CN112227490B - Ecological revetment construction method for controlling land-side surface runoff pollution - Google Patents

Ecological revetment construction method for controlling land-side surface runoff pollution Download PDF

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CN112227490B
CN112227490B CN202011041692.6A CN202011041692A CN112227490B CN 112227490 B CN112227490 B CN 112227490B CN 202011041692 A CN202011041692 A CN 202011041692A CN 112227490 B CN112227490 B CN 112227490B
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water
parts
rainwater
ecological revetment
runoff
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CN112227490A (en
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车生泉
王进
谢长坤
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03FSEWERS; CESSPOOLS
    • E03F1/00Methods, systems, or installations for draining-off sewage or storm water
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B38/00Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof
    • C04B38/02Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof by adding chemical blowing agents
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B3/00Engineering works in connection with control or use of streams, rivers, coasts, or other marine sites; Sealings or joints for engineering works in general
    • E02B3/04Structures or apparatus for, or methods of, protecting banks, coasts, or harbours
    • E02B3/06Moles; Piers; Quay walls; Groynes; Breakwaters Wave dissipating walls; Quay equipment
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B3/00Engineering works in connection with control or use of streams, rivers, coasts, or other marine sites; Sealings or joints for engineering works in general
    • E02B3/04Structures or apparatus for, or methods of, protecting banks, coasts, or harbours
    • E02B3/12Revetment of banks, dams, watercourses, or the like, e.g. the sea-floor
    • E02B3/128Coherent linings made on the spot, e.g. cast in situ, extruded on the spot
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B3/00Engineering works in connection with control or use of streams, rivers, coasts, or other marine sites; Sealings or joints for engineering works in general
    • E02B3/04Structures or apparatus for, or methods of, protecting banks, coasts, or harbours
    • E02B3/12Revetment of banks, dams, watercourses, or the like, e.g. the sea-floor
    • E02B3/14Preformed blocks or slabs for forming essentially continuous surfaces; Arrangements thereof
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03FSEWERS; CESSPOOLS
    • E03F1/00Methods, systems, or installations for draining-off sewage or storm water
    • E03F1/001Methods, systems, or installations for draining-off sewage or storm water into a body of water
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03FSEWERS; CESSPOOLS
    • E03F5/00Sewerage structures
    • E03F5/04Gullies inlets, road sinks, floor drains with or without odour seals or sediment traps
    • E03F5/06Gully gratings
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03FSEWERS; CESSPOOLS
    • E03F5/00Sewerage structures
    • E03F5/10Collecting-tanks; Equalising-tanks for regulating the run-off; Laying-up basins
    • E03F5/103Naturals or landscape retention bodies, e.g. ponds
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03FSEWERS; CESSPOOLS
    • E03F5/00Sewerage structures
    • E03F5/10Collecting-tanks; Equalising-tanks for regulating the run-off; Laying-up basins
    • E03F5/105Accessories, e.g. flow regulators or cleaning devices
    • E03F5/107Active flow control devices, i.e. moving during flow regulation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/40Porous or lightweight materials

Abstract

The invention relates to an ecological revetment construction method for controlling land edge surface runoff pollution, which comprises the steps of arranging a drainage well in front of an ecological revetment main body, and installing a rainwater grate at an inlet of the drainage well; constructing an ecological revetment: adopting plain soil to tamp, pouring pervious concrete to prepare an ecological revetment main body, paving pervious bricks and aerated bricks on the pervious concrete, paving planting soil at the green position of the ecological revetment main body close to the bank edge, planting vegetation in the planting soil, and hanging elastic biological fillers at one side of the revetment main body close to a water body; the initial rainwater surface runoff falls into the initial rainwater discarding well after scum is removed by the rainwater grate, and the later rainwater directly flows into the surface of the ecological revetment after the initial rainwater is discarded. Compared with the prior art, the ecological revetment constructed by the method has strong water permeability, can efficiently intercept surface runoff pollution, and has strong water bank water quality exchange and water body self-purification capacity.

Description

Ecological revetment construction method for controlling land-side surface runoff pollution
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of river channel revetment construction, in particular to an ecological revetment construction method for controlling land-side surface runoff pollution.
Background
With the rapid development of economy and society, the problem of waterlogging is serious in the flood season every year, and the phenomenon of 'urban sea seeing' is frequently shown; more than 300 cities in China have 'severe water shortage' and 'water shortage'; the water quality category proportion of national surface water in 2019, and the water quality IV and below still accounts for 25.1 percent. The emergence of these problems has led to the creation of the concept of "sponge city". The essence of the method is that measures such as seepage, stagnation, storage, purification, use and discharge are utilized to carry out water quantity control, peak value reduction, pollution reduction and resource utilization on the urban rainfall runoff. River revetments, which are important components of rivers, play an important role in reducing pollution in the construction of sponge cities.
River revetments are the ties that connect water ecosystems and land ecosystems. The most common revetments are hard revetments such as grouted stone revetments and gabion revetments built by stones, bricks or concrete and have strong protective effects on preventing water and soil loss, maintaining the strength of the revetments, preventing flood and the like. However, the biodiversity of the water ecosystem and the sustainable utilization of water resources are not considered in the traditional river bank engineering design, most revetments treat hard structures, the landscape effect is poor, and the biodiversity of the river ecosystem is difficult to recover.
Following this conventional hard revetment, ecological revetments were developed. The ecological revetment simulates the permeable characteristic of a natural shoreline, and is provided with terminal ecological system technical facilities for rainwater sewage interception and water purification along the banks of lakes and rivers so as to take account of the flood control of the banks and the hydrophilicity of water. The ecological revetment is a natural revetment which has certain anti-interference and self-repairing capabilities and can meet the biological life habits. The common composite material construction mainly adopts natural prototype restoration vegetation, concrete prefabricated block components or ecological bricks, gabion retaining walls, ecological bags, ecological concrete and other construction forms. The ecological revetment is greened and beautified due to the growth of plants, plant root systems can be formed in water of the revetment, a good living environment is provided for the survival of microorganisms and small animals and the propagation of fishes, and water quality is purified to a certain degree. Providing a living environment for organisms and a hydrophilic environment for people; combined with water body, has good landscape effect.
In recent years, a great deal of research has been done on ecological revetments at home and abroad. CN105274966A discloses a masonry method of a cavernous body ecological revetment, which comprises the following steps: preparing cavernous garden waste concrete; preparing water-permeable bricks; building a bottom part on the bottom surface of the water body, building a main body on the bottom part by using water-permeable bricks, and building a top part on the main body; CN105887761A discloses a river course bank structure for sponge city construction, river course bank structure include concrete or stone masonry dykes and dams, still include the flocculent state backfill system, be in along vertical direction the well lower part of concrete or stone masonry dykes and dams is provided with drainage system, is provided with reverse system of permeating water in the well upper portion of dykes and dams, the flocculent state backfill system in the inboard of dykes and dams, drainage system and reverse system of permeating water the input respectively with the flocculent state backfill system intercommunication, above-mentioned structure keep bank slope structural stability, prevent soil erosion and water loss and flood control drainage waterlogging etc. the aspect play certain effect, but present most ecological revetment still mainly has some problems: the water permeability is poor, and the normal circulation and flow of natural water are hindered; the function is single, only be used for preventing rivers to the washing of river bank, can not multi-functionally utilize the revetment space.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the prior art and provide the method for constructing the ecological revetment for controlling the land surface runoff pollution.
The purpose of the invention can be realized by the following technical scheme: an ecological revetment construction method for shore side surface runoff pollution control comprises the following steps:
a drainage well is arranged in front of the ecological revetment main body, and a rainwater grate is arranged at the inlet of the drainage well;
constructing an ecological revetment: adopting plain soil to tamp, pouring pervious concrete to prepare an ecological revetment main body, laying pervious bricks and aerated bricks on the top of the pervious concrete ecological revetment main body, laying planting soil on land blocks close to the bank of the ecological revetment main body, planting vegetation in the planting soil, and hanging elastic biological fillers on one side, close to a water body, of the ecological revetment main body;
the initial rainwater surface runoff falls into the initial rainwater discarding well after scum is removed by the rainwater grate, and the later rainwater directly flows into the surface of the ecological revetment after the initial rainwater is discarded, so that the burden of initial rainwater surface runoff pollutants on the ecological revetment can be reduced.
Furthermore, the rainwater grate is circular and has different apertures, the aperture is 0.1-2 cm, and 1-3 channels are arranged on the rainwater grate and used for intercepting floaters.
The rainwater grate is arranged according to the terrain, the plane of the rainwater grate is obliquely arranged from high to low at an angle of 45 degrees with the horizontal plane, and the grid slag is automatically cleaned through rainwater washing.
The method is characterized in that the abandoning well is a volumetric method abandoning well, the runoff design volume (runoff thickness multiplied by water collection area) at the early stage of rainfall is calculated according to the runoff thickness of 6-8 mm, 2 liquid level floating balls are arranged in the abandoning well, a water inlet valve is controlled, a water inlet valve is closed after the abandoning well is full of the well, rainwater directly flows out from a water outlet pipe, the initial rainwater in the abandoning well slowly flows out within 18-24 hours through an emptying pipe, when the liquid level in the abandoning well is lower than 10%, the rainwater outlet pipe valve is closed, and the rainwater at the new initial stage enters the abandoning well again to start new circulation.
The pervious concrete comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 35-42 parts of cement, 165 parts of aggregate, 10-15 parts of powder polyaluminium chloride, 2.8-3.5 parts of cementing agent and 15-17.5 parts of water; the aggregate comprises the following components in parts by weight: 40-60 parts of broken stone, 30-40 parts of zeolite, 25-35 parts of granular activated carbon and 40-60 parts of aerated bricks.
Further, the particle size of the aggregate is 25-35 mm, the cement is Portland cement with the grade of 42.5 or above, all solid raw materials are uniformly stirred and then added with water to prepare pervious concrete, the pervious concrete is cast and formed at one time, the permeability coefficient is not less than 1.2mm/s at 15 ℃, and the height of the pervious concrete is more than the regulated water level of a river channel and is 15-20 cm lower than the horizontal height of the river bank ground.
When the revetment main part pour pervious concrete, the pre-buried reinforcing bar that has the couple of each 1/4 departments of height about the distance for hang elastic biofilm carrier for sewage treatment, if the height of revetment main part exceeds 4 meters, then increase one row of pre-buried reinforcing bar in the middle of the proportion, elastic biofilm carrier total length is no longer than 6 meters, microorganism is attached to on elastic biofilm carrier and is grown in the water, improves water purification effect.
The water permeable brick is prepared by the following method:
(1) weighing the following raw materials in parts by weight: 35-45 parts of fly ash, 40-55 parts of coarse sand, 10-15 parts of gypsum, 25-35 parts of zeolite, 25-35 parts of granular activated carbon, 15-20 parts of powder polyaluminum chloride, 35-45 parts of cement, 0.3-0.5 part of aluminum powder, 0.1-0.3 part of steel fiber, 5-10 parts of nano titanium dioxide coating and 15-30 parts of water;
(2) mixing the raw materials to prepare slurry;
(3) casting and molding the slurry to obtain a blank;
(4) curing the blank body for 8-12 h under the condition of 180-200 ℃ by normal pressure steam to form a water purification type permeable brick;
the water permeable brick is 200-400 mm long, 200-300 mm wide and 80-120 mm thick, the abrasion resistance index pit length is not more than 35mm, and the water permeability coefficient at 15 ℃ is not less than 0.4 mm/s;
the water permeable bricks are laid at intervals, and the using amount (by volume ratio) of the water permeable bricks is 2-4 times that of the air-added bricks. The aerated brick is commercially available, and the bulk density (absolute dry) of the aerated brick is 600-700 kg/m3The porosity is 70-85%. The use of the aerated concrete can reduce the manufacturing cost of the revetment, and the aerated concrete brick has better denitrification and dephosphorization effects.
The edge of the water permeable brick at one side of the ecological revetment close to the water body extends out 1/3 brick lengths. The brick that permeates water that stretches out ecological revetment edge can guide the surface runoff to form the waterfall when flowing into the river course, increases the contact of water and air, produces drop oxygen boosting effect, simultaneously, can avoid when the river course water level is lower, and the surface runoff directly rushes down ecological revetment main part when flowing into the river course, destroys the biofilm that suspended elastic biofilm carrier and the microorganism formed in the water above that.
The vegetation include aquatic plant, herbaceous layer, bush layer and arbor layer, the local plant, aquatic vegetables, medicinal plant or the ornamental plant that have higher quality of water purification ability are selected to the aquatic plant, and aquatic vegetables include cress, water bamboo, water spinach, and medicinal plant includes calamus, rush, and ornamental plant includes canna, lentinus edodes, and the vegetation uses local plant as the owner. Aquatic plant, herbaceous layer, shrub layer and arbor layer are organically integrated together, strengthen the self-purification ability of water, have also reduced the washing away of rivers to ecological revetment, improve the stability of ecological revetment.
The materials used by the ecological revetment of the invention, such as pervious concrete, pervious bricks, aerated bricks and the like, are pervious materials. When the water level of the river channel is reduced to a low water level, underground water in the soil body after purification slowly seeps from the lower part of the permeable ecological revetment under the action of self weight and returns to the river channel again, so that the effects of sewage treatment and water source storage are achieved. When the water level of the river channel rises to a high level, an ecological system constructed by pervious concrete, elastic biological filler, soil, plants and microorganisms at the periphery of the ecological revetment plays an important role in controlling the land surface runoff pollution.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. the invention focuses more on the control of the pollution of the surface runoff of the initial rainwater, the surface runoff falls into a drainage well after scum is removed by a rainwater grate, the initial rainwater can flow into the surface of the revetment after drainage, the pollution of the surface runoff can be intercepted efficiently, the pollution load of the surface runoff on the bank side to the river water and the ecological revetment can be reduced, meanwhile, the revetment main body adopts a water permeable material, vegetation is planted, a three-dimensional ecological landscape is built, the water permeability of the ecological revetment is ensured, and the water quality exchange and the water self-cleaning capability of the water are enhanced;
2. according to the revetment main body, the elastic biological filler for sewage treatment is suspended, microorganisms in a water body can be attached to the elastic biological filler to grow, the water quality purification effect is improved, and meanwhile, the water permeable bricks extending out of the edge of the revetment can guide surface runoff to form a water fall waterfall and generate a water fall oxygen enrichment effect when flowing into a river channel;
3. the aggregate of the pervious concrete used for pouring the revetment main body contains zeolite, granular activated carbon, powdery polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and aerated brick waste, the aerated brick waste is a recycling method for changing waste into valuable, the functions of denitrification and dephosphorization of the aerated brick are utilized, the zeolite has strong adsorption on ammonia nitrogen, the granular activated carbon can adsorb soluble pollutants in rainwater, the PAC is an inorganic polymer coagulant and can efficiently remove pollutants such as phosphorus and the like to purify water, the strong water permeability of the ecological revetment is beneficial to water and bank water quality exchange, and the water quality purification function of the pervious concrete made of the composite material as the revetment main body can be greatly enhanced;
4. the aquatic plants planted in the green land near the bank of the revetment are local plants with high water quality purification capacity, aquatic vegetables, medicinal plants, ornamental plants and the like which are beneficial to value, so that the water quality purification capacity is improved, a good landscape effect is achieved, and the environment is beautified;
5. the preparation method is simple, convenient to construct and low in construction cost, is suitable for the situation of surface runoff pollution control such as early rainwater removal with higher efficiency, and is particularly suitable for sponge city construction engineering when synchronous denitrification, dephosphorization and water purification are required.
Detailed Description
The following examples are given to illustrate the present invention, and the following examples are carried out on the premise of the technical solution of the present invention, and give detailed embodiments and specific procedures, but the scope of the present invention is not limited to the following examples.
Example 1
An ecological revetment for sponge city construction, which can be used for controlling land surface runoff pollution, and can efficiently remove the surface runoff pollution and enhance the water quality exchange and water self-purification capability of a water bank.
The initial rainwater surface runoff is subjected to scum removal by the circular rainwater grate and then falls into an initial rainwater drainage well, and the initial rainwater flows into the surface of the revetment after drainage. The upper revetment main body is a water-permeable concrete revetment main body poured after plain soil is tamped, the upper part of the main body is provided with cement for building water-permeable bricks and air-added bricks, and the revetment main body is close to the green land at the bank side for planting different vegetation.
In order to reduce the burden of initial rainwater surface runoff pollutants on the ecological revetment, 3 circular rainwater grates with different apertures are arranged at the upstream before rainwater surface runoff flows into the ecological revetment, floaters are intercepted, the apertures of the rainwater grates are 1-2cm, 0.5-1cm and 1-5mm respectively, and the installation mode of automatically cleaning lattice residues through rainwater flushing is set as much as possible according to the terrain. The circular rainwater grate is arranged on the initial rainwater drainage well. And after the surface runoff of the initial rainwater is abandoned, the initial rainwater is discharged into a municipal sewage pipe network (or a rainwater and sewage converging pipe network) and is subjected to centralized treatment by a sewage treatment plant. The runoff volume design volume at the early stage of rainfall is calculated according to the runoff thickness of 8mm by the improved volume method flow abandoning well. A liquid level float switch is arranged in the well to control a water inlet valve, the water inlet valve is closed after the abandon flow well is filled with the well, and rainwater directly flows out from a water outlet pipe. And the initial rainwater in the drainage well slowly flows out within 24 hours through the emptying pipe, when the liquid level in the drainage well is lower than 10%, the valve of the rainwater outlet pipe is closed, and a new round of initial rainwater enters the drainage well again to start new circulation.
The main raw materials contained in the pervious concrete poured on the revetment main body comprise the following mass ratio: 600kg of broken stone, 400kg of broken aerated brick, 400kg of zeolite and 250k of granular activated carbon are contained in 1650kg of aggregate. 350kg of cement. Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) available Al2O3PAC 150kg of powder with a content of 26 percent was added. 28kg of cementing agent and 150kg of water. The maximum particle size of the aggregate is 35mm, and the cement mark is 42.5 of portland cement. All solid raw materials are uniformly stirred and then added with water to prepare the material for one-time pouring forming, and the water permeability coefficient (15 ℃) is more than or equal to 1.5 mm/s. The height of the pervious concrete is above the water level of the river course and is 20cm lower than the horizontal height of the river bank ground.
When the pervious concrete is poured into the revetment main body, reinforcing steel bars with hooks are pre-embedded at positions which are spaced from 1/4 with the vertical height and used for hanging the elastic biological filler for sewage treatment. The total length of the elastic biological filler is not more than 6 meters. Microorganisms in the water body can be attached to the elastic filler to grow, and the water quality purification effect is improved.
And (3) building the water permeable bricks and the air-added bricks on the water permeable concrete by using cement. The water permeable brick comprises the following main raw materials in percentage by mass: 40 parts of fly ash, 50 parts of coarse sand, 15 parts of gypsum, 35 parts of zeolite, 35 parts of granular activated carbon, 18 parts of powdered polyaluminium chloride (PAC), 46 parts of cement, 0.5 part of aluminum powder, 0.3 part of steel fiber, 10 parts of nano titanium dioxide coating and 18 parts of water. And curing the cast and molded blank for 12 hours under the conditions of 180-plus-200 ℃ and normal pressure steam to form the water purification type permeable brick. 400mm long, 300mm wide and 120mm thick. The abrasion resistance index is not more than 35mm of the length of the grinding pit. The water permeability coefficient (15 ℃) is more than or equal to 0.6 mm/s. The aerated bricks are sold in the market, and the water permeable bricks are 4 times of the use amount of the aerated bricks. And (3) building the water permeable bricks and the air-added bricks on the water permeable concrete, wherein the water permeable bricks extend out by 130mm near the edge of the river. The water permeable bricks extending out of the revetment edge can guide surface runoff to form a water fall waterfall when flowing into a river channel, increase the contact between water and air and generate a water fall oxygen enrichment effect. Meanwhile, when the water level of the river channel is low, the runoff on the surface of the river channel can be prevented from directly rushing down the revetment wall, the suspended elastic biological filler and the biological film on the revetment wall when flowing into the river channel.
Different vegetation will be planted to the revetment by bank side greenery patches, and aquatic plant, herbaceous layer, shrub layer and arbor layer are organically integrated together, strengthen the self-purification ability of water, have also reduced the erodeing of rivers to the revetment, improve the stability of revetment. The aquatic plant can be selected from local plant and aquatic vegetable with high water quality purification capability such as herba Oenanthes Javanicae, medicinal plant such as rhizoma Acori Calami, and ornamental plant such as canna. Other plants are mainly native plants.
The materials used by the ecological revetment are permeable materials, and can enhance water exchange of the water bank. The ecological system constructed by pervious concrete, elastic biological filler, soil, plants and microorganisms at the periphery of the ecological revetment plays a good role in controlling the land surface runoff pollution.
Example 2
An ecological revetment for sponge city construction, which can be used for controlling land surface runoff pollution, and can efficiently remove the surface runoff pollution and enhance the water quality exchange and water self-purification capability of a water bank.
The initial rainwater surface runoff is subjected to scum removal by the circular rainwater grate and then falls into an initial rainwater drainage well, and the initial rainwater flows into the surface of the revetment after drainage. The upper revetment main body is a water-permeable concrete revetment main body poured after plain soil is tamped, the upper part of the main body is provided with cement for building water-permeable bricks and air-added bricks, and the revetment main body is close to the green land at the bank side for planting different vegetation.
In order to reduce the burden of initial rainwater surface runoff pollutants on the ecological revetment, 2 circular rainwater grates with different apertures are arranged at the upstream before rainwater surface runoff flows into the ecological revetment, floaters are intercepted, the apertures of the rainwater grates are 1-2cm and 1-5mm respectively, and an installation mode capable of automatically cleaning lattice residues through rainwater flushing is set as much as possible according to the terrain. The circular rainwater grate is arranged on the initial rainwater drainage well. And after the surface runoff of the initial rainwater is abandoned, the initial rainwater is discharged into a municipal sewage pipe network (or a rainwater and sewage converging pipe network) and is subjected to centralized treatment by a sewage treatment plant. The runoff volume design volume at the early stage of rainfall is calculated according to the runoff thickness of 7mm in the improved volume method flow abandoning well. A liquid level float switch is arranged in the well to control a water inlet valve, the water inlet valve is closed after the abandon flow well is filled with the well, and rainwater directly flows out from a water outlet pipe. And the initial rainwater in the drainage well slowly flows out within 20 hours through the emptying pipe, when the liquid level in the drainage well is lower than 10%, the valve of the rainwater outlet pipe is closed, and a new round of initial rainwater enters the drainage well again to start new circulation.
The main raw materials contained in the pervious concrete poured on the revetment main body comprise the following mass ratio: the aggregate 1650kg contains 400kg of broken stone, 600kg of broken aerated brick, 350kg of zeolite and 300kg of granular activated carbon. 420kg of cement. Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) available Al2O3The PAC content was 30%, 100kg of powdered PAC was added. 35kg of cementing agent and 175kg of water. Portland cement with the maximum particle size of 25mm and the cement mark of 42.5 is selected. All solid raw materials are uniformly stirred and then added with water to prepare the material for one-time pouring forming, and the water permeability coefficient (15 ℃) is more than or equal to 1.2 mm/s. The height of the pervious concrete is above the water level of the river course and 18cm lower than the horizontal height of the river bank ground.
When the pervious concrete is poured into the revetment main body, reinforcing steel bars with hooks are pre-embedded at positions which are spaced from 1/4 with the vertical height and used for hanging the elastic biological filler for sewage treatment. The total length of the elastic biological filler is not more than 5 meters. Microorganisms in the water body can be attached to the elastic filler to grow, and the water quality purification effect is improved.
And (3) building the water permeable bricks and the air-added bricks on the water permeable concrete by using cement. The water permeable brick comprises the following main raw materials in percentage by mass: fly ash 45, coarse sand 40, gypsum 12, zeolite 25, granular activated carbon 30, powdered polyaluminium chloride (PAC)20, cement 43, aluminum powder 0.4, steel fiber 0.2, nano titanium dioxide coating 8 and water 18. And curing the cast and molded blank for 10 hours under the conditions of 180-plus-200 ℃ and normal pressure steam to form the water purification type permeable brick. 300mm long, 250mm wide and 100mm thick. The abrasion resistance index is not more than 35mm of the length of the grinding pit. The water permeability coefficient (15 ℃) is more than or equal to 0.5 mm/s. The aerated bricks are sold in the market, and the water permeable bricks are 3 times of the use amount of the aerated bricks. And (3) building the water permeable bricks and the air-added bricks on the water permeable concrete, wherein the water permeable bricks extend out by 100mm near the edge of the river. The water permeable bricks extending out of the revetment edge can guide surface runoff to form a water fall waterfall when flowing into a river channel, increase the contact between water and air and generate a water fall oxygen enrichment effect. Meanwhile, when the water level of the river channel is low, the runoff on the surface of the river channel can be prevented from directly rushing down the revetment wall, the suspended elastic biological filler and the biological film on the revetment wall when flowing into the river channel.
The revetment leans on the land parcel of bank to plant different vegetation, and aquatic plant, herbaceous layer, shrub layer and arbor layer are organically integrated together, strengthen the self-purification ability of water, have also reduced the erodeing of rivers to the revetment, improve the stability of revetment. The aquatic plant can be selected from local plant and aquatic vegetable with high water quality purification capability such as herba Oenanthes Javanicae, medicinal plant such as rhizoma Acori Calami, and ornamental plant such as canna. Other plants are mainly native plants.
The materials used by the ecological revetment are permeable materials, and can enhance water exchange of the water bank. The ecological system constructed by pervious concrete, elastic biological filler, soil, plants and microorganisms at the periphery of the ecological revetment plays a good role in controlling the land surface runoff pollution.
Example 3
An ecological revetment for sponge city construction, which can be used for controlling land surface runoff pollution, and can efficiently remove the surface runoff pollution and enhance the water quality exchange and water self-purification capability of a water bank.
The initial rainwater surface runoff is subjected to scum removal by the circular rainwater grate and then falls into an initial rainwater drainage well, and the initial rainwater flows into the surface of the revetment after drainage. The upper revetment main body is a water-permeable concrete revetment main body poured after plain soil is tamped, the upper part of the main body is provided with cement for building water-permeable bricks and air-added bricks, and the revetment main body is close to the green land at the bank side for planting different vegetation.
In order to reduce the burden of initial rainwater surface runoff pollutants on the ecological revetment, 2 circular rainwater grates with different apertures are arranged at the upstream before rainwater surface runoff flows into the ecological revetment, floaters are intercepted, the apertures of the rainwater grates are 1-2cm and 0.5-1cm respectively, and the installation mode of automatically cleaning lattice residues through rainwater flushing is set as much as possible according to the terrain. The circular rainwater grate is arranged on the initial rainwater drainage well. And after the surface runoff of the initial rainwater is abandoned, the initial rainwater is discharged into a municipal sewage pipe network (or a rainwater and sewage converging pipe network) and is subjected to centralized treatment by a sewage treatment plant. The runoff volume design volume at the early stage of rainfall is calculated according to the runoff thickness of 6mm by the improved volume method flow abandoning well. A liquid level float switch is arranged in the well to control a water inlet valve, the water inlet valve is closed after the abandon flow well is filled with the well, and rainwater directly flows out from a water outlet pipe. And the initial rainwater in the drainage well slowly flows out within 18 hours through the emptying pipe, when the liquid level in the drainage well is lower than 10%, the valve of the rainwater outlet pipe is closed, and a new round of initial rainwater enters the drainage well again to start new circulation.
The main raw materials contained in the pervious concrete poured on the revetment main body comprise the following mass ratio: 500kg of crushed stone, 500kg of crushed aerated brick, 300kg of zeolite and 350kg of granular activated carbon are contained in 1650kg of aggregate. 385kg of cement. Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) available Al2O3The content is 30%, and 125kg of powdered PAC is added. 31kg of cementing agent and 165kg of water. The maximum particle size of the aggregate is 30mm, and the cement mark is 42.5 of portland cement. All solid raw materials are uniformly stirred and then added with water to prepare the material for one-time pouring forming, and the water permeability coefficient (15 ℃) is more than or equal to 1.3 mm/s. The height of the pervious concrete is above the water level of the river course and is 15cm lower than the horizontal height of the river bank ground.
When the pervious concrete is poured into the revetment main body, reinforcing steel bars with hooks are pre-embedded at positions which are spaced from 1/4 with the vertical height and used for hanging the elastic biological filler for sewage treatment. The total length of the elastic biological filler is not more than 5.5 meters. Microorganisms in the water body can be attached to the elastic filler to grow, and the water quality purification effect is improved.
And (3) building the water permeable bricks and the air-added bricks on the water permeable concrete by using cement. The water permeable brick comprises the following main raw materials in percentage by mass: 35 parts of fly ash, 55 parts of coarse sand, 10 parts of gypsum, 35 parts of zeolite, 25 parts of granular activated carbon, 15 parts of powdered polyaluminium chloride (PAC), 38 parts of cement, 0.3 part of aluminum powder, 0.1 part of steel fiber, 5 parts of nano titanium dioxide coating and 15 parts of water. And curing the cast and molded blank for 8 hours under the conditions of 180-plus-200 ℃ and normal pressure steam to form the water purification type permeable brick. The length is 200mm, the width is 200mm, and the thickness is 80 mm. The abrasion resistance index is not more than 35mm of the length of the grinding pit. The water permeability coefficient (15 ℃) is more than or equal to 0.4 mm/s. The aerated bricks are sold in the market, and the water permeable bricks are 2 times of the use amount of the aerated bricks. And (3) building the water permeable bricks and the air-added bricks on the water permeable concrete, wherein the water permeable bricks extend out by 60mm near the edge of the river. The water permeable bricks extending out of the revetment edge can guide surface runoff to form a water fall waterfall when flowing into a river channel, increase the contact between water and air and generate a water fall oxygen enrichment effect. Meanwhile, when the water level of the river channel is low, the runoff on the surface of the river channel can be prevented from directly rushing down the revetment wall, the suspended elastic biological filler and the biological film on the revetment wall when flowing into the river channel.
The revetment leans on the land parcel of bank to plant different vegetation, and aquatic plant, herbaceous layer, shrub layer and arbor layer are organically integrated together, strengthen the self-purification ability of water, have also reduced the erodeing of rivers to the revetment, improve the stability of revetment. The aquatic plant can be selected from local plant and aquatic vegetable with high water quality purification capability such as herba Oenanthes Javanicae, medicinal plant such as rhizoma Acori Calami, and ornamental plant such as canna. Other plants are mainly native plants.
The materials used by the ecological revetment are permeable materials, and can enhance water exchange of the water bank. The ecological system constructed by pervious concrete, elastic biological filler, soil, plants and microorganisms at the periphery of the ecological revetment plays a good role in controlling the land surface runoff pollution.
Example 4
An ecological revetment construction method for shore side surface runoff pollution control comprises the following steps:
the ecological revetment is characterized in that a drainage well is arranged in front of an ecological revetment main body, 1 round rainwater grate is arranged at an inlet of the drainage well, holes in the round rainwater grate are different in aperture, the aperture range is 0.5-1cm, the round rainwater grate is arranged according to terrain, the plane of the rainwater grate is obliquely arranged at an angle of 45 degrees from high to low with the horizontal, and the grid slag is automatically cleaned through rainwater washing.
Constructing an ecological revetment: adopting plain soil to tamp, pouring pervious concrete to prepare an ecological revetment main body, paving pervious bricks and aerated bricks on the pervious concrete, paving planting soil at the green position of the ecological revetment main body close to the bank edge, planting vegetation in the planting soil, and hanging elastic biological fillers at one side of the revetment main body close to a water body;
the initial rainwater surface runoff falls into the initial rainwater discarding well after scum is removed by the rainwater grate, and the later rainwater directly flows into the surface of the ecological revetment after the initial rainwater is discarded.
The drainage well is a volumetric drainage well, the designed volume (the runoff thickness is multiplied by the catchment area) of the runoff volume at the initial stage of rainfall is calculated according to the runoff thickness of 8mm, 2 liquid level floating balls are arranged in the drainage well, a water inlet valve is controlled, the water inlet valve is closed after the drainage well is filled with the drainage well, rainwater directly flows out from a water outlet pipe, the initial rainwater in the drainage well slowly flows out within 18 hours through an emptying pipe, when the liquid level in the drainage well is lower than 10%, the water outlet pipe valve is closed, and the rainwater at the initial stage enters the drainage well again to start new circulation.
The pervious concrete comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 40 parts of cement, 165 parts of aggregate, 15 parts of powdered polyaluminium chloride, 3.0 parts of cementing agent and 17.5 parts of water; the aggregate comprises the following components in parts by weight: 40 parts of broken stone, 30 parts of zeolite, 35 parts of granular activated carbon and 60 parts of aerated brick. The aggregate particle size is 25-35 mm, the cement is Portland cement with the grade of 42.5, all solid raw materials are uniformly stirred and then added with water to prepare pervious concrete, the pervious concrete is cast and molded at one time, the permeability coefficient is more than or equal to 1.3mm/s at 15 ℃, and the height of the pervious concrete is more than the adjustment water level of a river channel and is 20cm lower than the horizontal height of the river bank ground.
When the pervious concrete is poured into the revetment main body, reinforcing steel bars with hooks are pre-embedded at positions which are spaced from 1/4 with the vertical height and used for hanging elastic biological fillers for sewage treatment, the total length of the elastic biological fillers is not more than 6 meters, and microorganisms in a water body are attached to the elastic fillers to grow, so that the water quality purification effect is improved.
The water permeable brick is prepared by the following method:
(1) weighing the following raw materials in parts by weight: 45 parts of fly ash, 50 parts of coarse sand, 10 parts of gypsum, 30 parts of zeolite, 30 parts of granular activated carbon, 20 parts of powder polyaluminium chloride, 35 parts of cement, 0.4 part of aluminum powder, 0.2 part of steel fiber, 10 parts of nano titanium dioxide coating and 30 parts of water;
(2) mixing the raw materials to prepare slurry;
(3) casting and molding the slurry to obtain a blank;
(4) and (3) curing the blank body for 10 hours at the temperature of 180-200 ℃ by using normal pressure steam to form the water purification type permeable brick.
The length of the water permeable brick is 300mm, the width is 250mm, the thickness is 100mm, the abrasion resistance index grinding pit length is not more than 35mm, and the water permeability coefficient at 15 ℃ is not less than 0.4 mm/s;
the water permeable bricks are laid at intervals, and the using amount (volume ratio) of the water permeable bricks is 3 times that of the aerated bricks. The edge of the water permeable brick at one side close to the water body extends by 100cm, so that surface runoff can be guided to form a water fall waterfall when flowing into a river channel, the contact between the water body and air is increased, and the water fall oxygen enrichment effect is generated. Meanwhile, when the water level of the river channel is low, the runoff on the surface of the river channel can be prevented from directly rushing down the revetment wall, the suspended elastic biological filler and the biological film on the revetment wall when flowing into the river channel.
The vegetation comprises aquatic plants, a herbaceous layer, a shrub layer and a arbor layer, wherein the aquatic plants are selected from local plants, aquatic vegetables, medicinal plants or ornamental plants with high water quality purification capacity, the aquatic vegetables are selected from cress, cane shoots and water spinach, the medicinal plants are selected from acorus calamus and rush, the ornamental plants are selected from canna and lentinus edodes, and the vegetation mainly comprises the local plants.
The ecological revetment built in the embodiments 1 to 4 is adopted to treat rainwater, and the obtained effect parameters are shown in the following table:
the embodiments described above are described to facilitate an understanding and use of the invention by those skilled in the art. It will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications to these embodiments may be made, and the generic principles described herein may be applied to other embodiments without the use of the inventive faculty. Therefore, the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and those skilled in the art should make improvements and modifications within the scope of the present invention based on the disclosure of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. An ecological revetment construction method for controlling land side surface runoff pollution is characterized by comprising the following steps:
a drainage well is arranged in front of the ecological revetment main body, and a rainwater grate is arranged at the inlet of the drainage well; the flow abandoning well is a volume method flow abandoning well, and the runoff volume design volume at the early stage of rainfall is calculated according to the runoff thickness of 6-8 mm: multiplying the thickness of runoff by the catchment area, arranging 2 liquid level float switches in the abandoning well, controlling a water inlet valve, closing a water inlet valve after the abandoning well is full of the well, directly flowing rainwater out of a water outlet pipe, slowly flowing initial rainwater in the abandoning well within 18-24 hours through an emptying pipe, closing a rainwater outlet pipe valve when the liquid level in the abandoning well is lower than 10%, and starting new circulation when the initial rainwater enters the abandoning well again;
constructing an ecological revetment: adopting plain soil to tamp, pouring pervious concrete to prepare an ecological revetment main body, paving pervious bricks and aerated bricks on the pervious concrete, paving planting soil at the green position of the ecological revetment main body close to the bank edge, planting vegetation in the planting soil, and hanging elastic biological fillers at one side of the revetment main body close to a water body; the edge of one side of the water permeable brick close to the water body extends out 1/3 brick length;
the initial rainwater surface runoff falls into the initial rainwater discarding well after scum is removed by the rainwater grate, and the later rainwater directly flows into the surface of the ecological revetment after the initial rainwater is discarded.
2. The ecological revetment construction method for controlling land side surface runoff pollution according to claim 1, wherein the rainwater grate is circular and has different apertures, the aperture is 0.1-2 cm, and 1-3 rainwater grates are arranged.
3. The ecological revetment construction method for controlling land edge surface runoff pollution according to claim 1, wherein the rainwater grates are installed according to terrain, the planes of the rainwater grates are installed in an inclined manner at an angle of 45 degrees from high to low and the level, and the grates are automatically cleaned by rainwater washing.
4. The ecological revetment construction method for controlling land side surface runoff pollution according to claim 1, wherein the pervious concrete comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 35-42 parts of cement, 165 parts of aggregate, 10-15 parts of powder polyaluminium chloride, 2.8-3.5 parts of cementing agent and 15-17.5 parts of water; the aggregate comprises the following components in parts by weight: 40-60 parts of broken stone, 30-40 parts of zeolite, 25-35 parts of granular activated carbon and 40-60 parts of aerated bricks.
5. The ecological revetment construction method for controlling land side surface runoff pollution according to claim 4, wherein the aggregate particle size is 25-35 mm, the cement is Portland cement with the grade of 42.5 and above, all solid raw materials are uniformly stirred and then added with water to prepare pervious concrete, the pervious concrete is cast and formed at one time, the water permeability coefficient is more than or equal to 1.2mm/s at 15 ℃, and the height of the pervious concrete is more than the river channel regulation water level and is 15-20 cm lower than the horizontal height of the river bank ground.
6. The ecological revetment construction method for controlling land side surface runoff pollution according to claim 1, wherein when the revetment main body is poured with pervious concrete, reinforcing steel bars with hooks are pre-embedded at positions which are respectively 1/4 away from the upper height and the lower height for hanging elastic biological filler for sewage treatment, the total length of the elastic biological filler is not more than 6 meters, and microorganisms in water are attached to the elastic filler to grow, so that the water quality purification effect is improved.
7. The method for constructing an ecological revetment for controlling surface runoff pollution on shore according to claim 1, wherein the water permeable bricks are made by the following method:
(1) weighing the following raw materials in parts by weight: 35-45 parts of fly ash, 40-55 parts of coarse sand, 10-15 parts of gypsum, 25-35 parts of zeolite, 25-35 parts of granular activated carbon, 15-20 parts of powder polyaluminum chloride, 35-46 parts of cement, 0.3-0.5 part of aluminum powder, 0.1-0.3 part of steel fiber, 5-10 parts of nano titanium dioxide coating and 15-30 parts of water;
(2) mixing the raw materials to prepare slurry;
(3) casting and molding the slurry to obtain a blank;
(4) curing the blank body for 8-12 h under the condition of 180-200 ℃ by normal pressure steam to form a water purification type permeable brick;
the water permeable brick is 200-400 mm long, 200-300 mm wide and 80-120 mm thick, the abrasion resistance index pit length is not more than 35mm, and the water permeability coefficient at 15 ℃ is not less than 0.4 mm/s;
the water permeable bricks are laid at intervals according to the volume ratio of 2-4 times of the using amount of the aerated bricks.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the vegetation comprises aquatic plants, herbaceous layers, shrub layers and arbor layers, the aquatic plants are selected from local plants with high water quality purification capacity, aquatic vegetables, medicinal plants or ornamental plants, the aquatic vegetables comprise cress, wild rice shoots and water spinach, the medicinal plants comprise acorus calamus and rush, the ornamental plants comprise canna and lentinus edodes, and the vegetation is mainly of the local plants.
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