CN112859745B - Automatic workpiece machining area dividing method for three-axis laser marking process - Google Patents

Automatic workpiece machining area dividing method for three-axis laser marking process Download PDF

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CN112859745B
CN112859745B CN202110020762.8A CN202110020762A CN112859745B CN 112859745 B CN112859745 B CN 112859745B CN 202110020762 A CN202110020762 A CN 202110020762A CN 112859745 B CN112859745 B CN 112859745B
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triangular plate
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CN112859745A (en
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颜昌亚
李传远
卢少武
周向东
张庆祥
陈英滔
谭辉
汤胜水
郑晓泽
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Guangdong Samson Technology Co ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/18Numerical control [NC], i.e. automatically operating machines, in particular machine tools, e.g. in a manufacturing environment, so as to execute positioning, movement or co-ordinated operations by means of programme data in numerical form
    • G05B19/408Numerical control [NC], i.e. automatically operating machines, in particular machine tools, e.g. in a manufacturing environment, so as to execute positioning, movement or co-ordinated operations by means of programme data in numerical form characterised by data handling or data format, e.g. reading, buffering or conversion of data
    • G05B19/4086Coordinate conversions; Other special calculations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/36Removing material
    • B23K26/362Laser etching
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K2101/00Articles made by soldering, welding or cutting
    • B23K2101/007Marks, e.g. trade marks
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/35Nc in input of data, input till input file format
    • G05B2219/35356Data handling

Abstract

A workpiece machining area automatic dividing method for a three-axis laser marking process comprises the following steps: s1, dispersing the processing area, and establishing a triangular plate data set T of the processing area; s2, calculating a first reference main direction, and calculating the average normal of all triangular plates in the processing area data set T as the reference main direction of the first processing; and S3, calculating a first sub-processing area, and calculating a second processing direction and a subsequent processing direction according to the first processing reference main direction obtained in the step S2, S4, and repeating the step S2 and the step S3 until the number of the remaining triangular plates in the triangular plate data set T of the processing area is zero, namely finishing the division of the processing sub-area during the three-axis processing of the part. The invention is a processing region calculation method with wide applicability, which improves the speed and accuracy of dividing the model processing region; by the automatic division method, the division result of the machining area can be rapidly and accurately calculated, and the method has good applicability to different types of parts.

Description

Automatic workpiece machining area dividing method for three-axis laser marking process
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of manufacture of a three-axis laser marking process, in particular to an automatic division method for a machining area of the three-axis laser marking process.
Background
The three-axis process is widely applied to the fields of machining, laser processing, measurement and the like, and is characterized in that a three-axis mechanism is utilized to drive an actuating device (a processing tool, such as a milling cutter, a laser galvanometer, a measuring head and the like) to realize the high-speed high-precision processing process of curved surface parts in space. The triaxial process is characterized in that a motion mechanism has no rotational freedom, so that the machining cannot be realized in any machining posture, but the high-speed high-precision machining can be realized at lower cost.
In recent years, laser processing has become a hot spot of research in the processing field due to its unique characteristics. Compared with the traditional processing mode, the laser processing has the advantages that: firstly, the laser power density is high, and materials with high hardness can be processed; secondly, the laser head is not contacted with the workpiece, and the abrasion of a cutter is not needed to be considered; and thirdly, the laser beam is easy to control, and is combined with a precision machine and a computer to realize the automation and high-precision processing of the processing.
Laser galvanometer marking and laser etching are different branches in laser processing. The laser galvanometer is mainly used in the fields of marking and rapid forming, and because the rotating angle of the galvanometer is limited, the area which can be processed after a workpiece is positioned is limited. Laser etching is also different from transmission chemical etching processing, so that drawing of any pattern can be realized, the process of plate making is saved, and no factor of environmental pollution exists. The galvanometer marking and etching processing belong to the field of three-axis processing application, and due to the limitation of processing modes, when a workpiece needs to be processed on multiple surfaces, the workpiece cannot be processed by one-time clamping. Therefore, for a workpiece needing to process the surfaces of a plurality of parts, a processing area needs to be calculated before processing, the processing area is divided, and the processing effect is guaranteed to meet the requirement.
At present, the division of the workpiece areas of which a plurality of surfaces need to be processed can be realized only by a manual method and depending on the experience of engineers, the consumed time is long, and meanwhile, the speed and the accuracy of the division of the processing areas cannot be guaranteed.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects in the prior art, the invention provides a method for automatically dividing a processing area of a three-axis laser marking process, and aims to improve the reasonability and the automation degree of area division.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
s1: dispersing a machining area, dispersing the machining area on the three-dimensional model of the workpiece through software, acquiring triangular plate data information of the machining area, and establishing a triangular plate data set T of the machining area;
s2: calculating a first reference main direction, taking the normal direction on the geometric center point of the triangular plates as the normal direction of the triangular plates, calculating the area of each triangular plate and the average area of all the triangular plates on the model, and taking the ratio of the area of the triangular plates to the average area as a weight value of the normal direction; calculating an average normal of all the triangular plates in the processing area data set T by using a weighted average for the triangular plate data set T of the processing area obtained in the step S1 as a reference main direction for the first processing;
s3: a first sub-processing area calculation step of searching triangular plates having angles smaller than 90 ° between all normal directions and the first reference main direction according to the first processing reference main direction obtained in step S2, calculating an average normal direction of the triangular plates as a processing direction of the first sub-processing area by using the weighted average method described in S2, and excluding the triangular plates covered by the first processing direction from the triangular plate data set of the processing area;
s4: and repeating the step S2 and the step S3, and calculating the second machining direction and the subsequent machining direction until the number of the triangular plates in the triangular plate data set T of the machining area is zero, namely finishing the division of the machining subareas during the three-axis machining of the part.
Calculating the normal direction and the weight coefficient of the triangular plate through step S2, specifically including:
s21: discrete step S1Point X on triangleN={ X n1, 2, …, N as data points for calculating the normal direction and the weight value, wherein N is the number of points on the triangle after model discretization;
s22: calculating the coordinate of the geometric center point of each triangular plate, wherein three points of the ith triangular plate are Ai,Bi,CiPoint, then geometric center point DiThe coordinates are
Figure GDA0003323401090000021
S23: calculating the normal direction of the ith triangular plate according to the coordinate of the geometric central point and the vertex coordinate of the triangular plate
Figure GDA0003323401090000022
The normal direction of the triangular plate is expressed as
Figure GDA0003323401090000023
M is the number of triangular plates;
s24: calculating the area of each triangular plate, and recording the area of each triangular plate as SM={SmAnd l M is 1, 2, … and M, wherein M is the number of the triangular plates, and the weight coefficient corresponding to each triangular plate is calculated
Figure GDA0003323401090000031
S25: calculating the normal direction of the model according to the normal direction of the geometric center point on the triangle strip calculated in the step S2 and the corresponding weight coefficient
Figure GDA0003323401090000032
Marking as the reference main direction of the processing area during the first processing;
s26: if the reference main direction of the processing area cannot be found, the reference main direction of the processing area calculated in step S25
Figure GDA0003323401090000033
Then, searching the triangular plate with the included angle between the normal direction and the normal direction of the first triangular plate within 5 DEGSum of area of triangle piece
Figure GDA0003323401090000034
Removing the triangular plate with the included angle of 5 degrees between the normal direction and the normal direction of the first triangular plate, searching the triangular plates with the included angles of 5 degrees between the normal direction and the normal direction of the first triangular plate in the rest triangular plates, and recording the area sum of the triangular plates as
Figure GDA0003323401090000035
Repeating the steps until all the triangular plates are removed, and finding out the maximum value of the area
Figure GDA0003323401090000036
Calculating the average normal direction of the triangular plate of the corresponding ith search
Figure GDA0003323401090000037
As the reference principal direction of the machining region at the first machining
Figure GDA0003323401090000038
S27: if the reference main direction of the processing area cannot be found, the reference main direction of the processing area calculated in steps S25 and S26
Figure GDA0003323401090000039
Then, the triangular plate with the maximum area is found, and the normal direction of the triangular plate is used as the reference main direction of the processing area during the first processing
Figure GDA00033234010900000310
S28: if the reference main direction of the processing area cannot be found, the reference main direction of the processing area calculated in steps S25-S27
Figure GDA00033234010900000311
When the machining area is machined for the first time, a discrete triangular plate is randomly selected, and the normal direction of the triangular plate is taken as the reference main direction of the machining area during the first machining
Figure GDA00033234010900000312
Calculating a model machining area through step S3, specifically including:
s31: the reference principal direction of the machining area at the first machining calculated in step S2
Figure GDA00033234010900000313
Find and
Figure GDA00033234010900000314
all triangular plates T with included angles less than 90 degreesnN is the number of the triangular plates found for the first time;
s32: from the triangular plate found in S31, the normal direction passing through the triangular plate
Figure GDA00033234010900000315
And area
Figure GDA00033234010900000316
Calculating the normal direction of the first machining
Figure GDA00033234010900000317
Compared with the prior art, the technical scheme of the invention can obtain the following beneficial effects: aiming at model processing, the processing region calculation method with wide applicability is adopted, and the speed and the accuracy of dividing the model processing region are improved; by the automatic division method, the division result of the machining area can be rapidly and accurately calculated, and the method has good applicability to different types of parts.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic view of an automatic division process of a processing area.
Fig. 2 is a schematic view of an antenna processing model.
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a model discrete triangular plate.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of model reference principal direction calculation.
Fig. 5 is a schematic view of model machining area calculation.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the following will explain the present invention in further detail by taking a workpiece model as an example with reference to the accompanying drawings.
As shown in FIG. 1, the invention discloses a method for automatically dividing a workpiece machining area, which comprises the following steps:
s1: the workpiece area is discrete. In fig. 2, a part for a 5G antenna module is shown, which requires a laser etching process to process a circuit in a designated area. And (3) discretizing the part model processing area through three-dimensional meshing software (such as UG software of Siemens) or algorithm to establish a triangular plate data set T of the processing area. As shown in fig. 3, it is necessary to process the diagonal region on the model, and the UG software is used to scatter the processed region on the model, thereby obtaining the triangle data information of the processed region.
S2: a first reference principal direction of workpiece processing is calculated. And taking the normal direction on the geometric central point of the dispersed triangular plate as the normal direction of the triangular plate. And calculating the area of each triangular plate and the average area of all triangular plates on the model, and taking the ratio of the area of the triangular plate to the average area as a weight value in the normal direction. With respect to the triangle piece data set T of the processing region obtained in step S1, the average normal line of all the triangle pieces in the processing region data set T is calculated as the reference principal direction of the first processing using the weighted average.
Specifically, step S2 includes:
s21: the point X on the triangular plate scattered in the step S1N={XnAnd | N ═ 1, 2, …, N } as data points for calculating the normal direction and weight values, where N is the number of points after model discretization.
S22: calculating the coordinate of the geometric center point of each triangular plate, wherein three points of the ith triangular plate are Ai,Bi,CiPoint, then geometric center point DiThe coordinates are
Figure GDA0003323401090000051
S23: calculating the normal direction of the ith triangular plate according to the coordinate of the geometric central point and the vertex coordinate of the triangular plate
Figure GDA0003323401090000052
The normal direction of the triangular plate is expressed as
Figure GDA0003323401090000053
M is the number of triangular plates.
S24: calculating the area of each triangular plate, and recording the area of each triangular plate as SM={SmAnd l M is 1, 2, … and M, wherein M is the number of the triangular plates, and the weight coefficient corresponding to each triangular plate is calculated
Figure GDA0003323401090000054
S25: calculating the normal direction of the model according to the normal direction of the geometric center point on the triangle strip calculated in the step S2 and the corresponding weight coefficient
Figure GDA0003323401090000055
This is referred to as the reference main direction of the machining area in the first machining. As shown in fig. 4, the model processing area is discretized to obtain a triangle patch data set T, and the normal direction of the triangle patch is calculated
Figure GDA0003323401090000056
And a weight coefficient AiBy passing
Figure GDA0003323401090000057
And AiNormal direction of calculation model
Figure GDA0003323401090000058
The direction is the direction pointed by the arrow.
S26: if the reference main direction of the processing area cannot be found, the reference main direction of the processing area calculated in step S25
Figure GDA0003323401090000059
Searching the triangular plate with the included angle of the normal direction and the normal direction of the first triangular plate within 5 degrees, and recording the area sum of the triangular plates as
Figure GDA00033234010900000510
Removing the triangular plate with the included angle of 5 degrees between the normal direction and the normal direction of the first triangular plate, searching the triangular plates with the included angles of 5 degrees between the normal direction and the normal direction of the first triangular plate in the rest triangular plates, and recording the area sum of the triangular plates as
Figure GDA00033234010900000511
Repeating the steps until all the triangular plates are removed, and finding out the maximum value of the area
Figure GDA00033234010900000512
Calculating the average normal direction of the triangular plate of the corresponding ith search
Figure GDA00033234010900000513
As the reference principal direction of the machining region at the first machining
Figure GDA00033234010900000514
S27: if the reference main direction of the processing area can not be found, namely the processing area of the workpiece is axisymmetric, and the areas of all the processing surfaces are the same, finding out the triangular plate with the maximum area, and taking the normal direction of the triangular plate as the reference main direction of the processing area during the first processing
Figure GDA0003323401090000061
S28: if the reference main direction of the processing area cannot be found, namely the processing area of the workpiece is axisymmetric, the area of each processing surface is the same, and the area of each triangular plate in the software-discretized triangular plate data set T is the same, randomly selecting a discretized triangular plate, and taking the triangular plate as the normal direction as the reference main direction of the processing area during the first processing
Figure GDA0003323401090000062
Specifically, step S3 includes:
s31: the reference principal direction of the machining region at the first machining calculated in S2
Figure GDA0003323401090000063
Find and
Figure GDA0003323401090000064
all triangular plates T with included angles less than 90 degreesnAnd n is the number of the triangular plates found for the first time. As shown in fig. 5, the reference principal direction is calculated from the first machining calculated in S2
Figure GDA0003323401090000065
Search for the angle between
Figure GDA0003323401090000066
And triangular plates of less than 90 degrees, which are distributed on the top surface and the right side surface, namely, the triangular plates of the processing areas on the top surface and the right side surface are used for calculating the normal direction of the first processing.
S32: from the triangular plate found in S31, the normal direction passing through the triangular plate
Figure GDA0003323401090000067
And area
Figure GDA0003323401090000068
Calculating the normal direction of the first machining
Figure GDA0003323401090000069
Specifically, step S4 includes:
s41: removing all the triangular plates participating in the calculation for the first time, and calculating the normal direction of the second processing according to the normal direction and the weight coefficient of the remaining triangular plates
Figure GDA00033234010900000610
Repeating the steps until all the triangular plates areRemoving, i.e. dividing the machining area of the machined part, each time calculating the normal direction of the model
Figure GDA00033234010900000611
Is the normal direction of the ith processing area.
It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the invention, and that any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. A workpiece machining area automatic dividing method for a three-axis laser marking process is characterized by comprising the following steps:
s1, dispersing a processing area, obtaining triangular plate data information of the processing area through the processing area on the three-dimensional model of the software dispersed workpiece, and establishing a triangular plate data set T of the processing area;
s2, calculating a first reference main direction, taking the normal direction on the geometric center point of the triangular plate as the normal direction of the triangular plate, calculating the area of each triangular plate and the average area of all triangular plates on the model, and taking the ratio of the area of the triangular plate to the average area as a weight value of the normal direction; calculating an average normal of all the triangular plates in the processing area data set T by using a weighted average for the triangular plate data set T of the processing area obtained in the step S1 as a reference main direction for the first processing;
s3, calculating a first sub-processing area, searching triangular plates with included angles of all normal directions and the first reference main direction smaller than 90 degrees according to the first processing reference main direction obtained in the step S2, calculating the average normal direction of the triangular plates by using the weighted average method described in the step S2, taking the average normal direction as the processing direction of the first sub-processing area, and excluding the triangular plates covered by the first processing direction from the triangular plate data set of the processing area;
and S4, repeating the step S2 and the step S3, and calculating the second machining direction and the subsequent machining direction until the number of the remaining triangular plates in the triangular plate data set T of the machining area is zero, namely, the machining subareas are divided during the three-axis machining of the part.
2. The method for automatically dividing the machining area of a workpiece for a three-axis laser marking process as claimed in claim 1, wherein:
calculating the normal direction and the weight coefficient of the triangular plate through step S2, specifically including:
s21, dispersing the points X on the triangular plate in the step S1N={Xn1, 2, …, N as data points for calculating the normal direction and the weight value, wherein N is the number of points after model discretization;
s22, calculating the coordinates of the geometric center point of each triangular plate, wherein three points of the ith triangular plate are Ai,Bi,CiGeometric center point D of pointiThe coordinates are
Figure FDA0003323401080000011
S23, calculating the normal direction of the ith triangle by the barycentric coordinates and the vertex of the triangle
Figure FDA0003323401080000021
The normal direction of the triangular plate is expressed as
Figure FDA0003323401080000022
M is the number of triangular plates;
s24, calculating the area of each triangular plate, and marking the area of the triangular plate as SM={SmAnd l M is 1, 2, … and M, wherein M is the number of the triangular plates, and the weight coefficient corresponding to each triangular plate is calculated
Figure FDA0003323401080000023
S25, calculating the normal direction of the model according to the normal direction of the geometric center point on the triangle piece calculated in the step S2 and the corresponding weight coefficient
Figure FDA0003323401080000024
Marking as the reference main direction of the processing area during the first processing;
s26, if the reference main direction of the processing area can not be found, the reference main direction of the processing area calculated in the step S25
Figure FDA0003323401080000025
Searching the triangular plate with the included angle of the normal direction and the normal direction of the first triangular plate within 5 degrees, and recording the area sum of the triangular plates as
Figure FDA0003323401080000026
Removing the triangular plate with the included angle of 5 degrees between the normal direction and the normal direction of the first triangular plate, searching the triangular plates with the included angles of 5 degrees between the normal direction and the normal direction of the first triangular plate in the rest triangular plates, and recording the area sum of the triangular plates as
Figure FDA0003323401080000027
Repeating the steps until all the triangular plates are removed, and finding out the maximum value of the area
Figure FDA0003323401080000028
Calculating the average normal direction of the triangular plate of the corresponding ith search
Figure FDA0003323401080000029
As the reference principal direction of the machining region at the first machining
Figure FDA00033234010800000210
S27, if the reference main direction of the processing area can not be found, the reference main direction of the processing area calculated in the steps S25 and S26
Figure FDA00033234010800000211
Then, the triangular plate with the largest area is found, and the normal direction of the triangular plate is used as the first processingWhile, the reference main direction of the processing area
Figure FDA00033234010800000212
S28, if the reference main direction of the processing area can not be found, the reference main direction of the processing area calculated in the steps S25-S27
Figure FDA00033234010800000213
When the machining area is machined for the first time, a discrete triangular plate is randomly selected, and the normal direction of the triangular plate is taken as the reference main direction of the machining area during the first machining
Figure FDA00033234010800000214
3. The method for automatically dividing the machining area of a workpiece for a three-axis laser marking process according to claim 1 or 2, wherein:
calculating a model machining area through step S3, specifically including:
s31, calculating the reference main direction of the processing area according to the step S2 during the first processing
Figure FDA0003323401080000031
Find and
Figure FDA0003323401080000032
all triangular plates T with included angles less than 90 degreesnN is the number of the triangular plates found for the first time;
s32, according to the triangular plate found in S31, passing through the normal direction of the triangular plate
Figure FDA0003323401080000033
And area
Figure FDA0003323401080000034
Calculating the normal direction of the first machining
Figure FDA0003323401080000035
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