CN112460567B - Gas boiler with concentric single pipe ring water-cooling combustion and heat exchange - Google Patents

Gas boiler with concentric single pipe ring water-cooling combustion and heat exchange Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112460567B
CN112460567B CN202011323808.5A CN202011323808A CN112460567B CN 112460567 B CN112460567 B CN 112460567B CN 202011323808 A CN202011323808 A CN 202011323808A CN 112460567 B CN112460567 B CN 112460567B
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China
Prior art keywords
water
cooled
combustion head
heat exchanger
boiler
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CN202011323808.5A
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CN112460567A (en
Inventor
赵钦新
王宁
邓世丰
邵怀爽
梁志远
王云刚
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B1/00Methods of steam generation characterised by form of heating method
    • F22B1/22Methods of steam generation characterised by form of heating method using combustion under pressure substantially exceeding atmospheric pressure
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B31/00Modifications of boiler construction, or of tube systems, dependent on installation of combustion apparatus; Arrangements of dispositions of combustion apparatus
    • F22B31/08Installation of heat-exchange apparatus or of means in boilers for heating air supplied for combustion
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22DPREHEATING, OR ACCUMULATING PREHEATED, FEED-WATER FOR STEAM GENERATION; FEED-WATER SUPPLY FOR STEAM GENERATION; CONTROLLING WATER LEVEL FOR STEAM GENERATION; AUXILIARY DEVICES FOR PROMOTING WATER CIRCULATION WITHIN STEAM BOILERS
    • F22D1/00Feed-water heaters, i.e. economisers or like preheaters
    • F22D1/02Feed-water heaters, i.e. economisers or like preheaters with water tubes arranged in the boiler furnace, fire tubes, or flue ways
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/06Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of coolers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT-GENERATING MEANS, e.g. HEAT PUMPS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H1/00Water heaters, e.g. boilers, continuous-flow heaters or water-storage heaters
    • F24H1/22Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water-storage heaters, e.g. water heaters for central heating
    • F24H1/34Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water-storage heaters, e.g. water heaters for central heating with water chamber arranged adjacent to the combustion chamber or chambers, e.g. above or at side
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT-GENERATING MEANS, e.g. HEAT PUMPS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H9/00Details
    • F24H9/18Arrangement or mounting of grates or heating means
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/30Technologies for a more efficient combustion or heat usage

Abstract

The invention discloses a gas boiler for water-cooling combustion and heat exchange of a concentric single pipe ring, which comprises a water-cooling combustor and a water-cooling heat exchanger which are coaxially arranged; the water-cooled heat exchanger is coaxially arranged at the outer side of the water-cooled burner, and a water outlet of the water-cooled burner is communicated with a water inlet of the water-cooled heat exchanger; the water-cooled combustor comprises a water-cooled combustion head, a water-cooled combustion head pipe bundle and a water-cooled combustion head lower header, wherein the water-cooled combustion head comprises a combustion head upper header, a combustion head water-cooled pipe bundle and a combustion head lower header; the inner side of the water-cooled combustion head is provided with a flow equalizing pore plate, a combustion head water-cooled tube bundle is arranged in the water-cooled combustion head, a flow guide channel is arranged along the surface of the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle, and the flow guide channel extends to the widest part of the cross section of the water-cooled tube; after the gas and the air flow to the flow equalizing pore plate and the water-cooled combustion head, ignition combustion and heat exchange are carried out, the combustion temperature is reduced, NOx generation is inhibited, and the flue gas carries out sensible heat laminar flow enhanced heat transfer along narrow gaps formed by the straight pipe heat exchanger pipe bundle, the longitudinal fins and the curved surface guide plates.

Description

Gas boiler with concentric single pipe ring water-cooling combustion and heat exchange
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of safe and stable low-nitrogen combustion of natural gas, burners and boiler design, and particularly relates to a concentric single-pipe-ring water-cooling combustion and heat exchange gas boiler.
Background
The dividing wall type heat exchanger is a heat exchanger which has the most extensive industrial application, two media with different temperatures flow in spaced flow channels, the media cannot be mixed with each other, and the whole process is continuous and stable. The fin-tube heat exchanger formed by additionally arranging fins on the tube is the most common dividing wall heat exchange mode, has high heat transfer coefficient, compact structure, long service life and simple and easy disassembly and assembly, and is a safe and reliable heat exchanger. The gas-fired boiler usually adopts two circles of water-cooled tube bundles as a combustion head, the inner circle of tube bundles prevents backfire, and the outer circle of tube bundles prevents fire from falling off; meanwhile, in order to reduce the temperature of the exhaust smoke to a certain range, the water-cooled wall of the boiler also adopts 2-3 rings of tube bundles.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems in the prior art, the invention provides the concentric single-tube-ring water-cooling combustion and heat exchange gas boiler, the flowing heat exchange is uniform, the heat exchange strength is high, the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle directly exchanges heat with combustion flame, so that the temperature of a combustion area, especially the temperature of an early combustion reaction area is reduced, the generation of NOx is inhibited, steel is saved, and the process cost is reduced.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: a gas boiler with concentric single pipe ring water-cooling combustion and heat exchange comprises a water-cooling combustor and a water-cooling heat exchanger; the water-cooled burner and the water-cooled heat exchanger are both cylindrical, the water-cooled heat exchanger is coaxially arranged on the outer side of the water-cooled burner, and a water outlet of the water-cooled burner is communicated with a water inlet of the water-cooled heat exchanger;
the water-cooled combustor is internally provided with a water-cooled combustion head, the water-cooled combustion head comprises a combustion head upper header, a combustion head water-cooled tube bundle and a combustion head lower header, and two ends of the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle are respectively communicated with the combustion head upper header and the combustion head lower header;
the inner side of the water-cooled combustion head is provided with a flow equalizing pore plate, a circle of water-cooled tube is arranged in the water-cooled combustion head to form a combustion head water-cooled tube bundle, a flow guide channel is arranged along the surface of the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle and extends to the widest part of the cross section of the water-cooled tube, and a curved surface flow guide plate is arranged between the adjacent flow guide channels of the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle.
The width of the flow guide channel is gradually reduced or kept unchanged from the inner side to the outer side; the width of the flow guide channel is 0.3-3 mm.
The air inlet department of water-cooled burner sets up the premixer, and the premixer includes urceolus and inner tube, and gas pipeline and inner tube top intercommunication, the coaxial setting of inner tube are in the urceolus, inner tube bottom shutoff, the top of urceolus bottom intercommunication water-cooled burner, and the inner tube bottom is located 1/3 ~ 1/2 departments of urceolus height, and the inner tube below is provided with a gas section of thick bamboo, and a gas section of thick bamboo is the ring shape cavity, and an inner tube intercommunication gas section of thick bamboo evenly offers a plurality ofly on the gas section of thick bamboo has a gas section of thick bamboo orifice.
The curved guide plate is integrally cylindrical and is arranged along the circumferential direction of the inner side of the water-cooled combustion head; the first cylindrical surface of the curved guide plate is an arc surface, and the first cylindrical surface is tightly attached to the outer wall of the flow equalizing pore plate; the second cylindrical surface shape of curved surface guide plate is the arc surface, leave between second cylindrical surface and the combustion head water-cooling pipe outer wall and between two adjacent curved surface guide plates and establish the clearance, the clearance intercommunication forms the water conservancy diversion passageway.
The heat exchanger is characterized in that a circle of heat exchanger water-cooling tubes are arranged in the water-cooling heat exchanger to form a heat exchanger water-cooling tube bundle, the outer sides of the heat exchanger water-cooling tubes are provided with heat exchange channels, the inner sides and the outer sides of the heat exchanger water-cooling tubes are provided with longitudinal double-fins, the longitudinal double-fins on the inner sides and the outer sides are distributed along the surfaces of the heat exchanger water-cooling tube bundle and the heat exchanger water-cooling tubes, a curved surface heat exchange guide plate is arranged between the heat exchange channels, and the shapes of the two sides of the curved surface heat exchange guide plate are the same as the shape of the heat exchange channels; the width of the heat exchange channel is 4-10 mm; the height of the inner longitudinal double ribs is 8-12 mm; the height of the longitudinal double ribs on the outer side is 10-100 mm.
2-4 water pipes are arranged at the top of the header on the combustion head to serve as water inlets of the combustion head; then 2-4 water pipes are arranged on the outer side surface of the lower header of the combustion head along the circumferential direction to serve as water outlets of the combustion head, and the water outlets of the combustion head are communicated with a water inlet of the water-cooled heat exchanger; or 2 water inlet pipes and 2 water outlet pipes are arranged at the top of the header on the combustion head along the circumferential direction and respectively used as a water inlet and a water outlet of the combustion head, one part of the water-cooling pipe bundle of the combustion head is used as a water inlet pipe bundle, and the other part of the water-cooling pipe bundle of the combustion head is used as a water outlet pipe bundle.
A coil condenser is arranged on one circle of the bottom of the water-cooled heat exchanger and the outer side surface of the bottom of the water-cooled heat exchanger, an inlet of the coil condenser is communicated with a boiler water supply pipeline, and an outlet of the coil condenser is communicated with a water inlet of the water-cooled burner.
The bottom of the boiler is provided with a dew bearing disc, the lowest part of the dew bearing disc is provided with a condensate discharge port, the lowest part of the dew bearing disc is positioned in a circle, the highest part of the dew bearing disc is provided with a flue gas outlet, and the flue gas outlet is communicated with a chimney.
The water-cooled burner and the water-cooled heat exchanger are arranged in the boiler shell, and the top and the side of the boiler shell are sealed; the top and the bottom of the annular space formed by the water-cooled burner and the water-cooled heat exchanger are both provided with a flue gas baffle, the top and the bottom of the annular space formed by the boiler shell and the water-cooled heat exchanger are provided with a flue gas baffle, and a heat insulation layer and a heat preservation layer are arranged between the flue gas baffle and the boiler shell; a flue gas baffle, a heat insulation layer and a heat insulation layer are arranged between the bottom end of the water-cooled combustor and the boiler shell; and a flue gas baffle is arranged on the outer side of the top of the lower header of the heat exchanger along the vertical direction.
When the boiler is used as a steam or hot water boiler, a through-flow boiler or a natural circulation steam boiler is adopted, boiler feed water firstly enters a coil condenser to condense low-temperature flue gas to absorb latent heat of liquefaction of water vapor in the flue gas, then enters a water inlet of an upper header of a combustion head to descend, then enters a lower header of a water-cooled heat exchanger, and then rises along a water-cooled tube bundle of the heat exchanger of the water-cooled heat exchanger to flow to the upper header of the heat exchanger to lead out steam to supply a thermodynamic system;
when the boiler is a hot water boiler, the boiler backwater firstly enters the coil condenser to condense the low-temperature flue gas, absorbs the liquefied latent heat of the water vapor in the flue gas, then enters the water inlet of the upper header of the combustion head, then enters the lower header of the heat exchanger, and then rises along the water cooling tube bundle of the heat exchanger to flow to the upper header of the heat exchanger to lead out the hot water to supply a thermodynamic system.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has at least the following beneficial effects:
the method is characterized in that longitudinal single fins, longitudinal double fins and curved guide plates are additionally arranged on a water-cooled single-loop tube bundle of a combustion head and a single-loop tube bundle of a heat exchanger to form a narrow gap flow channel for gas-air mixed gas and flue gas, gas sprayed out of a hole plate spray hole can only flow out of the water-cooled combustion head through the narrow gap between the curved guide plate and the tube bundle or the fins, and the gap between the curved surface of the curved guide plate and the outer wall surface of the tube bundle and the gaps between the curved guide plate and the fins can be kept unchanged or gradually reduced, so that the speed is gradually reduced when the distance is kept unchanged, or the gap is gradually reduced to keep the air flow speed unchanged; a narrow air inlet gap is formed between the combustion head pipe ring and the curved guide plate, so that the flow speed of the mixed air is ensured to be greater than the flame propagation speed under the rated minimum load to prevent tempering; the water-cooled tube bundle of the combustion head directly exchanges heat with combustion flame, so that the temperature of a combustion area, particularly the temperature of a prophase combustion reaction area, is reduced, and the generation of NOx is inhibited;
the single-loop water-cooled burner tube bundle meets the requirements of backfire prevention and stable combustion against fire separation, and meanwhile, the laminar flow enhanced heat exchange improves the heat exchange efficiency, so that the single-loop heat exchanger tube bundle can cool the flue gas to a proper temperature, and the steel of a boiler is greatly saved; the water-cooled burner and the water-cooled heat exchanger both adopt single-loop tube bundles, so that the consumption of steel is greatly reduced, and the construction cost of the boiler is saved;
the combustor simple structure, manufacturing process is simple, and design low in manufacturing cost, the combustor is whole to be cylindrical, and vertical inside stretching into furnace need not to change boiler body tube bank, and is very strong with boiler body tube bank suitability, and burner water-cooled tube bank reduces flame root temperature, reduces heating power type nitrogen oxide and discharges, satisfies low-nitrogen combustion emission standard, can be used to the low-nitrogen transformation of traditional boiler, reforms transform with low costsly.
Furthermore, proper gaps are arranged among tube bundles of the water-cooling heat exchanger, so that the fire cannot be removed under rated maximum load, and meanwhile, a flame stabilizing area with high temperature and low flow rate is formed at the rear part of the water-cooling heat exchanger, so that the flame can be stabilized to prevent the fire from being removed.
Furthermore, the flow and heat exchange are uniform, the heat exchange efficiency is high, the exhaust gas temperature of the boiler can be reduced, the boiler efficiency is improved, and the safe and stable operation of the boiler is facilitated.
Further, a gas pipeline is connected with the top of the inner cylinder, and the circular surface of the top of the inner cylinder is a gas inlet; the air is sent into the closed cavity in the distribution shell by the blower through the air distribution cylinder, then enters between the inner cylinder and the outer cylinder and flows downwards, and the circular ring surfaces at the top of the outer cylinder and the top of the inner cylinder are air inlets; the fuel gas enters the fuel gas cylinder through three fuel gas branch pipes which are uniformly arranged along the circumferential direction downwards along the inner part of the inner cylinder; the gas cylinder is a circular cavity, the inner side and the outer side of the gas cylinder are respectively provided with one circle or a plurality of circles of gas spray holes, and the gas is sprayed out of the spray holes and then forms vertical cross jet mixing with incoming air, so that the gas is uniformly mixed.
Furthermore, the fire receiving parts of the upper header and the lower header of the water-cooled combustor and the water-cooled heat exchanger are provided with a flue gas baffle and a heat preservation layer, and meanwhile, the top of the lower header extends out of one section of flue gas baffle to guide the flue gas at the lower part upwards, so that the flue gas is prevented from being directly discharged from the lower part due to short circuit.
Further, a coil condenser is additionally arranged behind the boiler body, latent heat turbulent flow condensation is carried out on the lower coil condenser to enhance heat transfer, the exhaust gas temperature is deeply reduced, the coil condensers are arranged on the side surface and the bottom of the lower header of the straight tube heat exchanger to realize efficient condensation heat exchange, and a water inlet and a water outlet are configured; the problem of among the prior art air current multiple compression, inflation and change direction, be unfavorable for the improvement of condensing efficiency, it causes the flue gas resistance to increase is overcome.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the overall structure of the boiler of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the premixer structure of the water-cooled burner of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a flow equalizing pore plate according to the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a burner head structure of the water-cooled burner of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a schematic top view of the arrangement of the burner head tube bundle of the water-cooled burner of the present invention.
FIG. 6a is a schematic view of an alternative arrangement of the tube bundle of the water-cooled heat exchanger of the present invention.
FIG. 6b is a schematic view of the structure of the straight tube section of the tube bundle of the water-cooled heat exchanger of the present invention
Fig. 7 is a schematic diagram of an alternative arrangement of the tube bundle of the water-cooled heat exchanger according to the present invention.
FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of a coil type condensing heat exchanger according to the present invention.
FIG. 9 is a schematic view showing the flow direction of gas and water in the boiler of the apparatus of the present invention.
Wherein 1: water-cooled burner, 11: drum air distribution device, 111: blower, 112: gas cylinder, 113: dispensing housing, 12: premixer, 121: outer cylinder, 122: inner cylinder, 123: gas branch pipe, 124: gas cartridge, 1241: gas cartridge orifice, 13: water-cooled burner, 131: burner water inlet, 132: header on burner, 133: burner water-cooled tube bundle, 134: lower header of burner, 135: burner water outlet, 136: flow equalizing orifice plate, 137: ignition gun, 138: curved baffle, 139: longitudinal single ribs; 2 water-cooled heat exchanger, 21: heat exchanger water inlet, 22: header on the heat exchanger, 23: heat exchanger water-cooled tube bundle, 24: heat exchanger lower header, 25: heat exchanger delivery port, 26-curved surface heat transfer guide plate narrow end, 27: longitudinal double ribs, 28: curved surface heat transfer guide plate, 29: a coil condenser; 3: other boiler components, 31: boiler outer casing, 32: flue gas baffle, 33: insulation layer, 34: insulating layer, 35: dew-bearing plate, 36: condensate drain, 37: chimney, 38: boiler support, 39: an explosion vent.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in further detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings:
referring to fig. 1, a concentric single-tube-ring water-cooling combustion and heat exchange gas boiler is characterized by comprising a water-cooling combustor 1 and a water-cooling heat exchanger 2; the water-cooled burner 1 and the water-cooled heat exchanger 2 are both cylindrical, the water-cooled heat exchanger 2 is coaxially arranged at the outer side of the water-cooled burner 1, and a water outlet of the water-cooled burner 1 is communicated with a water inlet of the water-cooled heat exchanger 2;
the water-cooled combustor 1 is internally provided with a water-cooled combustion head 13, the water-cooled combustion head 13 comprises a combustion head upper header 132, a combustion head water-cooled tube bundle 133 and a combustion head lower header 134, and two ends of the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle 133 are respectively communicated with the combustion head upper header 132 and the combustion head lower header 134;
the inner side of the water-cooled combustion head 13 is provided with a flow equalizing pore plate 136, a circle of water-cooled tubes are arranged in the water-cooled combustion head 13 to form a combustion head water-cooled tube bundle 133, a flow guide channel is arranged along the surface of the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle 133 and extends to the widest part of the cross section of each water-cooled tube, and a curved surface flow guide plate is arranged between the adjacent flow guide channels of the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle 133; the width of the flow guide channel is gradually reduced or kept unchanged from the inner side to the outer side; the width of the flow guide channel is 0.3-3 mm.
The curved guide plate 138 is cylindrical as a whole, and the curved guide plate 138 is arranged along the circumferential direction of the inner side of the water-cooled burner head 13; the first cylindrical surface of the curved guide plate 138 is a circular arc surface, and the first cylindrical surface is tightly attached to the outer wall of the flow equalizing pore plate 136; the second cylindrical surface shape of curved surface guide plate 138 is the arc surface, leave between second cylindrical surface and the burner head water-cooling pipe outer wall and between two adjacent curved surface guide plates 138 and establish the clearance, the clearance intercommunication forms the water conservancy diversion passageway
The boiler comprises an external water-cooled heat exchanger 2, an internal central air inlet cylindrical water-cooled burner 1 and other boiler components 3, wherein the water-cooled burner 1 and the outer ring water-cooled heat exchanger have similar integral structures. The water-cooled combustor 1 comprises a blast air distribution device 11, a premixer 12 and a water-cooled combustion head 13 which are sequentially communicated; the air blowing and distributing device 11 comprises an air blower 111, an air distributing cylinder 112 and a distributing shell 113 which are connected in sequence; the water-cooled burner head 13 comprises a burner head water inlet 131, a burner head upper header 132, a burner head water-cooled tube bundle 133, a burner head lower header 134, a burner head water outlet 135, a flow equalizing pore plate 136, an ignition gun 137, a curved guide plate 138 and longitudinal single ribs 139, wherein the curved guide plate is provided with a curved guide plate bend;
the other boiler components 3 comprise a boiler shell 31, a smoke baffle 32, a heat insulation layer 33, a heat insulation layer 34, a dew bearing disc 35, a condensate outlet 36, a chimney 37, a boiler support 38, an explosion door 39 and the like.
Referring to fig. 1, 2 and 9, the premixer 12 includes an outer cylinder 121, an inner cylinder 122, a gas branch pipe 123 and a gas cylinder 124, wherein a gas cylinder nozzle 1241 is opened on the cylinder wall of the gas cylinder 124; the inner cylinder 122 and the outer cylinder 121 are both cylindrical, the top of the inner cylinder 122 is open, the bottom of the inner cylinder 122 is blocked by a bottom plate, the bottom of the top of the outer cylinder 121 is open, the top of the inner cylinder 122 extends out of the distribution shell 113, the top of the outer cylinder 121 is positioned in the inner space of the distribution shell 113, the bottom of the outer cylinder 121 is flush with the top of a header on the water-cooled combustion head 13, the bottom of the inner cylinder 122 is positioned at 1/3-1/2 of the height of the outer cylinder 121, a gas pipeline is connected with the top of the inner cylinder 122, and the circular surface of the top of the inner cylinder 122 is a gas inlet; the blower 111 sends air into the closed cavity inside the distribution shell 113 through the air distribution cylinder 112, and then enters between the inner cylinder 122 and the outer cylinder 121 and flows downwards, and the circular ring surfaces at the tops of the inner cylinder 122 and the outer cylinder 121 are air inlets; the fuel gas goes downwards along the inner part of the inner cylinder 122 and enters the fuel gas cylinder 124 through three fuel gas branch pipes 123 uniformly arranged along the circumferential direction of the inner cylinder 122; the gas cylinder 124 is a circular cavity, the inner side and the outer side of the gas cylinder are respectively provided with one or more circles of gas cylinder spray holes 1241, the gas cylinder spray holes 1241 are in a circular, square, triangular, quincunx or rhombic shape, or in a combination mode of different shapes of the circular, square, triangular, quincunx or rhombic shape, and the gas is sprayed out from the gas cylinder spray holes 1241 and then forms vertical cross jet mixing with the incoming air.
Referring to fig. 1 and 3, 4, 9, the water-cooled burner head 13 includes a burner head upper header, a burner head lower header, and a burner head water-cooled tube bundle 133; the upper combustion head collection box and the lower combustion head collection box are circular, the upper combustion head collection box and the lower combustion head collection box are bent at 360 degrees, two ends of a combustion head water cooling tube bundle 133 are respectively connected with the upper combustion head collection box and the lower combustion head collection box, a layer of flow equalizing pore plate 136 is arranged on the inner side of the combustion head water cooling tube bundle 133, the porosity of the flow equalizing pore plate 136 is 3% -7%, the flow equalizing pore plate 136 is cylindrical and can be rolled into a cylinder by a layer of steel plate, the top of the flow equalizing pore plate 136 is open, the bottom of the flow equalizing pore plate 136 is blocked by a bottom plate, the diameter of the inner wall and the diameter of the outer wall of the flow equalizing pore plate 136 are the same as that of an outer cylinder 121 of the premixer 12, no spray hole is arranged in a set distance at the top of the flow equalizing pore plate 136, the distance is the thickness of the upper combustion head collection box and a smoke baffle plate, the upper portion of the flow equalizing pore plate 136 is connected with an outlet of the outer cylinder 121, the lower portion of the flow equalizing pore plate 136 is hermetically connected with the smoke baffle, spray holes are uniformly distributed on the flow equalizing pore plate 136, and are circular spray holes, Square, triangle, quincunx, rhombus, or random combination of circle, square, triangle, quincunx or rhombus, and the area of the opening is equal to the area required by theoretical combustion. The burner head water-cooled tube bundles 133 communicate with the burner head upper header 132 and the burner head lower header 134.
2-4 water pipes are arranged at the top of the upper header 132 of the combustion head to serve as a water inlet 131 of the combustion head; then 2-4 water pipes are arranged on the outer side surface of the lower combustion head header 134 along the circumferential direction to serve as a combustion head water outlet 135, and the combustion head water outlet 135 is communicated with a water inlet of the water-cooled heat exchanger; or 2 water inlet pipes and 2 water outlet pipes are circumferentially arranged at the top of the combustion head upper header 132 and are respectively used as a combustion head water inlet 131 and a combustion head water outlet 135, one part of the combustion head water-cooling pipe bundle 133 is used as a water inlet pipe bundle, and the other part of the combustion head water-cooling pipe bundle is used as a water outlet pipe bundle.
The water-cooled heat exchanger comprises a heat exchanger water inlet 21, a heat exchanger upper header 22, a heat exchanger water-cooled tube bundle 23, a heat exchanger lower header 24, a heat exchanger water outlet 25, longitudinal double fins 27, a curved surface heat exchange guide plate 28 and a coil condenser 29; as two alternative embodiments, the preferred embodiments are: 2-4 water pipes are uniformly distributed at the top of the upper header 132 of the combustion head respectively to be used as water inlets 131 of the combustion head; then 2-4 water pipes are uniformly distributed on the outer side surface of the lower combustion head collection box 134 along the circumferential direction to serve as combustion head water outlets 135, the combustion head water outlets 135 are communicated with a lower heat exchanger collection box 24, and water flows upwards along a heat exchanger water cooling pipe bundle 23 formed by a circle of straight pipes to flow to an upper heat exchanger collection box 22; another optional implementation is: water inlet pipes and water outlet pipes are uniformly distributed on the top of the combustion head upper header 132 along the circumferential direction and are respectively used as a combustion head water inlet 131 and a combustion head water outlet 135, water flows downwards along 2 water inlet pipes to flow through the combustion head water cooling pipe bundle 133, and is collected to an upper pipe bundle after being annularly distributed by the combustion head lower header 134, and the water flows out from 2 water pipes on the top of the combustion head upper header 132 and then is sent into the heat exchanger upper header 22 and the heat exchanger lower header 24 to be sequentially heated until the requirements are met.
2 water inlet pipes and 2 water outlet pipes are uniformly distributed along the circumferential direction on the basis of the top of the combustion head upper header 132 and are respectively used as a combustion head water inlet 131 and a combustion head water outlet 135; one part of the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle 133 is used as a water inlet tube bundle, the other part is used as a water outlet tube bundle, the water inlet tube bundle is communicated with the water inlet tube bundle through the combustion head upper header 132, the water outlet tube bundle is communicated with the water outlet tube bundle through the combustion head lower header 132, and the water outlet tube bundle is communicated with the water inlet tube bundle through the combustion head lower header 134.
Referring to fig. 5 and 7, the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle 133 is formed by welding longitudinal single fins 139 by using a stainless steel circular light pipe, the longitudinal single fins refer to fins welded on the inner side of the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle 133 along the longitudinal direction, the height of the longitudinal single fins 139 is about 10-30mm, the thickness of the longitudinal single fins 139 is 4-6mm, the root of the longitudinal single fins 139 is beveled, and the outer wall surface of the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle 133 adopts a full penetration welding structure to ensure good heat conduction of the longitudinal single fins 139. Set up curved surface guide plate 138 between burner head water-cooling tube bank 133, it is specific: the curved guide plate 138 is divided into three sections, wherein the section a is a straight section and carries out narrow-gap heat exchange with the longitudinal single fins 139; the section b is a circular arc with a diameter larger than that of the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle 133, so that the airflow carries out narrow-gap laminar flow enhanced heat exchange along the gap between the curved guide plate 138 and the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle 133; the section c is a straight section and is used for sealing the curved guide plate 138; the two ends of the curved guide plate 138 are connected by arc sections, and the arc sections are tightly attached to the outer wall of the flow equalizing pore plate 136 to shield part of the spray holes on the flow equalizing pore plate 136; the curved guide plate 138 is formed by splicing a plurality of sections, wherein the front and the back of each section are folded, and the size of the folded edge is a positioning gap which is 0.3-3 mm; the gas sprayed from the orifices of the flow equalizing orifice plate 136 can only flow out of the water-cooled combustion head 13 through the gaps (i.e. flow guiding channels) between the curved flow guiding plate 138 and the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle 133 or the longitudinal single fins 139, and the gaps between the curved surface of the curved flow guiding plate 138 and the outer wall surface of the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle 133 and the longitudinal single fins 139 can be kept unchanged or gradually reduced, so that the speed is gradually reduced when the distance is kept unchanged, or the gap is gradually reduced to keep the air flow speed unchanged. A narrow air inlet gap is formed between the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle 133 and the curved guide plate 138, so that the mixed air flow speed is ensured to be higher than the flame propagation speed under rated minimum load to prevent tempering; proper gaps are formed among tube rings of the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle 133, so that misfiring under rated maximum load is guaranteed, meanwhile, a high-temperature low-flow-rate flame stabilizing area is formed at the rear part, flame can be stabilized to prevent misfiring, and meanwhile, the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle 133 and combustion flame directly exchange heat, so that the temperature of a combustion area is reduced, particularly the temperature of an early combustion reaction area is reduced, and generation of NOx is inhibited.
Referring to fig. 6a, 6b and 7, the water-cooled heat exchanger only comprises a circle of straight tube bundle, the inner side and the outer side of the heat exchanger water-cooled tube bundle 23 are welded with 180-degree longitudinal double fins 27, curved surface heat exchange guide plates 28 with the same structure as the curved surface guide plates 138 are arranged between the heat exchanger water-cooled tube bundles 23, the directions are opposite, the curved surface heat exchange guide plates 28 are formed by splicing multiple sections, the front and back edges of each section are folded, the size of each folded edge is the positioning gap distance, and the curved surface heat exchange guide plates 28 are arranged on the inner layer and the outer layer to ensure that flue gas only carries out laminar flow heat transfer enhancement in the gap between the outer wall surface and the curved surface of the heat exchanger water-cooled tube bundle 23; the outer curved surface heat exchange guide plate 28 ensures that flue gas carries out laminar flow enhanced heat transfer in the clearance between the heat exchanger water-cooling tube bundle 23 and the curved surface, the narrow end 26 of the curved surface heat exchange guide plate can be connected or disconnected, so that the connection is preferential, the section c of the inner curved surface heat exchange guide plate 28 can be set into a V shape, the section c of the outer curved surface heat exchange guide plate 28 is set into a W shape (namely the narrow end of the curved surface heat exchange guide plate), so that the narrow ends 26 of the inner curved surface heat exchange guide plate and the outer curved surface heat exchange guide plate are completely jointed, the function of fixing the position of the curved surface heat exchange guide plate 28 is achieved, other shapes of jointing modes can be adopted, namely the joint of the narrow ends 26 of the inner curved surface heat exchange guide plate and the outer curved surface heat exchange guide plate is of a tooth joint structure or a dovetail mortise-and tenon joint structure; the inner side curved surface heat exchange guide plate 28 can be fixed or clamped with the non-welding end part of the inner side longitudinal double-fin 27, the outer side curved surface heat exchange guide plate 28 can be fixed or clamped with the non-welding end part of the outer side longitudinal double-fin 27, the invention prefers that the inner side curved surface heat exchange guide plate 28 is clamped with the inner longitudinal double-fin 27, and the outer side curved surface heat exchange guide plate 28 is clamped with the outer side longitudinal double-fin 27, so that the smoke dust cleaning requirement can be met by repeated unloading or installation. The clearance between the outer wall surface and the curved surface of the heat exchanger water-cooling tube bundle 23 is 4-10 mm; the height of the inner side longitudinal double fins 27 is 8-12mm, and the thickness of the fins is 4-6 mm; the height of the outer longitudinal double fins 27 is set to be 10-100mm according to heat transfer requirements, and the thickness of the outer longitudinal double fins 27 is 4-6 mm; the root part of the longitudinal double-fin 27 is provided with grooves and the outer wall surface of the heat exchanger water-cooling tube bundle 23 adopts a full penetration welding structure so as to ensure good heat conduction of the longitudinal double-fin 27. The curved heat exchange guide plate 28 arranged on the inner layer can be made of 1Cr25Ni20Si2 material or solid refractory ceramic or ceramic fiber and other refractory materials, and the longitudinal double fins 27 can be made of common carbon steel. The straight pipe water-cooled burner 1, the heat exchanger upper header 22 and the heat exchanger lower header 24 are provided with a flue gas baffle 32 and a heat insulation layer 33 at the fired part, the flue gas baffle 32 is made of refractory materials, meanwhile, a section of flue gas baffle 32 extends out of the top of the heat exchanger lower header 24 to guide the flow of the flue gas at the lower part upwards and prevent the short circuit of the flue gas from being directly discharged from the lower part, the side and the bottom of the heat exchanger lower header 24 are provided with a coil condenser, a flue, a dew bearing disc 35 and a chimney 37, and the materials of the coil condenser 29, the flue, the dew bearing disc 35 and the chimney 37 are made of 304 or 316 or more austenitic corrosion-resistant stainless steel plates or pipes or can be selected and replaced by plastics; the middle part of the dew bearing disc 35 is higher than the surrounding height thereof, the middle part of the dew bearing disc 35 is connected with a chimney 37, the chimney 37 is connected with a 90-degree elbow to lead out the flue gas, the lowest part of the dew bearing disc 35 is provided with at least two condensate outlet ports 36, the top and the side of the boiler shell 31 are closed, and the flue gas can only be discharged from the bottom.
Referring to fig. 1 and 8, in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the gas boiler, a coil condenser 29 is required to be added behind a boiler body, in the prior invention, flue gas flowing out radially at 360 degrees is collected annularly to one side and enters the condenser, but airflow is compressed and expanded for multiple times and changes direction, which is not beneficial to improving the condensing efficiency and causes the increase of the flue gas resistance, in order to overcome the defect, the coil condenser 29 is arranged on the side surface and the bottom of a lower collection box 24 of a straight pipe water-cooled heat exchanger to realize efficient condensation heat exchange, the coil condenser adopts staggered light tubes, spiral finned tubes, H-shaped finned tubes or pin fin tubes along the flue gas scouring direction to realize efficient condensation heat exchange, and a single-tube coil, double-tube coils, three-tube coils or four-tube coil structure can be selected according to the water quantity, and a water inlet collection box, a water outlet collection box and a water inlet and outlet are configured.
Referring to fig. 1 and 9, the gas boiler may be a steam or hot water boiler. When the boiler is a steam boiler, a water level meter is arranged on one side outside the straight pipe water-cooling heat exchanger, the boiler can be a through-flow boiler, high water quality is required at the moment, and an external steam separation device can be arranged to ensure the steam quality; if the steam boiler is a natural circulation steam boiler, a reasonable steam space should be reserved inside the upper header 22 of the straight pipe water-cooling heat exchanger. No matter which kind of steam boiler, low temperature boiler feed water gets into coil pipe condenser 29 earlier and makes low temperature flue gas condensation absorb the liquefaction latent heat of vapor in the flue gas, then gets into the first water inlet 131 of the combustion of straight tube water-cooled combustor 1 upper header and descends, gets into first lower header 134 lateral surface of combustion and along the circumference equipartition 2~4 first delivery ports of combustion 135 intercommunication straight tube water-cooled heat exchanger lower header 24, then rises along the straight tube of straight tube water-cooled heat exchanger and flows to the upper header of straight tube water-cooled heat exchanger and draw forth steam supply heating power system. When the boiler is a hot water boiler, boiler return water firstly enters a coil condenser to enable low-temperature flue gas to condense and absorb liquefied latent heat of water vapor in the flue gas, then enters a combustion head water inlet 131 of a combustion head upper header 132 to descend, enters the outer side surface of a combustion head lower header 134, 2-4 combustion head water outlets 135 water pipes are uniformly distributed to a water-cooled heat exchanger lower header 24 along the circumferential direction, the water rises along a straight pipe to flow to a heat exchanger upper header 22 of a water-cooled heat exchanger 2 to lead out a hot water supply thermodynamic system, and when a steam and hot water connection system is arranged, the water flow and the water flow speed in the pipe are fully considered to reasonably distribute the trend of an ascending pipe bundle and a descending pipe bundle.
The water-cooled burner 1 and the water-cooled heat exchanger 2 are arranged in the boiler shell 31, and the top and the side of the boiler shell 31 are sealed; flue gas baffles 32 are arranged at the top and the bottom of an annular space formed by the water-cooled burner 1 and the water-cooled heat exchanger 2, the flue gas baffles 32 are arranged at the top and the bottom of the annular space formed by the boiler shell 31 and the water-cooled heat exchanger 2, and a heat insulation layer 33 and a heat insulation layer 34 are arranged between the flue gas baffles 32 and the boiler shell 31; a flue gas baffle 32, a heat insulation layer 33 and a heat insulation layer 34 are arranged between the bottom end of the water-cooled combustor 1 and the boiler shell 31; the outer side of the top of the lower header 24 of the heat exchanger is provided with a flue gas baffle along the vertical direction
Referring to fig. 1, the present invention preferably uses a fully premixed straight tube water-cooled burner 1, which has lower NOx emission, lower excess air factor and the highest thermal efficiency of the gas-fired boiler; however, as an alternative, the fully premixed gas burner 1 of the present invention can be directly replaced by a fully premixed gas burner wound or fired with metal fibers or ceramic fibers, and although the performance of the fully premixed gas burner is not as good as that of a gas boiler using the fully premixed straight tube water-cooled burner 1, the fully premixed gas burner can be replaced by a fully premixed gas burner which is not wound or fired with metal fibers or ceramic fibers.

Claims (8)

1. A gas boiler with concentric single pipe ring water-cooling combustion and heat exchange is characterized by comprising a water-cooling combustor (1) and a water-cooling heat exchanger (2); the water-cooled burner (1) and the water-cooled heat exchanger (2) are both cylindrical, the water-cooled heat exchanger (2) is coaxially arranged on the outer side of the water-cooled burner (1), and a water outlet of the water-cooled burner (1) is communicated with a water inlet of the water-cooled heat exchanger (2);
the water-cooled combustor (1) is internally provided with a water-cooled combustion head (13), the water-cooled combustion head (13) comprises an upper combustion head collection box (132), a water-cooled combustion head tube bundle (133) and a lower combustion head collection box (134), and two ends of the water-cooled combustion head tube bundle (133) are respectively communicated with the upper combustion head collection box (132) and the lower combustion head collection box (134);
a flow equalizing pore plate (136) is arranged on the inner side of the water-cooled combustion head (13), a circle of water-cooled tube is arranged in the water-cooled combustion head (13) to form a combustion head water-cooled tube bundle (133), a flow guide channel is arranged along the surface of the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle (133), the flow guide channel extends to the widest part of the cross section of the water-cooled tube, and a curved surface guide plate is arranged between the adjacent flow guide channels of the combustion head water-cooled tube bundle (133); the curved guide plate (138) is integrally cylindrical, and the curved guide plate (138) is arranged along the circumferential direction of the inner side of the water-cooled combustion head (13); the first cylindrical surface of the curved guide plate (138) is a circular arc surface, and the first cylindrical surface is tightly attached to the outer wall of the flow equalizing pore plate (136); the shape of a second cylindrical surface of the curved guide plate (138) is an arc surface, gaps are reserved between the second cylindrical surface and the outer wall of the water cooling pipe of the combustion head and between the curved guide plate (138) and the longitudinal single rib (139), and the gaps are communicated to form a guide channel; the curved guide plate (138) is formed by splicing a plurality of sections, the curved guide plate (138) is divided into three sections, and the section a is a straight section and carries out narrow-gap heat exchange with the longitudinal single fins (139); the section b is a circular arc with a diameter larger than that of the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle (133), so that the airflow carries out narrow-gap laminar flow enhanced heat exchange along the gap between the curved guide plate (138) and the combustion head water-cooling tube bundle (133); the section c is a straight section and is used for sealing the front and back folded edges of each section of the curved guide plate (138), the size of the folded edge is a positioning gap, a circle of heat exchanger water-cooling tubes are arranged in the water-cooling heat exchanger (2) to form a heat exchanger water-cooling tube bundle (23), a heat exchange channel is arranged on the outer side of the heat exchanger water-cooling tube bundle (23), the inner side and the outer side of each heat exchanger water-cooling tube are respectively provided with a longitudinal double-fin piece (27), the longitudinal double-fin pieces (27) on the inner side and the outer side are distributed along the radial direction of the circle where the heat exchanger water-cooling tube bundle (23) is located, the heat exchange channels are distributed along the surfaces of the longitudinal double-fin plates (27) and the heat exchanger water cooling tubes, curved surface heat exchange guide plates (28) with the structure similar to that of the curved surface guide plates (138) are arranged between the heat exchanger water cooling tube bundles (23), the c sections of the curved surface heat exchange guide plates (28) on the inner sides are arranged to be V-shaped, the opening ends of the V-shaped surfaces face the outer sides, and the c sections of the curved surface heat exchange guide plates (28) on the outer sides are arranged to be W-shaped; a coil condenser (29) is arranged on one circle of the bottom of the water-cooled heat exchanger (2) and the outer side surface of the bottom of the water-cooled heat exchanger, the inlet of the coil condenser (29) is communicated with a boiler water supply pipeline, and the outlet of the coil condenser (29) is communicated with the water inlet of the water-cooled burner (1).
2. The concentric single-tube-ring water-cooled combustion and heat exchange gas boiler according to claim 1, wherein the width of the flow guide channel is gradually reduced or kept constant from the inside to the outside; the width of the flow guide channel is 0.3-3 mm.
3. The gas boiler with the concentric single-tube-ring water-cooling combustion and heat exchange functions as claimed in claim 1, wherein a premixer (12) is arranged at an air inlet of the water-cooling combustor, the premixer (12) comprises an outer cylinder (121) and an inner cylinder (122), a gas pipeline is communicated with the top of the inner cylinder (122), the inner cylinder (122) is coaxially arranged in the outer cylinder (121), the bottom end of the inner cylinder (122) is blocked, the bottom of the outer cylinder (121) is communicated with the top end of a water-cooling combustion head (13), the bottom of the inner cylinder (122) is located at 1/3-1/2 of the height of the outer cylinder (121), a gas cylinder (124) is arranged below the inner cylinder (122), the gas cylinder (124) is a circular cavity, the inner cylinder (122) is communicated with the gas cylinder (124), and a plurality of gas cylinder spray holes (1241) are uniformly formed in the gas cylinder (124).
4. The concentric single-tube-ring water-cooled combustion and heat exchange gas boiler as recited in claim 1, characterized in that the shape of both sides of the curved heat exchange deflector (28) is the same as the shape of the heat exchange channel; the width of the heat exchange channel is 4-10 mm; the height of the inner side longitudinal double ribs (27) is 8-12 mm; the height of the longitudinal ribs on the outer side is 10-100 mm.
5. The concentric single-tube-ring water-cooled combustion and heat exchange gas boiler as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that 2-4 water tubes are arranged at the top of the header (132) of the burner as the burner water inlet (131); then 2-4 water pipes are arranged on the outer side surface of the lower combustion head header (134) along the circumferential direction to serve as a combustion head water outlet (135), and the combustion head water outlet (135) is communicated with a water inlet of the water-cooled heat exchanger; or 2 water inlet pipes and 2 water outlet pipes are arranged on the top of the upper header (132) of the combustion head along the circumferential direction and are respectively used as a water inlet (131) and a water outlet (135) of the combustion head, one part of the water-cooling pipe bundle (133) of the combustion head is used as a water inlet pipe bundle, and the other part of the water-cooling pipe bundle is used as a water outlet pipe bundle.
6. The concentric single-tube-ring water-cooled combustion and heat exchange gas-fired boiler as recited in claim 1, characterized in that a dew-bearing plate (35) is arranged at the bottom of the boiler, a condensate discharge port (36) is arranged at the lowest position of the dew-bearing plate (35), the lowest position of the dew-bearing plate is located at one circle, a flue gas outlet is arranged at the highest position of the dew-bearing plate, and the flue gas outlet is communicated with a chimney (37).
7. The concentric single-tube-ring water-cooled combustion and heat exchange gas boiler as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the water-cooled burner (1) and the water-cooled heat exchanger (2) are arranged in a boiler housing (31), and the top and the side of the boiler housing (31) are sealed; flue gas baffles (32) are arranged at the top and the bottom of an annular space formed by the water-cooled burner (1) and the water-cooled heat exchanger (2), the flue gas baffles (32) are arranged at the top and the bottom of the annular space formed by the boiler shell (31) and the water-cooled heat exchanger (2), and a heat insulation layer (33) and a heat preservation layer (34) are arranged between the flue gas baffles (32) and the boiler shell (31); a flue gas baffle (32), a heat insulation layer (33) and a heat insulation layer (34) are arranged between the bottom end of the water-cooled combustor (1) and the boiler shell (31); and a flue gas baffle is arranged on the outer side of the top of the lower header (24) of the heat exchanger along the vertical direction.
8. The gas-fired boiler with concentric single tube ring water-cooling combustion and heat exchange of claim 1 is characterized in that as a steam or hot water boiler, when the boiler is a steam boiler, a through-flow boiler or a natural circulation steam boiler is adopted, boiler feed water firstly enters a coil condenser (29) to condense low-temperature flue gas to absorb latent heat of liquefaction of water vapor in the flue gas, then enters a water inlet of an upper header (132) of a combustion head to descend, then enters a lower header (24) of a water-cooling heat exchanger, and then ascends along a water-cooling tube bundle (23) of the water-cooling heat exchanger (2) to flow to an upper header (22) of the heat exchanger to lead out steam to a thermodynamic system;
when the boiler is a hot water boiler, the boiler backwater firstly enters a coil condenser (29) to condense low-temperature flue gas, absorbs latent heat of liquefaction of water vapor in the flue gas, then enters a water inlet of an upper header (132) of a combustion head, descends, then enters a lower header (24) of a heat exchanger, and then rises and flows to an upper header (22) of the heat exchanger to lead out hot water to supply a thermodynamic system.
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WO1984004578A1 (en) * 1983-05-18 1984-11-22 British Alcan Aluminium Ltd Improvements in heating boilers
CN202188477U (en) * 2011-08-17 2012-04-11 浙江特富锅炉有限公司 LSS series vertical type high-efficiency steam boiler
CN102635945A (en) * 2012-03-28 2012-08-15 西安交通大学 Through-flow type narrow-clearance integral condensation hot-water boiler
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