CN112247653A - Electromagnetic force assisted cutting device, cutting machine tool and method - Google Patents

Electromagnetic force assisted cutting device, cutting machine tool and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112247653A
CN112247653A CN202011090048.8A CN202011090048A CN112247653A CN 112247653 A CN112247653 A CN 112247653A CN 202011090048 A CN202011090048 A CN 202011090048A CN 112247653 A CN112247653 A CN 112247653A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
cutting
tool
electromagnetic coil
electromagnetic
coil
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN202011090048.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
鲁洋
邓建新
王冉
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Shandong University
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Shandong University
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Application filed by Shandong University filed Critical Shandong University
Priority to CN202011090048.8A priority Critical patent/CN112247653A/en
Publication of CN112247653A publication Critical patent/CN112247653A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q11/00Accessories fitted to machine tools for keeping tools or parts of the machine in good working condition or for cooling work; Safety devices specially combined with or arranged in, or specially adapted for use in connection with, machine tools
    • B23Q11/0042Devices for removing chips
    • B23Q11/0064Devices for removing chips by using a magnetic or electric field
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23PMETAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P25/00Auxiliary treatment of workpieces, before or during machining operations, to facilitate the action of the tool or the attainment of a desired final condition of the work, e.g. relief of internal stress
    • B23P25/003Auxiliary treatment of workpieces, before or during machining operations, to facilitate the action of the tool or the attainment of a desired final condition of the work, e.g. relief of internal stress immediately preceding a cutting tool

Abstract

The invention relates to an electromagnetic force assisted cutting device, a cutting machine tool and a method, wherein the electromagnetic force assisted cutting device comprises a cutting tool and an electromagnetic coil, wherein the cutting tool and the electromagnetic coil can move synchronously, the electromagnetic coil is connected with a direct current power supply, and the electromagnetic coil is configured to generate magnetic field force which acts on chips and enables the chips to be far away from the cutting tool after current is introduced.

Description

Electromagnetic force assisted cutting device, cutting machine tool and method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of mechanical cutting equipment, in particular to an electromagnetic force assisted cutting device, a cutting machine tool and a method.
Background
The statements herein merely provide background information related to the present disclosure and may not necessarily constitute prior art.
With the aggravation of environmental pollution, green manufacturing becomes a hot spot of current research, and dry cutting can effectively avoid the use of cutting fluid, but has the defects of serious tool wear, short service life and the like in the dry cutting process. Tool wear caused by contact, rubbing of chips against the tool surface is one of the main forms of tool failure.
At present, the method for solving the abrasion problem of the cutter mainly comprises a cutter coating, a micro-texture cutter, a self-lubricating cutter and the like. The tool coating is divided into a hard coating and a soft coating, wherein the hard coating aims to improve the wear resistance of the tool, and the soft coating improves the friction reduction performance of the tool, so that the tool substrate can be protected, and the tool wear can be reduced. The micro-texture cutter is a micro-array structure with grooves, pits, convex hulls and other different shapes machined on the surface of the cutter, and the contact area between cutting scraps is reduced, so that the cutting force is reduced, but severe friction still exists between the cutting scraps and the surface of the cutter, and the surface of the cutter is seriously abraded. The self-lubricating cutter is characterized in that a cutter material has the effects of lubrication and wear reduction, so that the cutter has a low friction coefficient in the cutting process, the wear of the cutter is reduced, but the problems of contact and friction between chips and the surface of the cutter exist, and the surface of the cutter can be seriously worn in the long-time cutting process.
In summary, the problem that the severe friction between the chip and the tool surface is difficult to solve in the cutting process is always solved, and although the friction state between the chip and the tool surface can be improved in a short time and the contact area between the chip and the tool surface can be reduced by the conventional method, the long-time friction between the chip and the tool can cause the abrasion of the tool surface, and finally the tool fails.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the prior art and provide an electromagnetic force assisted cutting device which can reduce the contact between chips and the surface of a cutter, thereby reducing the cutting force and the cutting temperature, and achieving the effects of reducing the abrasion of the cutter and prolonging the service life of the cutter.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
in a first aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides an electromagnetic force assisted cutting apparatus, including a cutting tool capable of performing synchronous motion and an electromagnetic coil, where the electromagnetic coil is connected to a dc power supply, and the electromagnetic coil is configured to generate a magnetic field force acting on chips and keeping the chips away from the cutting tool after being supplied with current.
In combination with the first aspect, embodiments of the present invention provide a possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the cutting tool is connected to a tool holder, the tool holder is fixedly connected to a coil support, and an electromagnetic coil is wound around the coil support.
In combination with the first aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides a possible implementation manner of the first aspect, wherein the coil support comprises a support body, a winding column with an axis perpendicular to an axis of the chip cutter is fixed on the support body, and the electromagnetic coil is wound on the winding column.
In combination with the first aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides a possible implementation manner of the first aspect, wherein the electromagnetic coil is connected to the direct current power source through a current controller, and the current controller is connected to the control system.
In combination with the first aspect, embodiments of the present invention provide a possible implementation manner of the first aspect, wherein the electromagnetic coil is located on a circumference having a diameter of 15mm to 17 mm.
In combination with the first aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides a possible implementation manner of the first aspect, and the number of turns of the electromagnetic coil is 280-320.
In combination with the first aspect, embodiments of the present invention provide a possible implementation manner of the first aspect, wherein the distance between the cutting tool and the electromagnetic coil is configured to enable an air gap between the electromagnetic coil and chips generated by machining of the cutting tool to be 3.5mm-4.5 mm.
In a second aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides a cutting machine tool, which is equipped with the electromagnetic force assisted cutting device of the first aspect, and the cutting tool is connected with a tool feeding mechanism of the cutting machine tool.
In a third aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides a method of operating a cutting machine: the spindle of the machine tool drives the workpiece to rotate, the cutting tool moves under the driving of the tool feeding mechanism of the machine tool to process the workpiece, the electromagnetic coil synchronously moves along with the cutting tool when the workpiece is processed, the direct-current power supply is electrified for the electromagnetic coil, and acting force in the direction far away from the cutting tool is generated for chips generated by processing.
In combination with the third aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides a possible implementation manner of the third aspect, and the current is applied to the electromagnetic coil by 0 to 30A.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
the electromagnetic force-assisted cutting device can utilize the electromagnetic coil to generate magnetic field force, so that the chips generated in the machining process of the cutting tool move away from the cutting tool, the contact area between the chips and the cutting tool is reduced, the cutting force and the cutting temperature are reduced, the effects of reducing the abrasion of the cutting tool and prolonging the service life of the cutting tool are achieved, and compared with the traditional tool coating, the microtextured cutting tool and the self-lubricating cutting tool, the cutting tool can still keep a better friction state after being used for a longer time, the phenomenon that the friction state between the chips and the surface of the cutting tool can be improved only in a short time in the traditional method is avoided, and the service life of the cutting tool is prolonged.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this application, illustrate embodiments of the application and, together with the description, serve to explain the application and are not intended to limit the application.
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the overall structure of embodiment 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a cutting tool machining a workpiece when the electromagnetic coil is not provided;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a workpiece machined by a cutting tool after the electromagnetic coil is powered on in embodiment 3 of the invention;
the automatic cutting machine comprises a machine body, a cutting tool, a winding column, a cutting tool, a control system, a support body, a current controller, a cutter holder and a winding column, wherein the winding column comprises a workpiece 1, chips 2, a cutting tool 3, an electromagnetic coil 4, a current controller 5, a control system 6, a support body 7, a cutter holder 8 and a winding column 9.
Detailed Description
It should be noted that the following detailed description is exemplary and is intended to provide further explanation of the disclosure. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this application belongs.
It is noted that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of example embodiments according to the present application. As used herein, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" are intended to include the plural forms as well, and it should be understood that when the terms "comprises" and/or "comprising" are used in this specification, they specify the presence of stated features, steps, operations, devices, components, and/or combinations thereof, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
As described in the background art, although the conventional method can improve the friction state between the chip and the tool surface in a short time and reduce the contact area between the chip and the tool surface, the long-time friction between the chip and the tool can cause the wear of the tool surface and finally cause the failure of the tool, and the present application provides an electromagnetic force assisted cutting device.
In a typical embodiment of the present application, as shown in fig. 1, a cutting device assisted by electromagnetic force includes a cutting tool 3 and an electromagnetic coil 4, the cutting tool is a cutting tool for an existing cutting machine, the cutting tool is fixed on a tool rest 8, the tool rest is connected with a coil support, the coil support is fixed with the electromagnetic coil, and the synchronous movement of the cutting tool and the electromagnetic coil is realized through the tool rest and the coil support.
The coil support comprises a support body 7, the support body is of an L-shaped structure and comprises a first support body portion and a second support body portion which are perpendicular to each other, one end of the second support body portion is fixedly connected with a cutter rest, the other end of the second support body portion is fixedly connected with one end of the first support body portion in an integrated mode, the other end of the first support body portion is provided with a winding column 9 which is perpendicular to the other end of the first support body portion, the axis of the winding column is perpendicular to the axis of a cutting tool, and an electromagnetic coil is wound on the winding column. The electromagnetic coil is configured to: the magnetic field force which acts on the cutting chips and enables the cutting chips to be far away from the cutting tool can be generated, the axis of the winding column is perpendicular to the axis of the cutting tool, the magnetic field force which is perpendicular to the axis of the cutting tool and far away from the cutting tool can be generated on the cutting chips through the magnetic field generated by the electromagnetic coil, and the cutting chips can be separated from the cutting tool.
The electromagnetic coil is connected with a direct current power supply through a current controller 5, the direct current power supply can generate direct current and is connected into the electromagnetic coil, the current controller is connected with a control system 6, a worker can send an instruction by using a phase current controller of the control system, the current controller is used for controlling the current connected into the electromagnetic coil, and then the size of magnetic field force is adjusted.
The control system adopts the existing control computer or industrial personal computer and the like, and the technical personnel in the field can set the control system according to the actual needs.
In this embodiment, the diameter of the circumference where the electromagnetic coil is located is 15mm-17mm, preferably 16mm, and the number of turns of the electromagnetic coil is 280-320, preferably 300.
The distance of the cutting tool from the electromagnetic coil is configured to: the air gap between the electromagnetic coil and the cutting chips generated by the cutting tool machining can be 3.5mm-4.5mm, and preferably 4mm, and the air gap can be set by a person skilled in the art according to the size of the cutting tool and the cutting thickness.
Example 2:
the embodiment discloses a cutting machine tool, which is provided with the electromagnetic force assisted cutting device of embodiment 1, wherein the tool rest is connected with a tool feeding mechanism of the cutting machine tool, the machine tool further comprises a machine tool body, a power system, a main shaft and other structures, the structures of the existing cutting machine tool are adopted, and the specific structures of the existing cutting machine tool are not described in detail herein.
Example 3:
the embodiment discloses a working method of a cutting machine tool, which comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps that a workpiece 1 is fixed on a main shaft of a cutting machine tool, the main shaft of the cutting machine tool drives the workpiece to rotate, a cutter feeding mechanism of the cutting machine tool drives a cutting cutter to move, the workpiece is cut, the cutting cutter machines the workpiece, a direct current power supply works at the same time, direct current is introduced into an electromagnetic coil, a worker sends an instruction to a current controller through a control system, the current introduced into the electromagnetic coil is adjusted through the current controller, in the embodiment, the current introduced into the electromagnetic coil is 0A-30A, and the worker in the field can set the current according to actual needs.
After the electromagnetic coil is electrified, a magnetic field is generated, the magnetic field generates magnetic field force far away from the direction of the cutting tool for cutting chips 2 generated by machining the cutting tool, the contact area of the cutting chips and the cutting tool is reduced, the cutting force and the cutting temperature are reduced, and the effects of reducing the abrasion of the cutting tool and prolonging the service life of the cutting tool are achieved.
Wherein F of the magnetic field forceMagnetic fieldThe calculation method comprises the following steps:
in the formula of0The magnetic field force can be controlled by adjusting the current, wherein N is the number of turns of the coil, S is the contact area of the magnetic pole, i is the control current, and y is the air gap.
In an application example of the working method of the embodiment, the cutter material is YS8 (90% WC + 4% TiC + 6% Co), and the workpiece material is 45 quenched steel. The method comprises the following steps:
(1) clamping and cutting of workpieces
Clamping a workpiece on a main shaft of a machine tool, and cutting a 45-quenched steel workpiece by adopting a YS8 cutter, wherein the cutting parameters are as follows: the cutting speed is 120m/min, the cutting depth is 0.2mm, and the feed rate is 0.1 mm/r.
(2) Control of electromagnetic force
The current of the electromagnetic coil is controlled by a computer and related control software, so that the electromagnetic force F of the electromagnetic coil on the cutting chips is controlledMagnetic field. Wherein, the diameter of the electromagnetic coil is 16mm, the number of turns of the coil is 300, the air gap between the electromagnetic coil and the cutting chips is 4mm, and the output range of the current is 0-30A.
(3) Reducing chip contact with tool surfaces
The stress state of the chip during cutting and the contact length of the chip with the tool surface are shown in fig. 2-3. The contact length of the chip and the surface of the cutter when electromagnetic force is not applied is L1, the acting force between the chip and the cutter is F, the electromagnetic force is applied to assist the contact length of the chip and the cutter when cutting is performed, L2 is L1 > L2, and the acting force between the chip and the cutter is F-FMagnetic fieldWhile reducing the contact area between the cutting force and the cutting tool, chips.
In another application example of the working method of this embodiment, the difference is that the tool material is YT15 (79% WC + 15% TiC + 6% Co), the workpiece material is 304 stainless steel, and the cutting parameters are: the cutting speed is 160m/min, the cutting depth is 0.1mm, the feeding amount is 0.2mm/r, and the same processing effect can be achieved.
Compared with the traditional cutter coating, the micro-texture cutter and the self-lubricating cutter, the cutting machine tool adopting the embodiment can still keep a better friction state after the cutter is used for a longer time, avoids the problem that the friction state of chips and the surface of the cutter can be improved only in a short time in the traditional method, and prolongs the service life of the cutting cutter.
Although the embodiments of the present invention have been described with reference to the accompanying drawings, it is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, and it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made without inventive efforts by those skilled in the art based on the technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The electromagnetic force assisted cutting device is characterized by comprising a cutting tool and an electromagnetic coil, wherein the cutting tool and the electromagnetic coil can move synchronously, the electromagnetic coil is connected with a direct current power supply, and after current is introduced into the electromagnetic coil, magnetic field force acting on chips and enabling the chips to be far away from the cutting tool can be generated.
2. The electromagnetic force assisted cutting apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein the cutting tool is coupled to a tool holder, the tool holder is fixedly coupled to a coil support, and the electromagnetic coil is wound around the coil support.
3. The electromagnetic force assisted cutting apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the coil support includes a support body to which a winding post having an axis perpendicular to an axis of the cutting tool is fixed, and the electromagnetic coil is wound on the winding post.
4. The electromagnetic force assisted cutting device of claim 1, wherein the electromagnetic coil is connected to a dc power source through a current controller, the current controller being connected to a control system.
5. The electromagnetic force assisted cutting apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the electromagnetic coil is formed in a circumference having a diameter of 15mm to 17 mm.
6. The electromagnetic force assisted cutting device as claimed in claim 1, wherein the number of turns of the electromagnetic coil is 280-320.
7. An electromagnetic force assisted cutting device as claimed in claim 1, wherein the distance of the cutting tool from the electromagnetic coil is configured such that the air gap between the electromagnetic coil and the cut produced by the cutting tool is 3.5mm to 4.5 mm.
8. A cutting machine tool, characterized in that the electromagnetic force assisted cutting device according to any one of claims 1 to 7 is mounted, and the cutting tool is connected to a tool feed mechanism of the cutting machine tool.
9. A method of operating a cutting machine as claimed in claim 8, wherein the spindle of the machine rotates the workpiece, the cutting tool is moved by a tool feed mechanism of the machine to machine the workpiece, the electromagnetic coil moves synchronously with the cutting tool while the workpiece is being machined, the electromagnetic coil is energised by the DC power supply to exert a force on chips produced by the machining in a direction away from the cutting tool.
10. A method of operating a cutting machine as claimed in claim 9, wherein the current to the electromagnetic coil is 0 to 30A.
CN202011090048.8A 2020-10-13 2020-10-13 Electromagnetic force assisted cutting device, cutting machine tool and method Pending CN112247653A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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