CN112597618A - Method and device for predicting ground surface settlement of tunnel engineering pipe curtain support construction - Google Patents

Method and device for predicting ground surface settlement of tunnel engineering pipe curtain support construction Download PDF

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CN112597618A
CN112597618A CN202010833513.6A CN202010833513A CN112597618A CN 112597618 A CN112597618 A CN 112597618A CN 202010833513 A CN202010833513 A CN 202010833513A CN 112597618 A CN112597618 A CN 112597618A
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pipe
caused
excavation
settlement
stratum
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CN112597618B (en
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张艺腾
王明年
江帆
肖泽荣
于丽
陈明跃
张建
郑传玲
朱德武
江勇涛
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Fuzhou Municipal Construction And Development Co ltd
Fuzhou Planning Design and Research Institute
Southwest Jiaotong University
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Fuzhou Municipal Construction And Development Co ltd
Fuzhou Planning Design and Research Institute
Southwest Jiaotong University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F30/00Computer-aided design [CAD]
    • G06F30/20Design optimisation, verification or simulation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q10/00Administration; Management
    • G06Q10/04Forecasting or optimisation, e.g. linear programming, "travelling salesman problem" or "cutting stock problem"
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F2119/00Details relating to the type or aim of the analysis or the optimisation
    • G06F2119/14Force analysis or force optimisation, e.g. static or dynamic forces

Abstract

The application provides a method and a device for predicting earth surface settlement in pipe curtain supporting construction of tunnel engineering, and belongs to the field of pipe curtain supporting. The single-pipe jacking construction earth surface settlement calculation method for the pipe curtain support construction of the tunnel engineering is based on a random medium theory and a Mindlin solution, a spiral unearthed casing jacking process single-pipe jacking construction earth surface settlement calculation method considering stratum loss and construction stress is established, and a pipe curtain group pipe construction earth surface settlement correction function is introduced to form a pipe curtain group pipe construction earth surface settlement calculation method on the basis of the single-pipe jacking construction earth surface settlement calculation method. The proposed calculation method is adopted to analyze the surface subsidence change and the distribution rule caused by single-pipe jacking construction and pipe curtain group pipe construction, and the surface subsidence prediction accuracy of pipe curtain support construction is improved for similar engineering design and construction reference.

Description

Method and device for predicting ground surface settlement of tunnel engineering pipe curtain support construction
Technical Field
The application relates to the field of pipe curtain support, in particular to a method and a device for predicting earth surface settlement in pipe curtain support construction in tunnel engineering.
Background
The construction of urban underground space is often limited by ground traffic and buildings (structures), and the traditional open cut method construction technology is difficult to develop. As a novel underground crossing method, the pipe curtain method can be used for constructing large-span and large-section underground engineering on the basis of a small pipe curtain, can effectively control the deformation of the earth surface, and is widely applied to urban building intensive and heavy-traffic road sections and shallow-buried large-section underground engineering.
At present, the method for calculating the surface subsidence caused by the single-pipe jacking construction of a pipe curtain comprises the following steps: an empirical formula method, an analytical method, numerical simulation and the like, but the research on the calculation method of the surface subsidence in the pipe curtain group pipe construction is less, and the interaction mechanism among the pipe curtain group pipes and the surface subsidence rule are not clear.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, the embodiment of the application provides a method and a device for predicting the settlement of the earth surface in the pipe curtain supporting construction of tunnel engineering, and aims to provide a method for predicting the settlement of the earth surface in the pipe curtain supporting construction, establish a calculation method for the settlement of the earth surface in the single-pipe jacking construction of the spiral unearthed casing pipe jacking process based on stratum loss and construction stress, introduce a correction function for the settlement of the earth surface in the group pipe construction to form a calculation method for the settlement of the earth surface in the pipe curtain supporting construction, and improve the accuracy of the settlement prediction of the earth surface in the pipe curtain supporting construction so as to provide.
In a first aspect, the present embodiment provides a method for predicting surface subsidence in pipe curtain supporting construction in tunnel engineering, including
Determining surface subsidence caused by unit excavation according to a random medium theory;
determining the surface subsidence caused by the stratum loss based on the stratum loss area unit excavation integral superposition;
discretizing the additional stress on the excavation surface, wherein the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, calculating the surface subsidence by using Mindlin solution, and performing integral superposition on the circular excavation surface to determine the surface subsidence caused by the stress release of the excavation surface;
discretizing the friction force on the surface of the steel pipe, regarding the load on each small infinitesimal surface as a concentrated force acting in a semi-infinite stratum, and performing integral superposition on the surface of the steel pipe to determine the surface settlement caused by the friction force between the pipe curtain steel pipe and the stratum;
determining the surface subsidence caused by single-pipe jacking construction based on the surface subsidence caused by stratum loss, the surface subsidence caused by stress release of an excavation surface and the surface subsidence caused by friction force between a pipe wall and the stratum;
and introducing a surface subsidence correction function to obtain the surface subsidence caused by the n-th steel pipe jacking construction, accumulating the surface subsidence caused by the pipe curtain steel pipe jacking construction, and determining the surface subsidence caused by the n steel pipes after the jacking is completed.
With reference to the first aspect, in a first possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the surface subsidence caused by the unit excavation is determined according to a random medium theory, specifically:
digging d ξ d ζ for unit with length, width and thickness as infinitesimal smallAccording to the random medium theory, the unit excavation causes the surface subsidence as
In formula 1:excavating a central coordinate for the unit; beta is the angle of influence range depending on the properties of the overburden, tan beta is H/w,i is the half width of the settling tank;
in formula 2: h is the buried depth of the jacking pipe; r is the radius of the steel pipe;and taking a weighted average value as the internal friction angle of the stratum.
With reference to the first possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a second possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the determining the surface subsidence caused by the formation loss is based on the formation loss area unit excavation integral superposition, specifically:
in the jacking construction process of the pipe curtain steel pipe, the cutting is carried out by an excavation drill bit, soil in front of an excavation surface and around the excavation surface moves into the pipe, stratum loss is generated, and the stratum loss is regarded as the radius R of the jacking construction of the steel pipelThe soil body in the cylindrical range of (a) collapses to the surface of the steel pipe, and the formation loss is expressed as:
Vs=πRl 2-πR2=ηπR2(formula 3)
In formula 3: r is the radius of the pipe curtain steel pipe; eta is the formation loss rate;
the earth surface settlement caused by the stratum loss can be obtained by integrating and superposing the excavation integrals of the stratum loss area units:
in formula 4: r is the distance from any point on the excavation surface to the center of the excavation surface; theta is an included angle between a connecting line from the center of the excavation surface to any point on the excavation surface and the z axis.
With reference to the second possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a third possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the additional stress on the excavation surface is discretized, the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, surface subsidence calculation is performed by using a Mindlin solution, integral superposition is performed on a circular excavation surface, and surface subsidence caused by excavation surface stress release is determined, specifically:
the stress of the excavation surface is released in the jacking construction process of the pipe curtain steel pipe, the normal stress of the excavation surface is reduced to zero, and compared with a stratum which is not disturbed by excavation, the stress is equivalent to the action of applying additional stress in the direction opposite to the original horizontal ground stress and the like to the excavation surface;
the initial horizontal ground stress of any point on the excavation surface is as follows:
in formula 6:the average weight of the overlying soil mass; k0Is the coefficient of static soil pressure, wherein K0As determined by the poisson's ratio,
discretizing the additional stress on the excavation surface, regarding the load on each small infinitesimal surface as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, calculating the surface subsidence by applying Mindlin solution, and performing integral superposition on the circular excavation surface to obtain the surface subsidence caused by the stress release of the excavation surface:
in formula 7: m is the distance from the ground point to the action point of the concentrated force,
with reference to the third possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a fourth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the determining the surface subsidence caused by the single pipe jacking construction is based on the surface subsidence caused by the formation loss, the surface subsidence caused by the stress release of the excavation surface, and the surface subsidence caused by the friction force between the pipe wall and the formation, and specifically includes:
the steel pipe jacking construction is carried out by adopting a spiral unearthed casing jacking process, jacking and cutting are carried out simultaneously, the steel pipe is in close contact with the stratum, the soil pressure borne by the pipe curtain steel pipe is considered to be equal to the initial ground stress of the surface position of the steel pipe, and the contact pressure of the contact surface of the steel pipe and the soil body under a polar coordinate system is as follows:
therefore, the friction force of the contact surface of the steel pipe and the stratum is as follows:
f=kσr(formula 9)
In formula 9: k is the friction coefficient of the steel pipe and the stratum;
discretizing the friction force on the surface of the steel pipe, regarding the load on each small infinitesimal surface as a concentrated force acting inside a semi-infinite stratum, and integrating and superposing the load on the surface of the steel pipe to obtain the surface settlement caused by the friction force between the pipe curtain steel pipe and the stratum as follows:
in formula 10: n is the distance from the ground point to the action point of the concentrated force, wherein,
with reference to the fourth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a fifth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the determining the surface subsidence caused by the single-pipe jacking construction is based on the surface subsidence caused by the formation loss, the surface subsidence caused by the stress release of the excavation surface, and the surface subsidence caused by the friction force between the pipe wall and the formation, and specifically includes:
the surface subsidence is composed of three parts of stratum loss, stress release of an excavation surface and friction force between a pipe wall and the stratum, and the surface subsidence caused by single pipe jacking construction is as follows:
W(x,y)=w(x,y)l+w(x,y)s+w(x,y)f(formula 11).
With reference to the fifth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a sixth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, a surface subsidence correction function is introduced to obtain surface subsidence caused by the jacking construction of the nth steel pipe, and the surface subsidence caused by the jacking construction of the pipe curtain steel pipe is accumulated to determine that the surface subsidence caused by the n steel pipes is completed by jacking, which is specifically:
introducing a ground surface settlement correction function into the prediction of the ground surface settlement of the pipe curtain group pipe construction, wherein when the nth pipe curtain steel pipe is jacked into the construction, the stratum is disturbed by the previous n-1 steel pipe jacking construction, and the ground surface settlement correction function considering the disturbance of the mth steel pipe which is constructed on the stratum is as follows:
in formula 18: bmIs the m-th tubular curtain steel pipeCoordinates, imThe half width of a settling tank corresponding to the mth pipe curtain steel pipe is defined, A is a settling tank width coefficient, and M is a maximum surface subsidence correction coefficient;
the ground surface settlement correction function of the n-th steel pipe (n is more than or equal to 2) jacking construction is as follows:
F(y)n=f(y)1f(y)2...f(y)n-1(formula 19);
correcting the ground surface settlement caused by stratum loss in the single-pipe jacking construction by adopting a ground surface settlement correction function to obtain the ground surface settlement caused by the nth steel pipe jacking construction as follows:
W′(x,y)n=F(y)n·w(x,y)nl+w(x,y)ns+w(x,y)nf(formula 20)
Accumulating the surface subsidence caused by the jacking construction of the pipe curtain steel pipes, and obtaining the surface subsidence caused by n steel pipes after the jacking completion as follows:
in a second aspect, the present application further provides a device for predicting settlement of the earth's surface in the pipe curtain supporting construction of tunnel engineering, which comprises
The unit settlement determining module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by unit excavation according to a random medium theory;
the stratum loss settlement module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by stratum loss based on the stratum loss area unit excavation integral superposition;
the stress releasing and settling module is used for discretizing additional stress on the excavation surface, the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, surface settlement calculation is carried out by applying Mindlin solution, integral superposition is carried out on the circular excavation surface, and surface settlement caused by stress releasing of the excavation surface is determined;
the steel pipe and stratum friction force settlement module is used for discretizing the friction force on the surface of the steel pipe, the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting in the semi-infinite stratum, the concentrated force is integrated and superposed on the surface of the steel pipe, and the surface settlement caused by the friction force of the pipe curtain steel pipe and the stratum is determined;
the single-pipe settlement module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by single-pipe jacking construction based on the surface settlement caused by stratum loss, the surface settlement caused by stress release of an excavation surface and the surface settlement caused by friction force between a pipe wall and a stratum;
and the pipe curtain steel pipe settlement module is used for introducing a ground surface settlement correction function to obtain the ground surface settlement caused by the n-th steel pipe jacking construction, accumulating the ground surface settlement caused by the pipe curtain steel pipe jacking construction and determining the ground surface settlement caused by n steel pipes after the jacking is completed.
In a third aspect, the present application further provides an electronic device, including:
one or more processors;
a storage device for storing one or more programs,
when executed by the one or more processors, cause the one or more processors to implement a method as previously described.
In a fourth aspect, the present application further provides a computer readable medium, on which a computer program is stored, wherein the computer program is executed by a processor to implement the method as described above.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the single-pipe jacking construction earth surface settlement calculation method for the pipe curtain support construction of the tunnel engineering is based on a random medium theory and a Mindlin solution, a spiral unearthed casing jacking process single-pipe jacking construction earth surface settlement calculation method considering stratum loss and construction stress is established, and a pipe curtain group pipe construction earth surface settlement correction function is introduced to form a pipe curtain group pipe construction earth surface settlement calculation method on the basis of the single-pipe jacking construction earth surface settlement calculation method. The proposed calculation method is adopted to analyze the surface subsidence change and the distribution rule caused by single-pipe jacking construction and pipe curtain group pipe construction, and the surface subsidence prediction accuracy of pipe curtain support construction is improved for similar engineering design and construction reference.
Drawings
In order to more clearly explain the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present application, the drawings that are required to be used in the embodiments will be briefly described below, it should be understood that the following drawings only illustrate some embodiments of the present application and therefore should not be considered as limiting the scope, and that for those skilled in the art, other related drawings can be obtained from these drawings without inventive effort.
Fig. 1 is a flowchart of an embodiment of a method for predicting ground surface settlement in pipe curtain support construction in tunnel engineering according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a unit excavation provided by an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of pipe curtain steel pipe jacking construction provided by an embodiment of the application;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of an excavation face provided in an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 5 is a Mindlin solution diagram provided by an embodiment of the present application;
fig. 6 is a schematic structural diagram of an electronic device provided in an embodiment of the present application.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the embodiments of the present invention more apparent, the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention will be described clearly and completely with reference to the accompanying drawings of the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are some, but not all embodiments of the present invention. All other embodiments, which can be obtained by a person skilled in the art without any inventive step based on the embodiments of the present invention, are within the scope of the present invention.
Thus, the following detailed description of the embodiments of the present invention, presented in the figures, is not intended to limit the scope of the invention, as claimed, but is merely representative of selected embodiments of the invention. All other embodiments, which can be obtained by a person skilled in the art without any inventive step based on the embodiments of the present invention, are within the scope of the present invention.
It should be noted that: like reference numbers and letters refer to like items in the following figures, and thus, once an item is defined in one figure, it need not be further defined and explained in subsequent figures.
Examples
Fig. 1 shows a flowchart of an embodiment of a method for predicting surface subsidence in pipe curtain support construction of tunnel engineering according to the present disclosure. Referring to fig. 1, the method for predicting the settlement of the ground surface in the pipe curtain support construction of the tunnel engineering is used in the field of pipe curtain construction, and is used for predicting the settlement of the ground surface in the pipe curtain support construction.
In order to facilitate understanding of the technical scheme disclosed by the invention, the construction of the pipe curtain is briefly described.
The pipe curtain construction is carried out by adopting a spiral unearthing casing jacking process, an excavation drill bit cuts soil bodies in the pipe curtain steel pipe jacking construction process, the initial ground stress of surrounding rocks is released, and the soil bodies in front of an excavation surface and around move into the pipe to cause stratum loss. Meanwhile, the steel pipe is jacked in to enable the contact surface of the pipe wall and the soil layer to generate friction force. The stratum loss generated by jacking the steel pipe and the construction stress consisting of stress release of an excavation surface and friction force between the pipe wall and the stratum can cause deformation of soil and surface subsidence.
Referring to fig. 1, the method for predicting the ground surface settlement in the pipe curtain support construction of the tunnel engineering comprises the following steps:
s100: and determining the surface subsidence caused by unit excavation according to a random medium theory.
Fig. 2 shows a schematic diagram of a cell excavation according to the present disclosure. Referring to FIG. 2, for a unit excavation d ξ d ζ with length, width and thickness considered as infinitesimal smallAccording to the random medium theory, the unit excavation causes the surface subsidence as
In formula 1:excavating a central coordinate for the unit; beta is the angle of influence range depending on the properties of the overburden, tan beta is H/w,and i is the half width of the settling tank.
In formula 2: h is the buried depth of the jacking pipe; r is the radius of the steel pipe;and taking a weighted average value as the internal friction angle of the stratum.
S200: and determining the surface subsidence caused by the stratum loss based on the stratum loss area unit excavation integral superposition.
In the jacking construction process of the pipe curtain steel pipe, the pipe curtain steel pipe is cut by an excavation drill bit, soil in front of an excavation surface and around the excavation surface moves into the pipe, stratum loss is generated, and the stratum loss can be considered as that the radius R is caused by the jacking construction of the steel pipelThe soil body in the cylindrical range of (a) collapses to the surface of the steel pipe, and the formation loss is expressed as:
Vs=πRl 2-πR2=ηπR2(formula 3)
In formula 3: r is the radius of the pipe curtain steel pipe; eta is the formation loss rate. Wherein, the stratum loss rate is related to the construction process, the geological conditions and the like, and the value range is generally 0.5 to 2.0 percent.
Fig. 3 shows a pipe curtain steel pipe jacking construction schematic according to the present disclosure, and fig. 4 shows an excavation face schematic according to the present disclosure. Referring to fig. 3 and 4, when the axis passes through (0, b, c), the pipe curtain steel pipe with the distance a is jacked, and the integral superposition of the excavation of the stratum loss area unit can obtain that the surface subsidence caused by the stratum loss is as follows:
in formula 4: r is the distance from any point on the excavation surface to the center of the excavation surface; theta is an included angle between a connecting line from the center of the excavation surface to any point on the excavation surface and the z axis.
S300: discretizing the additional stress on the excavation surface, regarding the load on each small infinitesimal surface as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, calculating the surface subsidence by using Mindlin solution, performing integral superposition on the circular excavation surface, and determining the surface subsidence caused by the stress release of the excavation surface.
Here, the concept of the Mindlin solution will be described first.
The construction stress generated in the jacking process of the pipe curtain steel pipe comprises stress release of an excavation surface caused by drill bit excavation and friction force of a contact surface of the steel pipe and the stratum. The solution of the stress and deformation caused by the horizontal concentration forces acting inside the elastic semi-infinite body is called the Mindlin solution.
Fig. 5 shows a Mindlin solution diagram according to the present disclosure. Referring to fig. 5, according to the Mindlin solution, the surface subsidence caused by the action of the horizontal concentration force from the surface c in the semi-infinite formation can be obtained as follows:
in formula 5: c is the distance from the action point to the ground; r1The distance between the ground point and the action point of the concentrated force is obtained; r2The distance from the ground point to the point with the coordinate of (0,0, -c) on the z-axis is obtained; g is the shear deformation modulus of the soil body; mu is the soil Poisson's ratio.
The stress of the excavation surface is released in the jacking construction process of the pipe curtain steel pipe, the normal stress of the excavation surface is reduced to zero, and compared with a stratum which is not disturbed by excavation, the stress is equivalent to the action of applying additional stress in the direction opposite to the original horizontal ground stress and the like to the excavation surface;
with continuing reference to fig. 4, the initial horizontal ground stress at any point on the excavated surface is:
in formula 6:the average weight of the overlying soil mass; k0Is the coefficient of static soil pressure, wherein K0As determined by the poisson's ratio,
discretizing additional stress on the excavation surface, wherein the load on each small infinitesimal surface can be regarded as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, calculating the surface subsidence by applying Mindlin solution, and performing integral superposition on the circular excavation surface to obtain the surface subsidence caused by the stress release of the excavation surface:
in formula 7: m is the distance from the ground point to the action point of the concentrated force,
s400: discretizing the friction force on the surface of the steel pipe, regarding the load on each small infinitesimal surface as a concentrated force acting in the semi-infinite stratum, integrating and superposing the load on the surface of the steel pipe, and determining the surface settlement caused by the friction force between the pipe curtain steel pipe and the stratum.
The steel pipe jacking construction is carried out by adopting a spiral unearthed casing jacking process, jacking and cutting are carried out simultaneously, the steel pipe is in close contact with the stratum, the soil pressure borne by the pipe curtain steel pipe is considered to be equal to the initial ground stress of the surface position of the steel pipe, and the contact pressure of the contact surface of the steel pipe and the soil body under a polar coordinate system is as follows:
therefore, the friction force of the contact surface of the steel pipe and the stratum is as follows:
f=kσr(formula 9)
In formula 9: and k is the friction coefficient of the steel pipe and the stratum.
Discretizing the friction force on the surface of the steel pipe, wherein the load on each small infinitesimal surface can be regarded as a concentrated force acting inside a semi-infinite stratum, and the surface integral superposition of the steel pipe can obtain the surface settlement caused by the friction force between the pipe curtain steel pipe and the stratum as follows:
in formula 10: n is the distance from the ground point to the action point of the concentrated force, wherein,
s500: and determining the surface subsidence caused by single-pipe jacking construction based on the surface subsidence caused by stratum loss, the surface subsidence caused by stress release of an excavation surface and the surface subsidence caused by friction force between the pipe wall and the stratum.
The single-pipe jacking construction is carried out by adopting a spiral unearthed casing jacking process, and the ground surface settlement consists of three parts, namely stratum loss, stress release of an excavation surface and friction between a pipe wall and the stratum.
The surface subsidence caused by single-pipe jacking construction is as follows:
W(x,y)=w(x,y)l+w(x,y)s+w(x,y)f(formula 11).
S600: and introducing a surface subsidence correction function to obtain the surface subsidence caused by the n-th steel pipe jacking construction, accumulating the surface subsidence caused by the pipe curtain steel pipe jacking construction, and determining the surface subsidence caused by the n steel pipes after the jacking is completed.
The pipe curtain engineering construction is that on the basis of single pipe jacking, a plurality of steel pipes are jacked continuously to form a curtain, and the supporting effect is achieved. At present, students at home and abroad mostly predict the surface subsidence caused by pipe curtain group pipe construction by superposing single pipes, and the mutual influence among steel pipes in the pipe curtain construction process is not considered.
After the first steel pipe of the pipe curtain is jacked, the stratum is not influenced by the construction stress of the jacked steel pipe in the subsequent steel pipe jacking construction process, but the generated stratum loss influences the ground surface settlement caused by the subsequent steel pipe construction, so that the ground surface settlement caused by the stratum loss is more obvious. And introducing a surface subsidence correction function to correct the surface subsidence caused by the single-pipe jacking construction, thereby obtaining the calculation method of the surface subsidence in the pipe curtain group pipe construction.
The engineer Peck carries out statistical analysis on a large amount of shallow buried underground excavation tunnel construction data and the caused ground surface displacement data, and provides a ground surface settlement prediction formula for soft soil layer tunnel excavation:
in formula 12: w (y) is the surface subsidence at a distance y from the centerline of the tunnel; w is amaxThe maximum settlement value of the earth surface above the central line of the tunnel; and i is the half width of the settling tank.
Hunt studies the surface subsidence caused by the construction of the double-hole shield tunnel at different relative positions, and considers that the second tunnel is excavated in disturbed soil, and the caused surface subsidence is as follows:
wherein f (y) is a surface subsidence correction function expressed as:
in formula 14: d is the horizontal distance between the central lines of the two tunnels; a is the width coefficient of the settling tank, and is usually 2.5 or 3.0; and M is the maximum surface subsidence correction coefficient.
Equation 14 shows that the predicted value of the ground surface subsidence of the second tunnel is corrected by considering the construction disturbance of the first tunnel, the corrected value of the ground surface subsidence above the central line of the first tunnel is the largest (f (y) ═ 1+ M), when the horizontal distance from the central line of the first tunnel is greater than Ai, the ground surface subsidence is no longer influenced by the first tunnel, and the corrected value is 1.
Ocak et al predict the surface subsidence of a shallow soft soil double-hole tunnel by multiplying the maximum surface subsidence (above the center line of the tunnel) of a second tunnel by a disturbance coefficient k based on a Peck formula, and field actual measurement research shows that:
in formula 15: and D is the diameter of the tunnel.
Comparing the Hunt and Ocak methods, one can obtain:
therefore, the maximum surface subsidence correction factor can be taken as:
and when the horizontal distance d between the central lines of the two tunnels is greater than Ai, the ground surface settlement caused by the construction of the second tunnel is not influenced by the first tunnel, and M is 0 at the moment.
Introducing a ground surface settlement correction function into the prediction of the ground surface settlement of the pipe curtain group pipe construction, wherein when the nth pipe curtain steel pipe is jacked into the construction, the stratum is disturbed by the previous n-1 steel pipe jacking construction, and the ground surface settlement correction function considering the disturbance of the mth steel pipe which is constructed on the stratum is as follows:
in formula 18: bmIs the y coordinate of the mth canal curtain steel pipe; i.e. imThe half width of the settling tank corresponding to the mth pipe curtain steel pipe.
The ground surface settlement correction function of the n-th steel pipe (n is more than or equal to 2) jacking construction is as follows:
F(y)n=f(y)1f(y)2...f(y)n-1(formula 19).
Correcting the ground surface settlement caused by stratum loss in the single-pipe jacking construction by adopting a ground surface settlement correction function to obtain the ground surface settlement caused by the nth steel pipe jacking construction as follows:
W′(x,y)n=F(y)n·w(x,y)nl+w(x,y)ns+w(x,y)nf(formula 20)
Accumulating the surface subsidence caused by the jacking construction of the pipe curtain steel pipes, and obtaining the surface subsidence caused by n steel pipes after the jacking completion as follows:
the single-pipe jacking construction earth surface settlement calculation method for the pipe curtain support construction of the tunnel engineering is based on a random medium theory and a Mindlin solution, a spiral unearthed casing jacking process single-pipe jacking construction earth surface settlement calculation method considering stratum loss and construction stress is established, and a pipe curtain group pipe construction earth surface settlement correction function is introduced to form a pipe curtain group pipe construction earth surface settlement calculation method on the basis of the single-pipe jacking construction earth surface settlement calculation method. The proposed calculation method is adopted to analyze the surface subsidence change and the distribution rule caused by single-pipe jacking construction and pipe curtain group pipe construction, and the surface subsidence prediction accuracy of pipe curtain support construction is improved for similar engineering design and construction reference.
Further, as an implementation of the method, the present disclosure provides a device for predicting ground surface settlement in pipe curtain supporting construction in tunnel engineering, where an embodiment of the device corresponds to the embodiment of the method shown in fig. 1, and the device may be applied to various electronic devices.
This tunnel engineering pipe curtain is strutted construction earth's surface and is subsided prediction device includes: the unit settlement determining module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by unit excavation according to a random medium theory; the stratum loss settlement module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by stratum loss based on the stratum loss area unit excavation integral superposition; the stress releasing and settling module is used for discretizing additional stress on the excavation surface, the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, surface settlement calculation is carried out by applying Mindlin solution, integral superposition is carried out on the circular excavation surface, and surface settlement caused by stress releasing of the excavation surface is determined; the steel pipe and stratum friction force settlement module is used for discretizing the friction force on the surface of the steel pipe, the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting in the semi-infinite stratum, the concentrated force is integrated and superposed on the surface of the steel pipe, and the surface settlement caused by the friction force of the pipe curtain steel pipe and the stratum is determined; the single-pipe settlement module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by single-pipe jacking construction based on the surface settlement caused by stratum loss, the surface settlement caused by stress release of an excavation surface and the surface settlement caused by friction force between a pipe wall and a stratum; and the pipe curtain steel pipe settlement module is used for introducing a ground surface settlement correction function to obtain the ground surface settlement caused by the n-th steel pipe jacking construction, accumulating the ground surface settlement caused by the pipe curtain steel pipe jacking construction and determining the ground surface settlement caused by n steel pipes after the jacking is completed.
Referring now to FIG. 6, shown is a schematic diagram of an electronic device suitable for use in implementing embodiments of the present disclosure. The electronic devices in the embodiments of the present disclosure may include, but are not limited to, mobile terminals such as mobile phones, notebook computers, digital broadcast receivers, PDAs (personal digital assistants), PADs (tablet computers), PMPs (portable multimedia players), in-vehicle terminals (e.g., car navigation terminals), and the like, and fixed terminals such as digital TVs, desktop computers, and the like. The electronic device shown in fig. 6 is only an example, and should not bring any limitation to the functions and the scope of use of the embodiments of the present disclosure.
As shown in fig. 6, the electronic device may include a processing means (e.g., a central processing unit, a graphics processor, etc.) 601, which may perform various appropriate actions and processes according to a program stored in a Read Only Memory (ROM)602 or a program loaded from a storage means 608 into a Random Access Memory (RAM) 603. In the RAM603, various programs and data necessary for the operation of the electronic apparatus 600 are also stored. The processing device 601, the ROM 602, and the RAM603 are connected to each other via a bus 604. An input/output (I/O) interface 605 is also connected to bus 604.
Generally, the following devices may be connected to the I/O interface 605: input devices 606 including, for example, a touch screen, touch pad, keyboard, mouse, camera, microphone, accelerometer, gyroscope, etc.; output devices 607 including, for example, a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), a speaker, a vibrator, and the like; storage 608 including, for example, tape, hard disk, etc.; and a communication device 609. The communication means 609 may allow the electronic device to communicate with other devices wirelessly or by wire to exchange data. While fig. 6 illustrates an electronic device having various means, it is to be understood that not all illustrated means are required to be implemented or provided. More or fewer devices may alternatively be implemented or provided.
In particular, according to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the processes described above with reference to the flowcharts may be implemented as computer software programs. For example, embodiments of the present disclosure include a computer program product comprising a computer program carried on a non-transitory computer readable medium, the computer program containing program code for performing the method illustrated by the flow chart. In such an embodiment, the computer program may be downloaded and installed from a network via the communication means 609, or may be installed from the storage means 608, or may be installed from the ROM 602. The computer program, when executed by the processing device 601, performs the above-described functions defined in the methods of the embodiments of the present disclosure.
It should be noted that the computer readable medium of the present disclosure can be a computer readable signal medium or a computer readable storage medium or any combination of the two. A computer readable storage medium may be, for example, but not limited to, an electronic, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, infrared, or semiconductor system, apparatus, or device, or any combination of the foregoing. More specific examples of the computer readable storage medium may include, but are not limited to: an electrical connection having one or more wires, a portable computer diskette, a hard disk, a Random Access Memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or flash memory), an optical fiber, a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), an optical storage device, a magnetic storage device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. In the present disclosure, a computer readable storage medium may be any tangible medium that can contain, or store a program for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device. In contrast, in the present disclosure, a computer readable signal medium may comprise a propagated data signal with computer readable program code embodied therein, either in baseband or as part of a carrier wave. Such a propagated data signal may take many forms, including, but not limited to, electro-magnetic, optical, or any suitable combination thereof. A computer readable signal medium may also be any computer readable medium that is not a computer readable storage medium and that can communicate, propagate, or transport a program for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device. Program code embodied on a computer readable medium may be transmitted using any appropriate medium, including but not limited to: electrical wires, optical cables, RF (radio frequency), etc., or any suitable combination of the foregoing.
In some embodiments, the clients, servers may communicate using any currently known or future developed network Protocol, such as HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol), and may interconnect with any form or medium of digital data communication (e.g., a communications network). Examples of communication networks include a local area network ("LAN"), a wide area network ("WAN"), the Internet (e.g., the Internet), and peer-to-peer networks (e.g., ad hoc peer-to-peer networks), as well as any currently known or future developed network.
The computer readable medium may be embodied in the electronic device; or may exist separately without being assembled into the electronic device.
The computer readable medium carries one or more programs which, when executed by the electronic device, cause the electronic device to: the unit settlement determining module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by unit excavation according to a random medium theory; the stratum loss settlement module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by stratum loss based on the stratum loss area unit excavation integral superposition; the stress releasing and settling module is used for discretizing additional stress on the excavation surface, the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, surface settlement calculation is carried out by applying Mindlin solution, integral superposition is carried out on the circular excavation surface, and surface settlement caused by stress releasing of the excavation surface is determined; the steel pipe and stratum friction force settlement module is used for discretizing the friction force on the surface of the steel pipe, the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting in the semi-infinite stratum, the concentrated force is integrated and superposed on the surface of the steel pipe, and the surface settlement caused by the friction force of the pipe curtain steel pipe and the stratum is determined; the single-pipe settlement module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by single-pipe jacking construction based on the surface settlement caused by stratum loss, the surface settlement caused by stress release of an excavation surface and the surface settlement caused by friction force between a pipe wall and a stratum; and the pipe curtain steel pipe settlement module is used for introducing a ground surface settlement correction function to obtain the ground surface settlement caused by the n-th steel pipe jacking construction, accumulating the ground surface settlement caused by the pipe curtain steel pipe jacking construction and determining the ground surface settlement caused by n steel pipes after the jacking is completed.
Computer program code for carrying out operations for the present disclosure may be written in any combination of one or more programming languages, including but not limited to an object oriented programming language such as Java, Smalltalk, C + +, and conventional procedural programming languages, such as the "C" programming language or similar programming languages. The program code may execute entirely on the user's computer, partly on the user's computer, as a stand-alone software package, partly on the user's computer and partly on a remote computer or entirely on the remote computer or server. In the case of a remote computer, the remote computer may be connected to the user's computer through any type of network, including a Local Area Network (LAN) or a Wide Area Network (WAN), or the connection may be made to an external computer (for example, through the Internet using an Internet service provider).
The flowchart and block diagrams in the figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of systems, methods and computer program products according to various embodiments of the present disclosure. In this regard, each block in the flowchart or block diagrams may represent a module, segment, or portion of code, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function(s). It should also be noted that, in some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the block may occur out of the order noted in the figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved. It will also be noted that each block of the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, can be implemented by special purpose hardware-based systems which perform the specified functions or acts, or combinations of special purpose hardware and computer instructions.
The modules described in the embodiments of the present disclosure may be implemented by software or hardware. Where the name of a module does not in some cases constitute a limitation on the module itself, for example, a module for determining module settlement may also be described as a "module for determining surface settlement caused by module excavation according to random media theory".
The functions described herein above may be performed, at least in part, by one or more hardware logic components. For example, without limitation, exemplary types of hardware logic components that may be used include: field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), Application Specific Standard Products (ASSPs), systems on a chip (SOCs), Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLDs), and the like.
In the context of this disclosure, a machine-readable medium may be a tangible medium that can contain, or store a program for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device. The machine-readable medium may be a machine-readable signal medium or a machine-readable storage medium. A machine-readable medium may include, but is not limited to, an electronic, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, infrared, or semiconductor system, apparatus, or device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. More specific examples of a machine-readable storage medium would include an electrical connection based on one or more wires, a portable computer diskette, a hard disk, a Random Access Memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or flash memory), an optical fiber, a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), an optical storage device, a magnetic storage device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing.
The foregoing description is only exemplary of the preferred embodiments of the disclosure and is illustrative of the principles of the technology employed. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the scope of the disclosure herein is not limited to the particular combination of features described above, but also encompasses other embodiments in which any combination of the features described above or their equivalents does not depart from the spirit of the disclosure. For example, the above features and (but not limited to) the features disclosed in this disclosure having similar functions are replaced with each other to form the technical solution.
Further, while operations are depicted in a particular order, this should not be understood as requiring that such operations be performed in the particular order shown or in sequential order. Under certain circumstances, multitasking and parallel processing may be advantageous. Likewise, while several specific implementation details are included in the above discussion, these should not be construed as limitations on the scope of the disclosure. Certain features that are described in the context of separate embodiments can also be implemented in combination in a single embodiment. Conversely, various features that are described in the context of a single embodiment can also be implemented in multiple embodiments separately or in any suitable subcombination.
Although the subject matter has been described in language specific to structural features and/or methodological acts, it is to be understood that the subject matter defined in the appended claims is not necessarily limited to the specific features or acts described above. Rather, the specific features and acts described above are disclosed as example forms of implementing the claims.
The above is only a preferred embodiment of the present application and is not intended to limit the present application, and various modifications and variations may be made to the present application by those skilled in the art. Any modification, equivalent replacement, improvement and the like made within the spirit and principle of the present application shall be included in the protection scope of the present application.

Claims (10)

1. A method for predicting the surface subsidence in the pipe curtain supporting construction of tunnel engineering is characterized by comprising
Determining surface subsidence caused by unit excavation according to a random medium theory;
determining the surface subsidence caused by the stratum loss based on the stratum loss area unit excavation integral superposition;
discretizing the additional stress on the excavation surface, wherein the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, calculating the surface subsidence by using Mindlin solution, and performing integral superposition on the circular excavation surface to determine the surface subsidence caused by the stress release of the excavation surface;
discretizing the friction force on the surface of the steel pipe, regarding the load on each small infinitesimal surface as a concentrated force acting in a semi-infinite stratum, and performing integral superposition on the surface of the steel pipe to determine the surface settlement caused by the friction force between the pipe curtain steel pipe and the stratum;
determining the surface subsidence caused by single-pipe jacking construction based on the surface subsidence caused by stratum loss, the surface subsidence caused by stress release of an excavation surface and the surface subsidence caused by friction force between a pipe wall and the stratum;
and introducing a surface subsidence correction function to obtain the surface subsidence caused by the n-th steel pipe jacking construction, accumulating the surface subsidence caused by the pipe curtain steel pipe jacking construction, and determining the surface subsidence caused by the n steel pipes after the jacking is completed.
2. The method for predicting the ground surface settlement in the pipe curtain support construction of the tunnel engineering according to claim 1, wherein the ground surface settlement caused by unit excavation is determined according to a random medium theory, and specifically comprises the following steps:
unit excavation considered to be infinitely small in length, width and thicknessAccording to the random medium theory, the unit excavation causes the surface subsidence as
In formula 1:excavating a central coordinate for the unit; beta is the angle of influence range depending on the properties of the overburden, tan beta is H/w,i is the half width of the settling tank;
in formula 2: h is the buried depth of the jacking pipe; r is the radius of the steel pipe;and taking a weighted average value as the internal friction angle of the stratum.
3. The method for predicting the earth surface settlement in the pipe curtain support construction of the tunnel engineering according to claim 2, wherein the earth surface settlement caused by the stratum loss is determined based on the integral superposition of the unit excavation of the stratum loss area, and specifically comprises the following steps:
in the jacking construction process of the pipe curtain steel pipe, the cutting is carried out by an excavation drill bit, soil in front of an excavation surface and around the excavation surface moves into the pipe, stratum loss is generated, and the stratum loss is regarded as the radius R of the jacking construction of the steel pipelThe soil body in the cylindrical range of (a) collapses to the surface of the steel pipe, and the formation loss is expressed as:
Vs=πRl 2-πR2=ηπR2(formula 3)
In formula 3: r is the radius of the pipe curtain steel pipe; eta is the formation loss rate;
the earth surface settlement caused by the stratum loss can be obtained by integrating and superposing the excavation integrals of the stratum loss area units:
in formula 4: r is the distance from any point on the excavation surface to the center of the excavation surface; theta is an included angle between a connecting line from the center of the excavation surface to any point on the excavation surface and the z axis.
4. The method for predicting the earth surface settlement in the pipe curtain supporting construction of the tunnel engineering according to claim 3, wherein the additional stress on the excavation surface is discretized, the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting on the inside of a semi-infinite body, the earth surface settlement is calculated by using Mindlin solution, the integral superposition is performed on the circular excavation surface, and the earth surface settlement caused by the stress release of the excavation surface is determined, specifically:
the stress of the excavation surface is released in the jacking construction process of the pipe curtain steel pipe, the normal stress of the excavation surface is reduced to zero, and compared with a stratum which is not disturbed by excavation, the stress is equivalent to the action of applying additional stress in the direction opposite to the original horizontal ground stress and the like to the excavation surface;
the initial horizontal ground stress of any point on the excavation surface is as follows:
in formula 6:the average weight of the overlying soil mass; k0Is the coefficient of static soil pressure, wherein K0As determined by the poisson's ratio,
discretizing the additional stress on the excavation surface, regarding the load on each small infinitesimal surface as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, calculating the surface subsidence by applying Mindlin solution, and performing integral superposition on the circular excavation surface to obtain the surface subsidence caused by the stress release of the excavation surface:
in formula 7: m is the distance from the ground point to the action point of the concentrated force,
5. the method for predicting the ground surface settlement in the pipe curtain support construction of the tunnel engineering according to claim 4, wherein the ground surface settlement caused by the single-pipe jacking construction is determined based on the ground surface settlement caused by stratum loss, the ground surface settlement caused by stress release of an excavation surface and the ground surface settlement caused by friction force between a pipe wall and a stratum, and specifically comprises the following steps:
the steel pipe jacking construction is carried out by adopting a spiral unearthed casing jacking process, jacking and cutting are carried out simultaneously, the steel pipe is in close contact with the stratum, the soil pressure borne by the pipe curtain steel pipe is considered to be equal to the initial ground stress of the surface position of the steel pipe, and the contact pressure of the contact surface of the steel pipe and the soil body under a polar coordinate system is as follows:
therefore, the friction force of the contact surface of the steel pipe and the stratum is as follows:
f=kσr(formula 9)
In formula 9: k is the friction coefficient of the steel pipe and the stratum;
discretizing the friction force on the surface of the steel pipe, regarding the load on each small infinitesimal surface as a concentrated force acting inside a semi-infinite stratum, and integrating and superposing the load on the surface of the steel pipe to obtain the surface settlement caused by the friction force between the pipe curtain steel pipe and the stratum as follows:
in formula 10: n is the distance from the ground point to the action point of the concentrated force, wherein,
6. the method for predicting the ground surface settlement in the pipe curtain support construction of the tunnel engineering according to claim 5, wherein the ground surface settlement caused by the single-pipe jacking construction is determined based on the ground surface settlement caused by the stratum loss, the ground surface settlement caused by the stress release of the excavation surface and the ground surface settlement caused by the friction force between the pipe wall and the stratum, and specifically comprises the following steps:
the surface subsidence is composed of three parts of stratum loss, stress release of an excavation surface and friction force between a pipe wall and the stratum, and the surface subsidence caused by single pipe jacking construction is as follows:
W(x,y)=w(x,y)l+w(x,y)s+w(x,y)f(formula 11).
7. The method for predicting the ground surface settlement in the pipe curtain supporting construction of the tunnel engineering according to claim 6, wherein a ground surface settlement correction function is introduced to obtain the ground surface settlement caused by the jacking construction of the nth steel pipe, the ground surface settlement caused by the jacking construction of the pipe curtain steel pipes is accumulated, and the ground surface settlement caused by n steel pipes after the jacking is determined, and the method specifically comprises the following steps:
introducing a ground surface settlement correction function into the prediction of the ground surface settlement of the pipe curtain group pipe construction, wherein when the nth pipe curtain steel pipe is jacked into the construction, the stratum is disturbed by the previous n-1 steel pipe jacking construction, and the ground surface settlement correction function considering the disturbance of the mth steel pipe which is constructed on the stratum is as follows:
in formula 18: bmIs the y coordinate of the m-th tubular steel curtain pipe, imThe half width of a settling tank corresponding to the mth pipe curtain steel pipe is defined, A is a settling tank width coefficient, and M is a maximum surface subsidence correction coefficient;
the ground surface settlement correction function of the n-th steel pipe (n is more than or equal to 2) jacking construction is as follows:
F(y)n=f(y)1f(y)2...f(y)n-1(formula 19);
correcting the ground surface settlement caused by stratum loss in the single-pipe jacking construction by adopting a ground surface settlement correction function to obtain the ground surface settlement caused by the nth steel pipe jacking construction as follows:
W′(x,y)n=F(y)n·w(x,y)nl+w(x,y)ns+w(x,y)nf(formula 20)
Accumulating the surface subsidence caused by the jacking construction of the pipe curtain steel pipes, and obtaining the surface subsidence caused by n steel pipes after the jacking completion as follows:
8. a prediction device for earth surface settlement in tunnel engineering pipe curtain supporting construction is characterized by comprising
The unit settlement determining module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by unit excavation according to a random medium theory;
the stratum loss settlement module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by stratum loss based on the stratum loss area unit excavation integral superposition;
the stress releasing and settling module is used for discretizing additional stress on the excavation surface, the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting inside the semi-infinite body, surface settlement calculation is carried out by applying Mindlin solution, integral superposition is carried out on the circular excavation surface, and surface settlement caused by stress releasing of the excavation surface is determined;
the steel pipe and stratum friction force settlement module is used for discretizing the friction force on the surface of the steel pipe, the load on each small infinitesimal surface is regarded as a concentrated force acting in the semi-infinite stratum, the concentrated force is integrated and superposed on the surface of the steel pipe, and the surface settlement caused by the friction force of the pipe curtain steel pipe and the stratum is determined;
the single-pipe settlement module is used for determining the surface settlement caused by single-pipe jacking construction based on the surface settlement caused by stratum loss, the surface settlement caused by stress release of an excavation surface and the surface settlement caused by friction force between a pipe wall and a stratum;
and the pipe curtain steel pipe settlement module is used for introducing a ground surface settlement correction function to obtain the ground surface settlement caused by the n-th steel pipe jacking construction, accumulating the ground surface settlement caused by the pipe curtain steel pipe jacking construction and determining the ground surface settlement caused by n steel pipes after the jacking is completed.
9. An electronic device, comprising:
one or more processors;
a storage device for storing one or more programs,
when executed by the one or more processors, cause the one or more processors to implement the method of any one of claims 1-7.
10. A computer-readable medium, on which a computer program is stored which, when being executed by a processor, carries out the method according to any one of claims 1-7.
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