CN112198458A - Method and system for detecting open-circuit fault of three-phase voltage source inverter in real time - Google Patents

Method and system for detecting open-circuit fault of three-phase voltage source inverter in real time Download PDF

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CN112198458A
CN112198458A CN202010914295.9A CN202010914295A CN112198458A CN 112198458 A CN112198458 A CN 112198458A CN 202010914295 A CN202010914295 A CN 202010914295A CN 112198458 A CN112198458 A CN 112198458A
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inverter
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information entropy
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CN112198458B (en
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赵金
周洋
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Huazhong University of Science and Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/50Testing of electric apparatus, lines, cables or components for short-circuits, continuity, leakage current or incorrect line connections
    • G01R31/54Testing for continuity
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R19/00Arrangements for measuring currents or voltages or for indicating presence or sign thereof
    • G01R19/165Indicating that current or voltage is either above or below a predetermined value or within or outside a predetermined range of values

Abstract

The invention discloses a real-time detection method and a real-time detection system for open-circuit faults of a three-phase voltage source inverter, and belongs to the field of online detection. The method comprises the following steps: s1, collecting current data of three phases a, b and c at the current moment; s2, updating a three-phase current chain table according to the obtained three-phase current data at the current moment, and updating the maximum value Imax of the current amplitude in one period; s3, equally dividing the amplitude range into n intervals, and counting the frequency of the current data falling in each interval in a current period; s4, calculating the information entropy of each phase current at the current moment in real time by using the frequency approximation probability counted in S3; and S5, comparing the phase current information entropy with a set threshold value to obtain a current diagnosis result. The method does not need data processing processes such as filtering and noise reduction on current signals, is small in calculated amount, good in real-time performance and good in robustness on load disturbance, can be used for quickly positioning a fault bridge arm, and provides a basis for accurate maintenance or fault-tolerant control of the inverter.

Description

Method and system for detecting open-circuit fault of three-phase voltage source inverter in real time
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of online detection, and particularly relates to a method and a system for detecting open-circuit faults of a three-phase voltage source inverter in real time.
Background
The inverter is used as a core component of a variable frequency speed control system and is widely applied to various fields of industry, electrified traffic, household appliances and the like. The healthy operation of the inverter has important significance for the whole variable-frequency speed control system, for example, in a traction frequency converter of a high-speed rail locomotive, once the inverter fails and cannot be repaired in time, the control performance of the locomotive is reduced if the inverter fails, and secondary failure or even major accidents of vehicle damage and death are caused if the inverter fails. In the inverter, the power tube is susceptible to faults, particularly open-circuit faults, due to the influence of internal and external factors such as overvoltage, overcurrent and thermal stress. The research on the voltage source inverter fault detection method can quickly detect and locate the fault, further provides decision basis for strategies such as fault-tolerant control and accurate maintenance, and has very important significance for improving the system reliability.
The existing inverter bridge arm fault diagnosis method comprises a hardware-based bridge arm fault diagnosis method and a system information-based bridge arm fault diagnosis method. The hardware-based bridge arm fault diagnosis method is characterized in that an additional diagnosis circuit or other sensors are added for fault diagnosis, and the method is high in cost and complexity in an industrial system, so that the method cannot be widely applied. However, a bridge arm fault diagnosis method based on system information, particularly a current-based method, often performs diagnosis by using a data-based method such as machine learning after performing filtering and noise reduction processing on a signal. The method has the disadvantages of large calculation amount, high requirement on a processor, long diagnosis time and poor real-time performance; such methods are mostly applied to off-line diagnosis or algorithm training. In practical applications, the computation speed of the industrial-grade DSP is limited, and the detection time is too long, which may cause that the subsequent processing measures are not ready to be implemented, and the accident has already occurred.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the related art, the invention aims to provide a method and a system for detecting the open-circuit fault of a three-phase voltage source inverter in real time, and aims to solve the technical problem of poor real-time performance caused by large calculation amount in the existing fault diagnosis based on system information.
In order to achieve the above object, an aspect of the present invention provides a method for detecting an open-circuit fault of a three-phase voltage source inverter in real time, including the following steps:
(1) collecting three-phase current value i at current momenta、ibAnd icAnd updating the three-phase current chain table and the maximum value I of the current amplitude in one current periodmax
(2) Will range in amplitude [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Equally dividing the current into a plurality of intervals, counting the frequency of each phase current value in each interval in a current period, and acquiring the information entropy of each phase current at the current moment according to the frequency;
(3) and comparing the information entropy of each phase of current with a preset threshold th to obtain a current fault diagnosis result.
Further, the three-phase current chain table in the step (1) is:
Im(k)=[im(t),im(t+1),…,im(k)]T
where m is a, b, c, t is k-L +1, k is the current sampling time,for the length of the current chain table, npIs the number of pole pairs of the motor, w is the motor speed, TsIs the sampling time.
Further, the step (2) includes:
will range in amplitude [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Is divided into n intervals
The m-th phase current linked list data at the moment k falls into each interval and respectively corresponds to an event U1,U2,…,UnCounting the number of the current linked list data falling in each interval to obtain the frequency of each phase current value falling in each interval in one current period as an event UiProbability p ofi
The information entropy of the m-th phase current isWherein m is a, b, c.
Further, the value of the threshold th is determined by the following steps:
s01, respectively calculating the information entropy of each phase current when the inverter normally operates and the inverter fails; the inverter faults comprise the situations that double tubes in a single bridge arm of the inverter all have faults and a single tube of the single bridge arm has faults;
and S02, determining the value range of the threshold value by taking the information entropy of the phase current when the inverter normally operates as the maximum value of the threshold value and taking the information entropy of the fault phase when the inverter is in fault as the minimum value of the threshold value.
Further, the threshold th ∈ [1.384, 2.216 ].
Further, the step (3) includes:
when the information entropy of the mth phase is smaller than the threshold value, indicating that the mth phase has a fault;
otherwise, judging that the inverter operates normally.
In another aspect of the present invention, a real-time open-circuit fault detection system for a three-phase voltage source inverter is provided, which comprises
A collecting unit for collecting the current value i of the three phases at the current momenta、ibAnd icAnd updating the three-phase current chain table and the maximum value I of the current amplitude in one current periodmax
An entropy acquisition unit for converting the amplitude range [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Equally dividing the current into a plurality of intervals, counting the frequency of each phase current value in each interval in a current period, and acquiring the information entropy of each phase current at the current moment according to the frequency;
and the diagnosis unit is used for comparing the information entropy of each phase of current with the preset threshold th to obtain the current fault diagnosis result.
Further, the entropy acquisition unit converts the amplitude range [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Is divided into n intervals
The m-th phase current linked list data at the moment k falls into each interval and respectively corresponds to an event U1,U2,…,UnCounting the number of the current linked list data falling in each interval to obtain the frequency of each phase current value falling in each interval in one current period as an event UiProbability p ofi
The information entropy of the m-th phase current isWherein m is a, b, c.
Further, the value of the threshold th is determined by the following steps:
s01, respectively calculating the information entropy of each phase current when the inverter normally operates and the inverter fails; the inverter faults comprise the situations that double tubes in a single bridge arm of the inverter all have faults and a single tube of the single bridge arm has faults;
and S02, determining the value range of the threshold value by taking the information entropy of the phase current when the inverter normally operates as the maximum value of the threshold value and taking the information entropy of the fault phase when the inverter is in fault as the minimum value of the threshold value.
Further, in the diagnosis unit, the comparing the information entropy of each phase current with a preset threshold th to obtain a current fault diagnosis result includes:
when the information entropy of the mth phase is smaller than the threshold value, indicating that the mth phase has a fault;
otherwise, judging that the inverter operates normally.
Through the technical scheme, compared with the prior art, the invention can obtain the following beneficial effects:
1) the invention provides a three-phase voltage source inverter bridge arm open-circuit fault real-time detection method based on information entropy, which comprises the steps of dividing an acquired current fundamental wave periodic signal amplitude range into a plurality of sub-intervals, counting the frequency of data falling in each interval, calculating the information entropy of phase current, and obtaining the fault detection result of each phase of bridge arm by comparing the information entropy of each phase of current with the threshold value, wherein the method does not need to carry out filtering, noise reduction and other processing on the current signal, and has small calculation amount of algorithm and complexity O (n); the method is suitable for being applied to practical industrial processors with small computing power.
2) The real-time detection method for the open-circuit fault of the bridge arm of the three-phase voltage source inverter based on the information entropy has the advantages that the average diagnosis time is only 1/2 current fundamental wave periods, the real-time performance is good, and the method is faster than most diagnosis methods at present. The invention can quickly position the fault bridge arm, provides a basis for quick maintenance or fault-tolerant control of the inverter and improves the reliability of the variable-frequency speed control system.
3) The information entropy-based real-time detection method for the open-circuit fault of the bridge arm of the three-phase voltage source inverter can still quickly and accurately give a diagnosis result when the single sudden change of the motor load is within 30% of the rated load, and has better robustness.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a flowchart of a real-time detection method for an open-circuit fault of a bridge arm of a three-phase voltage source inverter based on information entropy according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a motor vector control system with a fault detection module according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic diagram illustrating a phase current waveform and event division when the inverter provided by the embodiment of the invention operates in a normal state, an a-phase single-tube fault, and an a-phase double-tube fault.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the present invention is described in further detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention. In addition, the technical features involved in the embodiments of the present invention described below may be combined with each other as long as they do not conflict with each other.
In order to achieve the above object, an aspect of the present invention provides a method for detecting an open-circuit fault of a three-phase voltage source inverter in real time, including the following steps:
(1) collecting three-phase current value i at current momenta、ibAnd icAnd updating the three-phase current chain table and the maximum value I of the current amplitude in one current periodmax
(2) Will range in amplitude [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Equally dividing the current into a plurality of intervals, counting the frequency of each phase current value in each interval in a current period, and acquiring the information entropy of each phase current at the current moment according to the frequency;
(3) and comparing the information entropy of each phase of current with a preset threshold th to obtain a current fault diagnosis result.
Further, the three-phase current chain table in the step (1) is:
Im(k)=[im(t),im(t+1),…,im(k)]T
where m is a, b, c, t is k-L +1, k is the current sampling time,for the length of the current chain table, npIs the number of pole pairs of the motor, w is the motor speed, TsIs the sampling time.
Further, the step (2) includes:
will range in amplitude [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Is divided into n intervals
The m-th phase current linked list data at the moment k falls into each interval and respectively corresponds to an event U1,U2,…,UnCounting the number of the current linked list data falling in each interval to obtain the frequency of each phase current value falling in each interval in one current period as an event UiProbability p ofi
The information entropy of the m-th phase current isWherein m is a, b, c.
Further, the value of the threshold th is determined by the following steps:
s01, respectively calculating the information entropy of each phase current when the inverter normally operates and the inverter fails; the inverter faults comprise the situations that double tubes in a single bridge arm of the inverter all have faults and a single tube of the single bridge arm has faults;
and S02, determining the value range of the threshold value by taking the information entropy of the phase current when the inverter normally operates as the maximum value of the threshold value and taking the information entropy of the fault phase when the inverter is in fault as the minimum value of the threshold value.
Further, the threshold th ∈ [1.384, 2.216 ].
Further, the step (3) includes:
when the information entropy of the mth phase is smaller than the threshold value, indicating that the mth phase has a fault;
otherwise, judging that the inverter operates normally.
In another aspect of the present invention, a real-time open-circuit fault detection system for a three-phase voltage source inverter is provided, which comprises
A collecting unit for collecting the current value i of the three phases at the current momenta、ibAnd icAnd updating the three-phase current chain table and the maximum value I of the current amplitude in one current periodmax
An entropy acquisition unit for converting the amplitude range [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Equally dividing the current into a plurality of intervals, counting the frequency of each phase current value in each interval in a current period, and acquiring the information entropy of each phase current at the current moment according to the frequency;
and the diagnosis unit is used for comparing the information entropy of each phase of current with the preset threshold th to obtain the current fault diagnosis result.
The functions of each unit can be referred to the description of the foregoing method embodiments, and are not described herein again.
The contents of the above embodiments will be described with reference to a preferred embodiment.
As shown in fig. 2, which is a topology structure diagram of a motor vector control system with a fault detection module according to the present invention, the system is composed of power tubes (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6), corresponding freewheeling diodes, voltage-stabilizing capacitors (C1 and C2), an induction motor, a vector control module, and a fault diagnosis module; wherein Ud is the rectified output dc voltage.
Specifically, the real-time open fault detection method for the three-phase voltage source inverter power tube based on the information entropy comprises the following steps:
s1, collecting current a, b and c three-phase current data ia、ibAnd ic
S2, updating the three-phase current chain table I according to the obtained three-phase current data a, b and c at the current momenta、IbAnd IcUpdating the maximum value I of the current amplitude in one periodmax(ii) a The mth phase current linked list at the kth moment is as follows:
Im(k)=[im(t),im(t+1),…,im(k)]T
where m is a, b, c, t is k-L +1, k is the current sampling time,length of a chain table composed of current data collected in one cycle, npIs the number of pole pairs of the motor, w is the motor speed, TsIs the sampling time.
S3, equally dividing the amplitude range into n intervals, and counting the frequency of the current number falling in each interval in a current period;
specifically, the k-th time is divided into intervals according to the amplitude value Corresponding event U1,U2,…,UnCounting the number of data of each phase current in each interval, and calculating an event U in each phase currentiFrequency of occurrence, frequencyWherein N isiIs an event UiNumber of occurrences, i.e. amplitude, in intervalThe number of current data of (a); l is the length of the linked list of current data collected over one cycle, as described in S2.
S4, calculating the information entropy of each phase current at the current moment in real time according to the frequency approximate probability; specifically, the entropy formula for calculating m-phase current information is as follows:wherein m is a, b, c.
S5, comparing the phase current information entropy with a set threshold th to obtain a current diagnosis result;
specifically, the method for determining the threshold value includes the following steps:
s01, respectively calculating the information entropy of each phase current when the inverter normally operates and when the inverter fails; the inverter faults comprise faults of double tubes in a single bridge arm of the inverter and faults of single tubes of the single bridge arm;
specifically, taking the a-phase bridge arm diagnosis process as an example, as shown in fig. 3, wherein the graph (a) and the graph (b) are a three-phase current waveform diagram and an event division schematic diagram respectively when the inverter operates in a normal state, an a-phase bridge arm double-tube fault state, and an a-phase bridge arm single-tube fault state (taking n to 5 as a specific example).
Wherein, when the inverter operates in a normal state, according to the symmetry of the current waveform, as shown in (a) of fig. 3, the frequency of each event at this time can be calculated by an inverse trigonometric functionThe ratio of the length of the abscissa time corresponding to the amplitude interval to the current period; by event U3For example, UiRepresentative current data falling onInterval of frequency ofCalculating other event frequencies in the same way, as shown in the second row of table 1 below, where the entropy of each phase current information is H-2.216;
TABLE 1
Event(s) U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 H
Is normal 0.295 0.141 0.128 0.141 0.295 2.216
T1 failure 0.295 0.141 0.564 0 0 1.384
T1 and T2 failures 0 0 1 0 0 0
When a single-tube fault occurs in the a-phase bridge arm, taking a T1 fault as an example, as shown in the diagram (b) in fig. 3, the first half period of the a-phase has no current, and the second half period has normal current (ignoring a slight freewheeling current in the anti-parallel diode); b. c, because of no fault, in order to simplify calculation and analysis, the waveform is processed according to a sine waveform which is approximately normal; the frequency of each event and the entropy H of a-phase information can be calculated according to an inverse trigonometric functiona1.384, as in the third row of table 1; the b and c phases are still sine waves, so Hb=Hc2.216 remain unchanged;
when a double-tube fault occurs in the a-phase bridge arm, namely, both T1 and T2 are in fault, as shown in the (c) diagram in fig. 3, the a-phase has no current in the whole period; b. the c phase is actually distorted, but the waveform can be approximated to sine waveform processing; calculating the frequency of each event, and the entropy H of a-phase informationa0, as in the fourth row of table 1; calculating result H according to sine wave in normal stateb=Hc2.216 (actually smaller than the idealized approximation result, but much larger than 1.384, not affecting the threshold selection, not affecting the final diagnosis result);
s02, according to the analysis, the normal phase information entropy is about 2.216, the fault phase information entropy is 1.384 in the case of single-tube fault, 0 in the case of double-tube fault, in order to judge the fault, the value range of the obtained threshold is th e [1.384, 2.216], and the fault discrimination formula is
Wherein FM1 indicates that m-phase is faulty, and 0 indicates no fault. In this embodiment, the selected threshold th is 1.66.
And S6, outputting the fault detection result of each phase bridge arm, and returning to the step S1.
It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the invention, and that any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A real-time detection method for open-circuit faults of a three-phase voltage source inverter is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) collecting three-phase current value i at current momenta、ibAnd icAnd updating the three-phase current chain table and the maximum value I of the current amplitude in one current periodmax
(2) Will range in amplitude [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Equally dividing the current into a plurality of intervals, counting the frequency of each phase current value in each interval in a current period, and acquiring the information entropy of each phase current at the current moment according to the frequency;
(3) and comparing the information entropy of each phase of current with a preset threshold th to obtain a current fault diagnosis result.
2. The method for real-time detection of open-circuit fault of three-phase voltage source inverter according to claim 1, wherein the three-phase current chain table in step (1) is:
Im(k)=[im(t),im(t+1),…,im(k)]T
where m is a, b, c, t is k-L +1, k is the current sampling time,for the length of the current chain table, npIs the number of pole pairs of the motor, w is the motor speed, TsIs the sampling time.
3. The method of real-time detection of an open circuit fault in a three-phase voltage source inverter of claim 2, wherein the step (2) comprises:
will range in amplitude [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Is divided into n intervals
The m-th phase current linked list data at the moment k falls into each interval and respectively corresponds to an event U1,U2,…,UnCounting the number of the current linked list data falling in each interval to obtain the frequency of each phase current value falling in each interval in one current period as an event UiProbability p ofi
The information entropy of the m-th phase current isWherein m is a, b, c.
4. The method for real-time detection of an open-circuit fault of a three-phase voltage source inverter according to claim 1, wherein the value of the threshold th is determined by the following steps:
s01, respectively calculating the information entropy of each phase current when the inverter normally operates and the inverter fails; the inverter faults comprise the situations that double tubes in a single bridge arm of the inverter all have faults and a single tube of the single bridge arm has faults;
and S02, determining the value range of the threshold value by taking the information entropy of the phase current when the inverter normally operates as the maximum value of the threshold value and taking the information entropy of the fault phase when the inverter is in fault as the minimum value of the threshold value.
5. The method of real-time detection of open circuit fault of a three-phase voltage source inverter according to claim 4, characterized in that said threshold value th ∈ [1.384, 2.216 ].
6. The method for real-time detection of an open circuit fault of a three-phase voltage source inverter according to claim 4 or 5, wherein the step (3) comprises:
when the information entropy of the mth phase is smaller than the threshold value, indicating that the mth phase has a fault;
otherwise, judging that the inverter operates normally.
7. A real-time detection system for open-circuit fault of three-phase voltage source inverter is characterized by comprising
A collecting unit for collecting the current value i of the three phases at the current momenta、ibAnd icAnd updating the three-phase current chain table and the maximum value I of the current amplitude in one current periodmax
An entropy acquisition unit for converting the amplitude range [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Equally dividing the current into a plurality of intervals, counting the frequency of each phase current value in each interval in a current period, and acquiring the information entropy of each phase current at the current moment according to the frequency;
and the diagnosis unit is used for comparing the information entropy of each phase of current with the preset threshold th to obtain the current fault diagnosis result.
8. The system of claim 7, wherein the entropy acquisition unit is to scale the amplitude range [ -I [ ]max,Imax]Is divided into n intervals
The m-th phase current linked list data at the moment k falls into each interval and respectively corresponds to an event U1,U2,…,UnCounting the number of the current linked list data falling in each interval to obtain the frequency of each phase current value falling in each interval in one current period as an event UiProbability p ofi
The information entropy of the m-th phase current isWherein m is a, b, c.
9. The system according to claim 7, wherein the threshold th is determined by the following steps:
s01, respectively calculating the information entropy of each phase current when the inverter normally operates and the inverter fails; the inverter faults comprise the situations that double tubes in a single bridge arm of the inverter all have faults and a single tube of the single bridge arm has faults;
and S02, determining the value range of the threshold value by taking the information entropy of the phase current when the inverter normally operates as the maximum value of the threshold value and taking the information entropy of the fault phase when the inverter is in fault as the minimum value of the threshold value.
10. The system for detecting the open circuit fault of the three-phase voltage source inverter according to any one of claims 7 to 9, wherein the comparing, in the diagnosis unit, the entropy of the information of each phase current with the magnitude of the preset threshold th to obtain the current fault diagnosis result comprises:
when the information entropy of the mth phase is smaller than the threshold value, indicating that the mth phase has a fault;
otherwise, judging that the inverter operates normally.
CN202010914295.9A 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 Method and system for detecting open-circuit fault of three-phase voltage source inverter in real time Active CN112198458B (en)

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