CN112544145A - Fertilizing, seeding and earthing pressing mechanism for wheat drill seeder - Google Patents

Fertilizing, seeding and earthing pressing mechanism for wheat drill seeder Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112544145A
CN112544145A CN202011391353.0A CN202011391353A CN112544145A CN 112544145 A CN112544145 A CN 112544145A CN 202011391353 A CN202011391353 A CN 202011391353A CN 112544145 A CN112544145 A CN 112544145A
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China
Prior art keywords
seeding
fertilizing
ditching
soil
floating
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CN202011391353.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
刘宏俊
张文毅
纪要
余山山
祁兵
李坤
夏倩倩
王珊珊
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Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture
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Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture
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Priority to CN202011391353.0A priority Critical patent/CN112544145A/en
Publication of CN112544145A publication Critical patent/CN112544145A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B49/00Combined machines
    • A01B49/04Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools
    • A01B49/06Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools for sowing or fertilising
    • A01B49/065Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools for sowing or fertilising the soil-working tools being actively driven
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B49/00Combined machines
    • A01B49/02Combined machines with two or more soil-working tools of different kind
    • A01B49/022Combined machines with two or more soil-working tools of different kind at least one tool being actively driven
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C5/00Making or covering furrows or holes for sowing, planting or manuring
    • A01C5/06Machines for making or covering drills or furrows for sowing or planting
    • A01C5/062Devices for making drills or furrows
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C5/00Making or covering furrows or holes for sowing, planting or manuring
    • A01C5/06Machines for making or covering drills or furrows for sowing or planting
    • A01C5/066Devices for covering drills or furrows
    • A01C5/068Furrow packing devices, e.g. press wheels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C7/00Sowing
    • A01C7/08Broadcast seeders; Seeders depositing seeds in rows

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Soil Working Implements (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a fertilizing, seeding and earthing and compacting mechanism for a wheat drill, which is correspondingly arranged behind a vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism and comprises a ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism and a floating earthing and compacting mechanism; the ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism comprises a ditching and fertilizing device and two ditching and seeding devices, the two ditching and seeding devices are symmetrically arranged behind the ditching and fertilizing device and are used for realizing a seeding mode of a seeding-fertilizing-seeding interval type, and the ditching and fertilizing depth of the ditching and fertilizing device is lower than the ditching and seeding depth of the two ditching and seeding devices and is used for realizing a seeding mode of shallow-seeding and deep-fertilizing; the floating earthing suppression mechanism comprises a floating earthing device and a floating adjustable suppression device, the floating earthing device and the ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism are used for carrying out profiling earthing on the groove after fertilization and seeding, and the floating adjustable suppression device is positioned behind the floating earthing device and is used for profiling and compacting the surface of the groove after earthing; realizing high-performance compound sowing operation of the sticky soil in the rice stubble field.

Description

Fertilizing, seeding and earthing pressing mechanism for wheat drill seeder
Technical Field
The invention relates to a wheat drill, in particular to a fertilizing, seeding, earthing and compacting mechanism for the wheat drill.
Background
A wheat drill is one of key equipment for crop planting in rice and wheat crop rotation areas of Jiangsu. In the wheat sowing period, the contradiction between stubble connection is prominent, the rice stubble field is difficult to cultivate in sticky soil, the straw amount is large, the field returning treatment is difficult, the dry farming is easy to cause waterlogging, and other regional problems are difficult to operate. Meanwhile, the production modes and the mechanization technology of different areas, different crops and different varieties in the rice and wheat rotation areas have great differences, and the research difficulty of the high-efficiency wheat sowing equipment is further increased. At present, the types of wheat drill seeders suitable for Jiangsu rice and wheat rotation areas are few, and certain special regional key technical problems cannot make breakthrough progress, so that the research on wheat seeding technology suitable for Jiangsu rice and wheat rotation areas is urgently needed.
As the rice straw amount in the rice and wheat rotation area of Jiangsu province is large, the straws are mainly returned to the field by rotary tillage, mixing and stirring, on one hand, the straw stubble is enriched and cultivated on the shallow surface layer, and the seed setting and airing are caused; on the other hand, the soil in the rice stubble field has high water content and heavy sticky soil, the soil is difficult to be finely crushed by single rotary tillage, soil-entering parts such as positioning, depth-fixing, fertilizing and seeding are easy to block, seeding leakage and breaking are caused, and precise fertilizing and seeding are difficult to realize.
In order to solve the above technical problems, a large number of researchers have proposed various solutions, for example, the huzhi super institute of agricultural mechanization of Nanjing, Ministry of agriculture, etc. proposed a new "no-tillage clean area seeding" mode, which realizes that machines and tools complete a plurality of operation procedures such as straw picking up, chopping, seeding, fertilizing, covering, etc. once in a field; a pneumatic large-sized wide intelligent seeder suitable for rice stubble fields is developed by Nanjing agricultural mechanization research institute of Ministry of agriculture, 24-row seeding operation can be realized, and the seeding quantity self-adaption adjustment is realized by adopting an intelligent control and anti-blocking monitoring system; the Xinke mechanical manufacturing limited company in Jiangyan city develops a 1ZSB type stubble burying tillage fertilizing and seeding machine which can complete compound operations of soil loosening, stubble removing, straw burying, drill seeding, and soil covering and pressing at one time under the condition of harvesting paddy and simultaneously chopping the whole amount of straw and returning the ground to the field.
With breakthrough of a wheat precision seed discharging technology and a seeding combined operation technology and application and popularization of machines in our province, the problems of grass hanging, blockage, seed setting, seed airing and the like existing in the traditional no-tillage seeding equipment during operation are thoroughly solved, and the research of a wheat drill has made some progress, but the existing machines have insufficient adaptability to the seeding operation of the sticky soil in a rice stubble field, the problems of insufficient soil compaction and the like, and the application of intelligent technologies such as a seed manure precision seed discharging technology and a machine intelligence technology level are still lower, and the operation efficiency is still to be improved.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention aims to provide a fertilizing, seeding and soil covering and compacting mechanism for a wheat drill.
In order to solve the technical problems, the technical scheme of the invention is as follows: the fertilizing, seeding and earthing press mechanism for the wheat drill seeder is correspondingly arranged behind the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism and comprises a ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism and a floating earthing press mechanism;
the ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism is correspondingly arranged at the rear part of the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism and comprises a ditching and fertilizing device for ditching and fertilizing soil and a ditching and seeding device for ditching and seeding the soil, the ditching and seeding devices are symmetrically arranged at the rear part of the ditching and fertilizing device and are used for realizing a seeding mode of interval type of seeding-fertilizing-seeding, and the ditching and fertilizing depth of the ditching and fertilizing device is lower than that of the ditching and seeding devices and is used for realizing a seeding mode of deep fertilizing of shallow seeding;
the floating earthing suppression mechanism is installed in a floating mode at the rear of the ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism and comprises a floating earthing device and a floating adjustable suppression device, the floating earthing device and the ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism are used for copying and earthing the groove after fertilization and seeding, and the floating adjustable suppression device is located at the rear of the floating earthing device and used for copying and compacting the surface of the groove after earthing.
As a preferred technical scheme, the ditching and fertilizing device comprises a ditching and fertilizing device and an accurate fertilizing device which is connected with the ditching and fertilizing device and used for fertilizing, and the ditching and seeding device comprises a ditching and seeding device and an accurate seeding device which is connected with the ditching and seeding device and used for seeding; the ditching fertilizer applicator and the ditching seeder are fixedly arranged on the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism through a ditching fixing frame.
According to a preferable technical scheme, the ditching fertilizer applicator comprises a fertilizer applying pipe fixed on the ditching fixing frame, a ditching device is fixedly installed at the bottom end of the fertilizer applying pipe, the top end of the fertilizer applying pipe is connected with a fertilizer applying opening of the accurate fertilizer applying device, and a fertilizer applying opening located behind the ditching device is formed in the bottom end of the fertilizer applying pipe.
According to the preferable technical scheme, the ditching seeder comprises a seeding pipe fixed on the ditching fixing frame, the bottom end of the seeding pipe is fixedly provided with a ditcher, the top end of the seeding pipe is connected with a seed discharging port of the accurate seeding device, and the bottom end of the seeding pipe is provided with a seeding port located behind the ditcher.
As a preferred technical scheme, the two seeding ports are symmetrically arranged behind the fertilizing port and used for realizing a seeding-fertilizing-seeding interval type seeding mode, and the depth of the fertilizing port is lower than that of the two seeding ports and used for realizing a seeding mode of shallow seeding and deep fertilizing.
Preferably, the upper non-soil-entering sections of the fertilizing pipe and the seeding pipe are both cylindrical pipes, and the lower soil-entering sections of the fertilizing pipe and the seeding pipe are both flat pipes with two sides being flat and front and back being convex for reducing resistance between the fertilizing pipe and soil.
As the preferred technical scheme, floating earthing device includes fixed mounting and is in earthing frame on the vertical deep stubble-breaking mechanism, the both sides of earthing frame are rotated respectively and are installed two and be the unsteady earthing plate of slope opposition, vertical deep stubble-breaking mechanism with be provided with the control between the unsteady earthing plate the earthing plate extension spring that is used for the profile modeling earthing of unsteady earthing plate leanin.
As preferred technical scheme, suppression device with adjustable float is installed including rotating the suppression rocking arm of vertical deep broken stubble mechanism rear end, the rear end of suppression rocking arm is rotated and is installed unsteady suppression wheel, the suppression rocking arm with be provided with control between the earthing frame the suppression wheel that floats is used for the compaction suppression wheel extension spring, suppression wheel extension spring one end is connected on the earthing frame, the other end of suppression wheel extension spring passes through adjusting screw threaded connection and is in on the suppression rocking arm.
Due to the adoption of the technical scheme, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the corresponding sowing and fertilizing system is developed, a seed guiding and fertilizing pipe and a ditching component are researched, the combination of the planting modes of sowing, fertilizing, sowing and shallow-sowing deep-fertilizing is realized, the utilization rate of seeds and fertilizers can be obviously improved, and the purposes of saving seeds and fertilizers are achieved; the two sides of the flat tube are flat and the front and the rear of the flat tube are arc-shaped and convex, so that the contact area between soil and the soil entering section at the lower part of the fertilizing tube or the seeding tube can be effectively reduced, the viscosity and the resistance can be effectively reduced, and meanwhile, the disturbance to the soil can be reduced;
2. the research earthing suppression mechanism floats realizes profile modeling earthing and suppression, and the seedbed appearance and reasonable compaction degree after the control suppression can show improvement seedbed and be filled and the seedbed soil moisture conservation.
Drawings
The drawings are only for purposes of illustrating and explaining the present invention and are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention. Wherein:
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural view of an embodiment of the present invention from a side view;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural view from the bottom of an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic structural view of another embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a partial cross-sectional view of the first embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic structural view of a horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 7 is a schematic structural view of a floating soil breaking and leveling mechanism according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a schematic structural diagram of a vertical deep stubble cutting mechanism according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 9 is a bottom view of the vertical deep stubble cutting mechanism of the embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 10 is a partial sectional view of the second embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 11 is a schematic structural view of a ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism according to the embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 12 is a schematic structural view of a floating casing roller mechanism according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 13 is a schematic structural view of a floating casing device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
in the figure:
100-a frame; 101-three-point suspension; 102-a ground wheel mounting; 103-a walking ground wheel; 104-a support bar; 105-supporting feet; 106-mounting holes; 107-a slide; 108-a locking pin;
200-horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism; 201-rotary tillage support; 202-stubble soil-retaining cover; 203-a rotary tillage cutter shaft; 204-a rotary tillage seat; 205-rotary blade; 206-a hydraulic motor; 207-hydraulic oil pipe;
300-a floating soil crushing and leveling mechanism; 301-mounting a beam; 302-soil crushing comb teeth; 303-leveling the retaining plate; 304-mounting a swing frame; 305-a pressure spring inner seat; 306-a pressure spring outer seat;
400-vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism; 401-vertical stubble breaking frame; 402-hydraulic stubble breaking drive; 403-stubble breaking cutter frame; 404-ploughing and breaking stubble knives;
500-ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism; 501-ditching and fixing frame; 502-fertilizing tube; 503-furrow opener; 504-fertilizing; 505-a seeding pipe; 506-a furrow opener; 507-a seeding port;
600-a floating earth covering and compacting mechanism; 601-an earthing frame; 602-floating earth covering plates; 603-shaft seat; 604-a rotating shaft; 605-earth covering plate tension spring; 606-rolling the tumbler; 607-floating press wheel; 608-press wheel tension spring; 609-adjusting the screw; 610-screw seat.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated below with reference to the figures and examples. In the following detailed description, certain exemplary embodiments of the present invention are described by way of illustration only. Needless to say, a person skilled in the art realizes that the described embodiments can be modified in various different ways without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. Accordingly, the drawings and description are illustrative in nature and not intended to limit the scope of the claims.
As shown in fig. 1 to 4, the single wheat drill suitable for the sticky soil in the rice stubble field includes a frame 100, and a horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200, a floating soil-breaking leveling mechanism 300, a vertical deep stubble-breaking mechanism 400, a ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism 500, and a floating soil-covering and pressing mechanism 600 are sequentially installed on the frame 100 from front to back. The device can complete rotary tillage, stubble breaking, ditching, seeding and fertilizing and pressing in sequence, can be used as a light-compartment narrow-row in-situ seeding monomer suitable for paddy and upland rotation areas in Jiangsu province, and realizes high-performance compound seeding operation of sticky and heavy soil in rice stubble fields. When the multifunctional seeding machine is used, the seeding units can be used independently, and a plurality of seeding units can be arranged on the machine platform and connected with the traction tractor, so that multi-row operation is realized. The horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200 is fixed below the front part of the frame 100 and is used for breaking stubble and breaking soil in the advancing direction of shallow soil; the floating soil crushing and leveling mechanism 300 is floatingly installed behind the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200, and the floating soil crushing and leveling mechanism 300 can swing backwards or reset forwards around the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200 to perform copying soil crushing and leveling on the surface layer of soil; the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 is fixed on the frame 100 and positioned behind the floating soil breaking and leveling mechanism 300, and is used for performing vertical rotary stubble breaking and soil breaking on shallow soil and deep soil; the ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism 500 is correspondingly installed at the rear of the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 and comprises a ditching and fertilizing device for ditching and fertilizing soil and a ditching and seeding device for ditching and seeding soil, the ditching and seeding device and the seeding device are symmetrically arranged at the rear of the ditching and fertilizing device and are used for realizing a seeding mode of a seeding-fertilizing-seeding interval type, and the ditching and fertilizing depth of the ditching and fertilizing device is lower than that of the ditching and seeding device and is used for realizing a seeding mode of shallow seeding and deep fertilizing; unsteady earthing suppression mechanism 600 floats and installs ditching fertilizing and seeding mechanism 500's rear, including floating earthing device and adjustable suppression device that floats, floating earthing device with ditching fertilizing and seeding mechanism 500 corresponds and is used for carrying out the profile modeling earthing to the slot after fertilization, seeding, adjustable suppression device that floats is located the rear of floating earthing device is used for carrying out the profile modeling compaction to the slot surface after the earthing.
Referring to fig. 1 and 2, the frame 100 serves as a base to which the following mechanisms are directly or indirectly coupled; the front end of the rack 100 is provided with a suspension device used for being connected with a machine tool platform or a traction tractor, the suspension device adopts a three-point suspension 101, two sides of the rear part of the rack 100 are provided with land wheel devices used for walking and supporting, the land wheel devices comprise land wheel mounting frames 102, the land wheel mounting frames 102 are fixedly connected on the rack 100, the bottom ends of the land wheel mounting frames 102 are rotatably provided with walking land wheels 103, and the two walking land wheels 103 are positioned on two sides of the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 and used for integrally supporting the wheat drill seeder so as to facilitate the walking of the machine tool; the adjustable supporting device comprises a vertically arranged supporting rod 104, a supporting foot 105 is arranged at the bottom end of the supporting rod 104, at least two mounting holes 106 are arranged on the supporting rod 104, the two mounting holes 106 are respectively positioned at the top end and the bottom end, sliding seats 107 are arranged at two sides of the frame 100, the supporting rod 104 is slidably mounted in the sliding seats 107, positioning holes are formed in the sliding seats 107, locking pins 108 are correspondingly mounted in the positioning holes and the mounting holes 106, when the machine tool is parked in a field without operation, the locking pins 108 penetrate through the positioning holes and the mounting holes 106 positioned at the top end, the supporting foot 105 is in contact with the ground to support the machine tool, and when the machine tool is operated, the locking pins 108 penetrate through the positioning holes and the mounting holes 106 positioned at the bottom end, the support legs 105 do not contact the ground at this point, and the various mechanisms in the implement can now perform normal operations.
In order to improve the loose degree of seedbed soil, improve the operation stability and reduce the operation cost, a horizontal shallow layer + vertical deep layer soil finishing system is established, a mechanized in-situ tillage and soil crushing treatment technology of rice stubble soil is researched, the influence rule of soil conditions, structure sizes, arrangement distances and motion parameters on the soil finishing effect is analyzed, a horizontal and vertical combined type soil finishing part is developed, an in-situ tillage and soil crushing treatment technical scheme is formed, the rice-wheat crop rotation planting system and the agricultural requirements in the typical region of Jiangsu are met, and the concrete analysis is as follows:
referring to fig. 5, the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200 is used for breaking and crushing the stubble of the shallow soil, namely, the function of cutting and crushing the rice stubble is realized, so as to ensure a good seedbed environment; however, after one rotary tillage operation, the problems of large soil bumps, undisturbed bottom soil and the like exist, and in order to ensure smooth fertilization and sowing operations, the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 is additionally arranged on the basis of the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200, and the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 performs unsupported cutting on moving soil blocks, mainly based on ridge cutting, so that on one hand, grass can be prevented from being wound by blades, on the other hand, the blades do not play a role in turning soil, and the planting bed is arranged before sowing, and simultaneously, the agricultural requirements are met; and the vertical soil crushing mode of the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 can obviously reduce the operation gravity center of the seeder, thereby improving the operation stability. The moving blade direction of the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200 is parallel to the advancing direction, and the moving blade direction of the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 is rotary and is different from the advancing direction, so that stubble breaking and soil breaking can be carried out in multiple directions and multiple angles after combination, and the arrangement effect of the seedbed before sowing after the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200 and the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 are combined is better.
Referring to fig. 5 and 6, the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200 includes two rotary tillage brackets 201 fixedly mounted on the frame 100, the top ends of the two rotary tillage brackets 201 are fixedly mounted on the frame 100 through bolts, the bottom ends of the two rotary tillage brackets 201 are rotatably mounted with horizontal rotary tillage devices arranged horizontally, the upper part of the horizontal rotary tillage device is covered with a stubble-retaining cover 202 fixed on the rotary tillage bracket 201, the stubble soil-blocking cover 202 covers the upper part, the front part, the left side part and the right side part of the horizontal rotary tillage device, the floating soil-crushing leveling mechanism 300 is connected to the rear part of the stubble soil-blocking cover 202, the rear part of the stubble soil-blocking cover 202 is surrounded by the floating soil-crushing leveling mechanism 300, the rotary tillage support 201 is also provided with a rotary tillage hydraulic driving device which drives the horizontal rotary tillage device to transversely rotate to break stubble and break soil of shallow soil. Horizontal rotary cultivator attachment is including transversely rotating and installing rotary blade axle 203 on the rotary tillage support 201, the both ends of rotary blade axle 203 are passed through the bearing and are installed on the rotary tillage support 201, rotary tillage support 201 double as the bearing frame, fixed mounting has two rotary tillage seats 204 on the rotary blade axle 203, the periphery equipartition of rotary tillage seat 204 has a plurality of rotary blade 205 that are used for vertical broken stubble and hack, in this embodiment, installs four rotary blade 205 on every rotary tillage seat 204, and the rotary tillage width and follow-up fertilization of two sets of rotary blade 205, seeding width correspond.
Rotary tillage hydraulic drive device is fixed mounting and is in hydraulic motor 206 on the rotary tillage support 201, be connected with hydraulic pressure oil pipe 207 on the hydraulic motor 206, hydraulic motor 206's output with rotary tillage arbor 203 fixed connection, hydraulic motor 206's power comes from tractor hydraulic power output system through hydraulic pressure oil pipe 207, greatly simplifies the seeder structure, and transmission system is simple, and the mechanism arranges succinctly, improves the reliability. During operation, the tractor hydraulic power output system is used for driving the rotary blade shaft 203 to rotate, so that the rotary blades 205 can cut rice stubbles and simultaneously break soil. The stubble soil-blocking cover 202 controls the flow direction of thrown stubbles and soil, further breaks the soil, uniformly mixes the broken stubbles and the soil and returns the mixture to the field, and meets the requirement of less tillage while realizing seedbed arrangement before sowing.
Referring to fig. 5, 8 and 9, the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 includes a vertical stubble breaking frame 401 fixedly mounted below the frame 100, a vertical stubble breaking device vertically arranged is rotatably mounted on the vertical stubble breaking frame 401, a stubble breaking hydraulic driving device 402 is further mounted on the vertical stubble breaking frame 401, and the stubble breaking hydraulic driving device 402 drives the vertical stubble breaking device to horizontally rotate to break and break stubble on shallow soil and deep soil. The vertical stubble breaking device comprises a stubble breaking tool rest 403 fixed at the output end of the stubble breaking hydraulic driving device 402, two deep ploughing stubble breaking tools 404 arranged towards the soil cutting direction are fixedly installed at the bottom end of the stubble breaking tool rest 403, and the rotary tillage depth of the deep ploughing stubble breaking tools 404 is greater than that of the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200; the stubble breaking hydraulic driving device 402 is a hydraulic motor fixed on the vertical stubble breaking frame 401, a hydraulic oil pipe is connected to the hydraulic motor, the output end of the hydraulic motor is arranged downwards and connected with the stubble breaking frame 403, and the power of the hydraulic motor comes from a hydraulic power output system of a traction tractor. During operation, a hydraulic motor is driven to work by a tractor hydraulic power output system to drive the deep ploughing stubble-breaking cutter 404 to horizontally rotate, and the deep ploughing stubble-breaking cutter 404 extends into the deep layer of soil to cut, so that not only can soil be cut, but also rice stubble can be cut. During operation, the rotary blade 205 rotates longitudinally to break stubble and break soil longitudinally along the advancing direction, and the deep ploughing stubble breaking blade 404 rotates horizontally, so that longitudinal stubble breaking and breaking soil as well as transverse stubble breaking and breaking soil can be realized, and the stubble breaking and breaking soil effect is obviously better.
Referring to fig. 9, the thickness of the blade of the deep ploughing stubble cutter 404 increases gradually from the blade back, so as to improve the overall strength while ensuring the cutting sharpness of the blade, and since the deep ploughing stubble cutter 404 can not only rotate by itself, but also move forward along with the tractor, the deep ploughing stubble cutter 404 must have higher strength to meet the use requirement; meanwhile, as the deep ploughing stubble cutter 404 rotates and moves forwards along with the tractor, the soil can be subjected to two acting forces in the forward and tangential directions during operation, and in order to maintain the original soil topography, referring to fig. 9, the deep ploughing stubble cutter 404 is formed by sequentially bending and extending the top end of the deep ploughing stubble cutter from top to bottom outwards and downwards and then inwards bending and extending the top end of the deep ploughing stubble cutter 404, and the deep ploughing stubble cutter 404 is bent outwards and then inwards contracted, so that the soil can be better transited backwards from a curved surface in the forward movement process of the deep ploughing stubble cutter 404, and the phenomenon of mass soil turning can be effectively avoided.
The floating soil crushing and leveling mechanism 300 is additionally arranged between the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200 and the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400, and the mechanism is mainly used for crushing and leveling soil. When the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200 carries out the primary rotary tillage operation on the soil, the disturbance of the surface layer of the soil is large, the soil needs to be leveled, the vertical deep stubble cutting mechanism 400 is utilized to carry out the secondary deep stubble cutting operation after leveling, when the soil is uneven, the subsequent seeding and fertilization are not facilitated, the floating soil breaking and leveling mechanism 300 further functions to break the soil, see figure 5, since the top end of the deep ploughing stubble-breaking blade 404 in the vertical deep stubble-breaking mechanism 400 is substantially at the same level as the bottom end of the floating soil-breaking leveling mechanism 300, if the floating soil-breaking leveling mechanism 300 is not added before the vertical deep stubble-breaking mechanism 400, when the soil with larger surface blocks contacts the vertical deep stubble-breaking mechanism 400, may accumulate in front of the vertical deep stubble cutting mechanism 400, increasing the resistance of the vertical deep stubble cutting mechanism 400 to forward movement and horizontal rotation; however, before the second stubble breaking operation of the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400, after two times of soil breaking, the third soil breaking is performed by the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400, which has a significantly better soil breaking effect compared with the prior art, and the soil before the second stubble breaking operation is leveled, and the top end of the deep ploughing stubble breaking knife 404 is just above the leveled soil, so that the phenomenon of soil accumulation and the like does not occur.
Referring to fig. 5 and 7, the floating soil crushing and leveling mechanism 300 includes a soil crushing and leveling device rotatably installed at the rear of the stubble soil blocking cover 202 of the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200, and a floating adjustment device for swinging the soil crushing and leveling device backward or returning the soil crushing and leveling device forward is further connected between the top end of the soil crushing and leveling device and the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200.
Referring to fig. 5 and 7, the spoil screed comprises a transversely disposed mounting beam 301, a plurality of soil crushing comb teeth 302 are arranged at the lower end of the mounting cross beam 301 along the length direction, the plurality of soil crushing comb teeth 302 form a comb tooth assembly which is transversely arranged, the soil crushing comb teeth 302 are arranged downwards, the leveling soil retaining plate 303 fixed on the mounting cross beam 301 is correspondingly arranged behind the plurality of soil crushing comb teeth 302, the two ends of the mounting beam 301 are respectively fixed with a mounting swing frame 304, the mounting swing frame 304 is a triangular frame, one of the bottom angles of the mounting swing frame 304 is rotatably mounted on the stubble soil retaining cover 202, the end of the mounting beam 301 is mounted at the other bottom corner of the mounting swing frame 304, the floating adjustment device is connected between the mounting swing frame 304 and the stubble soil blocking cover 202 to drive the mounting swing frame 304 to swing backwards or reset forwards. The comb assembly mainly has the function of breaking up the bumps, and the leveling soil guard plate 303 mainly has the function of leveling the soil. When the rotary tillage blade 205 drives soil to splash backwards, the soil falls on the soil crushing comb teeth 302, the purpose of crushing soil is just achieved, meanwhile, the soil cannot be bonded on the soil crushing comb teeth 302, if the soil crushing comb teeth 302 are not additionally arranged on the front portion of the leveling soil retaining plate 303, the soil can splash to the leveling soil retaining plate 303, a part of the soil can be bonded on the leveling soil retaining plate 303, and the normal use of the leveling soil retaining plate 303 is affected.
Referring to fig. 5 and 7, the floating adjustment device includes an inner pressure spring seat 305 rotatably mounted on the stubble soil blocking cover 202 and an outer pressure spring seat 306 rotatably mounted on a vertex angle of the mounting swing frame 304, the inner pressure spring seat 305 is sleeved in the outer pressure spring seat 306, and an adjustment pressure spring for driving the mounting swing frame 304 to swing backwards or return forwards is pressed between the inner pressure spring seat and the outer pressure spring seat, and the adjustment pressure spring is not shown in the figures. When the larger piece of soil is more or the height of the soil is higher, the soil can push the soil crushing comb teeth 302 or the leveling soil retaining plate 303 backwards, at this time, the mounting cross beam 301 and the mounting swing frame 304 swing backwards to transmit force into the adjusting pressure spring, so that the adjusting pressure spring contracts, the pressure spring outer seat 306 can drive the mounting swing frame 304 and the mounting cross beam 301 to swing forwards around the stubble soil retaining cover 202, and thus the soil crushing comb teeth 302 and the leveling soil retaining plate 303 are driven to swing backwards; when the soil is less or the soil height is reduced, the force acting on the soil crushing comb teeth 302 or the leveling soil retaining plate 303 is gradually reduced, at this time, the adjusting pressure spring is extended under the elastic action, the outer seat 306 of the pressure spring drives the mounting swing frame 304 and the mounting beam 301 to swing backwards around the stubble soil retaining cover 202, so as to drive the soil crushing comb teeth 302 and the leveling soil retaining plate 303 to swing forwards; according to the invention, the self-adaptive adjustment of the floating soil crushing and leveling mechanism 300 is realized through the adjustment of the pressure spring, so that the profiling soil crushing and leveling can be realized, and transitional soil heaping can be effectively avoided.
Referring to fig. 10 and 11, the ditching and fertilizing device comprises a ditching fertilizer applicator and a precision fertilizing device connected with the ditching fertilizer applicator for fertilizing, and the ditching and seeding device comprises a ditching seeder and a precision seeding device connected with the ditching seeder for seeding; the ditching fertilizer applicator and the ditching seeder are fixedly arranged on the vertical stubble breaking frame 401 of the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 through a ditching fixing frame 501; accurate fertilizer injection unit includes fertilization case and fertilizer applicator, accurate seeder includes seeding case and disseminator, and it is prior art, no longer gives unnecessary details here. The furrow opener fixing frame is a w-shaped fixing frame, and a furrow opening fertilizer applicator and a furrow opening seeder are fixedly installed according to the fertilizing and seeding height difference and the seeding row spacing. The front end of the ditching fertilizer applicator is also welded with a supporting plate for ensuring the operation stability.
Referring to fig. 10 and 11, the ditching fertilizer applicator comprises a fertilizer applying pipe 502 fixed on the ditching fixing frame 501, a ditcher 503 is fixedly installed at the bottom end of the fertilizer applying pipe 502, the ditcher for sowing is an acute angle ditcher, the top end of the fertilizer applying pipe 502 is connected with a fertilizer applying port of the precision fertilizer applying device, and a fertilizer applying port 504 located behind the ditcher is arranged at the bottom end of the fertilizer applying pipe 502; the ditching seeder comprises a seeding pipe 505 fixed on the ditching fixing frame 501, a ditcher 506 is fixedly installed at the bottom end of the seeding pipe 505, the ditcher for fertilizing is a mouse-way plough, the top end of the seeding pipe 505 is connected with a seed sowing port of the precision seeding device, and a seeding port 507 located behind the ditcher is arranged at the bottom end of the seeding pipe 505; the two sowing ports 507 are symmetrically arranged behind the fertilizing port 504 for realizing a sowing-fertilizing-sowing interval type sowing mode, and the distance between the two sowing ports 507 is 150mm, namely the sowing row spacing is 150 mm; at present, in the prior art, the sowing mode is mainly to sow in the corresponding rows after fertilization, namely the fertilization and the sowing are in the same row, the possibility of fertilizer and seeds mixing exists in the sowing mode, the seed development is not facilitated, and the staggered arrangement mode is adopted, so that only one row of fertilizer needs to be applied on the premise of ensuring the distance between two sowing rows, one row of fertilizer corresponds to two rows of seeds, the use of the fertilizer is reduced, and the length of the whole machine can be shortened by adopting the staggered arrangement mode; in addition, if the fertilizing tube 502 and the sowing tube 505 are positioned on the same straight line, in order to avoid the influence on the ditching and sowing device when the ditching and fertilizing device ditches, the distance between the sowing tube 505 and the fertilizing tube 502 needs to be increased, but in the invention, the fertilizing tube 502 is arranged at the front part of the sowing tube 505, so that the ditching and fertilizing device and the ditching device can be ensured to have less disturbance to soil and have no mutual influence in the ditching process; the depth of the fertilizing port 504 is lower than the depth of the two sowing ports 507, so that a sowing mode of shallow sowing and deep sowing is realized, the difference between the depth of the fertilizing port 504 and the depth of the sowing ports 507 is 80mm, namely the difference between the fertilizing height and the sowing height is 80mm, and the fertilizing effect is satisfied; the combination of sowing-fertilizing-sowing and shallow sowing deep fertilizing can obviously improve the utilization rate of seeds and fertilizer and achieve the purpose of saving seeds and fertilizers.
Referring to fig. 11, the upper non-soil-entering sections of the fertilizing tube 502 and the sowing tube 505 are both cylindrical tubes, the lower soil-entering sections of the fertilizing tube 502 and the sowing tube 505 are both flat tubes with two flat sides and front and back protrusions for reducing resistance between the fertilizing tube 502 and soil, and the two flat sides and the front and back arc protrusions of the flat tubes can effectively reduce the contact area between the soil and the soil-entering sections of the fertilizing tube 502 or the sowing tube 505, effectively reduce viscosity and resistance, and simultaneously reduce disturbance to the soil.
Referring to fig. 12 and 13, the floating soil covering device includes a soil covering frame 601 fixedly mounted on a vertical stubble breaking frame 401 of the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400, the soil covering frame 601 is a w-shaped frame, two floating soil covering plates 602 which are obliquely and oppositely arranged are respectively rotatably mounted on two sides of the soil covering frame 601, a shaft seat 603 is arranged on each floating soil covering plate 602, the shaft seats 603 are rotatably connected to two sides of the w-shaped frame through a rotating shaft 604, the two floating soil covering plates 602 are obliquely and oppositely arranged, the soil facing surface faces the moving direction, a soil covering plate tension spring 605 for profile modeling soil covering is arranged between the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 and the floating soil covering plate 602 and used for controlling the floating soil covering plate 602 to be inwardly inclined, one end of the soil covering plate tension spring 605 is connected to the vertical stubble breaking frame 401, and the other end of the soil covering plate tension spring 605 is connected to the shaft. During operation, the two floating soil covering plates 602 scrape and gather soil to the middle, and cover the sowing and fertilizing grooves. When the floating casing plate 602 moves forward along with the tractor, the floating casing plate 602 swings backward and outward under the action of the soil against the action of the casing plate tension spring 605, and when the acting force of the soil is small, the floating casing plate 602 swings and resets forward and inward under the elastic action of the casing plate tension spring 605.
Referring to fig. 10 and 12, the floating adjustable pressing device includes a pressing rotating arm 606 rotatably installed at the rear end of the vertical deep stubble cutting mechanism 400, the front end of the suppressing rotary arm 606 is rotatably installed on the vertical stubble breaking frame 401, the rear end of the suppressing rotary arm 606 is rotatably installed with a floating suppressing wheel 607, a press wheel tension spring 608 for controlling the floating press wheel 607 to be used for compacting is arranged between the press rotating arm 606 and the soil covering frame 601, one end of the press wheel tension spring 608 is connected to the soil covering frame 601, the other end of the press wheel tension spring 608 is in threaded connection with the press tumbler 606 through an adjusting screw 609, the pressing rotating arm 606 is provided with a threaded rod seat 610 in threaded connection with the adjusting screw 609, one end of the adjusting screw 609 is connected to the screw seat 610 in a threaded manner, and the other end of the adjusting screw is fixed to the suppressing rotating arm 606. During operation, the floating press wheel 607 is downward under the action of gravity to compact soil, when soil is upward to jack up the floating press wheel 607, the press wheel tension spring 608 ensures that the floating press wheel 607 can always be attached to the ground, and the compacting effect is better; when the compaction effect needs to be adjusted, the elastic state of the tension spring 608 of the press wheel is adjusted by rotating the adjusting screw 609.
The single planting method of the wheat drill suitable for the sticky soil of the rice stubble field comprises the following steps:
with the forward movement of the wheat drill, the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200 performs a rotary tillage operation for the first time, namely, stubble breaking and soil crushing in the forward direction of the shallow soil, the floating soil crushing and leveling mechanism 300 performs profiling soil crushing and leveling on the surface layer of the soil after the first rotary tillage operation, and then the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 performs stubble breaking and soil crushing on the shallow soil and the deep soil to realize a secondary deep tillage operation;
then, the ditching and fertilizing device ditches and fertilizes the soil after the secondary deep ploughing operation, the ditching and seeding device ditches and seeds the soil after the secondary deep ploughing operation, the two ditching and seeding devices are symmetrically arranged behind the ditching and fertilizing device to realize a seeding mode of interval seeding-fertilizing-seeding, and the ditching and fertilizing depth of the ditching and fertilizing device is lower than the ditching and seeding depth of the two ditching and seeding devices to realize a seeding mode of shallow seeding and deep fertilizing;
and then, the floating type soil covering device carries out profiling soil covering on the groove after fertilization and seeding, and finally, the floating adjustable type press device carries out profiling compaction on the surface of the groove after soil covering.
The device has the main technical parameters: the mass of the whole machine is less than or equal to 200kg, the operation speed is 3-8km/h, the matching power is more than or equal to 50kW, the rotary tillage speed of the horizontal shallow rotary tillage mechanism 200 is 380 plus 500r/min, the rotary tillage speed of the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism 400 is 380 plus 500r/min, the seed width is 50mm, the seed spacing is 150mm, and the seeding depth is 2-3 mm.
The device has the following effects: the consistent variation coefficient of the seed and fertilizer discharging amount of each row is less than or equal to 13.0 percent, the stable variation coefficient of the total seed and fertilizer discharging amount is less than or equal to 7.8 percent, the qualified rate of the soil covering depth of the fertilizer is more than or equal to 92 percent, and the qualified rate of the soil covering depth of the seeds is more than or equal to 90 percent.
The foregoing shows and describes the general principles, essential features, and advantages of the invention. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the present invention is not limited to the embodiments described above, which are described in the specification and illustrated only to illustrate the principle of the present invention, but that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, which fall within the scope of the invention as claimed. The scope of the invention is defined by the appended claims and equivalents thereof.

Claims (8)

1. Wheat drill is with fertilizing and seeding earthing suppression mechanism corresponds the rear of installing at vertical deep broken stubble mechanism, its characterized in that: comprises a ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism and a floating earth covering and pressing mechanism;
the ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism is correspondingly arranged at the rear part of the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism and comprises a ditching and fertilizing device for ditching and fertilizing soil and a ditching and seeding device for ditching and seeding the soil, the ditching and seeding devices are symmetrically arranged at the rear part of the ditching and fertilizing device and are used for realizing a seeding mode of interval type of seeding-fertilizing-seeding, and the ditching and fertilizing depth of the ditching and fertilizing device is lower than that of the ditching and seeding devices and is used for realizing a seeding mode of deep fertilizing of shallow seeding;
the floating earthing suppression mechanism is installed in a floating mode at the rear of the ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism and comprises a floating earthing device and a floating adjustable suppression device, the floating earthing device and the ditching, fertilizing and seeding mechanism are used for copying and earthing the groove after fertilization and seeding, and the floating adjustable suppression device is located at the rear of the floating earthing device and used for copying and compacting the surface of the groove after earthing.
2. The fertilizing, seeding, covering and compacting mechanism for a wheat drill as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the ditching and fertilizing device comprises a ditching and fertilizing device and an accurate fertilizing device connected with the ditching and fertilizing device and used for fertilizing, and the ditching and seeding device comprises a ditching and seeding device and an accurate seeding device connected with the ditching and seeding device and used for seeding; the ditching fertilizer applicator and the ditching seeder are fixedly arranged on the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism through a ditching fixing frame.
3. The fertilizing, seeding, covering and compacting mechanism for a wheat drill as claimed in claim 2, wherein: the ditching fertilizer applicator comprises a fertilizer applying pipe fixed on the ditching fixing frame, a ditcher is fixedly installed at the bottom end of the fertilizer applying pipe, the top end of the fertilizer applying pipe is connected with a fertilizer applying port of the accurate fertilizer applying device, and a fertilizer applying port located behind the ditcher is arranged at the bottom end of the fertilizer applying pipe.
4. The fertilizing, seeding, covering and compacting mechanism for a wheat drill as claimed in claim 3, wherein: the ditching seeder is including fixing seeding pipe on the ditching mount, the bottom fixed mounting of seeding pipe has the furrow opener, the top of seeding pipe with accurate seeder's the mouth of sowing is connected, the bottom of seeding pipe is provided with and is located the seeding mouth at furrow opener rear.
5. The fertilizing, seeding, covering and compacting mechanism for the wheat drill as claimed in claim 4, wherein: the two seeding ports are symmetrically arranged behind the fertilizing port and used for realizing a seeding-fertilizing-seeding interval type seeding mode, and the depth of the fertilizing port is lower than that of the two seeding ports and used for realizing a seeding mode of shallow seeding and deep fertilizing.
6. The fertilizing, seeding, covering and compacting mechanism for the wheat drill as claimed in claim 4, wherein: the fertilization pipe with the section of burying of the upper portion of planting the pipe all sets up to the cylinder pipe, the fertilization pipe with the lower part section of burying of planting the pipe all sets up to the flat pipe that both sides are flat around protruding to be used for reducing and soil between the resistance.
7. The fertilizing, seeding, covering and compacting mechanism for a wheat drill as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the floating type soil covering device comprises a soil covering frame fixedly installed on the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism, two floating soil covering plates which are obliquely arranged are respectively installed on two sides of the soil covering frame in a rotating mode, the vertical deep stubble breaking mechanism and the floating soil covering plates are provided with controls, the floating soil covering plates are inwards inclined, and soil covering plate tension springs are used for copying soil covering.
8. The fertilizing, seeding, covering and compacting mechanism for a wheat drill as claimed in claim 7, wherein: the suppression device with adjustable float is installed including rotating the suppression rocking arm of broken stubble mechanism rear end of vertical deep, the rear end of suppression rocking arm is rotated and is installed unsteady suppression wheel, the suppression rocking arm with be provided with control between the earthing frame the suppression wheel that floats is used for the compaction wheel extension spring, suppression wheel extension spring one end is connected on the earthing frame, the other end of suppression wheel extension spring passes through adjusting screw threaded connection and is in on the suppression rocking arm.
CN202011391353.0A 2020-12-02 2020-12-02 Fertilizing, seeding and earthing pressing mechanism for wheat drill seeder Pending CN112544145A (en)

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Application publication date: 20210326