is about 30 percent, the water change amount is 30 percent after 2 hours, the water change amount is 40 percent after 2 hours, and after the water change amount reaches 100 percent, temporarily culturing the shell seedlings in the water-activating cabin for 2 hours.
Preferably, the transportation frame comprises an upper transportation frame, a lower transportation frame, a plurality of transportation mesh bags and a plurality of supporting frames, a sliding ring is fixedly arranged on the edge of one end of the upper transportation frame, which is close to the lower transportation frame, a limiting ball is correspondingly arranged on the edge of one end of the lower transportation frame, which is close to the upper transportation frame, the edge of the lower transport frame close to one end of the upper transport frame can pass through the sliding ring and slide in the sliding ring along the direction of the edge of the lower transport frame close to one end of the upper transport frame, the limit ball limits the arris of one end of the lower transportation frame, which is close to the upper transportation frame, to slide in the sliding ring, so that the height of the transportation frame can be adjusted, one support frame can support one transportation mesh bag matched with the support frame, and the transportation mesh bags are kept in fixed shapes, and each transportation mesh bag is fixedly arranged on the upper transportation frame or the lower transportation frame.
Preferably, the land transportation container comprises a plurality of transportation barrels which are arranged in a linear mode, the upper cavity of each transportation barrel is communicated with an upper water pipe, the lower cavity of each transportation barrel is communicated with a lower water pipe, each transportation barrel is communicated with the adjacent transportation barrel on one side of the transportation barrel through the upper water pipe, each transportation barrel is communicated with the adjacent transportation barrel on the other side of the transportation barrel through the lower water pipe, the two connected upper water pipes are provided with upper water pipe valves, the two connected lower water pipes are provided with lower water pipe valves, the upper water pipe valves are used for controlling the connection and disconnection of the upper water pipes, the lower water pipe valves are used for controlling the connection and disconnection of the lower water pipes, the water circulation filtering device comprises a water pump, a circulation pipe and a filter, the water pump is arranged in the transportation barrel at the head end, and the filter is arranged in the transportation barrel at the tail end, the circulating pipe is communicated with the water pump and the filter;
preferably, the filter includes filter frame, couple, activated carbon layer and filters cotton layer, the couple is a plurality of, the couple with filter frame fixed connection, the couple will filter the frame and fix on haulage bucket upper portion, activated carbon layer with filter cotton layer stacks up from top to bottom in the filter frame, the circulating pipe delivery port sets up filter upper portion.
Preferably, the first oxygen supply device comprises an oxygen generation device, a main gas pipe and a plurality of branch gas pipes, one end of each branch gas pipe is communicated with the main gas pipe, the other end of each branch gas pipe is communicated with one transportation barrel, the main gas pipe is communicated with the oxygen generation device, and one end, far away from the main gas pipe, of each branch gas pipe is provided with a gas stone.
Preferably, the water-activating cabin is communicated with a water inlet and a water outlet, the water inlet and the water outlet are both provided with a switch valve, and one end of the water outlet, which is positioned outside the water-activating cabin, is fixedly provided with a filter screen;
preferably, the water control system further comprises two sliding shafts, a plurality of limiting strips and sliding rods, the inner side walls of the two opposite water-moving cabins are fixedly connected with the plurality of limiting strips, each sliding shaft is fixedly connected with the bottom in the water-moving cabin, each sliding shaft is perpendicular to the bottom surface of the water-moving cabin, each sliding rod is slidably connected with each sliding shaft, one end of the water control plate is fixedly connected with a sleeve, the sleeve can be sleeved on the sliding rod, the sleeve is rotatably connected with the sliding rod, one side of the sleeve, away from the water control plate, is provided with limiting teeth, and the limiting teeth and one end, away from the sleeve, of the water control plate can be embedded in the limiting grooves of the limiting strips;
preferably, the second apparatus for supplying oxygen includes that air pump, oxygen suppliment connecting pipe and oxygen suppliment divide the pipe, the fixed setting of oxygen suppliment connecting pipe is in on the inside wall in running water cabin, the oxygen suppliment divides the pipe to be field font lays the interior bottom in running water cabin, the appearance that the oxygen suppliment divides the pipe with running water cabin bottom surface shape phase-match, the oxygen suppliment divides the pipe to pass through the oxygen suppliment connecting pipe with the air pump intercommunication, a plurality of venthole has been seted up on the oxygen suppliment divides the pipe, oxygen in the oxygen suppliment divides the pipe passes through each the venthole is carried extremely in the inside water in running water cabin.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following technical effects:
according to the method for transporting the sea-land relay spats, the transport mesh bags filled with the spats are placed in the seedling pool for cultivation, the spats can be fixed in the transport mesh bags after sufficient filaments grow out, damage caused by collision of the spats during long-distance transport is avoided, and the survival rate of the spats is guaranteed; the first oxygen supply device and the water circulation filtering device are arranged, oxygen can be supplied to the water body through the first oxygen supply device during long-distance land transportation for a long time, the spat can be prevented from being anoxic and dead during long-distance transportation for a long time, excrement, mucus and large-particle impurities generated by the spat in the water body are removed through the water circulation filtering device, the water body is kept clean, the spat is prevented from being dead due to the fact that the water quality is poor during transportation, and the survival rate of the spat during long-distance transportation for a long time is further improved; set up second apparatus for oxygen supply, can be to the oxygen suppliment in the water during marine transportation, the shellfish seedling oxygen deficiency is dead when avoiding long-time long distance transport, simultaneously through adjusting the accuse water board, can guarantee that the water is calm in the running water tank under the high sea condition, avoids the shellfish seedling to produce stress response, has further improved the survival rate of shellfish seedling.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings needed in the embodiments will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious for those skilled in the art to obtain other drawings without creative efforts.
Fig. 1 is a schematic overall structure diagram of a transportation frame in the method for transporting relay spat over land and sea provided by the invention;
FIG. 2 is a partial structural view of portion A of FIG. 1;
fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of a transportation mesh bag in the method for transporting the relay spat in land and sea provided by the invention;
fig. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of a land transportation device in the land and sea relay spat transportation method provided by the invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of a water circulation filtering device in the method for transporting relay spat in land and sea provided by the invention;
fig. 6 is a schematic overall structure diagram of a marine transportation device in the method for transporting relay spat in land and sea provided by the invention;
FIG. 7 is a schematic structural diagram of a water control system in the method for transporting relay spat in land and sea provided by the invention;
in the figure: 1-a transportation frame; 11-loading a transport rack; 12-lower transport rack; 13-a support frame; 14-a limit ball; 15-slip ring; 16-transport mesh bags; 2-a land transportation device; 21-a land transportation container; 22-a transportation barrel; 221-upper cavity; 222-a lower cavity; 223-a water feeding pipe; 224-a downcomer; 225-water supply pipe valve; 226-sewer valve; 23-a first oxygen supply apparatus; 231-main trachea; 232-bronchus; 24-a water circulation filtering device; 241-a water pump; 242-circulation pipe; 25-a filter; 26-sieve plate; 3-a marine transport device; 31-a running water cabin; 32-a water inlet; 33-water outlet; 34-a switch valve; 35-a second oxygen supply apparatus; 351-oxygen supply connecting pipe; 352-oxygen supply branch pipe; 36-a water control system; 361-sliding shaft; 362-a stop bar; 363-a slider; 364-a sleeve; 365-limit teeth; 366 a limiting groove; 37-a water control plate; 38-screen.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
The invention aims to provide a method for transporting sea relay spats, which solves the problems in the prior art, can transport the spats for a long time and can improve the survival rate of the spats.
In order to make the aforementioned objects, features and advantages of the present invention comprehensible, embodiments accompanied with figures are described in further detail below.
The invention provides a method for transporting sea relay spats, which comprises the following steps:
step 1: filling the shell seedlings into the transportation mesh bags of the transportation frame, and placing the transportation frame in a seedling pool for cultivation;
step 2: screening out the spat meeting the transportation requirement;
and step 3: using land transportation devices to transport the spat on land: the land transportation device comprises a land transportation container, a first oxygen supply device and a water circulation filtering device, seawater is added into the land transportation container, the transportation frame carrying the spat meeting the transportation requirement is transferred into the land transportation container, the water circulation filtering device can enable the water body in the land transportation container to circularly flow and remove impurities in the water body, the first oxygen supply device can supply oxygen to the water body in the land transportation container, and the land transportation device is placed in a closed carriage of a transportation vehicle for transportation;
and 4, step 4: marine transportation of the spat using a marine transport device: the marine transportation device comprises a running water cabin, a second oxygen supply device and a water control system, the running water cabin is filled with filtered seawater, a transportation frame carrying spats meeting transportation requirements is transferred into the running water cabin, the second oxygen supply device is opened, the second oxygen supply device and the water control system are fixedly arranged inside the running water cabin, the second oxygen supply device can supply oxygen to the filtered seawater inside the running water cabin, the water control system comprises a water control plate, the water control plate can move up and down inside the running water cabin, and the water control plate is adjusted to enable the water control plate to be always positioned below the liquid level of the filtered seawater inside the running water cabin so as to maintain the calmness of the water inside the running water cabin.
According to the method for transporting the sea-land relay spats, the transport mesh bags filled with the spats are placed in the seedling pool for cultivation, the spats can be fixed in the transport mesh bags after sufficient filaments grow out, damage caused by collision of the spats during long-distance transport is avoided, and the survival rate of the spats is guaranteed; the first oxygen supply device and the water circulation filtering device are arranged, oxygen can be supplied to the water body through the first oxygen supply device during long-distance land transportation for a long time, the spat can be prevented from being anoxic and dead during long-distance transportation for a long time, excrement, mucus and large-particle impurities generated by the spat in the water body are removed through the water circulation filtering device, the water body is kept clean, the spat is prevented from being dead due to the fact that the water quality is poor during transportation, and the survival rate of the spat during long-distance transportation for a long time is further improved; set up second apparatus for oxygen supply, can be to the interior oxygen suppliment of water during marine transportation, fry oxygen deficiency is dead when can avoiding long-time long distance transport, simultaneously through adjusting accuse water board to the inside water liquid level in running water cabin below, can guarantee that the water under the high sea condition is calm in the running water cabin, avoids the fry to produce stress response, has further improved the survival rate of fry.
Example one
The embodiment provides a method for transporting sea relay spats, which comprises the following steps:
step 1: loading healthy shellfish seedlings with shell length of 5-10mm into transport mesh bags 16 of transport frame 1, wherein the number of shellfish seedlings in each transport mesh bag 16 is determined according to shellfish seedling specification, preferably not more than 5% of the volume of each transport mesh bag 16, placing the transport frame 1 fixed with transport mesh bags 16 in seedling pool, culturing for 2 days, feeding fresh unicellular algae (Chaetoceros, Chrysophytum, Platymonas subcordiformis, etc.) and EM bacteria during culturing period, wherein the single-cellent algae is fed at a dose of 1.0-2.0 × 104Each cell/ml, the EM bacterial dose is 1g/m3Stopping feeding fresh unicellular algae 1 day before transportation, and continuing feeding EM (effective microorganisms) bacteria with the feeding amount of 1g/m for each time3
Step 2: removing the spats which do not meet the requirements, and screening the spats which are healthy, strong in activity, strong in byssus attachment capacity and tightly closed in double shells during stimulation for transportation;
and step 3: the spat are transported on land by using a land transportation device 2: the land transportation device 2 comprises a land transportation container 21, a first oxygen supply device 23 and a water circulation filtering device 24, seawater is added into the land transportation container 21, preferably, the seawater and the main indexes of the water body in the seedling pool need to be close (the temperature difference is less than or equal to 2 ℃, the salinity difference is less than or equal to 2 and the pH difference is less than or equal to 0.5) so as to reduce the stress reaction caused by the shellfish vaccine caused by environmental change, the transportation frame 1 carrying the shellfish vaccine meeting the transportation requirement is transferred into the land transportation container 21, the water circulation filtering device 24 can make the water body in the land transportation container 21 circularly flow and remove impurities in the water body, the first oxygen supply device 23 can supply oxygen to the water body in the land transportation container 21, preferably, the dissolved oxygen content of the water body is maintained to be more than 5.0mg/L, and the land transportation device 2 is placed in a closed carriage for transportation;
and 4, step 4: and (3) carrying the spat by using a marine transport device 3: the marine transportation device 3 comprises a running water cabin 31, a second oxygen supply device 35 and a water control system 36, filtered seawater is filled in the running water cabin 31, the filtered seawater needs to be fresh and meets the fishery water quality standard GB11607, the transportation frame 1 carrying the spats meeting the transportation requirements is transferred into the running water cabin 31, and opening the second oxygen supply device 35, wherein the second oxygen supply device 35 and the water control system 36 are fixedly arranged inside the water tank 31, the second oxygen supply device 35 can supply oxygen to the filtered seawater inside the water tank 31, preferably, the dissolved oxygen content of the water body is maintained to be more than 5.0mg/L, the water control system 36 comprises a water control plate 37, the water control plate 37 can move up and down inside the water tank 31, and the water control plate 37 is adjusted to be always positioned 5-10cm below the liquid level of the filtered seawater inside the water tank 31, so that the water body inside the water tank 31 is kept calm, and stress reaction of the shellfish seedlings is avoided.
The marine transport of the spat by using the marine transport device 3 in the step 4 further comprises the following steps:
regularly opening the live water cabin 31 to exchange the filtered seawater in the sea area, closing the live water cabin 31 after finishing water exchange, and only throwing EM (effective microorganisms) and high-stability vitamin C without throwing baits in the transportation process, wherein the throwing amount of the EM is 1g/m3The dosage of the high-stability vitamin C is 1g/m per time3During transportation, the dissolved oxygen content of the water body is ensured to be more than 5.0mg/L, the ammonia nitrogen content is less than or equal to 0.1mg/L, the nitrite nitrogen content is less than or equal to 0.1mg/L, the pH value is 7.8-8.4, and the temperature difference of the water body in the running water tank 31 before and after water changing is avoidedIf the salinity difference is more than 2.0 ℃, the salinity difference is not more than 2, the water control plate 37 is preferably opened every 2 hours, the state of the spat is observed, the normal survival of the spat is ensured, the reason is searched when the spat is abnormal, and the dead spat is timely cleaned or transferred until the spat reaches the target sea area;
after the water reaches the target sea area, the water-activating cabin 31 is opened to enable the water body in the water-activating cabin 31 to be successively replaced by the filtered seawater of the target sea area, and the shellfish is placed in the water-activating cabin 31 for temporary culture to enable the shellfish to adapt to the water quality environment of the target sea area;
and (3) after the shellfish seedlings adapt to the water quality environment of the target sea area, opening the water control plate 37, taking out the transportation frame 1, and hanging and cultivating the shellfish seedlings in the target sea area.
The land transportation device 2 further comprises a sieve plate 26, the sieve plate 26 is fixedly arranged in the land transportation container 21, the sieve plate 26 can divide the land transportation container 21 into an upper cavity and a lower cavity, excrement, mucus and large-particle impurities generated by the spats can enter the lower cavity 222 through the sieve plate 26, and the height of the lower cavity 222 is 10 cm.
When the land transportation device 2 is used for short-distance land transportation of the spat, in the step 3, the transportation frame 1 carrying the spat meeting the transportation requirement is transferred into the upper cavity 221 and placed on the sieve plate 26, 3-5cm of seawater is added into the land transportation container 21, ice blocks are added into the seawater, the temperature in the land transportation container 21 in transportation is kept not higher than 25 ℃, cloth pieces are laid on the transportation mesh bags 16 and soaked by the seawater in advance, the land transportation device 2 is placed in a closed carriage for transportation, and a small amount of seawater is regularly sprayed on the cloth pieces to keep the humidity.
When the land transportation device 2 is used for long-time long-distance transportation of the spat on land, the first oxygen supply device 23 and the water circulation filtering device 24 are started in the step 3, whether the first oxygen supply device 23 and the water circulation filtering device 24 work normally is checked every 1 hour, and normal transportation of the spat is ensured.
In the step 4, after the transport ship travels to 70-100 seas away from the coast, the water-activating tank 31 is opened to exchange filtered seawater, the daily water exchange amount is preferably 100-200% of the volume of the water in the water-activating tank 31, the water exchange is carried out at 8:00-11:00 in the morning, water quality detection is carried out before water exchange, and the water exchange operation is carried out after the temperature difference between the water in the water-activating tank 31 and the water outside the water-activating tank 31 is ensured to be less than or equal to 2 ℃, the salinity difference is less than or equal to 2 and the pH difference is less than or equal to 0.5.
After the target sea area is reached in the step 4, detecting the water quality inside and outside the water-activating tank 31, if the water quality difference is smaller, the temperature difference between the water inside and outside the water-activating tank 31 is less than or equal to 2 ℃, the salinity difference is less than or equal to 2, and the pH difference is less than or equal to 0.5, opening the water-activating tank 31 for water change, wherein the water change amount is about 50%, and continuing to change the water by 50% after 2 hours; if the water quality difference is large, the temperature difference between the inner water body and the outer water body of the water-activating tank 31 is greater than 2 ℃, the salinity difference is greater than 2, and the pH difference is greater than 0.5, the water-activating tank 31 is opened for water change, the water change amount is about 30%, the water change amount is 30% after 2 hours, the water change amount is continued by 40% after 2 hours, and the spat is continuously cultured in the water-activating tank 31 for 2 hours after the water change amount reaches 100%, so that the spat adapts to the water quality environment of the target sea area.
The transportation frame 1 comprises an upper transportation frame 11, a lower transportation frame 12, a plurality of transportation mesh bags 16 and a plurality of support frames 13, preferably 20-40 mesh transportation mesh bags 16 and regular quadrangular frustum-shaped support frames 13, wherein a sliding ring 15 is fixedly arranged on the edge of one end of the upper transportation frame 11, which is close to the lower transportation frame 12, a limiting ball 14 is correspondingly arranged on the edge of one end of the lower transportation frame 12, which is close to the upper transportation frame 11, can penetrate through the sliding ring 15 and slide in the sliding ring 15 along the direction of the edge of one end of the lower transportation frame 12, which is close to the upper transportation frame 11, the height of the transportation frame 1 can be adjusted by limiting the limiting ball 14 to limit the edge of one end of the lower transportation frame 12, which is close to the upper transportation frame 11, to slide in the sliding ring 15, one support frame 13 can support one transportation mesh bag 16 matched with the support frame 13, and enable the transportation mesh bags 16 to keep a fixed shape, so as to provide enough survival space for the baby fries, the top surface and the bottom surface of the support frame 13 are both square, the side lengths of the top surface and the bottom surface of the support frame 13 are respectively 20cm and 28cm, the distance between the top surface and the bottom surface of the support frame 13 is 20cm, and each transport mesh bag 16 can be fixed on the upper transport frame 11 or the lower transport frame 12 through a rope.
The land transportation container 21 comprises a plurality of transportation barrels 22 which are arranged in a linear mode, an upper cavity 221 of each transportation barrel 22 is communicated with an upper water pipe 223, a lower cavity 222 of each transportation barrel 22 is communicated with a lower water pipe 224, each transportation barrel 22 is communicated with the adjacent transportation barrel 22 on one side through the upper water pipe 223, each transportation barrel 22 is communicated with the adjacent transportation barrel 22 on the other side through the lower water pipe 224, the upper water pipe 223 is connected with the upper water pipe 225, the lower water pipe 224 is connected with the lower water pipe 226, the upper water pipe valve 225 is used for controlling the on-off of the upper water pipe 223, the lower water pipe valve 226 is used for controlling the on-off of the lower water pipe 224, the upper water pipe valve 225 or the lower water pipe valve 226 can be opened and closed according to actual transportation requirements to control the number of the transportation barrels 22, water can enter from the upper water pipe 223 and then exit from the lower water pipe 224, or enter from the lower water pipe 224 and then exit from the upper water pipe 223, the circulation efficiency of the water in the transportation barrel 22 is improved, the survival environment of the spat is further optimized, the survival rate of the spat is improved, the water circulation and filtration device 24 comprises a water pump 241, a circulation pipe 242 and a filter 25, the water pump 241 is arranged in the transportation barrel 22 at the head end, the filter 25 is arranged in the transportation barrel 22 at the tail end, the circulation pipe 242 is communicated with the water pump 241 and the filter 25, the water pump 241 sends the water in the transportation barrel 22 to the circulation pipe 242, and the water is sent to the filter 25 through the circulation pipe 242.
The filter 25 comprises a filter frame, a plurality of hooks, an activated carbon layer and a filter cotton layer, the hooks are fixedly connected with the filter frame, the filter frame is fixed on the upper portion of the transport barrel 22 by the hooks, the activated carbon layer and the filter cotton layer are stacked up and down in the filter frame, and a water outlet of the circulating pipe 242 is arranged on the upper portion of the filter 25. After the water flows out of the circulating pipe 242, excrement, mucus, large-particle putrefaction and the like generated by the spat in the transportation process can be removed through the superposed filtration of the activated carbon layer and the filter layer in the filter frame, the cleanness of the water is kept, the spat is prevented from dying due to the deterioration of the water quality, and the survival rate of the spat in long-distance transportation for a long time is improved.
First oxygen supply unit 23 includes oxygen generating device, main trachea 231 and a plurality of bronchus 232, each bronchus 232 one end and main trachea 231 intercommunication, each bronchus 232 other end and a transfer ladle 22 intercommunication, main trachea 231 and oxygen generating device intercommunication, the one end that main trachea 231 was kept away from to bronchus 232 is provided with the air stone, the air stone is changed into littleer bubble to the gas of output in the bronchus, it is more abundant with gas mixture to make the water, increase the water oxygen content, improve the spat survival rate.
The water tank 31 is communicated with a water inlet 32 and a water outlet 33, the water inlet 32 and the water outlet 33 are both provided with a switch valve 34, the water inlet and the water outlet of the water tank 31 can be controlled by opening or closing the switch valve 34, one end of the water outlet 33, which is positioned outside the water tank 31, is fixedly provided with a filter screen 38, large granular impurities are prevented from entering the water tank 31, stress reaction of the spat is avoided, and the survival rate of the spat is further ensured;
the water control system 36 further comprises two sliding shafts 361, a plurality of limiting strips 362 and sliding rods 363, the inner side walls of the two opposite running water compartments 31 are fixedly connected with a plurality of limiting strips 362, preferably, the inner side walls of the two opposite running water compartments 31 are fixedly connected with 2 limiting strips 362, each sliding shaft 361 is fixedly connected with the bottom of the running water compartment 31, each sliding shaft 363 is perpendicular to the bottom surface of the running water compartment 31, each sliding rod 363 is slidably connected with each sliding shaft 361, one end of the water control plate 37 is fixedly connected with a sleeve 364, the sleeve 364 can be sleeved on the sliding rod 363, the sleeve 364 is rotatably connected with the sliding rod 363, one side of the sleeve 364, which is far away from the water control plate 37, is provided with a limiting tooth 365, the limiting tooth 365 and one end of the water control plate 37, which is far away from the sleeve 364, can be embedded in a limiting groove 366 of the limiting strips 362, an upward pulling force is applied to one end of the water control plate 37, which is far away from the sleeve 364, and the limiting tooth 365 can gradually disengage from the limiting groove 366 in the upward pulling process, until the water control plate 37 is pulled to be in a vertical state, the limiting teeth 365 are completely separated from the limiting grooves 366, upward pulling forces with different sizes are continuously applied to one end, away from the sleeve 364, of the water control plate 37 at the moment, the water control plate 37 can drive the sliding rod 363 in the sleeve 364 to slide up and down along the sliding shaft 361, when the water control plate 37 is adjusted to be in a proper position, an oblique upward pulling force is applied to one end, away from the sleeve 364, of the water control plate 37, the limiting teeth 365 and one end, away from the sleeve 364, of the water control plate 37 are gradually embedded into the limiting grooves 366 of the limiting strips 362, the position of the water control plate 37 is kept fixed, and the position of the water control plate 37 is determined according to the draught of a transport ship and is preferably 5-10cm lower than the water surface of the water inside the water-activating cabin 31.
Second apparatus for supplying oxygen 35 includes the air pump, the branch pipe 352 of oxygen suppliment connecting pipe 351 and oxygen suppliment, the fixed setting of oxygen suppliment connecting pipe 351 is on the inside wall in running water cabin 31, the preferred PVC pipe of oxygen suppliment connecting pipe 351, the oxygen suppliment is divided pipe 352 and is laid at the interior bottom of running water cabin 31 for the field font, the appearance and the 31 bottom surface shape phase-match in running water cabin 352 are divided to the oxygen suppliment, the oxygen suppliment is divided pipe 352 and is passed through oxygen suppliment connecting pipe 351 and air pump intercommunication, the oxygen suppliment is divided and is divided the preferable nanometer oxygen suppliment pipe of 352, a plurality of venthole has been seted up on the branch pipe 352 of oxygen suppliment, oxygen in the branch pipe 352 of oxygen suppliment is carried to the inside water in running water cabin 31 through each venthole, realize being the spat oxygen suppliment.
The method for transporting the sea relay spats in the embodiment is adopted to transport the spats, the spats are respectively transported to the Meiji island from the water of the mausoleum and the Wenchang sea relay, and the survival rate of the transported spats is shown in a table 1-1.
TABLE 1-1 survival rate of spat transported
Figure BDA0002990325290000111
The principle and the implementation mode of the invention are explained by applying a specific example, and the description of the embodiment is only used for helping to understand the method and the core idea of the invention; meanwhile, for a person skilled in the art, according to the idea of the present invention, the specific embodiments and the application range may be changed. In view of the above, the present disclosure should not be construed as limiting the invention.

Claims (10)

1. A method for transporting Luhai relay spats is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
step 1: filling the shell seedlings into the transportation mesh bags of the transportation frame, and placing the transportation frame in a seedling pool for cultivation;
step 2: screening out the spat meeting the transportation requirement; and step 3: using land transportation devices to transport the spat on land: the land transportation device comprises a land transportation container, a first oxygen supply device and a water circulation filtering device, seawater is added into the land transportation container, the transportation frame carrying the spat meeting the transportation requirement is transferred into the land transportation container, the water circulation filtering device can enable the water body in the land transportation container to circularly flow and remove impurities in the water body, the first oxygen supply device can supply oxygen to the water body in the land transportation container, and the land transportation device is placed in a closed carriage of a transportation vehicle for transportation; and 4, step 4: marine transportation of the spat using a marine transport device: the marine transportation device comprises a running water cabin, a second oxygen supply device and a water control system, filtered seawater is filled in the running water cabin, the transportation frame carrying spats meeting the transportation requirements is transferred into the running water cabin, the second oxygen supply device is started, the second oxygen supply device and the water control system are both fixedly arranged in the running water cabin, the second oxygen supply device can supply oxygen to the filtered seawater in the running water cabin, the water control system comprises a water control plate, the water control plate can move up and down in the running water cabin, and the water control plate is adjusted to be always positioned below the filtered seawater liquid level in the running water cabin so as to maintain the water body in the running water cabin to be calm;
the water control system further comprises two sliding shafts, a plurality of limiting strips and sliding rods, the two opposite inner side walls of the water-activating cabin are fixedly connected with the plurality of limiting strips, each sliding shaft is fixedly connected with the bottom in the water-activating cabin and is perpendicular to the bottom surface of the water-activating cabin, each sliding rod is slidably connected with each sliding shaft, one end of the water control plate is fixedly connected with a sleeve, the sleeve can be sleeved on the sliding rod and is rotatably connected with the sliding rod, one side, away from the water control plate, of the sleeve is provided with limiting teeth, and the limiting teeth and one end, away from the sleeve, of the water control plate can be embedded in the limiting grooves of the limiting strips.
2. The method for transporting sea-land relay spat according to claim 1, wherein: the marine transportation of the spat by using the marine transportation device in the step 4 further comprises the following steps:
opening the running water cabin regularly to exchange the filtered seawater in the sea area, and treating dead seedlings until the dead seedlings reach a target sea area;
after the water reaches the target sea area, opening the water-activating cabin to enable the water body in the water-activating cabin to be successively replaced by filtered seawater of the target sea area, and temporarily culturing the shellfish seedlings in the water-activating cabin to enable the shellfish seedlings to adapt to the water quality environment of the target sea area;
and taking out the transportation frame after the spats adapt to the water quality environment of the target sea area, and hanging and cultivating the spats in the target sea area.
3. The method for transporting sea-land relay spat according to claim 1, wherein: the land transportation device further comprises a sieve plate, wherein the sieve plate is fixedly arranged in the land transportation container, and the sieve plate can divide the land transportation container into an upper cavity and a lower cavity.
4. The method for transporting sea-land relay spat according to claim 3, wherein: when the land transportation device is used for short-distance land transportation of the spats, the transportation frame carrying the spats meeting the transportation requirements is transferred to the upper cavity and placed on the sieve plate in step 3, seawater which does not exceed the height of the sieve plate is added into the land transportation container, ice blocks are added into the seawater, cloth pieces are laid on the transportation mesh bags, the cloth pieces are soaked by the seawater in advance, the land transportation device is placed in the closed carriage for transportation, and a small amount of seawater is regularly sprayed on the cloth pieces.
5. The method for transporting sea-land relay spat according to claim 1, wherein: when the land transportation device is used for long-distance land transportation of the spat, the first oxygen supply device and the water circulation filtering device are started in step 3, and whether the first oxygen supply device and the water circulation filtering device work normally or not is checked every 1 hour.
6. The method for transporting sea-land relay spat according to claim 2, wherein: and 4, after the transport ship travels to 70-100 seas away from the coast, opening the water-activating cabin to exchange filtered seawater, wherein the daily water exchange amount is 100% -200% of the volume of the water body in the water-activating cabin, water exchange is carried out at 8:00-11:00 in the morning, water quality detection is carried out before water exchange, and water exchange operation is carried out after the temperature difference between the water body in the water-activating cabin and the water body outside the water-activating cabin is not more than 2 ℃, the salinity difference is not more than 2 and the pH difference is not more than 0.5.
7. The method for transporting sea-land relay spat according to claim 2, wherein: after the target sea area is reached in the step 4, detecting the water quality inside and outside the water-activating tank, opening the water-activating tank to change water when the temperature difference of the water inside and outside the water-activating tank is less than or equal to 2 ℃, the salinity difference is less than or equal to 2 and the pH difference is less than or equal to 0.5, wherein the water change amount is 50%, and continuously changing the water for 50% after 2 hours; and when the temperature difference of the water bodies inside and outside the water-activating cabin is greater than 2 ℃, the salinity difference is greater than 2 and the pH difference is greater than 0.5, opening the water-activating cabin for water change, wherein the water change amount is 30%, the water change amount is 30% after 2 hours, the water change amount is 40% after 2 hours, and after the water change amount reaches 100%, temporarily culturing the shell seedlings in the water-activating cabin for 2 hours.
8. The method for transporting sea-land relay spat according to claim 1, wherein: the transportation frame comprises an upper transportation frame, a lower transportation frame, a plurality of transportation mesh bags and a plurality of supporting frames, a sliding ring is fixedly arranged on the edge of one end of the upper transportation frame, which is close to the lower transportation frame, a limiting ball is correspondingly arranged on the edge of one end of the lower transportation frame, which is close to the upper transportation frame, the edge of the lower transport frame close to one end of the upper transport frame can pass through the sliding ring and slide in the sliding ring along the direction of the edge of the lower transport frame close to one end of the upper transport frame, the limit ball limits the arris of one end of the lower transportation frame, which is close to the upper transportation frame, to slide in the sliding ring, so that the height of the transportation frame can be adjusted, one support frame can support one transportation mesh bag matched with the support frame, and the transportation mesh bags are kept in fixed shapes, and each transportation mesh bag is fixedly arranged on the upper transportation frame or the lower transportation frame.
9. The method for transporting sea-land relay spat according to claim 3, wherein: the land transportation container comprises a plurality of transportation barrels which are arranged in a linear mode, the upper cavity of each transportation barrel is communicated with an upper water pipe, the lower cavity of each transportation barrel is communicated with a lower water pipe, each transportation barrel is communicated with the adjacent transportation barrel on one side of the transportation barrel through the upper water pipe, each transportation barrel is communicated with the adjacent transportation barrel on the other side of the transportation barrel through the lower water pipe, the two connected upper water pipes are provided with upper water pipe valves, the two connected lower water pipes are provided with lower water pipe valves, the upper water pipe valves are used for controlling the on-off of the upper water pipes, the lower water pipe valves are used for controlling the on-off of the lower water pipes, the water circulation filtering device comprises a water pump, a circulation pipe and a filter, the water pump is arranged in the transportation barrel at the head end, and the filter is arranged in the transportation barrel at the tail end, the circulating pipe is communicated with the water pump and the filter;
the filter comprises a filter frame, a plurality of hooks, an activated carbon layer and a filter cotton layer, the hooks are fixedly connected with the filter frame, the filter frame is fixed on the upper part of the transportation barrel through the hooks, the activated carbon layer and the filter cotton layer are vertically stacked in the filter frame, and a water outlet of the circulating pipe is arranged on the upper part of the filter;
the first oxygen supply device comprises an oxygen generation device, a main gas pipe and a plurality of branch gas pipes, one end of each branch gas pipe is communicated with the main gas pipe, the other end of each branch gas pipe is communicated with one transportation barrel, the main gas pipe is communicated with the oxygen generation device, and one end, far away from the main gas pipe, of each branch gas pipe is provided with a gas stone.
10. The method for transporting sea-land relay spat according to claim 1, wherein: the water-circulating cabin is communicated with a water inlet and a water outlet, switch valves are arranged at the water inlet and the water outlet, and a filter screen is fixedly arranged at one end of the water outlet, which is positioned outside the water-circulating cabin;
the second apparatus for supplying oxygen includes air pump, oxygen suppliment connecting pipe and oxygen suppliment and divides the pipe, the oxygen suppliment connecting pipe is fixed to be set up on the inside wall in running water cabin, the oxygen suppliment is divided the pipe and is laid the interior bottom in running water cabin, the oxygen suppliment divide the appearance of managing with running water cabin bottom surface shape phase-match, the oxygen suppliment divides the pipe to pass through the oxygen suppliment connecting pipe with the air pump intercommunication, a plurality of venthole has been seted up on the oxygen suppliment divides the pipe, oxygen in the oxygen suppliment divides the pipe passes through each the venthole is carried extremely in the inside water in running water cabin.
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