CN112689235A - Positioning method and device based on Bluetooth signals - Google Patents

Positioning method and device based on Bluetooth signals Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112689235A
CN112689235A CN202011587783.XA CN202011587783A CN112689235A CN 112689235 A CN112689235 A CN 112689235A CN 202011587783 A CN202011587783 A CN 202011587783A CN 112689235 A CN112689235 A CN 112689235A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
positioning
point
beacon
preset
angle
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Pending
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CN202011587783.XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
张军伟
李晶
李伟
魏传
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Zhejiang Supcon Software Co ltd
Zhejiang Supcon Technology Co Ltd
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Zhejiang Supcon Software Co ltd
Zhejiang Supcon Technology Co Ltd
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Priority to CN202011587783.XA priority Critical patent/CN112689235A/en
Publication of CN112689235A publication Critical patent/CN112689235A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W4/00Services specially adapted for wireless communication networks; Facilities therefor
    • H04W4/02Services making use of location information
    • H04W4/023Services making use of location information using mutual or relative location information between multiple location based services [LBS] targets or of distance thresholds
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W4/00Services specially adapted for wireless communication networks; Facilities therefor
    • H04W4/80Services using short range communication, e.g. near-field communication [NFC], radio-frequency identification [RFID] or low energy communication
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W52/00Power management, e.g. TPC [Transmission Power Control], power saving or power classes
    • H04W52/02Power saving arrangements
    • H04W52/0209Power saving arrangements in terminal devices
    • H04W52/0225Power saving arrangements in terminal devices using monitoring of external events, e.g. the presence of a signal
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W64/00Locating users or terminals or network equipment for network management purposes, e.g. mobility management
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02DCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES [ICT], I.E. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AIMING AT THE REDUCTION OF THEIR OWN ENERGY USE
    • Y02D30/00Reducing energy consumption in communication networks
    • Y02D30/70Reducing energy consumption in communication networks in wireless communication networks

Abstract

The invention discloses a positioning method based on Bluetooth signals, which comprises the following steps: s1, calculating an attenuation model of the beacon signal segment based on the beacon position and the distance segment of the distance beacon; s2, acquiring the beacon signal strength of each beacon received by the equipment to be positioned; s3, filtering the signal intensity smaller than the first preset threshold value based on the first preset threshold value; s4, determining an optimal point based on the filtered beacon strength signal and a second preset threshold; s5, determining the positioning point of the equipment to be positioned based on the optimal point; s6, repeating the steps S2-S5 to obtain at least 3 initial positioning points of the equipment to be positioned; and S7, comparing the travel angle of the mth positioning point calculated based on the steps S1-S5 and the previous 3 positioning points of the mth positioning point, and acquiring the actual positioning point of the mth positioning point based on the preset step and outputting the actual positioning point as a result. The positioning device based on the Bluetooth signal is further disclosed, real-time follow-up is achieved, and the target position is automatically adjusted to achieve accurate positioning.

Description

Positioning method and device based on Bluetooth signals
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of wireless signal positioning, in particular to a positioning method and a positioning device based on Bluetooth signals.
Background
At present, there are various wireless signals for indoor and outdoor positioning, such as low-rate short-distance transmission communication technologies, ZigBee, UWB (Ultra wide band, carrierless communication technology), GPS, bluetooth, and other signal positioning. The ZigBee and UWB installation and deployment costs are high, the GPS can only realize outdoor positioning, and in contrast, the Bluetooth positioning installation and deployment costs are low, and the power consumption is low.
Common bluetooth positioning algorithms include TOA (positioning based on arrival time), TDOA (positioning based on arrival time difference), AOA (positioning based on signal arrival angle), RSSI (signal strength calculation distance), and the like, and the TOA, TDOA, and other algorithms require strict clock synchronization, so that the hardware requirement is high, and therefore the cost is high; the RSSI-based fingerprint positioning algorithm needs to acquire a large amount of data to form a fingerprint database, the calculated amount is large due to the large data volume, the implementation and deployment difficulty is large, the Bluetooth signal fluctuation is large, and the calculation error is large directly according to an attenuation model.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the defects of the technology, the invention provides a positioning method and a positioning device based on Bluetooth signals. And real-time follow-up is realized, and the target position is automatically adjusted to realize accurate positioning.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a positioning method based on bluetooth signals, which includes S1, calculating an attenuation model of a beacon signal segment based on a beacon position and a distance segment of a distance beacon; s2, acquiring the beacon signal strength of each beacon received by the equipment to be positioned; s3, filtering the signal intensity smaller than the first preset threshold value based on the first preset threshold value; s4, determining an optimal point based on the filtered beacon strength signal and a second preset threshold; s5, determining the positioning point of the equipment to be positioned based on the optimal point; s6, repeating the steps S2-S5 to obtain at least 3 initial positioning points of the equipment to be positioned; and S7, comparing the advancing angle of the mth positioning point calculated based on the steps S1-S5 and the previous 3 positioning points of the mth positioning point, acquiring the actual positioning point of the mth positioning point based on the preset step, and outputting the actual positioning point as a result, wherein m is larger than 3.
Further, step S1 specifically includes, S11, collecting beacon signal strength based on the beacon position and the distance segment of the distance beacon; and S12, fitting the attenuation curve of the region by adopting a least square method to the acquired beacon signal intensity, thereby obtaining a segmented attenuation model.
Further, the step S4 specifically includes S41, sorting the filtered beacon signal strength from high to low; and S42, if the highest beacon signal strength is greater than a second preset threshold value, judging that the beacon signal strength is the optimal point, otherwise, judging that the beacon signal strength is not the optimal point.
Further, step S5 specifically includes S51, if it is determined that the position is the optimal point, the position of the optimal point is the positioning point of the device to be positioned; and S52, if no optimal point exists, the signal intensity of the beacon is respectively substituted into the piecewise attenuation model to calculate the distance from each beacon, and the positioning point of the equipment to be positioned is calculated through centroid weighting.
Further, the step S7 specifically includes, S71, calculating the mth positioning point obtained through the steps S1 to S5 and the determined mth-1 positioning point to obtain a first traveling angle; s72, calculating the m-1 th positioning point and the m-2 th positioning point to obtain a second advancing angle, and calculating the m-2 th positioning point and the m-3 th positioning point to obtain a third advancing angle; s73, comparing the first travel angle with the second travel angle and the third travel angle; and S74, determining the actual positioning point of the mth point according to the comparison result and the preset step.
Further, the step S74 specifically includes determining whether the first travel angle is consistent with the second travel angle and the third travel angle: if the distance is consistent with the preset step, comparing the calculated travel distance with the preset step: if the travelling distance is smaller than the preset step, determining that the equipment to be positioned travels according to the travelling distance; if the advancing distance is larger than the preset step, advancing according to the preset step; if not, whether the first advancing angle is consistent with the second advancing angle is judged.
Further, the step S74 of determining whether the first travel angle is consistent with the second travel angle specifically includes: if the optimal point is consistent with the first preset step, the vehicle is advanced according to the first preset step; otherwise, waiting for the next calculation; if the two are not consistent and the two are judged to be optimal points, advancing according to a second preset step; otherwise, wait for the next calculation.
Further, step S8 is included, filtering the output anchor point.
A second aspect of the present invention provides a positioning apparatus based on bluetooth signals, comprising at least a plurality of beacons for transmitting bluetooth signals; the portable positioning terminal is used for carrying out Bluetooth communication with the beacon; a base station for receiving a signal of a portable positioning terminal; and the server is used for receiving the base station signal and operating the positioning method for positioning the position of the portable positioning terminal, and is also used for displaying the position of the portable positioning terminal in real time.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the distance from the beacon emission source is calculated by using a piecewise attenuation model, and the positioning is accurate;
2. through the determination of the optimal point and the control of the travel distance, even if the fluctuation of the bluetooth signal is large, the positioning error is small.
3. By calculating and judging the advancing steps and the advancing angles, the real-time follow-up of the target is realized, and the position of the target can be automatically adjusted
4. The Bluetooth beacon has the advantages of low power consumption, accurate positioning and uninterrupted signal generation, and once the equipment to be positioned enters the signal coverage of the Bluetooth beacon, the information can be received without redundant operation.
5. Bluetooth beacon power consumption is few, need not extra power supply, simple to operate.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a flowchart of a positioning method based on bluetooth signals according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a fitted attenuation model according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of field application of the embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of a positioning apparatus based on bluetooth signals according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Description of reference numerals: 1-chest card; 2-beacon.
Detailed Description
In order to facilitate a better understanding of the invention for those skilled in the art, the invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific examples, which are given by way of illustration only and do not limit the scope of the invention.
Before describing a bluetooth signal based positioning method of the present invention, some terms are first explained:
beacon: and the electronic equipment is fixed on the ground and transmits Bluetooth signals.
The optimal point is as follows: we consider signal strengths within one meter from the beacon to be trusted. For example, the signal strength measurement value at 1 meter from the beacon is-60, and if the collected signal strength is-40, the beacon position corresponding to the signal is the optimal point.
Signal attenuation curve: curve of signal intensity versus distance.
Centroid weighting: the coordinates of each vertex are added up by weight. If the coordinates of the points a, B and C are (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3), respectively, and the corresponding weights are a and B, respectively, the position coordinates obtained after the centroid weighting calculation are (a x1+ B x2+ C x3, a x1+ B y2+ C y 3).
Kalman filtering: the method is an algorithm for carrying out optimal estimation on the system state by using a linear system state equation and inputting and outputting observation data through a system. The optimal estimation can also be seen as a filtering process, since the observed data includes the effects of noise and interference in the system.
Based on the above explanation, the following is a detailed description of the technical solution of the present invention.
As shown in fig. 1, the positioning method based on bluetooth signals according to this embodiment includes the following steps:
in step S1, an attenuation model of the beacon signal segment is calculated based on the beacon signal strength and the distance segment.
In this embodiment, the step S1 specifically includes the following steps:
s11, acquiring beacon signal strength based on the beacon position and the distance segment from the beacon position; the distances from the beacons are segmented for signal strength collection. As shown in fig. 2, the signal strength from 0 to n meters from the beacon is collected, and the signal strength from n to m meters from the beacon is collected.
And S12, fitting the acquired signal intensity by adopting a least square method to fit the attenuation curve of the region, and fitting and calculating the acquired segmented signal intensity according to the least square method to obtain the attenuation curve of the region.
And step S2, obtaining the beacon signal strength of each beacon received by the equipment to be positioned.
Because the Bluetooth signal is an uninterrupted signal, the equipment to be positioned enters a beacon signal coverage area, and the equipment to be positioned automatically starts to be positioned after receiving the beacon signal.
And step S3, filtering out the signal strength smaller than the first preset threshold value based on the first preset threshold value.
If the strength of some beacon signals detected by the device to be positioned is less than the first preset threshold, the received signal strength can be considered weak, and the beacon signals are filtered out.
Step S4, and determining an optimal point based on the filtered beacon signal and a second preset threshold.
In this embodiment, S41 ranks the filtered beacon signal strengths from high to low;
and S42, if the highest beacon signal strength is greater than a second preset threshold value, judging that the beacon signal strength is the optimal point, otherwise, judging that the beacon signal strength is not the optimal point.
And if the signal strength of the beacon is greater than a second preset threshold value, indicating that the position of the equipment to be positioned is near the beacon.
And step S5, determining the positioning point of the equipment to be positioned based on the optimal point. The method specifically comprises the following steps:
s51, if the position is judged to be the optimal point, the position of the optimal point is the positioning point of the equipment to be positioned;
and S52, if the signal intensity of the beacon arranged from strong to weak is not the optimal point, respectively substituting the signal intensity of the beacon arranged from strong to weak into a piecewise attenuation model to calculate the distance from each beacon, and calculating the positioning point of the equipment to be positioned through centroid weighting.
And S6, repeating the steps S2-S5 to obtain 3 initial positioning points of the equipment to be positioned.
I.e. the first three anchor points all directly get the result through steps S2-S5 without performing the following steps.
Step S7, comparing the advancing angle of the mth positioning point calculated based on the steps S1-S5 and the previous 3 positioning points of the mth positioning point, and acquiring the actual positioning point of the mth positioning point based on the preset step and outputting the actual positioning point as a result, wherein m is larger than 3;
in this embodiment, the determination of the 4 th positioning point is performed by preliminarily determining a positioning point according to steps S2-S5, then performing the travel angle comparison according to the positioning points of the previous 3 times, and obtaining and determining the actual travel distance based on the preset step.
S71, calculating the calculation position of the 4 th positioning point and the determined 3 rd positioning point to obtain a first advancing angle; in this embodiment, the first travel angle is the difference between the offset angle of the 4 th positioning point from the positive direction of the Y axis and the offset angle of the third positioning point from the positive direction of the Y axis. In some embodiments, the line connecting the fourth positioning point and the third positioning point may also be offset from the positive direction of the Y axis.
S72, calculating a second advancing angle by the 3 rd positioning point and the 2 nd positioning point, and calculating a third advancing angle by the 2 nd positioning point and the 1 st positioning point;
similar to the calculation of the first travel angle, a second travel angle and a third travel angle are obtained.
S73, the first travel angle is compared with the second travel angle and the third travel angle.
And S74, determining the actual positioning point of the 4 th point according to the comparison result and the preset step. Specifically, the method comprises the following steps of,
if the first, second and third advancing angles are consistent, and the advancing distance of the preliminary positioning point obtained by the 4 th point through calculation is compared with the preset step, and if the advancing distance is smaller than the preset step, the equipment to be positioned is determined to advance according to the advancing distance; if the advancing distance is larger than the preset step, advancing according to the preset step;
and if the first, second and third travel angles are not consistent, judging whether the first travel angle is consistent with the second travel angle.
If the first advancing angle is consistent with the second advancing angle and is judged to be the optimal point, advancing according to a first preset step; otherwise, waiting for the next calculation; if the two are not consistent and the two are judged to be optimal points, advancing according to a second preset step; if not, it waits for the next calculation.
In this embodiment, the first predetermined step is the predetermined step, and the second predetermined step is smaller than the first predetermined step. As a preferred embodiment, the second preset step is half the first preset step.
And waiting for the next calculation, and not performing position movement after the current calculation.
And step S8, filtering the output anchor point.
In this embodiment, kalman filtering is used for filtering, so that the anchor point is smoother.
A positioning method based on bluetooth signals and a positioning device shown in the above embodiments are further described below by using practical operation examples shown in fig. 3 and fig. 4, so that those skilled in the art can better understand the technical solution of the present invention.
S1, testing the Bluetooth signal intensity sent by each beacon 2 in a segmented manner by using testing equipment, and fitting the testing result by adopting a least square method to obtain an attenuation model of the signal segment;
s2, as shown in fig. 3, in this embodiment, the device to be positioned is a portable positioning terminal, which is also called a chest card 1: is worn on the body and receives the Bluetooth signal sent by the beacon 2. Beacon 2 distributes according to the demand and sets up in waiting to detect the position region, and the chest card enters and waits to detect the position region and has detected the bluetooth signal, then begins to fix a position automatically. As shown in fig. 3, the staff wears the chest card 1, the chest card 1 transmits the beacon signal strength information of the received beacon 2 to the base station, and the base station transmits the beacon signal strength information to the server. The bluetooth beacon shown in fig. 3 has low power consumption, does not need power supply, and is internally provided with a positioning chip, a communication module and a battery to realize communication with the beacon.
S3, the server filters out the beacon signal strength lower than the first preset threshold based on the first preset threshold.
Because the bluetooth signal shows the characteristics of decay along with the distance, so beacon signal intensity weak signal and the distance deviation of actually fixing a position are great, are filtered.
S4, and determining whether the point with the strongest beacon signal strength is the optimal point based on the filtered point with the strongest beacon signal strength and a second preset threshold.
S5, the attenuation of the bluetooth signal is trusted when it is very close to the beacon, and if the signal strength is greater than the set threshold, it is considered to be the optimum point. And if the signal strength is not the optimal point, taking each filtered signal strength into a piecewise attenuation model to calculate the distance from each beacon, and then calculating the position according to the centroid weighting.
And S6, directly calculating the positioning result for the first three times of positioning.
S7, the position of any point behind is determined according to the travel angle of the preceding 3 points, for example, the 8 th point is determined according to the offset angle of the 7 th point, the 6 th point and the 5 th point. And judging the travel distance according to the preset travel steps and the consistency of the travel angle. If the condition is not met, the calculation is stopped, the positioning point is not determined, and the next recalculation of positioning is waited.
S8, the server performs kalman filtering on the outputted localization point to make the localization point smoother, and displays the localization point in the map real-time location display application shown in fig. 4. According to the obtained locating point information, the monitoring of the factory operation place and the operation time can be conveniently realized in a factory automation system.
As shown in fig. 4, the positioning method and apparatus based on bluetooth signals according to the present invention at least includes several beacons for transmitting bluetooth signals, a portable positioning terminal, a base station and a server. The portable positioning terminal is used for carrying out Bluetooth communication with the beacon; the base station is used for receiving signals of the portable positioning terminal; and the server receives the base station signal, operates the positioning method for positioning the position of the portable positioning terminal and displays the real-time position of the portable positioning terminal.
Through field test, the positioning effect is better, and through the control of the optimal point and the advancing distance, even if the signal fluctuation is larger, the positioning error is small, and a good actual use effect can be achieved.
The foregoing merely illustrates the principles and preferred embodiments of the invention and many variations and modifications may be made by those skilled in the art in light of the foregoing description, which are within the scope of the invention.

Claims (10)

1. A positioning method based on Bluetooth signals is characterized by comprising the following steps:
s1, calculating an attenuation model of the beacon signal segment based on the beacon position and the distance segment of the distance beacon;
s2, acquiring the beacon signal strength of each beacon received by the equipment to be positioned;
s3, filtering the signal intensity smaller than the first preset threshold value based on the first preset threshold value;
s4, determining an optimal point based on the filtered beacon strength signal and a second preset threshold;
s5, determining the positioning point of the equipment to be positioned based on the optimal point;
s6, repeating the steps S2-S5 to obtain at least 3 initial positioning points of the equipment to be positioned;
and S7, comparing the advancing angle of the mth positioning point calculated based on the steps S1-S5 and the previous 3 positioning points of the mth positioning point, acquiring the actual positioning point of the mth positioning point based on the preset step, and outputting the actual positioning point as a result, wherein m is larger than 3.
2. The positioning method according to claim 1, wherein step S1 specifically comprises the following steps
S11, acquiring beacon signal strength based on the beacon position and the distance segment of the distance beacon;
and S12, fitting the attenuation curve of the region by adopting a least square method to the acquired beacon signal intensity, thereby obtaining a segmented attenuation model.
3. The positioning method according to claim 1, wherein step S4 specifically includes:
s41, sorting the intensity of the filtered beacon signals from high to low;
and S42, if the highest beacon signal strength is greater than a second preset threshold value, judging that the beacon signal strength is the optimal point, otherwise, judging that the beacon signal strength is not the optimal point.
4. The positioning method according to claim 3, wherein step S5 specifically includes,
s51, if the position is judged to be the optimal point, the position of the optimal point is the positioning point of the equipment to be positioned;
and S52, if no optimal point exists, the signal intensity of the beacon is respectively substituted into the piecewise attenuation model to calculate the distance from each beacon, and the positioning point of the equipment to be positioned is calculated through centroid weighting.
5. The positioning method according to claim 3, wherein step S7 specifically includes,
s71, calculating the mth positioning point obtained in the steps S1-S5 and the determined mth-1 positioning point to obtain a first advancing angle;
s72, calculating the m-1 th positioning point and the m-2 th positioning point to obtain a second advancing angle, and calculating the m-2 th positioning point and the m-3 th positioning point to obtain a third advancing angle;
s73, comparing the first travel angle with the second travel angle and the third travel angle;
and S74, determining the actual positioning point of the mth point according to the comparison result and the preset step.
6. The positioning method according to claim 5, wherein the travel angle is an offset angle of a two-point connection line with respect to a positive direction of the Y-axis.
7. The positioning method according to claim 5, wherein the step S74 specifically includes,
judging whether the first advancing angle is consistent with the second advancing angle and the third advancing angle:
if the distance is consistent with the preset step, comparing the calculated travel distance with the preset step: if the travelling distance is smaller than the preset step, determining that the equipment to be positioned travels according to the travelling distance; if the advancing distance is larger than the preset step, advancing according to the preset step;
if not, whether the first advancing angle is consistent with the second advancing angle is judged.
8. The positioning method according to claim 7, wherein the step S74 of determining whether the first traveling angle is consistent with the second traveling angle specifically includes:
if the optimal point is consistent with the first preset step, the vehicle is advanced according to the first preset step; otherwise, waiting for the next calculation;
if the two are not consistent and the two are judged to be optimal points, advancing according to a second preset step;
otherwise, wait for the next calculation.
9. The method of claim 1, further comprising S8, filtering the output anchor point.
10. A positioning device based on Bluetooth signals is characterized by at least comprising a plurality of beacons for transmitting Bluetooth signals;
the portable positioning terminal is used for carrying out Bluetooth communication with the beacon;
a base station for receiving a signal of a portable positioning terminal;
a server for receiving the base station signal and operating the positioning method for positioning the position of the portable positioning terminal as claimed in claims 1-9, and displaying the real-time position of the portable positioning terminal.
CN202011587783.XA 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 Positioning method and device based on Bluetooth signals Pending CN112689235A (en)

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Cited By (1)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113534046A (en) * 2021-07-12 2021-10-22 珠海极海半导体有限公司 Indoor positioning method and system based on Bluetooth communication and BLE chip

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CN114501411A (en) * 2022-04-13 2022-05-13 天津恒达文博科技股份有限公司 High-precision positioning system and method based on Bluetooth

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113534046A (en) * 2021-07-12 2021-10-22 珠海极海半导体有限公司 Indoor positioning method and system based on Bluetooth communication and BLE chip

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Application publication date: 20210420