CN112586298A - Standardized rapid propagation method for rhizome of polygonatum sibiricum - Google Patents

Standardized rapid propagation method for rhizome of polygonatum sibiricum Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112586298A
CN112586298A CN202011435714.7A CN202011435714A CN112586298A CN 112586298 A CN112586298 A CN 112586298A CN 202011435714 A CN202011435714 A CN 202011435714A CN 112586298 A CN112586298 A CN 112586298A
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root
rhizome
basin
polygonatum
polygonatum sibiricum
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CN202011435714.7A
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CN112586298B (en
Inventor
任建武
姜英淑
周晓杰
沙海峰
郭庆华
郝佳美
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Beijing Forestry University
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Beijing Forestry University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/25Root crops, e.g. potatoes, yams, beet or wasabi
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • A01C1/08Immunising seed
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention discloses a standardized rapid propagation method of rhizome of polygonatum sibiricum, which is characterized in that from the perspective of large-scale production, a wild excellent individual plant is selected according to a certain standard nearby, the most suitable ecological environment of polygonatum sibiricum is manually fitted, and a standardized polygonatum sibiricum root nursery is established; directionally researching and developing rhizome cultivation and harvesting technology of rhizoma polygonati according to natural procedures and according to the growth biological characteristics of rhizoma polygonati. The standardized rapid propagation method of rhizome of polygonatum disclosed by the invention is simple and easy to control, very low in cost of manpower and material resources and extremely small in harm disturbance to the environment; the production efficiency of medicinal materials in a natural distribution area of the rhizoma polygonati is obviously improved, the quality of the rhizoma polygonati is improved, and the product yield is improved.

Description

Standardized rapid propagation method for rhizome of polygonatum sibiricum
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of plant breeding, particularly relates to the field of understory economic medicinal material seedling breeding, more particularly relates to a cultivation method of a medicinal and edible plant rhizome breeding material, and particularly relates to a standardized rapid breeding method of rhizome of polygonatum.
Background
Polygonatum sibiricum Red is a perennial herb of Polygonatum of Liliaceae, is a source plant of Polygonatum sibiricum of the family Liliaceae, and is also a plant approved by Ministry of health in 2002 as both medicine and food. The product is sweet, safe to eat and balanced in nutrient components, so that the product is a perfect product for breaking grains and is an excellent healthy food material. However, a large amount of wild polygonatum sibiricum resources are harvested and dug in a predatory manner, the natural resources are exhausted in a traditional natural distribution area, many places are listed in endangered plants, and the wild polygonatum sibiricum resources are occasionally found to be distributed in pieces only under forests in a natural protection area with strict management. At present, the production of polygonatum is changed from wild cultivation to artificial cultivation, the standardized cultivation of polygonatum is not clear and standard, and the large-scale cultivation is in an exploration stage.
Generally, the cultivation of polygonatum sibiricum mainly comprises two methods, one method is to collect wild seeds, accelerate germination, raise seedlings, then enter a field for cultivation, and after 5 years, all the wild seeds are collected from a cultivation base and sold; the other method is to collect wild rhizome of polygonatum sibiricum, cut the rhizome into stem segments for seedling culture, and then transplant the stem segments to a field, or directly cultivate the root segments in the field, grow seedlings in one step, and cultivate the seedling into a finished product for sale after 3 years. The latter cultivation and production mode has low seed source cost, and has strong adaptability to local climate environment due to nearby collection, so the method is always adopted by vast pesticide farmers. However, this production method is simply repeated from one production cycle to the next, and the result of the accumulation of multiple generations is that good resources are sold, which is actually a "good-out-of-good" process.
Therefore, under the conditions of reduction of wild rhizoma polygonati resources and scarcity of excellent germplasm resources, a method for standardized rapid propagation of rhizoma polygonati is needed to improve the production efficiency of rhizoma polygonati, the yield and uniformity of rhizoma polygonati and the quality of rhizoma polygonati, so that the polysaccharide content of rhizoma polygonati reaches more than 14%.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the problems, the inventor carries out intensive research and provides a standardized rapid propagation method for rhizome of polygonatum sibiricum, which selects wild excellent single plants according to a certain standard from the perspective of large-scale production nearby, manually fits the most suitable ecological environment of polygonatum sibiricum, and establishes a standardized polygonatum sibiricum root nursery; the rhizome cultivation and harvesting technology of the polygonatum is directionally developed according to the growth biological characteristics of the polygonatum and natural procedures, so that the method is simple and easy to control, very low in manpower and material cost and very strong in operability; the invention is completed by fully considering the safety of the rhizoma polygonati as a medicine and food product in the whole production process.
Specifically, the invention aims to provide a rhizome standardized rapid propagation method for polygonatum sibiricum, wherein the method comprises the following steps:
step 1, selecting a single excellent polygonatum sibiricum plant;
step 2, establishing a root nursery;
step 3, cultivation management;
and 4, harvesting rootstocks.
Wherein the step 1 comprises the following substeps:
step 1-1, screening the overground part of a plant;
step 1-2, rhizome screening.
Wherein the step 2 comprises the following substeps:
step 2-1, preparing propagules and planting the propagules in a container;
and 2-2, setting root-cultivating units to form a root-cultivating garden.
Wherein, in the step 2-1, in the process of preparing the propagules, the polygonatum sibiricum is quickly broken off at the root segment, the cross section is in order and no side longitudinal wound is caused by tearing, the wound surface is dipped with the disinfection protective agent,
the disinfectant protectant is one or more selected from radix Sophorae Flavescentis, herba Houttuyniae, and Aloe Barbadensis Miller.
In the step 2-1, the planting container comprises an inner net basin and an outer net basin, the side wall of the inner net basin is of a net structure, and the diameter of a mesh hole is 0.5-1.0 cm;
the inner side wall of the peripheral basin is provided with a vent pipe.
Wherein, humus soil is laid in the inner net basin and comprises an upper layer of humus soil and a lower layer of humus soil,
the rhizome propagules are horizontally and uniformly placed between two layers of humus soil.
In the step 3, the cultivation management comprises shading, wind prevention, humidity keeping, topdressing and weeding in the rhizome propagation process;
preferably, the shading degree is 60% to 80%.
Wherein the top dressing comprises spring top dressing, top dressing in the vigorous growing period of stems and leaves and top dressing in the vigorous growing period of stems and leaves.
Wherein the spring top dressing is to apply fertilizer in the root growing space when the height of the new bud reaches 20cm in spring.
Wherein, step 4 comprises the following substeps:
step 4-1, disinfecting a root cutting tool;
step 4-2, cutting off rhizomes, taking out an inner net basin, and smearing a callus protective agent on the section of an old root;
and 4-3, collecting rhizomes in the root-raising space, and smearing a callus protective agent on the cross section.
The invention has the advantages that:
(1) the standardized rapid propagation method for rhizome of polygonatum provided by the invention overcomes the defects of the prior art, focuses on the preservation, screening and utilization of excellent germplasm resources, and finally realizes the large-scale standardized efficient production of fine polygonatum seeds, namely starting from the source, fundamentally eliminating the seed source degeneration and the economic disadvantages of Xiaonong and strengthening the technical connotation of the rhizome cultivation process;
(2) the rhizome scale propagation method for polygonatum provided by the invention is simple and easy to control, the cost of manpower and material resources is very low, most of the rhizome scale propagation method adopts food-grade natural materials, and the harm disturbance to the environment is very small;
(3) the rhizome scale propagation method of polygonatum provided by the invention is particularly beneficial to the growth of polygonatum, is beneficial to the carbon assimilation substance accumulation of polygonatum in photosynthesis, has good growth of polygonatum, more abundant rhizome tissues and higher content of effective components, wherein the polygonatum polysaccharide can be increased by 4.24 percent and reaches more than 14 percent;
(4) the rhizome scale propagation method for polygonatum provided by the invention obviously improves the production efficiency of medicinal materials in a polygonatum natural distribution area, improves the quality of polygonatum, improves the excellent rate of products, is particularly high in uniformity of the products, and is particularly suitable for scale standardized production.
Drawings
FIG. 1 shows a schematic structural view of an inner mesh pot and a peripheral pot;
FIG. 2 shows a schematic structural view of a root cutting shovel;
FIG. 3 shows a comparison of polysaccharide content of Polygonatum sibiricum produced by different cultivation methods.
Description of the reference numerals
1-inner net basin;
2-peripheral basin;
3-a breather pipe.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail below with reference to preferred embodiments and examples. The features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the description.
The word "exemplary" is used exclusively herein to mean "serving as an example, embodiment, or illustration. Any embodiment described herein as "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other embodiments.
The research of the inventor finds that by taking a nutritive organ as a propagation matrix and adopting asexual propagation to obtain orderly and consistent medicinal material products, the method is favorable for realizing standardized and large-scale production of sealwort seedlings, thereby realizing accurate control of forest medicine quality and avoiding the poor medicinal material quality caused by the differentiation of sexual progeny of free pollination. Compared with the propagation of tissue culture seedlings, the genetic stability and the medicinal material genuine property of the propagation of the rhizome blocks are more reliable.
Therefore, the invention aims at the preservation, screening and utilization of excellent polygonatum rhizome germplasm resources, fundamentally eliminates the seed source degeneration and strengthens the cultivation process of rhizomes, and provides a polygonatum rhizome standardized rapid propagation method, which comprises the following steps:
step 1, selecting a single excellent polygonatum sibiricum plant;
step 2, establishing a root nursery;
step 3, cultivation management;
and 4, harvesting rootstocks.
The invention is further described below:
step 1, selecting a single excellent polygonatum sibiricum plant.
Wherein the step 1 comprises the following substeps:
step 1-1, screening the overground part of the plant.
The method comprises the steps of surveying in the field of a forest area where polygonatum sibiricum is distributed, mastering forest stand results, standing types, soil pH values and physical structures of forest ecosystems, simultaneously adopting a photosynthesis instrument and a chlorophyll fluorescence instrument, measuring biological activity indexes of mature leaves in the morning of a sunny day in a season where polygonatum sibiricum grows vigorously, and sequencing polygonatum sibiricum plants by taking the measured biological activity indexes as a reference.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the biological activity measurement indicators include an average photosynthesis rate, a maximum optical quantum chemical efficiency, and a photosynthesis performance index.
Wherein the photosynthetic performance index is the assimilation ability of the leaf photosynthesis mechanism.
Wherein, because photosynthesis is the basis of plant growth and development and functional component accumulation, the above indexes related to photosynthesis are adopted to screen the overground parts of the polygonatum sibiricum plants, which is beneficial to obtaining excellent polygonatum sibiricum single plants.
Sorting the polygonatum plants according to the numerical values of the indexes from big to small, preferably selecting the plants with the sorting rate within 20 percent (the percentage is the percentage of the screened plants in the total polygonatum plants to be determined), wherein the indexes are required to be met simultaneously.
In a further preferred embodiment, the selection criteria for the aerial parts of the plant are:
the average photosynthesis rate per day of mature leaves is more than 6 mu mol/m2S, preferably greater than 8. mu. mol/m2·s,
Maximum photon quantum chemical efficiency greater than 0.8, and
the photosynthesis performance index is greater than 3.2.
Step 1-2, rhizome screening.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, in the next early spring, preferably 2-3 months after the above-ground part is screened, rhizome screening is performed on the polygonatum sibiricum plants.
And (3) carrying out rhizome screening on the plant screened from the aboveground part in the step 1-1, wherein the indexes of the rhizome screening comprise biomass (fresh weight), rhizome thickness, rhizome length, polysaccharide content and soluble sugar content.
Wherein the biomass is measured by the average mass of each section of the drumstick root, and the measured time node is based on the condition that the sap of the dominant forest tree species just starts to flow.
In the present invention, sweet polygonatum is preferably used as the base, and a good single plant with large biomass and high soluble sugar content in seed source is preferably selected.
In a further preferred embodiment, the rootstock selection criterion is:
the soluble sugar content of the rhizome is more than 0.45g/100gGW,
the dry weight of the 2 nd age group is more than 80g, and
the diameter of the thinnest part is larger than 8 mm.
And 2, establishing a root nursery.
In the present invention, it is preferable to establish a root nursery in the vicinity of a nursery, a forest farm, a farm, or an orchard in a natural polygonatum distribution area.
The establishment of the root nursery comprises the following substeps:
and 2-1, preparing a propagule and planting the propagule in a container.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the root segments of the individual polygonatum sibiricum plants obtained in step 1 are selected, preferably with a diameter of 1.3cm or more.
Specifically, the root segments are broken off rapidly, every two segments are used as a propagule, the wound surface is dipped with a disinfection protective agent rapidly, and then the wound surface is dried in the shade for 20-40 min, preferably 30min and planted in a container.
In a further preferred embodiment, the disinfection and protection agent is selected from one or more of sophora flavescens, houttuynia cordata and aloe barbadensis.
Preferably, the disinfection and protection agent comprises sophora flavescens, houttuynia cordata and aloe barbadensis.
In a further preferred embodiment, the weight ratio of the sophora flavescens, the houttuynia cordata and the aloe barbadensis is (10-30): (12-25): 62, preferably (15-25): (15-20): 62, more preferably 20:18: 62.
in the invention, each component of the selected disinfection protective agent is a natural plant-derived material, which is environment-friendly and has no residue; and the target material rhizoma polygonati cannot damage the health in the future when entering the human body.
Preferably, the disinfection protective agent is obtained by crushing the sophora flavescens, sieving the crushed sophora flavescens with a 80-mesh sieve, juicing the houttuynia cordata, pulping the aloe barbadensis, and mixing the three according to the weight ratio.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the container for planting comprises an inner pot 1 and an outer pot 2, wherein the propagules are planted in the inner pot.
Preferably, the basin bottom of the inner mesh basin is made of compact non-woven fabric material,
the side wall is of a net structure, and the diameter of the net hole is 0.5-1.0 cm, preferably 0.8 cm.
Wherein, set up interior basin into above-mentioned structure, be favorable to outer matrix and inlayer matrix to keep apart, guarantee the gas permeability of outer matrix to be convenient for gather the operation.
Preferably, the inner mesh pot is made of a steel wire framework, and the pot bottom and the side wall are made of proper materials and fixed on the framework.
In a further preferred embodiment, humus soil is laid inside the inner mesh basin, the humus soil is humus soil under the quercus robur mixed forest,
preferably, the volume weight of the humus soil is 0.9-1.1 g/cm3The pH value is 6.0-6.5, the organic matter content is higher than 25g/kg, the total nitrogen is higher than 3.5g/kg, the total phosphorus is higher than 1.3g/kg, and the soil porosity is higher than 60%.
The humus soil under the quercus robur mixed forest is good in structure, slightly acidic, rich in nutrient components, high in activity of soil enzymes such as catalase, dehydrogenase, urease and sucrase, and large in quantity of soil bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi; the biochemical reaction is strong, the release of soil nutrients can be promoted, the available nutrients in the soil are increased, and the growth of the sealwort is facilitated.
In a still further preferred embodiment, the humus soil includes an upper layer of humus soil and a lower layer of humus soil, and the rhizome propagules are horizontally and uniformly placed between the two layers of humus soil.
Preferably, organic fertilizer is added into the lower-layer humus soil, the weight ratio of the organic fertilizer to the lower-layer humus soil is (2.8-3.5): 19.8, preferably 3.2: 19.8.
wherein the organic fertilizer is preferably a biological organic fertilizer, such as Jinkote biological organic fertilizer.
More preferably, the thickness ratio of the upper layer humus soil to the lower layer humus soil is 1:1, and the sum of the thicknesses of the upper layer humus soil and the lower layer humus soil is the same as the depth of the inner mesh pot.
For example, the inner pot is 30cm high and 30cm (diameter of pot mouth), the lower layer in the pot is humus soil under the quercus robur mixed forest with the thickness of 15cm, 120g of Jinkote bio-organic fertilizer is added, the upper surface of the pot is horizontally and uniformly provided with a binode sealwort propagule, and the pot is covered with the upper humus soil with the thickness of 15 cm.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the peripheral basin is made of polyester fiber, and four air pipes 3 are uniformly arranged on the inner side wall of the peripheral basin,
the breather pipe is a soft permeable pipe and comprises a spiral skeleton and a non-woven fabric pipe wall.
In the present invention, the ventilation pipe is provided to increase the air permeability of the soil.
Preferably, the framework of the vent pipe is made of 1.8mm corrosion-resistant steel wires.
In a further preferred embodiment, as shown in fig. 1, the vent pipe extends from the peripheral basin mouth edge to the basin bottom center setting.
In a further preferred embodiment, the ratio of the diameter of the peripheral basin to the diameter of the inner mesh basin (the diameter of the basin mouth) is (100-150): 30, preferably 120: 30;
the height ratio of the peripheral basin to the inner net basin is (50-80): 30, preferably 65: 30.
Preferably, the basin height of the inner basin is 30cm, the diameter of the inner basin is 30cm, the basin height of the outer basin is 65cm, the diameter of the outer basin is 120cm, the diameter of the vent pipe is 5cm, and the length of the vent pipe is 130 cm.
In the invention, the rhizome of polygonatum rhizome is cultivated in the container with the structure, and the container has the following advantages: firstly, the rhizoma polygonati matrix has good air permeability; secondly, the roots and stems expected to be harvested are distributed outside the inner net basin, and the roots and stems are cut off by the arc-shaped shovel and are slightly lifted to be removed from the inner net basin.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, root-growing medium is filled between the inner mesh pot and the peripheral pot, and comprises humus soil, lignite, perlite and turfy soil of the quercus robur mixed forest.
Preferably, the particle size of the lignite is 1-3 mm, and preferably 2 mm.
In a further preferred embodiment, the weight ratio of the humus soil, the lignite, the perlite and the turfy soil in the quercus sonchifolia mixed forest is (40-60): (10-30): (10-20): 15, preferably (45-55): (15-25): (12-18): 15, more preferably 50:20:15: 15.
According to the invention, the root-cultivating substrate with the variety and the proportion is favorable for ventilation and water retention, and acid-base balance of soil solution is kept, so that soil is sufficient in nutrients, and the substrate is light in weight and favorable for improving the working efficiency.
Preferably, the basin height of the inner basin is 30cm, the diameter is 30cm, the basin height of the peripheral basin is 65cm and the basin is straight based on the specificationA mesh pot with a diameter of 120cm, and root-growing matrix with an addition amount of 0.49m3
And 2-2, setting root-cultivating units to form a root-cultivating garden.
Specifically, in cultivation, the peripheral pot was placed in a soil pit having a depth of 50 cm.
In the present invention, preferably, the rhizome propagules of polygonatum sibiricum planted in 40-60 pots, preferably 50 pots, constitute one root-cultivating unit, and are more preferably divided into 5 rows and 10 lines.
Preferably, in each root-growing unit, the distance between the central points of adjacent peripheral pots is 180-220 cm, preferably 200 cm.
Wherein, each root-growing unit occupies about 203.01m of land2
The inventor finds that the root-cultivating unit is formed by arranging the outer net pots according to the arrangement, and maintenance management is facilitated.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the root nursery is composed of more than 20 root-cultivating units, each root-cultivating unit is separated by a working channel,
wherein the width of the operation channel is 180 cm.
In a further preferred embodiment, a shading shed is arranged in the root nursery, a shading net is arranged on the shed top, and the shading rate is 60-80%, preferably 70%.
Preferably, a spray head is arranged at the top of the sunshade and used for spraying water and fertilizer, and the pH value of a water source for spraying is 6.8.
The inventor researches and discovers that each root-cultivating unit occupies 203.01m of land2The land area of the large-scale root nursery is not less than 5333.28m2The excellent rhizome breeding parent of polygonatum sibiricum can be produced more than 8000kg each year, the seed source consumption of 80 mu intensive polygonatum sibiricum production base can be supplied, or 150 mu wild-simulated under-forest polygonatum sibiricum cultivation can be met.
And 3, cultivating and managing.
Wherein the cultivation management comprises shading, wind prevention, humidity maintenance, topdressing and weeding in the rhizome propagation process.
Specifically, in the growing season, the south side and the west side of the root nursery are surrounded by shading nets, and the shading degree is kept to be 60% -80%, and the shading degree is preferably 70%.
In winter, a windproof barrier is built at a certain protection distance on the north side of the root nursery, the ratio of the protection distance to the height of the windproof barrier is 10:1, and the height of the windproof barrier is preferably 300-500 cm.
In the growing season, the humidity of the air with the depth of 10cm on the ground surface is kept to be more than 50%, the porosity of the root-growing substrate is kept to be more than 60%, and the porosity of the humus in the inner net basin is kept to be more than 40%.
Wherein the pH value of the matrix (inner layer humus soil and inter-pot root-growing matrix) is controlled to be 6.2-6.5.
The present inventors have found that keeping the rhizomes under the above-mentioned culture conditions (specific shading, humidity, soil porosity) in the growing season enables the polygonatum rhizome to be in an optimum ecological environment like a primary forest environment.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the top dressing comprises spring top dressing, top dressing after stem and leaf growth period and top dressing after stem and leaf growth period.
Wherein the top dressing is carried out at the above-mentioned period of each year.
In a further preferred embodiment, the spring top dressing is to apply fertilizer in the root growing space when the height of the new bud reaches 20cm in spring.
Wherein the rooting space refers to a portion between the inner mesh pot and the peripheral pot.
In a further preferred embodiment, the fertilizer applied in spring is a nitrogen fertilizer for promoting the formation and growth of anabolic organs, and is preferably biological humus, such as Jinkote biological agent humus.
The biological humic acid-microorganism-urea complex is a novel biological active preparation prepared by fermenting organic matters rich in nutrient components by using microorganisms, leaching humic acid, and carrying out biological complexation and enzymatic reaction, and has obvious effects on promoting rooting, strengthening photosynthesis, improving nitrogen utilization rate and regulating physiological functions.
Preferably, the fertilizing amount of the spring top dressing is 20-40 g/pot, preferably 30 g/pot, and the fertilizing period is once per week and is continuous for three weeks.
Wherein, the topdressing in spring is beneficial to the construction of new assimilation organs.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the top dressing of the stem and leaf in the vigorous growth period refers to 62-103 days after seedling emergence, at the moment, the fresh weight of rhizoma polygonati is increased fastest,
wherein the top dressing comprises leaf surface top dressing and root-raising space top dressing,
the fertilizer applied by the foliage dressing is preferably Jinkote humic acid water-soluble fertilizer.
Wherein, the leaf surface topdressing and the root-raising space topdressing are carried out in sequence.
In a further preferred embodiment, the foliar application fertilizer is applied at a rate of 150-250 ml per root-raising unit, preferably 200ml per root-raising unit, and is applied twice every ten days in a total application period.
In a further preferred embodiment, the fertilizer applied in the root growing space is biological humic urea, preferably Jinkote biological inoculant humic urea.
Preferably, the fertilizing amount is 20-40 g/pot, preferably 30 g/pot, and the fertilizing period is once per week and is continuous for three weeks.
In the invention, the topdressing is carried out according to the mode in the vigorous growing period of the stems and leaves, which is favorable for the rapid growth of the stems and leaves and enhances the capability of resisting plant diseases and insect pests.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the post-fertilization after the stem and leaf vigorous growth period means that when the temperature starts to decrease after the stem and leaf vigorous growth, preferably 151 days after seedling emergence,
wherein, fertilizer is applied in the inner net basin and the root-cultivating space.
In a further preferred embodiment, the applied fertilizer is a potassium fertilizer, preferably a biological agent potassium fertilizer, such as a jin kote biological agent potassium fertilizer.
Preferably, the fertilizing amount is 1500-2500 g/root-raising unit, preferably 2000 g/root-raising unit, and the fertilizing amount is applied to the rhizosphere.
After the stem leaves grow vigorously and the temperature begins to drop, the fertilizer is applied in the mode, the accumulation of root nutrient components can be promoted, and the adaptability to environmental stress is enhanced.
In the cultivation process, the artificial weed pulling-out is adopted, and the early weed removing and the cleaning are realized.
And 4, harvesting rootstocks.
Specifically, before the rhizoma polygonati is frozen in winter every year, the overground part of stems and leaves of the rhizoma polygonati are completely withered and then collected.
Wherein the rhizome harvesting specifically comprises the following steps:
and 4-1, disinfecting the root cutting tool.
Wherein, 70% alcohol is adopted to disinfect the root cutting tool.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the root cutting tool is a root cutting blade, which is an arc blade, preferably with an arc of 86 °.
Preferably, the root cutting shovel is 30cm long and 23cm wide.
More preferably, the root cutting shovel is made of a manganese steel material, such as the material of a manganese steel engineer shovel.
And 4-2, cutting off the rootstocks, taking out the inner net basin, and coating the callus protectant on the section of the old root.
When cutting with root cutting shovel (as shown in fig. 2), the inner arc of the shovel surface is close to the outer side of the inner mesh basin, the inner mesh basin is quickly and vertically inserted deeply, the rhizome is cut off, then the inner mesh basin is lifted out, and the callus protectant is coated on the section of old root.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the callus protectant comprises one or more of sophora flavescens, houttuynia cordata and aloe, and
natural plant growth regulator, such as Jinkote natural plant growth regulator.
In a further preferred embodiment, the callus protectant comprises sophora flavescens, houttuynia cordata, a natural plant growth regulator and aloe, and the weight ratio of the sophora flavescens, the houttuynia cordata, the natural plant growth regulator and the aloe is (10-30): (12-25): (45-60): preferably (15-25): (15-20): (48-58): 8, more preferably 20:18:54: 8.
The inventor finds that the wound healing protective agent with the specific types and the specific proportion is beneficial to inhibiting bacteria from invading from the wound and accelerating the wound healing.
Preferably, the callus protectant is applied by mixing with apricot tree gum, so that the environment-friendly binding effect of the apricot tree gum can be effectively utilized.
And 4-3, collecting rhizomes in the root-raising space, and smearing a callus protective agent on the cross section.
After the inner net basin is lifted, the rhizomes in the root-growing space are collected, a callus protective agent is coated on the cross section, then the inner net basin is reset, humus is supplemented, a root-growing substrate is supplemented between the inner net basin and the peripheral basin, water is poured, and the propagation of the rhizomes is continued.
The standardized rhizome propagation method for polygonatum sibiricum is particularly beneficial to the growth of polygonatum sibiricum, contributes to the accumulation of carbon assimilation substances in the photosynthesis of polygonatum sibiricum, ensures that the growth condition is good, the rhizome tissues are more abundant, the content of effective components is increased, and the content of polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide can reach more than 14%.
Examples
The present invention is further described below by way of specific examples, which are merely exemplary and do not limit the scope of the present invention in any way.
Example 1
Rhizome propagation of polygonatum is carried out according to the following steps:
1. selecting excellent sealwort single plant
Carrying out field investigation in a forest area where the polygonatum sibiricum is distributed, mastering forest stand results, standing types, soil pH value and physical structures of a forest ecological system, and simultaneously adopting a photosynthetic apparatus and a chlorophyll fluorescence apparatus to carry out biological activity index determination on mature leaves in the morning of a sunny day in a season (6 middle ten months to 7 months) where the polygonatum sibiricum is exuberant in growth;
and (3) screening the overground parts of the plants: the average photosynthesis rate is selected to satisfy more than 8 [ mu ] mol m-2·s-1Under the conditions that the maximum photon quantum chemical efficiency is 0.83 and the photosynthesis performance index is more than 3.2, the polygonatum plants are sorted according to the numerical value of the indexes from big to small, and the plants sorted in the top 20 percent are screened.
Carrying out rhizome screening: in the early spring of the next year (3 months), the soluble sugar content of the rootstocks of the plants is more than 0.45g/100gGW, the dry weight of the 2-age nodes is more than 80g, and the diameter of the finest part is more than 8mm, and the plants are selected without plant diseases and insect pests.
2. Establishing root nursery
Selecting root segments of the single plant of rhizoma Polygonati with diameter of 1.3cm, breaking off rapidly at the root segment, taking every two segments as a propagule, dipping the wound surface with disinfectant protectant rapidly, drying in shade for 30min, and planting in inner mesh basin;
wherein the disinfection protective agent is prepared from radix sophorae flavescentis (crushed and sieved by a sieve of 80 meshes), houttuynia cordata juice and aloe barbadensis pulp in a weight ratio of 20:18: 62 mixing and preparing;
the height of an inner basin is 30cm, the diameter of the inner basin is 30cm, the basin bottom is made of a compact non-woven fabric material, the side wall of the inner basin is of a net structure, the diameter of meshes is 0.8cm, 120g of Jinkote bio-organic fertilizer (purchased from Shanxi Jinkote biological technology Co., Ltd.) is added into humus soil under a pine and oak mixed forest with the thickness of 15cm in the lower layer of the inner basin, double-section sealwort propagules are horizontally and uniformly placed, and the humus soil with the thickness of 15cm is covered;
placing an inner mesh basin in the center of a peripheral basin, wherein the height of the peripheral basin is 65cm, the diameter of the peripheral basin is 120cm, the peripheral basin is placed in a soil pit with the depth of 50cm, and the number of vent pipes is 4, the diameter of the vent pipes is 5cm, and the length of the vent pipes is 130 cm;
the root-cultivating substrate between the inner net basin and the peripheral basin comprises the following components: mixing humus soil of the quercus robur mixed forest, lignite (with the particle size of 2mm), perlite and turfy soil according to the weight ratio of 50:20:15: 15;
a root-cultivating unit consisting of 50 pots of rhizome propagules of Polygonatum sibiricum planted is divided into 5 rows and 10 lines and occupies 203.01m of land2In each root-cultivating unit, the distance between the central points of adjacent peripheral pots is 200cm, operation channels with the width of 180cm are arranged between each root-cultivating unit for separation, and a root-cultivating garden is formed by 60-100 root-cultivating units;
the root nursery is internally provided with a shade shed, the shed roof is provided with a shade net, the shading rate is 70 percent, the top of the shade shed is provided with a spray head for spraying water and fertilizer, and the pH value of a water source for spraying is 6.8.
3. Cultivation management
Shading and preventing wind: in the growing season, the south side and the west side of the root nursery garden are surrounded by shading nets, the shading degree is kept to be 70%, and in winter, a windbreak is built at the position 40m away from the north side of the root nursery garden and the height is 400 cm;
maintaining the humidity: in the growing season, the humidity of 10cm of air on the ground surface is kept to be more than 50%, the porosity of the root cultivation substrate is more than 60%, the porosity of humus in the inner net basin is more than 40%, and the pH of the inter-basin root cultivation substrate and the humus in the inner net basin) is controlled to be 6.2-6.6;
topdressing: in spring, when the height of new buds reaches 20cm, 30 g/pot of Jinkote biological agent humic acid (purchased from Shanxi Jinkote biological science and technology Co., Ltd.) is applied in the root-cultivating space, and the period is once per week and is continuous for three weeks;
in the vigorous stem and leaf growth period (62-103 days after seedling emergence), 200ml of every root-raising unit is sprayed with Jinkete humic acid foliar fertilizer for 2 times, and the interval period is 10 days; secondly, topdressing Jinkote biological agent humic acid urea in a root-raising space, wherein the amount of humic acid urea is 30 g/basin, and the topdressing is performed once a week for three weeks;
after the stem and leaf are vigorously grown (151 days after seedling emergence), Jinkote biological agent potassium fertilizer (purchased from Shanxi Jinkote biological science and technology Co., Ltd.) is applied to the inner net pot and the root growing space at the same time, and 2000g of root is applied to the root of each root growing unit;
weeding: the weeds are removed manually, and the early stage and the clean stage are removed.
4. Harvesting of the rootstocks
Before the rhizoma polygonati is frozen in winter every year, harvesting after the overground part of stems and leaves of the rhizoma polygonati are completely withered;
disinfecting a root cutting shovel by using 70% alcohol, wherein the root cutting shovel is an arc shovel (shown in figure 2), the radian is 86 degrees, the length is 30cm, the width is 23cm, the root cutting shovel is made of a material of a manganese steel worker shovel, the inner arc of the shovel surface is close to the outer side of an inner net basin, the root and the stem are quickly and vertically deeply inserted, then the inner net basin is taken out, and a callus protective agent is coated on the section of an old root;
wherein the wound healing protective agent is prepared by mixing radix Sophorae Flavescentis, herba Houttuyniae, natural plant growth regulator (purchased from Shanxi Jinkote Biotechnology Co., Ltd.) and Aloe at a weight ratio of 20:18:54:8, and mixing with apricot Gum;
after the inner net basin is lifted, the rhizomes in the root-growing space are collected, a callus protective agent is coated on the cross section, then the inner net basin is reset, humus is supplemented, a root-growing substrate is supplemented between the inner net basin and the peripheral basin, water is poured, and the propagation of the rhizomes is continued.
Example 2
This example is similar to the method used in example 1, except that in step 2, the disinfection and protection agent is prepared from radix Sophorae Flavescentis (ground and sieved with a 80 mesh sieve), herba Houttuyniae juice and Aloe Barbadensis Miller pulp in a weight ratio of 25: 20: 62 are mixed to prepare.
Example 3
This example is similar to the method used in example 1, except that in step 2, the rooting medium between the inner mesh pot and the outer mesh pot consists of: the pine and oak mixed forest is obtained by mixing humus soil, lignite (with the particle size of 2mm), perlite and turfy soil according to the weight ratio of 45:15:12: 15.
Example 4
This example is similar to the method used in example 1, except that in step 2, the distance between the center points of adjacent peripheral pots in each rooting unit is 180 cm.
Example 5
This example is similar to the method used in example 1, except that in step 3, the amount of top dressing in spring was 20 g/pot, the amount of top dressing in foliage was 150 ml/basal unit in the foliage growth period, the amount of fertilizer in the root-raising space was 20 g/pot, and the amount of top dressing after the foliage growth period was 1500 g/root-raising unit.
Example 6
This example is similar to the method used in example 1, except that in step 3, the amount of top dressing in spring was 40 g/pot, the amount of top dressing in foliage was 250 ml/base unit in the foliage growth period, the amount of fertilizer in the root-raising space was 40 g/pot, and the amount of top dressing in the stem and leaf growth period was 2500 g/root-raising unit.
Example 7
This example is similar to the method used in example 1 except that in step 4, the callus protectant is prepared by mixing together Sophora flavescens, houttuynia cordata, Jinkote natural plant growth regulator and Aloe vera in a weight ratio of 30:25:58: 8.
Examples of the experiments
Experimental example 1
The weight of the excellent polygonatum rhizome breeding parent body produced by each root-cultivating unit in the embodiment 1 in one year is counted to be 295.02kg, which can be used for 3.6 mu of intensive polygonatum rhizome production base seed source amount and meet the requirement of 5 mu of polygonatum rhizome cultivation under the simulated wild forest.
Experimental example 2
The sealwort is developed and cultivated under the Xinzhuang plain afforestation engineering forest (including terpinene, goldenrain forest, catalpa bungei forest and elm forest) in the front of the HuaiRou region of Beijing, and the test area is 40000 square meters.
Statistical analysis is carried out on annual fresh weight increment of single-plant rhizomes of the 4 kinds of the sealwort under forest and the sealwort bred by adopting the double-layer container (inner net pot and peripheral pot) breathable root-growing method in the embodiment 1 of the invention; meanwhile, the content of rhizome polysaccharide of polygonatum collected from polygonatum is detected by adopting a sulfuric acid-anthrone color development method (refer to the first section of pharmacopoeia of the people's republic of china (2020 edition), medicinal materials and decoction pieces, page 319):
(1) preparation of control solutions
Taking 33mg of anhydrous glucose reference substance dried to constant weight at 105 ℃, precisely weighing, placing in a 100mL measuring flask, adding water to dissolve, diluting to scale, and shaking up to obtain the product (0.33 mg of anhydrous glucose in each 1 mL).
(2) Preparation of the Standard Curve
Precisely measuring control solution 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6mL, placing into 10mL test tubes with scales, adding water to 2.0mL, shaking, slowly dripping 0.2% anthraquinones-sulfuric acid solution in ice water bath to scales, mixing, cooling, placing in water bath, keeping the temperature for 10min, taking out, immediately cooling in ice water bath for 10min, taking out, and taking out corresponding reagent as blank. The absorbance was measured at a wavelength of 582nm by UV-visible spectrophotometry. And drawing a standard curve by taking the glucose concentration as an abscissa and the absorbance value as an ordinate.
(3) Preparation of test solution
Taking fine rhizoma polygonati powder dried to constant weight at 60 ℃ about 0.25g, precisely weighing, placing the fine rhizoma polygonati powder in a round-bottom flask, adding 150mL of 80% ethanol, placing the mixture in a water bath for heating and refluxing for 1h, filtering while the mixture is hot, washing the residues with 80% hot ethanol for 3 times, placing the residues and filter paper in the flask by 10mL each time, adding 150mL of water, placing the mixture in a boiling water bath for heating and refluxing for 1h, filtering while the mixture is hot, washing the residues and the flask with hot water for 4 times by 10mL each time, combining the filtrate and the washing solution, cooling, transferring the mixture to a 250mL measuring flask, adding water to the scale, and shaking uniformly.
(4) Determination of polysaccharide content
Precisely measuring 1mL of the test solution, placing the test solution in a 10mL dry test tube with a plug, measuring the absorbance according to the method from 'adding water to 2.0 mL' according to the method under the preparation item of the standard curve, reading the weight (mg) of the anhydrous glucose in the test solution from the standard curve, and calculating to obtain the test solution.
The results of the detection are shown in FIG. 3.
The annual fresh weight increment of the rhizoma polygonati single plant rhizome and the polysaccharide content detection result show that the annual fresh weight increment of the rhizoma polygonati single plant rhizome in the Chinese pine forest is 69.5g on average, and the polysaccharide content of a dry product is 10.26%; the annual fresh weight of a single sealwort plant in the goldenrain tree is increased by 61.3g averagely, and the content of polysaccharide in a dry product is 9.69%; the annual fresh weight of a single rhizome of polygonatum kingianum under the catalpa bungei forest is increased by 51.66g averagely, and the polysaccharide content of a dry product is 8.98 percent; the annual fresh weight of the single-plant rhizome of polygonatum kingianum under the elm forest is increased by 39.38g averagely, and the content of polysaccharide in a dry product is 10.19 percent. The average polysaccharide content of 4 kinds of sealwort under forest is 9.78%.
The annual fresh weight of the single rhizome is increased by 196.68g averagely and the dry polysaccharide content is 14.02 percent by adopting the sealwort cultivated by the double-layer container (the inner net pot and the peripheral pot) ventilated root-growing method in the embodiment 1 of the invention.
As can be seen from FIG. 3, by adopting the double-container intensive cultivation technique, the polysaccharide content in rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum reaches twice of the standard of pharmacopoeia of the people's republic of China (2020 edition).
Further, the analysis of the polygonatum sibiricum intensively cultivated in the double-layer container in embodiment 1 of the invention shows that the method greatly reduces the harvesting strength of the rhizome breeding mother plant, the harvested polygonatum sibiricum has high quality and good uniformity, no harm of Holotrichia diomphalia Bates and Tiger is found, the plant damaged by Tetranychus urticae is less than 6%, and the incidence rate of brown spot is less than 2%. The diameter of the rootstock is more than 39% of 2.5cm, more than 82% of 2.0cm, and the average diameter is 1.7 cm. The excellent rhizome rate for propagation is more than 80 percent, which is obviously higher than 56 percent of the excellent rhizome rate of common cultivation, and the specifications of the rhizome are regular and consistent.
The invention has been described in detail with reference to specific embodiments and illustrative examples, but the description is not intended to be construed in a limiting sense. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that various equivalent substitutions, modifications or improvements may be made to the technical solution of the present invention and its embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, which fall within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A standardized rapid propagation method of rhizome of polygonatum sibiricum is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step 1, selecting a single excellent polygonatum sibiricum plant;
step 2, establishing a root nursery;
step 3, cultivation management;
and 4, harvesting rootstocks.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that said step 1 comprises the following sub-steps:
step 1-1, screening the overground part of a plant;
step 1-2, rhizome screening.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that said step 2 comprises the following sub-steps:
step 2-1, preparing propagules and planting the propagules in a container;
and 2-2, setting root-cultivating units to form a root-cultivating garden.
4. The method according to claim 3, wherein in step 2-1, in the process of preparing propagules, the Polygonatum sibiricum Redoute is rapidly broken off at the root segment, the wound surface is dipped with the disinfection protective agent,
the disinfectant protectant is one or more selected from radix Sophorae Flavescentis, herba Houttuyniae, and Aloe Barbadensis Miller.
5. The method of claim 3, wherein, in step 2-1, the planting container comprises an inner mesh pot and a peripheral pot,
the side wall of the inner mesh basin is of a mesh structure, and the diameter of meshes is 0.5-1.0 cm;
the inner side wall of the peripheral basin is provided with a vent pipe.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein humus soil is laid inside the inner mesh pot, which includes an upper layer of humus soil and a lower layer of humus soil,
the rhizome propagules are horizontally and uniformly placed between two layers of humus soil.
7. The method according to claim 1, wherein in step 3, the cultivation management includes shading, windbreak, moisture retention, topdressing and weeding during rhizome propagation;
preferably, the shading degree is 60% to 80%.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the topdressing comprises spring topdressing, foliage topdressing after vigorous growth and foliage topdressing after vigorous growth.
9. The method according to claim 8, wherein the spring top dressing is carried out by applying fertilizer in the root growing space when the height of the new bud reaches 20cm in spring.
10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that step 4 comprises the following sub-steps:
step 4-1, disinfecting a root cutting tool;
step 4-2, cutting off rhizomes, taking out an inner net basin, and smearing a callus protective agent on the section of an old root;
and 4-3, collecting rhizomes in the root-raising space, and smearing a callus protective agent on the cross section.
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