CN112281229A - Preparation method of polyester fiber with special surface structure - Google Patents

Preparation method of polyester fiber with special surface structure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112281229A
CN112281229A CN202011068990.4A CN202011068990A CN112281229A CN 112281229 A CN112281229 A CN 112281229A CN 202011068990 A CN202011068990 A CN 202011068990A CN 112281229 A CN112281229 A CN 112281229A
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China
Prior art keywords
polyester
polypropylene
spinning
fiber
temperature
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CN202011068990.4A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈龙
孙俊芬
潘丹
林巧巧
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Donghua University
Zhejiang Henglan Technology Co Ltd
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Donghua University
Zhejiang Henglan Technology Co Ltd
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Priority to CN202011068990.4A priority Critical patent/CN112281229A/en
Publication of CN112281229A publication Critical patent/CN112281229A/en
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR MAN-MADE THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01DMECHANICAL METHODS OR APPARATUS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS
    • D01D5/00Formation of filaments, threads, or the like
    • D01D5/28Formation of filaments, threads, or the like while mixing different spinning solutions or melts during the spinning operation; Spinnerette packs therefor
    • D01D5/30Conjugate filaments; Spinnerette packs therefor
    • D01D5/34Core-skin structure; Spinnerette packs therefor
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR MAN-MADE THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01DMECHANICAL METHODS OR APPARATUS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS
    • D01D5/00Formation of filaments, threads, or the like
    • D01D5/20Formation of filaments, threads, or the like with varying denier along their length
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR MAN-MADE THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01FCHEMICAL FEATURES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBON FILAMENTS
    • D01F11/00Chemical after-treatment of artificial filaments or the like during manufacture
    • D01F11/04Chemical after-treatment of artificial filaments or the like during manufacture of synthetic polymers
    • D01F11/06Chemical after-treatment of artificial filaments or the like during manufacture of synthetic polymers of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR MAN-MADE THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01FCHEMICAL FEATURES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBON FILAMENTS
    • D01F11/00Chemical after-treatment of artificial filaments or the like during manufacture
    • D01F11/04Chemical after-treatment of artificial filaments or the like during manufacture of synthetic polymers
    • D01F11/08Chemical after-treatment of artificial filaments or the like during manufacture of synthetic polymers of macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR MAN-MADE THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01FCHEMICAL FEATURES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBON FILAMENTS
    • D01F8/00Conjugated, i.e. bi- or multicomponent, artificial filaments or the like; Manufacture thereof
    • D01F8/04Conjugated, i.e. bi- or multicomponent, artificial filaments or the like; Manufacture thereof from synthetic polymers
    • D01F8/06Conjugated, i.e. bi- or multicomponent, artificial filaments or the like; Manufacture thereof from synthetic polymers with at least one polyolefin as constituent
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR MAN-MADE THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01FCHEMICAL FEATURES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBON FILAMENTS
    • D01F8/00Conjugated, i.e. bi- or multicomponent, artificial filaments or the like; Manufacture thereof
    • D01F8/04Conjugated, i.e. bi- or multicomponent, artificial filaments or the like; Manufacture thereof from synthetic polymers
    • D01F8/14Conjugated, i.e. bi- or multicomponent, artificial filaments or the like; Manufacture thereof from synthetic polymers with at least one polyester as constituent

Abstract

The invention relates to the field of spinning, and discloses a preparation method of polyester fibers with special surface structures.

Description

Preparation method of polyester fiber with special surface structure
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of spinning, in particular to a preparation method of polyester fiber with a special surface structure.
Background
At present, the method for modifying the surface of polymer fiber mainly comprises a physical method and a chemical method. Physical methods include treatment of the fiber surface with plasma, laser, gamma radiation, corona discharge, ultraviolet radiation, ultrasonic waves. Rebollar et al etch a periodic ordered concave-convex structure on the surface of carbon fiber by using a laser radiation method, and the physical method is environmentally friendly and has strong universality, but requires special equipment for support, has high energy consumption and cost, poor continuity, damages the mechanical properties of the fiber, and is difficult to produce on a large scale. The chemical method comprises the steps of etching polymer fibers by using chemical reagents such as acid, alkali, organic solvents and the like, or performing post-treatment on the fibers by using surface coatings or deposition, biological enzymes or bacteria, and has the advantages of obvious effect, narrow application range, environmental friendliness, poor controllability and difficulty in finely regulating the surface morphology structure.
In addition to the above methods, there are also researchers trying to control the fiber morphology during the fiber forming process, and patent CN 204401171U utilizes SiO2The difference between the volume expansion coefficient of the melt-spun fiber and the volume expansion coefficient of the polypropylene is characterized in that after the melt-spun fiber is cooled to normal temperature, the melt-spun fiber is subjected to SiO treatment2The expansion coefficient is low, and the fiber surface can be uneven to generate a rough surface, but the patent does not provide more regulation and control methods about the rough structure of the polypropylene fiber, morphology information of the rough structure and the change of the fiber performance after modification. The patent CN 105297176A adopts two polymers with incompatible interfaces to form superfine fibers with clear interface structures by a melt-blown non-woven forming technology, so that the fibers show certain roughnessThe roughness Sa is 0.01 to 0.1 μm, but the roughness formed by this method is small, and a long trench structure cannot be formed. Patent CN 110042507 a discloses a method for regulating and controlling the surface groove structure of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber by adjusting the solubility parameter of the coagulation bath, but the method is limited to wet spinning formation, and requires the addition of chemical reagents such as ethanol and ammonia water, and does not belong to the category of melt spinning and blend spinning. Broda et al use low molecular stearic acid blended with polypropylene, during the fiber melt spinning process, the low molecular stearic acid migrates to the fiber surface, forming a concavo-convex structure and stearic acid particles on the surface, but the mechanical properties of the fiber are reduced.
The methods are lack of methods for finely regulating the concave-convex or groove structure on the surface of the fiber in the melt spinning process, and the change of the fiber performance before and after modification is not disclosed. Therefore, the method for regulating and controlling the surface structure morphology of the melt-spun fiber, which is efficient, stable and applicable in large scale, has very important significance.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention provides a preparation method of polyester fiber with a special surface structure. The invention takes the micro-flow theory as the basis, regulates and controls the surface appearance structure of the fiber in the fiber forming process by strictly controlling the proportion of the raw materials, the viscosity characteristic, the melt blending spinning process and other conditions, thereby preparing the polyester fiber with different special surface structures, improving the surface hydrophilic and hydrophobic property and the surface adhesion property of the polyester fiber, improving the comfort property of the polyester fiber fabric, having obvious reinforcing effect on the fiber composite material interface, and being expected to be applied to the field of composite material reinforced, functional and high-performance textiles.
The specific technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
in a first aspect, the present invention provides a method for preparing a polyester fiber with a groove-shaped structure on the surface, comprising the following steps:
1) polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 1-4; the polypropylene accounts for 8-40% of the mass of the raw materials.
2.1) carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules aiming at a system with the polypropylene content of less than 10 percent, further stretching and heat setting the fiber obtained by spinning, and obtaining the polyester fiber with a groove-shaped structure on the surface.
2.2) aiming at a system with the polypropylene content of more than 10 percent, carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules by adopting a skin-core composite spinning method, further stretching and heat setting the skin-core fiber obtained by spinning, and obtaining the polyester fiber with a skin-core structure and a surface groove-shaped structure.
In the method, the polyester fiber with the surface groove-shaped structure can be prepared by strictly controlling the proportion of the polyester and the polypropylene and the zero-shear viscosity ratio. The specific principle is as follows: deformation of dispersed phase droplets in a simple shear flow field can be evaluated by two dimensionless parameters, namely, the capillary number Ca (Capillary number) and the viscosity ratio p of the blending components are used for evaluating the deformation capability D of the dispersed phase, wherein Ca can be regarded as the ratio of viscous force to interfacial tension,
in the formula etamIs the viscosity of the matrix phase, etadIn order to obtain the viscosity of the dispersed phase,as shear rate of flow field, R0Alpha is the interfacial tension of the blending system. Cox is extended based on Taylor's theory, giving the following model to describe the deformation of the dispersed phase over all ranges of viscosity ratios,
summarizing a plurality of experiments, the critical capillary number Ca of the dispersed phase in a shear flow field is obtainedcViscosity ratio relationship, dispersed phase in shear flow field and tensile flow fieldThe critical capillary number of (a) is shown in figure 9,
the zero-shear viscosity ratio of polypropylene and polyester is controlled within the range of 1-4, as shown in figure 9, the dispersed phase in the area has higher deformation capacity and lower rupture capacity in a shear flow field, and the problem that the mechanical property of the fiber is too low due to the larger size of the dispersed phase when the viscosity ratio is more than 5 does not occur, polypropylene microfibers with smaller size are formed in the blended fiber by controlling the viscosity ratio, the strength of the polyester fiber is ensured by generating a microfiber reinforcing effect, wherein the content of the polypropylene dispersed phase is required to be more than 8 percent so as to increase the collision and coalescence probability between the dispersed phases, so that the dispersed phases are gathered to form larger size, and then continuous long microfibers are formed in the flow field. In the subsequent drawing process, the surface groove structure is more obvious after the fibers are subjected to hot drawing, the PP micro fibers on the surface are separated from the matrix after being drawn to form a deeper groove structure, the surface grooves are increased along with the increase of the content of the dispersed phase, and the surface polypropylene and the polyester can be more obviously separated by increasing the drawing ratio, so that more groove-shaped structures are formed on the surface.
Preferably, in the step 1), the blending extrusion temperature is 260-270 ℃.
Preferably, in the step 2), the spinning temperature is 290-298 ℃, and the spinning speed is 900-1100 m/min.
Preferably, in the step 2), the stretching temperature is 70-90 ℃, the stretching ratio is 2-5, and the heat setting temperature is 150-170 ℃.
The process parameters are controlled within the range, so that the content of the disperse phase can be further improved, and more groove structures can be generated on the surface of the fiber; and the increase of the drawing ratio is beneficial to promoting the separation of PP micro-fibers from the surface part, thereby forming a deeper groove structure.
In a second aspect, the present invention provides a method for preparing a polyester fiber with a surface convex structure, comprising the following steps: 1) polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 0.1-1; the polypropylene accounts for 10-20% of the mass of the raw materials.
2) And carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, and carrying out air cooling or water cooling during spinning to obtain the polyester fiber with the surface convex structure.
In the method, the polyester fiber with a surface convex structure can be prepared by strictly controlling the ratio of the polyester and the polypropylene and the zero-shear viscosity ratio. The specific principle is as follows: the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 0.1-1, as shown in figure 9, the dispersed phase has higher breaking capacity and can form spherical or ellipsoidal particles; meanwhile, in the blending processing process, the dispersion phase with lower viscosity migrates to the pipe wall with higher shear rate, so that the polypropylene dispersion phase continuously migrates to the surface in the polyester; when the viscosity ratio is less than 0.1, the fiber is unstable in forming due to migration and poor in spinnability; wherein the content of polypropylene is required to be more than 10 percent, so that the dispersed phase is aggregated to form a large-size dispersed phase, and an obvious convex structure is formed on the surface.
The concentration of the disperse phase is increased, the density of the surface structure of the fiber can be increased, and a clearer surface convex structure is obtained. Reducing the viscosity ratio of the dispersed phase to the matrix phase promotes migration of more dispersed phase to the surface, resulting in enrichment of more dispersed phase at the surface.
Preferably, in the step 1), the blending extrusion temperature is 260-270 ℃.
Preferably, in the step 2), the spinning temperature is 290-298 ℃, and the spinning speed is 10-200 m/min.
The spinning speed is controlled within the low speed range of 10-200m/min, so that the polyester fiber with the surface convex structure is formed. Preferably, in the step 2), the distance from the spinneret plate to the water surface is 5-100 cm when water cooling is adopted.
In a third aspect, the present invention provides a method for preparing a polyester fiber with a surface porous structure, comprising the following steps: 1) polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 0.5-1; the polypropylene accounts for less than 10 percent of the mass of the raw materials.
2) And carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, and further stretching and heat setting the fiber obtained by spinning to obtain the polyester fiber.
3) Soaking the polyester fiber obtained in the step 2) in an organic solvent capable of dissolving the polyester fiber, performing ultrasonic-assisted dissolving treatment to partially dissolve the polyester and the polypropylene on the surface layer, and then performing ultrasonic cleaning to obtain the polyester fiber with a porous surface structure.
In the method, the polyester fiber with a surface porous structure can be prepared by strictly controlling the proportion of the polyester and the polypropylene and the zero-shear viscosity ratio. The specific principle is as follows: the zero-shear viscosity ratio of polypropylene and polyester is controlled to be about 1, according to a formula, a dispersion phase is dispersed in a matrix in the lowest size, the content of polypropylene is controlled to be 0-10% so as to prevent a large continuous dispersion phase structure from being formed, polyester fibers are soaked in an organic solvent after a polymer blend is subjected to melt spinning, ultrasonic-assisted dissolution is utilized to partially dissolve a surface polymer, the dissolution time is adjusted to control the dissolution degree of the surface polymer, and then the dissolved polymer is removed by ultrasonic cleaning, so that the appearance that the surface of the polyester fibers has a porous structure can be obtained.
Preferably, in the step 1), the blending extrusion temperature is 260-270 ℃.
Preferably, in the step 2), the spinning temperature is 290-298 ℃, and the spinning speed is 1100-1300 m/min.
Preferably, in the step 2), the stretching temperature is 75-85 ℃, the stretching ratio is 2-3, and the heat setting temperature is 150-170 ℃.
Preferably, in step 3), the organic solvent is tetrahydrofuran; the ultrasonic-assisted dissolving time is 2-10 minutes; the ultrasonic solvent is ethanol, and each time is 5-15 minutes.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that: the invention takes the micro-flow theory as a basis, regulates and controls the surface appearance structure of the fiber in the fiber forming process by strictly controlling the proportion of raw materials, the viscosity characteristic, the melt blending spinning process and other conditions, thereby preparing the polyester fiber with different special surface structures, improving the surface hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity and the surface adhesion performance of the polyester fiber, having obvious enhancement effect on the interface of the fiber composite material and being expected to be applied to the field of composite material enhanced, functional and high-performance textiles.
FIG. 1 is an electron microscope photograph of a polyester fiber having a surface groove-like structure obtained in example 1;
FIG. 2 is an electron microscope photograph of a polyester fiber having a surface groove-like structure obtained in example 2;
FIG. 3 is an electron microscope photograph of a polyester fiber having a surface groove-like structure obtained in example 3;
FIG. 4 is an electron microscope image of the polyester fiber with a surface protrusion structure prepared in example 4;
FIG. 5 is an electron microscope image of the polyester fiber with a surface protrusion structure prepared in example 5;
FIG. 6 is an electron microscope image of the polyester fiber with a surface protrusion structure prepared in example 6;
FIG. 7 is an electron microscope image of the polyester fiber having a surface porous structure prepared in example 7;
FIG. 8 is an electron microscope image of the polyester fiber having a surface porous structure prepared in example 8;
fig. 9 is a plot of critical capillary number Cac versus viscosity ratio p for a steady-state uniform flow field spherical primary droplet break-up.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further described with reference to the following examples.
General examples
A preparation method of polyester fiber with a surface groove-shaped structure comprises the following steps:
1) polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended at the temperature of 260 ℃ and 270 ℃ and extruded for granulation to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 1-4; the polypropylene accounts for 8-40% of the mass of the raw materials.
2.1) carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules aiming at a system with the polypropylene content of less than 10%, wherein the spinning temperature is 290-298 ℃, and the spinning speed is 900-1100 m/min; further stretching the sheath-core fiber obtained by spinning (the stretching temperature is 70-90 ℃, the stretching ratio is 2-5) and heat setting (150-.
2.2) aiming at a system with the polypropylene content of more than 10 percent, carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules by adopting a skin-core composite spinning method, wherein the spinning temperature is 290-298 ℃, and the spinning speed is 900-1100 m/min; further stretching the sheath-core fiber obtained by spinning (the stretching temperature is 70-90 ℃, the stretching ratio is 2-5) and heat setting (150-.
A preparation method of polyester fiber with a surface convex structure comprises the following steps:
1) polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended at the temperature of 260 ℃ and 270 ℃ and extruded for granulation to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 0.1-1; the polypropylene accounts for 10-20% of the mass of the raw materials.
2) Carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, and cooling the blended polymer granules by air or water (the distance from a spinneret plate to the water surface is 5-100 cm when water cooling is adopted); obtaining the polyester fiber with a surface convex structure.
A preparation method of polyester fiber with a surface porous structure comprises the following steps:
1) polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended at the temperature of 260 ℃ and 270 ℃ and extruded for granulation to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 0.5-1; the polypropylene accounts for less than 10 percent of the mass of the raw materials.
2) Performing melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, further stretching the fiber obtained by spinning (the stretching temperature is 75-85 ℃, the stretching ratio is 2-3), performing heat setting (the heat setting temperature is 150-170 ℃), the spinning temperature is 290-298 ℃, and the spinning speed is 1100-1300 m/min; polyester fibers were obtained.
3) Soaking the polyester fiber obtained in the step 2) in an organic solvent (preferably tetrahydrofuran) capable of dissolving the polyester fiber, carrying out ultrasonic-assisted dissolving treatment for 2-10 minutes to partially dissolve the polyester and the polypropylene on the surface layer, and then carrying out ultrasonic cleaning for several times (5-15 minutes each time) by using ethanol to obtain the polyester fiber with the surface porous structure.
Example 1: preparation of surface grooved polyester fiber
1) Polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended at 265 ℃, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 3; the polypropylene accounts for 20 percent of the mass of the raw materials.
2) Carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, wherein the spinning temperature is 295 ℃, and the spinning speed is 1000 m/min; the fiber obtained by spinning was further drawn (drawing temperature: 80 ℃ C., drawing ratio: 3) and heat-set (160 ℃ C.), to obtain a polyester fiber having a surface groove-like structure as shown in FIG. 1.
Example 2: preparation of surface grooved polyester fiber
1) Polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended at 265 ℃, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 3; the polypropylene accounts for 20 percent of the mass of the raw materials.
2) Carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, wherein the spinning temperature is 295 ℃, and the spinning speed is 1000 m/min; the fiber obtained by spinning was further drawn (drawing temperature: 80 ℃ C., drawing ratio: 2) and heat-set (160 ℃ C.), to obtain a polyester fiber having a surface groove-like structure as shown in FIG. 2.
Example 3: preparation of surface grooved polyester fiber
1) Polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended at 265 ℃, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 3; the polypropylene accounts for 8 percent of the mass of the raw materials.
2) And carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules by adopting a skin-core composite spinning method, wherein the spinning temperature is 295 ℃, the spinning speed is 1000m/min, and further stretching (the stretching temperature is 80 ℃, the stretching ratio is 2.5) and heat setting (160 ℃) are carried out on the skin-core fiber obtained by spinning to obtain the polyester fiber with the surface groove-shaped structure shown in figure 3.
Example 4: preparation of polyester fiber with surface convex structure
1) Polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended at 265 ℃, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 0.8; the polypropylene accounts for 20 percent of the mass of the raw materials.
2) And carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, wherein the spinning temperature is 295 ℃, and the spinning speed is 200m/min, and carrying out air cooling to obtain the polyester fiber with the surface convex structure shown in figure 4.
Example 5: preparation of polyester fiber with surface concave-convex structure
1) Polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended at 265 ℃, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 0.4; the polypropylene accounts for 20 percent of the mass of the raw materials.
2) And carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, wherein the spinning temperature is 295 ℃, and the spinning speed is 20m/min, and carrying out air cooling to obtain the polyester fiber with the surface concave-convex structure shown in figure 5.
Example 6: preparation of polyester fiber with surface concave-convex structure
1) Polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended at 265 ℃, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 1; the polypropylene accounts for 10 percent of the mass of the raw materials.
2) And carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, wherein the spinning temperature is 295 ℃, and the spinning speed is 200m/min, and carrying out air cooling to obtain the polyester fiber with the surface concave-convex structure shown in figure 6.
Example 7: preparation of polyester fiber with surface porous structure
1) Polyester (constant-ease semi-dull polyester chips) is used as a main material, polypropylene is used as an additive, and polyester and polypropylene are blended at 265 ℃ and extruded for granulation to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 1; the polypropylene accounts for 10 percent of the mass of the raw materials.
2) Carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, wherein the spinning temperature is 295 ℃, and the spinning speed is 1000 m/min; the fiber obtained by spinning was further stretched (stretching temperature 80 ℃ C., stretching ratio 3) and heat-set (heat-set temperature 160 ℃ C.).
3) Soaking the polyester fiber obtained in the step 2) in tetrahydrofuran, performing ultrasonic-assisted dissolution treatment for 10 minutes to partially dissolve the polyester and the polypropylene on the surface layer, and ultrasonically cleaning the polyester fiber with ethanol for several times (10 minutes each time) to obtain the polyester fiber with the surface porous structure shown in FIG. 7.
Example 8: preparation of polyester fiber with surface porous structure
1) Polyester (constant-ease semi-dull polyester chips) is used as a main material, polypropylene is used as an additive, and polyester and polypropylene are blended at 265 ℃ and extruded for granulation to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 0.5; the polypropylene accounts for 10 percent of the mass of the raw materials.
2) Carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, wherein the spinning temperature is 295 ℃, the spinning speed is 1000m/min, and the fiber drawing process comprises the following steps: the stretching temperature was 80 ℃ and the stretching ratio was 3, and heat-setting (heat-setting temperature was 160 ℃.
3) Soaking the polyester fiber obtained in the step 2) in tetrahydrofuran, carrying out ultrasonic-assisted dissolution treatment for 5 minutes to partially dissolve the polyester and the polypropylene on the surface layer, and then ultrasonically cleaning the polyester fiber with ethanol for several times (10 minutes each time) to obtain the polyester fiber with the surface porous structure shown in FIG. 8.
The raw materials and equipment used in the invention are common raw materials and equipment in the field if not specified; the methods used in the present invention are conventional in the art unless otherwise specified.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the present invention, and all simple modifications, alterations and equivalents of the above embodiments according to the technical spirit of the present invention are still within the protection scope of the technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A preparation method of polyester fiber with a surface groove-shaped structure is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 1-4; the polypropylene accounts for 8-40% of the mass of the raw materials;
2) and spinning the blended polymer granules by adopting a conventional melt spinning method or a skin-core composite spinning method, further stretching and heat setting the fiber obtained by spinning, and obtaining the polyester fiber with a surface groove-shaped structure or a skin-core structure at the same time.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the blending extrusion temperature in step 1) is 260-270 ℃.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step 2), the spinning temperature is 290-298 ℃, and the spinning speed is 900-1100 m/min; and/or
The stretching temperature is 70-90 ℃, the stretching ratio is 2-5, and the heat setting temperature is 150-.
4. A preparation method of polyester fiber with a surface convex structure is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 0.1-1; the polypropylene accounts for 10-20% of the raw material by mass;
2) and carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, and carrying out air cooling or water cooling during spinning to obtain the polyester fiber with the surface convex structure.
5. The method according to claim 4, wherein the blending extrusion temperature in step 1) is 260-270 ℃.
6. The method according to claim 4, wherein in the step 2), the spinning temperature is 290-298 ℃, and the spinning speed is 10-200 m/min; and/or
And the distance between the spinneret plate and the water surface is 5-100 cm when water cooling is adopted.
7. A preparation method of polyester fiber with a surface porous structure is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) polyester is taken as a main material, polypropylene is taken as an additive, and the polyester and the polypropylene are blended, extruded and granulated to obtain blended polymer granules; the zero-shear viscosity ratio of the polypropylene to the polyester is 0.5-1; the polypropylene accounts for less than 10 percent of the mass of the raw materials;
2) carrying out melt spinning on the blended polymer granules, further stretching and heat setting fibers obtained by spinning to obtain polyester fibers;
3) soaking the polyester fiber obtained in the step 2) in an organic solvent capable of dissolving the polyester fiber, performing ultrasonic-assisted dissolving treatment to partially dissolve the polyester and the polypropylene on the surface layer, and then performing ultrasonic cleaning to obtain the polyester fiber with a porous surface structure.
8. The method as claimed in claim 7, wherein the blending extrusion temperature in step 1) is 260-270 ℃.
9. The method according to claim 7, wherein in step 2),
the spinning temperature is 290-298 ℃, and the spinning speed is 1100-1300 m/min; and/or
The stretching temperature is 75-85 ℃, the stretching ratio is 2-3, and the heat setting temperature is 150-170 ℃.
10. The method according to claim 7, wherein, in step 3),
the organic solvent is tetrahydrofuran; and/or
The ultrasonic-assisted dissolving time is 2-10 minutes; and/or
The ultrasonic solvent is ethanol, and each time is 5-15 minutes.
CN202011068990.4A 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 Preparation method of polyester fiber with special surface structure Pending CN112281229A (en)

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CN1210908A (en) * 1998-09-07 1999-03-17 中国纺织大学 Preparation of composite porous hollow stereo crimped fiber with side-by-side bicomponent
JP2001355131A (en) * 2000-06-14 2001-12-26 Toray Ind Inc Polyester conjugated fiber
US20010055683A1 (en) * 1999-06-08 2001-12-27 Toray Industries, Inc. Soft stretch yarns and their method of production
CN106149094A (en) * 2015-03-25 2016-11-23 东丽纤维研究所(中国)有限公司 A kind of polypropylene nano fiber and preparation method thereof

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1210908A (en) * 1998-09-07 1999-03-17 中国纺织大学 Preparation of composite porous hollow stereo crimped fiber with side-by-side bicomponent
US20010055683A1 (en) * 1999-06-08 2001-12-27 Toray Industries, Inc. Soft stretch yarns and their method of production
JP2001355131A (en) * 2000-06-14 2001-12-26 Toray Ind Inc Polyester conjugated fiber
CN106149094A (en) * 2015-03-25 2016-11-23 东丽纤维研究所(中国)有限公司 A kind of polypropylene nano fiber and preparation method thereof

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