CN112225541A - 一种电炉喷补料及喷补护炉方法 - Google Patents

一种电炉喷补料及喷补护炉方法 Download PDF

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CN112225541A
CN112225541A CN202011024566.XA CN202011024566A CN112225541A CN 112225541 A CN112225541 A CN 112225541A CN 202011024566 A CN202011024566 A CN 202011024566A CN 112225541 A CN112225541 A CN 112225541A
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王东生
赵青娥
吕学明
刘亚东
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Pangang Group Panzhihua Iron and Steel Research Institute Co Ltd
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种电炉喷补料,其组分重量百分比为:MgO 15~35%、Al2O3 25~40%、TiO2不大于35%、C 5~10%和结合剂4~8%。该电炉喷补料抗渣侵能力强、适合在镁碳质耐火材料表面使用,且为干式作业,与其他喷补料相比可显著提高炉龄。本发明同时提供一种使用该电炉补料的电炉护炉方法。

Description

一种电炉喷补料及喷补护炉方法
技术领域
本发明属于高温冶金领域,特别涉及到一种电炉炉衬喷补料及喷补护炉方法。
背景技术
钒钛磁铁矿冶炼产生的特有高炉渣为高钛型高炉渣,TiO2含量约为2不大于24%。目前,以“高温碳化-低温氯化”工艺为主的含钛高炉渣有效利用路线已逐渐形成。其中,高温碳化工艺主要采用电炉在温度1400℃~1700℃用碳质还原剂还原高钛型高炉渣,冶炼过程主反应为TiO2+3C=TiC+2CO(g),冶炼完成后开炉口出渣。该电炉炉衬主要采用镁碳质的耐火材料,电炉使用寿命较短,尤其是电炉出渣口区域侵蚀最为严重,在正常炉役周期内,出渣口需要停炉修补1~2次,每次停炉时间约6~8天,同时每次停炉对炉壁镁碳质耐材均造成不同程度的损害,常有断砖甚至整砖掉落的情况发生。针对该问题,通常采用不停炉在线喷补的方式进行炉衬的维护作业,即在电炉出渣完成之后,即刻对出渣口区域和电炉炉衬内壁薄弱区域进行喷补作业,延长电炉使用寿命。然而,针对冶炼不同的熔渣组分,采用喷补料的组分及具体喷补方法差异较大,目前尚不存在针对高钛型高炉渣的碳化冶炼的特点和熔渣组分的特殊性的喷补料及喷补方法。
由此可见,开发一种适用于高钛型高炉渣的电炉喷补料成为高温冶金领域亟待解决的问题。
发明内容
为了解决现有的技术问题,本发明提出了一种适用于高钛型高炉渣的干式电炉喷补料,并同时公开了使用该电炉喷补料的电炉护炉方法。
依据本发明,提供一种电炉喷补料,电炉喷补料的组分重量百分比为:MgO 15~35%、Al2O3 25~40%、TiO2不大于35%、C 5~10%和结合剂4~8%。
依据本发明的一个实施例,MgO为电熔镁砂粉,电熔镁砂粉中MgO≥96%,粒径为44~74μm。
依据本发明的一个实施例,Al2O3包含粒径为不大于15μm的细Al2O3粉和粒径为44~74μm的粗Al2O3粉,细Al2O3粉和粗Al2O3粉的质量比为1~2:1。
依据本发明的一个实施例,TiO2为高钛渣,粒径为不大于15μm,高钛渣中TiO2≥94%。
依据本发明的一个实施例,TiO2为工业用钛白粉,粒径为不大于15μm。
依据本发明的一个实施例,C为废旧的石墨电极,C≥99%,破碎至粒径≤38μm。
依据本发明的一个实施例,结合剂为酚醛树脂、煤沥青与蒽油的混合物。
依据本发明,提供一种电炉护炉方法,包含以下步骤:
1)按照上述的电炉喷补料的配比准备各组分物质,加入搅拌器内混合均匀得到喷补料;
2)在电炉生产的间隙,使用喷补料对电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业。
依据本发明的一个实施例,以氮气作为载气对电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业。
依据本发明的一个实施例,氮气和喷补料的气固比为1~5:1。
由于采用以上技术方案,本发明与现有技术相比具有如下优点:
1、电炉喷补料成分及配比,抗渣侵能力强、适合在镁碳质耐火材料表面使用;
2、干式喷补料,结合剂不含水不会造成炉衬的水化和造成炉衬的二次伤害;
3、在电炉生产的间隙对电炉内部局部薄弱区域进行喷补作业,无需停炉。
具体实施方式
为了使本发明的目的、技术方案及优点更加清楚明白,下面结合实施例,对本发明进行进一步详细说明。应当理解,此处所描述的具体实施例仅用以解释本发明,并不用于限定本发明。
依据本发明的电炉喷补料总体包含的组分其重量百分比为:MgO 15~35%、Al2O325~40%、TiO2不大于35%、C 5~10%和结合剂4~8%。将组分按照如上的配比均匀混合后,以氮气作载气,在电炉生产的间隙对出渣口区域或电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业,喷补过程中,氮气和喷补料的气固比优选为1~5:1。其中,MgO的具体来源可以是MgO≥96%的电熔镁砂粉,该电熔镁砂粉的粒径优选为44~74μm;Al2O3可以包含粒径为不大于15μm的细Al2O3粉和粒径为44~74μm的粗Al2O3粉,二者的质量比优选为1~2:1;TiO2的具体来源可以是粒径为不大于15μm高钛渣或工业用钛白粉中的至少一种,若选用高钛渣则优选使用TiO2≥94%的高钛渣;C可以使用C≥99%的废旧的石墨电极,使用时优选将石墨电极破碎至粒径≤38μm;结合剂为酚醛树脂、煤沥青与蒽油的混合物,技术人员可以依据实际工况来确定酚醛树脂、煤沥青与蒽油的比例。
与半干式喷补料相比,采用的结合剂为酚醛树脂、煤沥青与蒽油的混合物,结合剂不含水不会造成炉衬的水化和造成炉衬的二次伤害;与其他干式喷补料相比,更能满足高钛型高炉渣碳化冶炼工艺的要求,碳化冶炼出渣完成之后,镁碳质炉衬表面温度高达1500℃~1650℃,在此条件下喷补料中MgO和Al2O3反应形成镁铝尖晶石,镁铝尖晶石熔点高达2135℃,MgO还可以和TiO2发生反应形成镁钛尖晶石,无论是MgO、镁铝尖晶石还是镁钛尖晶石,均为高熔点物质,同时喷补料中细粒级的Al2O3和TiO2发生反应形成部分高熔点的钛酸铝,以及喷补料中细粒级的TiO2和C发生反应形成TiC微粒,二者嵌布在镁铝尖晶石周围,能增强喷补料的抗渣侵能力,可显著提高炉龄。
实施例1
本实施例中,电炉喷补料由以下配比的组分组成:
重量/% 粒度/μm
电熔镁砂 18 44~74
粗Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>粉 10 44~74
细Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>粉 19 不大于15
钛白粉 35 不大于15
石墨电极粉 10 ≤38
结合剂 8 -
其中,结合剂由以下重量配比的组分组成:酚醛树脂2%、煤沥青4%、蒽油2%。
按照上述配比准备各组分物质,加入搅拌器内混合均匀得到喷补料;并在电炉生产的间隙,使用该喷补料以氮气作为载气对电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业。其中,氮气和喷补料的气固比为5:1。
具体地,针对25.5MVA冶炼TiO2含量为22~23%高钛型钛高炉渣的圆形电炉,在出渣结束炮泥外部封堵出渣口之后,采用喷补方式对电炉内出渣口区域耐火材料进行维护。从电炉使用300炉次以后,每隔10炉次对电炉内部出渣口区域进行一次喷补作业,对比之前没有喷补作业的炉役,电炉使用期间,出渣口砌筑由之前的3次减少至2次。
实施例2
本实施例中,电炉喷补料由以下配比的组分组成:
重量/% 粒度/μm
电熔镁砂 25 44~74
粗Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>粉 17 44~74
细Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>粉 20 不大于15
钛白粉 25 不大于15
石墨电极粉 7 ≤38
结合剂 6 -
其中,结合剂由以下重量配比的组分组成:酚醛树脂2%、煤沥青2%、蒽油2%。
按照上述配比准备各组分物质,加入搅拌器内混合均匀得到喷补料;并在电炉生产的间隙,使用该喷补料以氮气作为载气对电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业。其中,氮气和喷补料的气固比为1:1。
具体地,针对25.5MVA冶炼TiO2含量为22~23%高钛型钛高炉渣的圆形电炉,在出渣结束炮泥外部封堵出渣口之后,采用喷补方式对电炉内出渣口区域耐火材料进行维护。从电炉使用250炉次以后,每隔7炉次对电炉内部出渣口区域进行一次喷补作业。对比之前没有喷补作业的炉役,电炉使用期间,出渣口砌筑由之前的3次减少至1次。
实施例3
本实施例中,电炉喷补料由以下配比的组分组成:
其中,结合剂由以下重量配比的组分组成:酚醛树脂2%、煤沥青4%、蒽油2%。
按照上述配比准备各组分物质,加入搅拌器内混合均匀得到喷补料;并在电炉生产的间隙,使用该喷补料以氮气作为载气对电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业。其中,氮气和喷补料的气固比为2:1。
具体地,针对25.5MVA冶炼TiO2含量为22~23%高钛型钛高炉渣的圆形电炉,在出渣结束炮泥外部封堵出渣口之后,采用喷补方式对电炉内出渣口区域耐火材料进行维护。从电炉使用200炉次以后,每隔3炉次对电炉内部出渣口区域进行一次喷补作业。对比之前没有喷补作业的炉役,电炉使用期间,出渣口达到和炉衬同寿命,没有因出渣口损坏而停炉的情况发生。
实施例4
本实施例中,电炉喷补料由以下配比的组分组成:
重量/% 粒度/μm
电熔镁砂 15 44~74
粗Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>粉 16 44~74
细Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>粉 18 不大于15
钛白粉 33 不大于15
石墨电极粉 10 ≤38
结合剂 8 -
其中,结合剂由以下重量配比的组分组成:酚醛树脂3%、煤沥青3%、蒽油2%。
按照上述配比准备各组分物质,加入搅拌器内混合均匀得到喷补料;并在电炉生产的间隙,使用该喷补料以氮气作为载气对电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业。其中,氮气和喷补料的气固比为2:1。
具体地,针对25.5MVA冶炼TiO2含量为22~23%高钛型钛高炉渣的圆形电炉,在出渣结束炮泥外部封堵出渣口之后,采用喷补方式对电炉内出渣口区域耐火材料进行维护。从电炉使用300炉次以后,每隔7炉次对电炉内部出渣口区域进行一次喷补作业。对比之前没有喷补作业的炉役,电炉使用期间,出渣口砌筑由之前的3次减少至2次。
实施例5
本实施例中,电炉喷补料由以下配比的组分组成:
重量/% 粒度/μm
电熔镁砂 33 44~74
粗Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>粉 10 44~74
细Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>粉 15 不大于15
钛白粉 24 不大于15
石墨电极粉 10 ≤38
结合剂 8 -
其中,结合剂由以下重量配比的组分组成:酚醛树脂4%、煤沥青2%、蒽油2%。
按照上述配比准备各组分物质,加入搅拌器内混合均匀得到喷补料;并在电炉生产的间隙,使用该喷补料以氮气作为载气对电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业。其中,氮气和喷补料的气固比为2:1。
具体地,针对25.5MVA冶炼TiO2含量为22~23%高钛型钛高炉渣的圆形电炉,在出渣结束炮泥外部封堵出渣口之后,采用喷补方式对电炉内出渣口区域耐火材料进行维护。从电炉使用300炉次以后,每隔7炉次对电炉内部出渣口区域进行一次喷补作业。对比之前没有喷补作业的炉役,电炉使用期间,出渣口砌筑由之前的3次减少至1次。
实施例5
本实施例中,电炉喷补料由以下配比的组分组成:
重量/% 粒度/μm
电熔镁砂 28 44~74
粗Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>粉 20 44~74
细Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>粉 20 不大于15
钛白粉 20 不大于15
石墨电极粉 8 ≤38
结合剂 4 -
其中,结合剂由以下重量配比的组分组成:酚醛树脂1%、煤沥青2%、蒽油1%。
按照上述配比准备各组分物质,加入搅拌器内混合均匀得到喷补料;并在电炉生产的间隙,使用该喷补料以氮气作为载气对电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业。其中,氮气和喷补料的气固比为2:1。
具体地,针对25.5MVA冶炼TiO2含量为22~23%高钛型钛高炉渣的圆形电炉,在出渣结束炮泥外部封堵出渣口之后,采用喷补方式对电炉内出渣口区域耐火材料进行维护。从电炉使用300炉次以后,每隔7炉次对电炉内部出渣口区域进行一次喷补作业。对比之前没有喷补作业的炉役,电炉使用期间,出渣口砌筑由之前的3次减少至1次。
以上实施例仅表达了本发明的实施方式,其描述较为具体和详细,但并不能因此而理解为对本发明专利范围的限制。应当指出的是,对于本领域的普通技术人员来说,在不脱离本发明构思的前提下,还可以做出若干变形和改进,这些都属于本发明的保护范围。因此,本发明专利的保护范围应以所附权利要求为准。

Claims (10)

1.一种电炉喷补料,其特征在于,所述电炉喷补料的组分重量百分比为:MgO 15~35%、Al2O3 25~40%、TiO2不大于35%、C 5~10%和结合剂4~8%。
2.根据权利要求1所述电炉喷补料,其特征在于,所述MgO为电熔镁砂粉,以质量百分含量计,所述电熔镁砂粉中MgO≥96%,粒径为44~74μm。
3.根据权利要求1所述电炉喷补料,其特征在于,所述Al2O3包含粒径不大于15μm的细Al2O3粉和粒径为44~74μm的粗Al2O3粉,所述细Al2O3粉和所述粗Al2O3粉的质量比为1~2:1。
4.根据权利要求1所述电炉喷补料,其特征在于,所述TiO2为高钛渣,粒径不大于15μm,以质量百分含量计,所述高钛渣中TiO2≥94%。
5.根据权利要求1所述电炉喷补料,其特征在于,所述TiO2为工业用钛白粉,粒径不大于15μm。
6.根据权利要求书1所述喷补料,其特征在于,所述C为废旧的石墨电极,C≥99%,破碎至粒径≤38μm。
7.根据权利要求1所述电炉喷补料,其特征在于,所述结合剂为酚醛树脂、煤沥青与蒽油的混合物。
8.一种电炉护炉方法,其特征在于,包含以下步骤:
1)按照权利要求1-7中任一项所述的电炉喷补料的配比准备各组分物质,加入搅拌器内混合均匀得到喷补料;
2)在电炉生产的间隙,使用所述喷补料对电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业。
9.根据权利要求8所述的电炉护炉方法,其特征在于,以氮气作为载气对所述电炉炉衬薄弱区域进行喷补作业。
10.根据权利要求9所述的电炉护炉方法,其特征在于,氮气和喷补料的气固比为1~5:1。
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